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International Conference on Emerging Technological Trends in Advanced Engineering Research [ICETT 2012], 2012 February 20-21.

GPRS BASED HEART RATE MONITORING SYSTEM
Mr. Marimuthu .C
Assistant Professor Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Karunya University Coimbatore

Richu Rachel George
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Karunya University Coimbatore

Abstract— The electrocardiogram is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart .This can be used to study the number and regularity of heart beats. So the study of ECG waveform helps in easy diagnosis of heart diseases by finding the abnormality in rhythm of heart rate. If one is a heart patient he will have to depend on hospital regularly even if it is at a larger distance from his home. If the facility to observe his ECG and find number of heart beats is available at home it would be easy for him. To facilitate this, a heart rate monitoring device using lpc2378 is proposed. The ECG waveform can be observed in graphical LCD interfaced with the kit. If any abnormality is found in the number of heart beats then we alert the doctor using the sim900 module interfaced with it. Keywords- ECG; LPC2378; heart rate; real time; LCD128*6;.

bit RISC processor. This uses GPRS module to send alarm information automatically when ECG signals are abnormal. II. METHODOLOGY A. Block diagram In this project we develop a continuous heart rate monitoring system which acquire ECG signal from cardiac patient and analyzed for any change in abnormality. If any abnormality is found then it alerts the doctor who is at a remote site of the patient condition. The block diagram of the system is as given below.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Due to changes in lifestyle the number of heart patients in the world has increased a lot. Young and old alike die of heart attack. So it is important for everyone to have a heart rate monitoring system at home so that he can observe his heart rate from home. There are several benefits for portable Heart rate monitoring systems. They help in continuous and regular monitoring of ECG signal from home itself instead of travelling to hospitals and thus help in reducing medical cost. Also if we transmit the result directly to the doctor who is at a different place then it is possible for him to give his diagnosis early and can help in emergency situations. Early diagnosis of heart related problems help reduce the number of death due to heart attack a lot. By researching the ECG features and regular of the disease, we can make the early prediction to the pathological change and prompt diagnosis. If arrhythmia was detected earlier and first-aid measures are taken promptly, most of patients may avoid dying. Therefore, long-time recording electrocardiogram of patient has extremely important clinical value. Most of the monitors available in the market are of large size, more power consumption and not real time. The main objective of the monitor introduced in this project is as follows: it can monitor ECG in real time, display the ECG waveform on graphical LCD; also it processes the digital signal to find the number of heart beats, and sends out alarm when exception is detected. The ECG monitoring system with 8 bit or 16 bit MCU has some disadvantages, less computing speed, low capacity of storage, lack of interaction. So the processor used here is an arm processor which is a 32

Fig.1 Block diagram for heart rate monitoring system Different types of electrodes are available commercially. We use three ring electrodes to acquire signal from body. ECG signal is a kind of body signal with 0.05Hz to 100Hz bandwidth and about 1 mV peak to peak voltage, and mixed with noise. As the ECG is usually in the 0.05-100Hz frequency, the signal we acquired is also subject to high frequency and low frequency noise. So output ECG signal must be through a band-pass filter. This band-pass filter consists of a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter in series form. The output of this stage is also in mV range, a second level amplifier is also used to raise the signal to around 1V. These processes are done in the bio kit we use to acquire signal. The controller we use is LPC2378 which has an arm7 core (32 bit). This also has an inbuilt A/D convertor which can be used to convert the ECG wave we obtained to digital form. The ADC in the LPC2378 controller has input range of about 0V-3.3V .The signal from the bio kit is in this range and so is given directly to the ADC. The processor calculates the heart beat from ECG wave form by finding the RR interval of the ECG signal. R wave being sharp, narrow and steep, is most sensitive one and any

ISBN : 978-93-80624-62-4

http://www.icett.com/

Baselios Mathews II College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala, India.

International Conference on Emerging Technological Trends in Advanced Engineering Research [ICETT 2012], 2012 February 20-21.

irregularity will instantly reflect on it .In order to find the time interval between to r wave focus is on upper half of r wave. The program is written to calculate heart rate in bpm. Beats per minute (bpm) = 60000 (1)

can be either AT standard or AT-enhanced SIMCom type. The module is supplied with continuous energy (between 3.4 and 4.5 V) and absorbs a maximum of 0.8 A during transmission. OGM12864 LCD

Time between two RR waves From the obtained value the possibility of heart attack is analyzed. The heart rate for normal person is 60-100 so RR interval is from 600-1000. If this range differs it declares a panic situation. Once panic situation is declared, the system will send alarm information via GPRS module automatically thus alerting the doctor of any abnormality. The system is also connected to an LCD module so as to display the waveform acquired. The patient can observe the ECG waveform himself. LPC2378 ARM7 CONTROLLER The LPC2378 Micro-controller is based on a 32/16 Bit ARM7TDMI-s CPU with real time Emulation and Embedded Trace support that combines with the microcontroller with embedded high-speed 512KB flash memory. It can work with 16-bit Thumb Mode. This microcontroller incorporate a 10/100 Ethernet MAC, USB 2.0 Full Speed interface, four UARTs, two CAN channels, an SPI interface, two Synchronous Serial Ports (SSP), three I2C interfaces, an I2S interface, and a Mini Bus. It has 8-bit data/16-bit address parallel bus is available. SIM900 GSM/GPRS MODULE: This is a GSM/GPRS-compatible Quad-band cell phone, which works on a frequency of 850/900/1800/1900MHz and which can be used not only to access the Internet, but also for oral communication (provided that it is connected to a microphone and a small loud speaker) and for SMSs. Externally, it looks like a big package (0.94 inches x 0.94 inches x 0.12 inches) with L-shaped contacts on four sides so that they can be soldered both on the side and at the bottom. Internally, the module is managed by an AMR926EJ-S processor, which controls phone communication, data communication (through an integrated TCP/IP stack), and (through an UART and a TTL serial interface) the communication with the circuit interfaced with the cell phone itself. The processor is also in charge of a SIM card (3 or 1,8 V) which needs to be attached to the outer wall of the module. In addition, the GSM900 device integrates an analog interface, an A/D converter, an RTC, an SPI bus, an I²C, and a PWM module. The radio section is GSM phase 2/2+ compatible and is either class 4 (2 W) at 850/ 900 MHz or class 1 (1 W) at 1800/1900MHz. The TTL serial interface is in charge not only of communicating all the data relative to the SMS already received and those that come in during TCP/IP sessions in GPRS (the data-rate is determined by GPRS class 10: max. 85,6 kbps), but also of receiving the circuit commands (in our case, coming from the PIC governing the remote control) that We use 128*64 pixel graphic LCD for displaying the ECG wave form. The graphic LCD is used to display messages in form of drawings and bitmaps. The OGM12864 LCD is driven by 2 64 x 64 pixel Samsung KS0108 drivers. There are 8192 pixels on a 128 X 64 pixel screen and each is pixels is control by a series of instructions. The process of selecting where on the screen the bit is going to go is just a narrowing process. CS1 and CS2 narrow it down to half the screen. Y address narrows it down to a 1 bit wide stripe of height 64 in that half of the screen. X page picks an 8 bit chunk of this 64 bit stripe and write data writes 8 bits to that chunk. This is the essence of putting bits on the screen. III.
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Using ring electrode and Biokit ECG signal is acquired. The ECG voltage was found around 1.44 Vpp and the frequency of the signal around 1.01 Hz. Since the ECG waveform from the kit is of 1.6 V it can directly be given to ADC pin of the processor. There are 8 channels available in the lpc2378 for ADC. To configure the ADC we need to first set PCADC bit in PCONP register. In the PCONP register, set bits PCADC. Clock: In the PCLK_SEL0 register, select PCLK_ADC. To scale the clock for the ADC we use CLKDIV. Select ADC pins and pin modes in registers PINSELn and PINMODEn. To enable interrupts in the ADC. The bits in ADCR register should also be set accordingly. The values from ADC was plotted on LCD .The contrast of the LCD can be adjusted using potentiometer. The most important (or most commonly used and confused) control bits are R/W, D/I, E. Enable must be set low and then high in order for an operation to be passed to the LCD. In addition there must be a delay of at least 2 ms in between operations for the cycle time of the enable bit. This timing can cause lot of errors because if it is not delayed properly, a good instruction will not provide the desired result. R/W and D/I are used to determine the mode of operation that the LCD is in. There are three basic steps that must be done in order to determine where the pixels will go. First, the Y address must be set. The Y address actually has a counter so it need only be set once and then every time there is a data write it will be incremented to the next line. This allows the driver to scan through the lines and display the proper data. The next step that must be completed is setting the X page. This determines which column of the screen will now be written to. The third step is issuing a data write command. Whatever data bits are high will be darkened on the Y address line in the X page.

ISBN : 978-93-80624-62-4

http://www.icett.com/

Baselios Mathews II College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala, India.

International Conference on Emerging Technological Trends in Advanced Engineering Research [ICETT 2012], 2012 February 20-21.

The SIM900 module is connected to the ARM processor using UART. The communication is enabled using AT command. The heart rate found if less than 60 or more than 100 shows that there is arrhythmia, and hence alert the doctor by sending SMS using the module. The flow chart for the complete process is as below

As we need to display ECG wave form and calculate heart rate at the same time we need to do multitasking. This is made possible by using μCOS-II. μCOS-II is a portable, ROM able, scalable, preemptive, real-time deterministic multitasking kernel for microprocessors, microcontrollers and DSPs, written mainly in the C programming language. It is intended for use in embedded systems. To start we first declare each task as standard C function and give a task ID for each task. Next we enter application through main function and we call function to start operating system. After operating system has been initialized the control is passed to the task. When task is created it is also assigned priority. As we need to run both the task at the same time each task are given the same priority. This also provides for task management and time management. The most basic of timing service provided is to have system delay. A task is similar to procedure call, but a task must contain a while loop, once started it never terminates and runs forever. By making use of this we can continuously acquire signal to calculate the number of heart beats and also display ecg waveform for patient to observe. IV. CONCLUSION The development of heart rate monitoring system using LPC2378 helps in monitoring ECG waves in real time. As we are using an ARM7 processor which supports μCOS-II multitasking is possible. This helps in continuous evaluation of ECG wave form along with displaying the wave. The ECG wave form is to be displayed on LCD module. Also we are using a GPRS module to alert the doctor of any abnormality in the patient. As GPRS uses packet switching rather than circuit switching we need to pay only for the amount of data we are transmitting. We can alert the doctor using SMS. REFERENCES
[1] Alzate, E.B., Martinez, F.M, “ECG monitoring system based on ARM9 and mobile phone technologies”2010 andescon, , pp:1-6,11 November 2010 Lihuang She1, Jinshuan Zhao1, Shi Zhang1, Guohua Wang1, Gang Wang “A Novel Portable One Lead ECG Monitor with Low-Cost and LongTime Recording Based on NUC501”, 2010 Chinese Control and Decision Conference,pp:276-279, 28 May 2010 Xiuxia Yu , Kebing Wu , Zhengxiong Hou “Design and Implementation of ECG Wireless Transmission System Based on ARM9”, 2010 International Conference on Computer Control and Electronic Engineering ,volume:5, pp:211-213, 25 October 2010 Tang Yawei,Jiang Kai,Fu Xiuquan,Li Dingli “Low Power dual-core Holter Systerm Based on MSP430 and ARM7” 3rd International conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, ,pp:1-3, 1113 June 2009 P. Kaewfoongrungsie, N. Theera Umpon, and S. Auephanwiriyakul, “ECG Holter Recorder via Mobile Phone,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering (ISBME), pp: 180–183, November 2008. Fan Aihua, Bian Chunhua, Ning Xinbao, He Aijun, Zhuang Jianjun, “Portable electrocardiogram monitor based on ARM” International Conference on Information Technology and Application in Biomedicine, China,pp:481-483, 18 July 2008

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ISBN : 978-93-80624-62-4

http://www.icett.com/

Baselios Mathews II College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala, India.

International Conference on Emerging Technological Trends in Advanced Engineering Research [ICETT 2012], 2012 February 20-21.
Mohamed Fezari, Mounir Bousbia-Salah, and Mouldi Bedda” Microcontroller Based Heart Rate Monitor” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp:153-157, October 2008 [8] M Triventi, E Mattei, F Censi, G Calcagnini, F Mastrantonio, D Giansanti, G Maccioni, V Macellari, P Bartolini” SMS-Based Platform for Cardiovascular Tele-Monitoring” Computers in Cardiology issue:35;pp:1009−1012,nov 2008 [9] Li Jia, Wu Shui-cai, Li Yan-zheng, and Bai Yan-ping,” The Design of a Wireless ECG Monitoring System Based on Linux and GPRS”pp:14,may 2008 [10] Cheng Wen a, Ming-Feng Yeh a, Kuang-Chiung Chang a,*, RenGuey Lee” Real-with mobile phone platform”pp:1-5,may 2008 [7]

ISBN : 978-93-80624-62-4

http://www.icett.com/

Baselios Mathews II College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala, India.