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1 DEFINITIONS Stress: All bodies offer an equal internal resistance to the externally applied forces. The magnitude of the resisting force per unit area is called stress. Its SI units are N/mm2 or N/rn2. Tensile (or ultimate) strength: It is the ratio of maximum load to original area of cross-section. • Yield strength: It is the stress of which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. • Compressive strength : It is the maximum compressive stress based upon the original area that a material is capable of withstanding. Normal Stress : The stress developed on a plane normal to it is called normal stress. It is equal to the force acting on the body per unit normal area. Thus, a1, = -. The normal stress may be tensile or compressive depending upon the force to be either of the pull or push type. Tensile and compressive stresses together are called direct stresses. Shear Stress : It is defined as the ratio of shear force to area parallel to the force.

Conventional (or Engineering) Stress: It is defined as the ratio of load P to the original

Strain: It is defined as the change in length per unit length. Conventional (or Engineering) Strain: It is defined as the change in length per unit

Natural (or logarithmic) Strain: It is defined as the change in length per unit

instantaneo length. Thus, True Strs it is defined as the ratio of load P to the instantaneous ai ea of cross-

Normal Strain: It is the strain produced under the action of direct stresses. Shear Strain: It is the strain produced under the action of shear stresses. Shear strain, y tan Percentage Elongation: It is the change in length per unit original length expressed as percentage, i.e. ji0 x 100, where 1 = final length and 10 = original length. Percentage Reduction of Area : It is defined as the change in area per unit original area of cross-section A0 expressed as a percentage, i.e. — 0 x ioo where A = final area of cross-section. • Gauge length: It is the specified length of the test piece on which elongation is measured during the test. The gauge length is generally 5.65 where S0 is the original area of cross-section of the specimen.

• Ductility: It is the ability of a material to deform plastically before fracture. This enables the material to be drawn into wirls. • Malleability: It is the property of metal and alloys to deform plastically under compression without rupture. This enables the material to be rolled into thin sheets. • Yield point : The first stress in a material at which an increase in strain results without an increase in stress. Mild steel has two yield points: Upper and lower yield points. This term refers to ductile materials only. • Necking: A form of shape of the localized reduction in cross-section occurring in a ductile under tension before fracture is called necking. • Permanent set : The plastic deformation which persists after the removal of the applied load is called the permanent set. Poisson’s Ratio, v It is the ration of lateral strain to longitudinal stram Fot a circular —(Mid) bar of diameter d and length 1 subjected to tensile load, Poisson’s ratio, v ‘= . (bl/1) Hooke’s Law : This law states that within elastic limits, stress and strain are proportional. Modulus of Elasticity, E : It is defined as the ratio of normal stress to normal stram

y P10 within the elastic limits. E = —z. E A0o1 . Modules or Rigidity, G : It is defined as the ratio of shearing stress to shearing strain.

Bulk Modulus, K : It is the ratio of hydrostatic stress to volumetric strain.

Free Body Diagram: It is the diagram of only that member as if made free from the rest, with all the internal and external forces acting on it.

1.2 CONCEPT OF STRESS

All engineering structures must be adequately strong to withstand the required loads. One of the main problems of structural analysis is to investigate the internal resistance of a body, i.e., the nature of the forces set up within a body to balance the effect of the externally applied forces. For this purpose, a complete diagrammatic sketch of the member to be investigated is prepared showing all the external forces acting on the body, including the reactive forces caused by the supports and the weight of the body itself due to its mass. Such a sketch is called the free body diagram. Since the body at rest is in equilibrium, the forces acting on it satisfy the equations of static equilibrium.

Now again consider part I of the body with the force AP acting onan infinitesimal area A as shown in Fig. In general. the internal forces acting on infinitesimal areas of a cut are of varying magnitudes and directions. 1. then the free body diagrams of both the parts are shown in Fig.Consider a body subjected to the action of external forces P1 to P5 as shown in Fig. 1. By definition. stress along the x-axis is: .1 (b) and (c) respectively. The components of thi force zP are shown in Fig. 1. If a section 1-1 is passed to divide the body into two parts I and II.1 (a). It is advantageous to resolve these forces perpendicular and parallel to the section considered. The internal forces F1 to F3 developed at the cut must balance the external forces applied on the body. lying in the plane of the section. They vary from point to point and are inclined with respect to the plane of the section.2 (b) along the x-axis perpendicular to the cutting plane and the other two perpendicular aces y and z.2 (a). 1.

those that are pushing against it are called compressive stresses. Thus we find that stress is the internal resistance offered by the body and is the force per unit area. The stresses lying in the plane of the section are called shear stresses. The first subscript indicates the plane perpendicular to the axis and the second subscript designates the direction of the stress component. The units of stress are N/rn2 or MPa.1 A circular bar of 15 mm diameter is subjected to an axial tensile load of 3 kN Calculate the tehsile stress developed in the bar .and is called the normal stress in the x-direction at a point. On the other hand. By definition. Stress is a tensor quantity. It is customary to refer to normal stresses that cause tension on the surface of a section as tensile stresses. Example 1.

Example 1. Concrete weighs 25 kN/m3.3 A concrete pier of 1 m diameter and 2 m height is loaded at the top with a uniformly distributed ‘load of 20 kN/m2. . Calculate the stress at the top and the bottom of the pier.2 A strut of rectangular cross-section 80 mm x 100 mm is subjected to a compressive load of 200 kN Calculate the compressive stress developed an the strut Solution. P = 200 kN A =80x1008000rnm Example 1.

The diameter of the cylinder is 200 mm. If the in ternal pressure In the cylinder is 1.3) is subjected to a uniform tensile stress of 150 MPa.4 An axially loaded connecting link having a T crosssection (Fig. .Example 1.5 The head of a cylinder is held by 8 studs of 6 mm diameter each. 1. Example 1.5 MP. Calculate the magnitude of the applied force. calculate the tensile stress in each stud.

section as shown in Fig.Example 16 Calculate the force required to punch a hole of 10mm diameter throu a mild steel plate 4 mm thick.7 The connecting rod of an engine is of I-cross. the compressive force in the rod was 50 kN.3 BAR OF VARYING CROSS-SECTION . The maximum shear strength of mild steel is 250 MP Also find the compressive stress in the punch. Example 1.4. Calculate the Compressive stress developed in the rod. 1. During the return stroke. 1.

The stresses in the various parts are: Example 1.6 (a).5 (a). Solution. The free body diagrams for the various parts are shown in Fig. The free body diagrams of the three p&tions are shown in Fig 1. . Determine the stresses in each part. 1. 1.Consider a bar of varying cross-section shown in Fig. 1.5 (h).6 (h).8 A steel bar 20 mm diameter is loaded as shown in Fig.

Solution. Take E = 200 GPa.Example 1. 1. . The free body diagram of various portions is shown in Fig. 1. Calculate the stress in each portion and the total elongation.7 (h).9 A steel bar of 25 mm diameter is loaded as shown in Fig.7 (a).

Calculate the stress in each part and total elongation. 1. 1.8 (a). Solution. .Example 1.10 A stepped bar is loaded as shown in Fig. E = 200 GPa. The free body diagram is shown in Fig.8 (h).

. The total contraction of the pillar is 0.9.Example 1.25 mm. 1. If E5 = 200 GPa and Ed = 120 GPa. find the value of load P.11 A pillar is shown in Fig.

It is a dimensionless quantity (mm/mm or jIm/m or rn/rn). Since this is associated with the normal stress. If L0 is the initial length and Lf the final length.1. 1L = L . the total strain is defined as the sum of the incremental strains . In some engineering applications where strains may be large. where L is the current gauge length of the specimen when the increment of elongation (or contraction) iSL occurs. then . it is usually called the normal strain.4 CONCEPT OF STRAIN If L0 is the initial gauge length and L is the observed length under a given load.L0. This is also called the nominal or engineering strain. the gauge elongation. The elongation (or contraction) per unit of the initial gauge length is given as: This expression defines the tension (or compression) strain.

which are based on the current dimension of a specimen is called a natural or true or Logarithmic strain. The longitudinal and lateral strains are of opposite nature. .This strain. obtained by adding up the increments of strains. For the applied force P. the increase in length is accompanied by a decrease in diameter. The increase in length per unit length is called the longitudinal strain.6 LONGITUDINAL AND LATERAL STRAINS Consider a circular test specimen of diameter d and length L If a tensile load P is applied to the specimen its length increases. This decrease in diameter per unit diameter is called the lateral strain. 1. therefore. Since the volume of the specimen remains constant. 1.5 TRUE STRESS The true stress is related to the instantaneous cross-sectional area A.

9 HOOKE’S LAW AND ELASTIC MODULI According to this Law. when subjected to hydrostatic stress. within the elastic (strictly speaking proportional) limits. 1. It is denoted by v (Greek letter Nue).25 to 0.1. 1. Thus Poisson’s ratio for most of the materials varies from 0. stress is directly proportional to strain.7 POISSON’S RATIO The ratio of the lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is called the Poisson’s ratio.40. .8 VOLUMETRIC STRAIN It is the ratio of the change in volume V of the body to its original volume V0.

the diameter of the bar is . as shown in Fig. At a distance x from diameter d2.10 EXTENSION OF A TAPERED BAR Consider a bar of lenght L tapering from d2 to d1 and subjected to axial tensile load P.10.1. 1.

1.11 EXTENSION OF A CONICAL BAR .

11.Consider a conical bar of base radius r. height h and of mass density p. hanging under its own weight. . as shown in Fig. Consider an elementary strip at a distance x of width dx from the base. 1.

12 EXTENSION OF UNIFORM BAR UNDER ITS OWN WEIGHT Consider a bar of uniform area of cross-section A and length L as shown in Fig. The downward force acting on this strip is due to the weight of the bar that lies below this strip and is equal to Ax pg.12. . where p is the density of its material.1. Consider a strip of the bar of thickness dx at a distance x from the bottom. 1.

13 STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM FOR MILD STEEL The stress-strain diagram for a ductile material like mild . the total elongation of the bar of uniform cross section produced by the self weight of the bar is equal to that produced by a load of half of its weight applied at the lower end.Therefore. 1.

The apparent stress deceases but the actual or true stress goes on increasing until the specimen breaks at point C. called the lower yield point. 1. Upto point B. showing thereby that there is no initial stress of strain in the specimen. The curve starts from the origin . 1. the strain hardening phenomena becomes predominant and the strength of the material increases thereby requiring more stress for deformation. Therefore. unitl point F is reached.e. AB is not a straight line. necking of the material begins and the cross-sectional area decreases at a rapid rate. The fracture of ductile material is of the cup and cone type. the specimen elongates by a considerable amount without any increase in stress.steel is shown in Fig.2 per cent of maximum strain. no permanent set is formed. The ulimate strenght is calculated at 0. on removal of the load. Point A is called the limit of proportionality. the material remains elastic. Hooke s law is obeyed and stress is proportional to strain. OA is a straight line. i. Point F is called the ultimete point and the corresponding stress is called the ultimate strength.13. At point F. the material goes to the plastic stage until the upper yield point C is reached. called the point of fracture. At this point the cross-sectional area of the material starts decreasing and the stress decreases to a lower value to point D.14 FACTOR OF SAFETY It is the ratio of the maximum permissible stress to which a member can be subjected to the allowable or working stress. For ductile materials. Upto point A. Between DE. Point B iscalled the elastic limit point. Beyond point B. . From point E onwards. The phenomena of yielding and necking is not exhibited by brittle materials.

. 1. Before both the members start sharing the load. 1.1. 1.15 COMPOSITE SYSTEM OF EQUAL LENGTHS SUBJECTED TO LOAD Consider a composite system shown in Fig.14 consisting of different materials and area of cross-section.16 COMPOSITE SYSTEM OF UNEQUAL LENGTHS SUBJECTED TO LOAD Consider a composite system of unequal lengths shown in Fig. subjected to load P.15 subjected to lord P.

16. The nuts are tightened unitil the compressive force in the tube is 5 kN. E5 = 200 GPa. as shown in Fig. screwed to the rod. .12 A steel rod 20 mm diameter is passed through a brass tube 25 mm internal diameter and 30 mm external diameter.Example 1. 1. The tube is 1 m long and is closed by thin rigid washers and fastened by nuts. Eb =80 GPa. Calculate the stresses In the rod and the tube.

13 A rigid beam BD is suspended. Rod AB is of steel of 20 mm diameter and rod B is of copper of 25 mm diameter. P = forces in rods AB and CD respectively. At what distance from rod AB the load P be applied if the beam is to remain burizontal ? Calculate the stresses in the rods if P = 25 kN. Let P5.Example 1. from two rods AB and CD as shown In Fig. 1. we have . Take E5 =200 GPa and E =100 GPa Solution.17. Taking moments about rod AB.

The given data is: .15 A rigid bar is suspended from three rods and loaded as shownin Fig. 1.Example 1.18 and having the same area of cross-section of 5 cm2. Determine the stresses in the rods.14 Determine the stresses in the rods loded as shown in Fig. 1. Example 1.19.

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5 m long and 50 mm diameter is placed inside an aluminium tube having 60 mm inside and 80 mm outside diameter. . An axial load of 500 kN is applied to the bar and tube through rigid cover plates as shown in Fig. 1. E5 = 220 GPa.17 A solid steel bar 0. Find the stresses developed in steel bar and aluminium tube. 1. Solution. Take E = 18 GPa.2 mm longer than the steel bar. Calculate the stresses in the columns if there was a gap of 2 mm between the beam and the middle column before the load was applied. Initial compression of columns 1 and 3 are: Example 1.Example 1. The aluminium tube is 0.16 A rigid beam is placed on there columns of identical cross-sectional areas of 200 cm2 each as shown in Fig. Ea = 70 GPa.21.20.

1. Ea = 70 GPa.22 (h). From Fig. we have . E5 = 210 GPa.18 A horizontal beam AB is supported on two cables CE and DF as shown in Fig. Calculate the values of P when the strain in DF is 3 x Assume that beam AB does not bend.22 (a). Aa = A5 = 600 mm2. 1. Solution.Example 1.

The steel bar is subjected to a tensile load of 100 kN.Example 1. Its free extension is: . Ec1 = 105 GPa. 1.23 has a gap of 1.19 A compound bar loaded as shown in Fig. Calculate the stresses in the two bars E = 200 GPa. Solution.0 mm.

. Calculate the change in dimensions if F = 200 CPa ai.5 m long is subjected b an axial tensile load of 10 kN.Example 1.20 A rectangular steel bar 25 mm x 12 mm and 0.d Poisson’s ratio 0.30.

028 mm under a load of 8. Calculate the (a) proportional limit. 250 mm external diameter and 200 mm inside diameter is subjected to an axial compressive load of 40 kN at the top. Example 1.22 A steel column 4 m high. (b) upper yield point stress and (c) modulus of elasticity. the gauge length was 50 mm and diameter 10 mm. In a tensile test on mild steel. The extension on 50 mm gange length was 0.-ye sign indicates decrease in dimension. The density of . The load at the proportional limit was 30 kN and at the upper yield point 32 kN.21. Example 1.8 kN.

The column is subjected to an axial load of 800 kN.23 A short reinforced concrete column has 600 cm2 area of cross-section. Calculate the stress at the top and bottom of the column. The columia reinforced with 4 steel rods arranged symmetrically. Calculate the load shared by concrete and steel. = 200 CPa and E 20 GPa. Example 1. . each having 10 2 cross-sectional area.steel is 7470 kg/rn3.

Calculate the resulting stress in the bolt and the tube. Eç = 200 CPa and E = 105 CPa. The pitch of the bolt threads is 4 mm. A tensile load of 50 kN is applied at the ends. The bolt is tightened by th of turn of the nut.Example 1.5 m long passes through a copper tube of external diameter 20 mm and internal diameter 16 mm.A steel bolt 15 mm diameter and 0.24. .

Rod AB is of steel of 15 STEELTh mm diameter and rod CD of copper having 10 mm diameter. Calculate the distance x so that the bar BD remains horizontal. = 110 GPa. Also calculate the stresses produced in the rods. E = 200 GPa.25 A load of 2 kN is suspended from two rods as shown in Fig. .24.Example 1. For the bar BD to remain horizontal. 1. Solution.

26 A rigid bar ABC is hinged at A and suspended at two points B and C by two bars BD and CE made of aluminium and steel respectively as shown in Fig.Example 1. 1. The aluminium bar is of 6 mm .25.

Eai =70 GPa. E9 =200 GPa. .diameter and steel bar of 4 mm diameter. Let al and P5 be the loads shared by BD and CE respectively. Solution. Calculate the stress developed in each bar.

27 A bar of 20 mm diameter is subjected to a pull of 30 kN. The measured extensions over a gauge length of 200 mm is 0. modulus of elasticity and bulk modulus. Calculate the Poisson’s ratio.Example 1.0035 mm.1 mm and the change in diameter is 0. .

17 TEMPERATURE STRESSES AND STRAINS When the temperature of a material is changed. length increases. . The reverse phenomena occurs when the temperature is decreased and tensile stress is developed. This is called the temperature stress. its dimensions change.1. Since this increase in length is prevented. When the temperature increases. A stress is setup in the material if this change in dimension due to temperature change is prevented. compressive stress is developed in the material.

1. > cx2 then on temperature rise by At. 18. . 1.27 subjected to temperature rise. 1 More than Two Members Consider three members shown in Fig.18 COMPOSITE SYSTEM OF EQUAL LENGTHS SUBJECTED TO VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE For the composite system shown in Fig 1 26 let o.1. member 2 will be under tension and member 1 under compression If P is the common force developed then.

25 mm external diametr and 20 mm internal diameter encloses a copper rod of the same length and 15 mm indiamter. Calculate the stresses in tube and rod. a = 10 x 10-6 per °C. Also calculate the increase in length of the composite system and the external force required to prevent this increas in length. The tube is firmly joined to the rod at both the ends and its temperature is raised by 120° C. cz = 15 x 10_6 per °C. . Es = 210 GPa.28 A steel tube 0.75 m long.Example 1. Ec = 100 GPa.

A load of 5 kN is applied t their lower ends by means of a rigid cross bar.30 Three identical vertical wires of 1 m length each and 4 mm diamter are suspended from a horizontal support as shown in Fig. E = 210 . Calculate’ the stress developed in the rod. The temperature of the rod is increased by 40°C.Example 1. Example 1. The coçfficient of linear expansion for steel is 12 x 1O/°C. E9200GPa. 1.29 A steel rod 1 in long and 15 mm diameter is held between rigid supports as shown in Fig.28. 1.29.

E 105 Gla. find Example 1..5x104per0F.. Its temperature is raised by 1200 F.31 A compound bar is shown in Fig. If the cross bar remains horizontal. 1. 210 GPa.30.E.GPa.9. 1O5GPa.a5z6. . Calculate the stresses in each metal and the change in’length.5x1O4per0F.

Example 1.31. Calculate the stresses in the two metals of rod. m and 1 m respectively is clamped at the ends. E5 210 GPa. 1.32 A composite rod of steel and copper of lenghts 1. cx 10 10 per °C and a = 15 x 1O per °C. Its temperature Is then raised by 500 C . . as shown in Fig. E = 105 GPa.

a = 16.Example 1. F5 = 2E = 200 GPa.32 if its temperature is increased by 30°C.5 x 10-6 per °C. cz = 12.33 Determine the stresses in the bar shown in Fig. 1.5 x 10per °C. .

5 x 1o per °C.34 A load of 45 kN is transmitted through a slab toa composite solid steel cylinder (% —15cm2) and hollow copper cyllndè (A 20 cm2). E5 2E 200 GPa. Determine the distribution of load before and after the change in temperature. .Example 1. ra1i16. a5 12.5*1O4per°C. Afithe application of the load the temperature was increased by 30°C.

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