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A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Multiculturalism By Lyle Allan Social Alternatives Vol 3 No 3 (July 1983) pp 65-72 p 65 The literature of multiculturalism is academia’s

latest growth industry, particula rly among educationalists. Much of the work is narrow and esoteric, forgotten by most researchers, let alone looked at by general readers. This bibliography aims to provide a reasonably comprehensive listing of signific ant contemporary writings on multiculturalism and related topics. 1. General Theory of Multiculturalism Multiculturalism means many things to many writers. Only the most foolhardy woul d attempt any all-embracing single theory of multiculturalism. The term multicul turalism has come, nevertheless, to be identified with ethnic identity. Multicul turalism s supporters would generally agree that the concept implies a tolerance of diversity-an acceptance that ethnic groups in Australia have the right to re tain their own identity if they wish rather than be compelled to assimilate into some greater Anglo-Celtic Australiana. Al Grassby (1.1, A Multi-Cultural Society for the Future, Canberra, AGPS, 1973) popularised the term in Australia, with emphasis on some mystical family of the nation . The term is in fact borrowed from Canada, where the Canadian Governmen t may be more concerned with bi-cultural policies of equality for French-Canadia ns rather than genuine multi-cultural polices (1.2 F. Hawkins. Multiculturalism in two countries, the Canadian and Australian experience, Journal of Canadian St udies 17:1, 1982, 64-80). Policies of assimilation, integration, cultural plural ism and multiculturalism in Australia are compared and contrasted in an early an d relatively uncontroversial work by the Hungarian-Canadian writers M.L Kovacs a nd AJ Cropley (1.3 Immigrants and Society: Alienation and Assimilation, Sydney, McGraw-Hill, 1975). Jerzy Zubrzycki sees multiculturalism in terms of upward mobility, an Australian ethos of egalitarianism and a de-emphasis of class (1.4 Australian Ethnic Affai rs Council, Australia as a Multicultural Society, Canberra, AGPS, 1977; and 1.5 Australian Council on Population and Ethnic Affairs, Multiculturalism for all Au stralians: Our Developing Nationhood, Canberra, AGPS, 1982), The Fraser Government accepted the broad principle of multiculturalism in its ad option of the Galbally Report (1.6 Migrant Services and Programs, Canberra, AGPS , 1978). Galbally has much appeal to political conservatives with its stress on the desirability of unity, consensus and order (1.7 F. Lewins, The GaIbaIly Repo rt: A Theoretician s Framework, Babel, 16:1, 1980, 18-24; and 1.8 A. Jakubowicz. State and Ethnicity: Multiculturalism as Ideology, Australian and New Zealand J ournal of Sociology, 17:3, 1981, 4-13). The former Fraser Government’s position is , thankfully, readily accessible (1.9 Immigration Policies in Action, A selectio n of speeches by the Hon. Ian Macphee, Canberra. AGPS, 1982). For good or ill Al Grassby has been very successful in promoting changes in Aust ralian attitudes towards non-Anglo migrants. Alan Matheson (1.10 In or Out of th e Family of the Nation?, Dissent 31, Summer 1974, 7-12) credits Grassby with cha nging the rhetoric of migration. Multiculturalism is an accepted term in much of the contemporary literature (1.1 1 R. Birrell and C. Hay (ed.), The Immigration Issue in Australia, Bundoora, La Trobe University, 1978, 1.12 M Bowen (ed.) Australia 2000: The Ethnic Impact, Ar midale, University of New England Publishing Unit, 1977; 1.13 L Foster and D.Sto

 

 

 

 

Manne (ed. Australian and New Z ealand Journal of Sociology. Bottomley. Melbourne. Oxford University Press. Melbourne. 50-55.T. George Allen and Unwin. 24 March 1981. Multiculturalism has its critics on both the left and the right.26 Meaning ful multiculturalism. Bulletin. Cheshire-Lansdowne. October 1980 . Andrew Parkin (2.F. 1950) first illustrated the political strength of Irish-Catholic ALP machines in inner-Melbourne. Quadrant. 1975). ANZ Journal of Sociology.15 A lternatives of -Ethnicity. 1980. Tay (ed.I. Davies.2 The Catholic Chu rch in Australia. and the Lat e Jean Martin (1. XV: 1. Age.4 J. Age. and 1. 1982. being harmful to both the acceptance and assimilation of migrants.1 Power Without Glory. 16. Melbourne. George Allen and Unwin. January-February 1981. 16. 40-64) claims multicultur alism may eventually result in un-Australian ethnic violence. Melbourne. Ethnic           . Encel (ed. p 66 Right-wing critics such as Lauchlan Chipman (1. Melbourne.1.). Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics. 3-6. Melbourne. Multiculturalism in the Australian Context.18 M. 70-73).5 J. Stock.22 Ethnicity. 1981. They argue with some force that some ethnic grou ps will continue to be denied an equal place in Australian society. 27 The Myth of the menace of Multi-Culturalism. From Race to Ethnicity.). 9 October 1981). 1977.ckley. 1980 24-37. 17:3. March 1978. Migration Studies: Quo Vademus? (Quid Facemus?). Storer (ed. Essays in Politica l Sociology. 1981).21 The Menace of Multi-Culturalism. in R. 67-84. Widely used ethnic studies text books. Corvus. Melbourne. (1. 1966. and 1. Nelson. 1978. For over two decades after the end of World War II non-Anglo migrants were minim al participators in Australian political parties (2. Only recently have historians in Australia considered non-Anglo-Celtic voters in Australia s past (2.19 D. Politics Australia has a small but growing literature on ethnic politics.) The Ethnic Dimension. and 2. Sydney. 85-88). The earliest st udies have concentrated on the Irish.7 Bernadette Kelly. Useful rejoinders to right wing critics come from Michael Liffman (1. Quadrant. Martin. 1. Do we really want a multi-culture?. Melb ourne. Frank K nopfelmacher (1. with extensive treatments of multiculturalism are William Bostock (1.) The New Conservatism i n Australia. 2. Papers on Ethnicity a nd Pluralism by Jean Martin. Left-wing criti cs often argue that multiculturalism is little more than an attempt by some ruli ng elite to keep migrants down. and 1 . 1981). Australian Journal of Politics and History. Australian and New Zealand Jo urnal of Sociology. 109-114. 28:2. Frank Hardy (2. CHOMI. Jupp. 250-265). The Migrant Presence. The literature on the role of the Catholic Chu rch in Australian politics is extensive. 2 October 1981).2.16 J. 1982. Cheshire. A Short History 1788-1967. Popular attitudes may be changing towards anti-multicultural positions (1. Teaching Human Rights.14 C. Ro ss Warneke. Arrivals and Depa rtures.20 Multi-Cultural Myth.24 The Case against Multi-Culturalism. 1981.3 Ethnic Politics: A Comparative Study of Two I mmigrant Societies. Quadrant. 1968) is a usefu l introduction. 22-38) compares the role of the Irish in Aus tralia and the United States.23 Beware of the Cauldron. 38-40. Toward a Mult i-Cultural Australia. South Australia s German Vote in World War I.17 S. Australia and the United States. de Lepervanche.6 A.25. 1972. Second Edition. 129-133) argue that multiculturalism is divi sive. Australian Na tional Commission for UNESCO. Melbourne. Power and Participation. and Andrew Jakubowicz (1. and 1. in A. 1. 2. Ethnic Rights. Sydney. Realist. Patrick O Farrell (2.

Politics 15:1. Politics 17:2. in J. Politics and Australian Society in G. 1980. Migr ants and Australian Politics: A Review. Longman Cheshire. Politics in Victo ria.17 P. refug ees and the new federalisms. The myth of the ethnic vote. Politics 12:2. Education Legislators realised fairly early that it required special skills to teach recen                       . 24).1 8 W. Ch. Wilson. Wilson. 10 August 1982. Collins. Such pressures appear to have been su ccessful in producing positive government responses.25 Arthur Davies. 1977. Ethnic Studies 2:2. La Trobe University Sociology Paper. MA Thesis. Migrant Political A ttitudes. 52:1. Paper pres ented to Australasian Political Studies Association Conference. 1982.11 I. 64-78. 1978. Migrants who joined Australian parties frequently met negative experiences (2. 201-217). Political parties are increas ingly willing to accept inputs from non-Anglo migrants (2. Ch .H. 1973. Journal of Intercultural Studies 2:3. Immigrants and Politics. National Committee of Inquiry D iscussion Papers. Particular ethnic groups can be expected to exert greater political pressure. . M igrants. Appropriate policies are sometimes formulated to meet the needs of specific ethn ic interest groups (2. Sestito. Ethnicity and Voting Behaviour.S. Edward Arnold. 2. Journal of Intercultural Studies 2:3.19 L Allan.). Ch. The Political Participation o f Immigrant Electors.8 L Richards. be responsible for migrant voting behaviour (2. Migrants.Participation in Australian Political Systems: A Griffith Case Study. Canberra. The role of non-Anglo ethnic groups may be changing. Nelson (eds. 1981.75-88.Warhurst (ed. J. Class as much as ethnicity m ay. Grenard. 1978. APSA Monograph 23. especially in inner-Melbourne. 21-31.R. 1980). ANU Press. 8-9. A new theory is that political parti es have imposed policies such as multiculturalism upon ethnic groups as a pure v ote-buying exercise (2. McAllister. with a major factor increas ed naturalisation and residence (2. F inancial Review 10 October 1980. Melbourne. and 2. 96-107).M. Hearn. Jupp (2. Wilson. 1982).12 N.23 The Ethnic Vote: Does it exist? A Case Study of Melbourne. Adelaide. 45. Displaced Politics: Refugee Migrants in the Australian Political Con text. A Fifth Reader. No. politics and the 1980 s.24 G.16 Australian Labor Party.). Immigrants. Mayer and H.R. 3.R. Drummond Heinemann.1980 69-71). Political party organisation is beginning to reflect post-World War II immigrati on.14 P. Kelley. 19 81.21 R. Sydney. 2. Logan.20 L Allan. Korporaal. The Politics of Multiculturalism. Melbourne. 53). Critical Essays in Australian Politics. 167-174). and 2. Such vote buying may not be necessary if ethnics vote the same way as everyone else (2. Ethnic groups exert their muscle.22 P. 1979. 5-23) claims that the ethnic vote as such is of limited importance in deciding election results. Bundoora. The earliest general survey of migrant voters found great differences in voting behaviour between particular ethnic groups (2. and 2. and 2. 1978. University of Melbourne 1971). where Greek branches are powerful in the Vict orian ALP (2. 1982.10 J.13 I. 8). Australian Government Middle East Policy and the domestic Jewish v ote: an exercise in electoral geography. ethnics.15 P.9 J. Australian Quarterly. forthcoming).). 10. 22-24). The future of ethnic politics is uncertain.Duncan ( ed. particularly in the creatio n of a plethora of ethnic bodies (2. 1983. however. Austral ian Politics. Class. Ethnic Politics -Migrant Organisation and the Victorian ALP. 28:2. Centre for Independent Studies. Mistilis. Bulletin. Canberra. Ethnic Politics in the ALP. Australian Journal of Politics and Hist ory. Migrants: The Political Void? in H. McAllister and J. at least in the short term (2.1980.

12 M. Bu ndoora. Australian Education: A Sociological Perspective.5 R. CHOMI. Sherwood (ed.20 W.4 P. Shellard. Sydney. 3.8 J. 65. 1978.M. Bostock.). The Pluralist Dilemma in Education. Prentice H all of Australia. The results of bilingual education on learning by children seem beneficial (3. 45:2.S. 2 -5). The most significant.51-58.11 Committee on Multicultural Education.G. 3. even if not a quick or adequate response. November 1980. 12-16. 3. 53:4. 3.R. Curriculum Development Centre.23 A Kerr. 3. Polycom. La Trobe University Meredith Memorial Lectures. July 1982. 6. 1981. 1982). Bayly.17 B. A Kit for Educators. Bullivant.). Australians are poor linguists. 1980 41-48. The Implications of a Multicultural Society for Australian Education.7 N. The Christian Teacher in the Multicultural Classroom. Smolicz. Issues an d Innovations. Skilbeck. Multicultural Education. Community Involvement in Language Te aching. 3. Melbourne University Press. 1981. 276-283. and 3. Melbourne. 1:1. 1980).16 M. 1981. Shared Values and Cultural Diversity. by Geoffrey Partingto n (3.E. Bundoora. George Allen and Unwin. August 1980. Ethnicity and Curriculum. Satay and Strzelecki: Breadth and Depth in a Multicultural Curriculum. in J. and pressures for greater emphasis on the teachi ng of languages is probably a by-product of debates about multicultural educatio n (3. 26 October 1980. 39-53 . White. Race. Creative Research.14 I. Teach er educators are now producing much multicultural material of practical help f or trainee-teachers (3. Broad sociological approaches are often crit ical of government intervention in education seeing this intervention in terms o f simplistic notions that greater government aid can bring about equality (3. AIMA. (3. Government policies changed in the 1970 s not only in the sense that policy documents now used the word multicultural’ (3. Sydney. 1979. August 1980. Goldman. 5-16. Language and educatio n in a diverse society. 3:2. Bullivan t. recent works e mphasise aspects of curriculum. Australian Quarterly. and 3.J. with particular emphasis on a core curriculum wi th a multicultural component.J. however. Young Teachers Reflect and Act. (3.19 Education f or a Multicultural Society-A Policy Statement and a Critique. and 3.22 D. M. July 1979. 1981. 39-52.2 B. 3 0-45. Journal of Christian Education. Macmillan. Education for a Multicultural S ociety. Education for a Multicultural Societ y. Australian Council for Educational Research. and 3. Ingram. Review of Multicultural and Migrant Education. New Education. Hawthorn. reflect Anglo-conformist rhetoric that migrants should learn English. Mills.J.. 1981. Teacher training courses have been unreflective o f a pluralist society for much of the period of mass immigration (3. Unicorn.13 J. Language Training and Multicultural Policy. 4-9. 1 973. in Australia s Multicultura l Society.18 Is the Core Sound?. and 3. Migratio n Action.tly arrived migrants who could not speak English. p 67 The most significant criticism of multicultural education. Such sentiments. 25. Journal of Intercultural Studies. 14-18. Canberra Schools Commission.21 T. Bi-lingual Education In Au stralian Schools. 1981). J ournal of Christian Education. for child migrant educatio n and the teaching of English as a second language. Wilkinson ed. 1981.1981. Government policies have shown a concern.). Crittenden.1 Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs.24 J. Cultural Pluralism and Schooling Journal of Intercultural Studies. 48-60. Melbourne . The Imm igration Policy Background to Multicultural Education.F. Malcolm. Bi-lingual education is now activ ely supported by some educationalists (3.W. Core Curriculum for a Multicultural Society.25           . 5:3. 1980). 1982. and 3.9 J.15 J. Burns (ed. Canberra. Melbourne. Polycom. Monolingualism in Australia.10 R. Cultural Plurali sm and Common Curriculum. Smolicz. Teacher Education in and for a Multicultural Society. 3. 3. 1982). argues that the introduction of multicultural values i n school curriculum is harmful to both the integration of migrants and the futur e stability of Australia. La Trobe University. 3. 2:1. Perth. 467-475). 74. Quadrant. A Conceptual Approach to Multicultural Education with Observations fro m an International Perspective. Foster.6 LE. Culture and Educa tion in a Plura1 Society.J Quinn.3 and B. 1979). Atchison. Australian Quarter ly.

23-27. 3. 1981). 1982. ANZ Book Company. Special approaches to the training of professionals in multicultural situations are frequently neglected (3.43 A. The role of ethnic schools in a wider s ystem is complicated by the perceptions of different ethnic communities (3. 1976. 1982. and 3. Ivory Towers or Grassroots: The Relationship of Theory and Practice in the Education of Professi onals for the Multicultural Society.30 A. 7:1. 5:3. in maintaining language a nd cultural resources.J. The Education of Professionals in a M ulticultural Society. 1981.40 D. Liffman.41 M. Norst. Eckstein. Ethnic Schools and Multiculturalism in Australia. The Role of Ethnic Comm unities in Education for a Multicultural Society.34 A. Training and Develop ment in Australia. 2:1. Greek Children in Sydney.35 B. Unicorn. if not by the classroom teacher (3. Lewins. 17-35). have recently b een the subject of considerable re-assessment Ethnic schools are conducted by pa rticular ethnic communities.27 R. Liffman a nd P. and normally conduct classes after regular school h ours in a particular community language. 3. Smart. 1980. Ethnics and Ethics: Some Vital Dimensions of Education for a Multicultural Australia. The political implications of ethnic schools were r ecognised by the Fraser Government s decision to provide these schools with fund ing (3. are rarely recognised. 3. The Political Implications of Ethnic Schools. Wilkinson. 17. Davis. (3. and their place in the whole educational system. Galbally R ecommendation 14: Evaluation Study. What is the role of Ethnic Sc hools in Education for a Multicultural Society? Journal of Intercultural Studies . 1980. 1981: 3. Grassby.37 C. Kringas and F . AGPS.42 A. Why Ethnic Schools? Canberra. CHOMI. 3. Migration Action. Ethnic schools. Ethnic Families and Children s Achievements. 1:3. Sydney. Castan. Brisbane.M. 48-52 . Wiseman. Ethnicity in School. 1977 ) is a definitive work on prejudice and the relevance of prejudice to the work o f teachers. 2. and 3. and 3. Language The role of language in Australia has traditionally been a conservative one. Journal of Intercultural Studies . Ethnic Studies. The wider implications of multicultural education. 1982.10-17. Smart. 1978. George Allen and Unwin. 1981. CHOMI. Lorna Lippmann (3. The Problems of Multicultural Training. 4. 24. Schools. 5-15.M.32 M. in Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland. May 1980.33 F. Canberra.4. Marjoribanks. 3:2. Richmond. June 1982. Grassby. 1980. Victoria. Ethnic schools. Polycom. What Bilingual Education Can Tell Us. 6-16).1. 3. 32-34. 10-13). 1980. ANU Press.38 E.31 M. Education News. Rado. 1982. Suc h implications were considered by the Galbally Report (3. The role of education in creating a society tolerant of ethnic and racial differ ences is the most difficult problem faced by educational administrators and policymakers.J.1982. 8. Are Ethnic Schools the Solution to Ethnic Children s Accommodation to Australian Society? Journal of Intercultural Studies. Racial Discri mination in Schools. Teaching techniques have an important role in lessening inter-group tensions (3. The Role of Ethnic Schools Now and in the Future. 1982). Bot       .J. 3:2. Sydney. Lewins. Ethnic Schools: What Are They and What Would They Like to Be? Journal of Intercultural Studies. 3:2. 48-69: and 3. 73-78 ). Isaacs . 1:2. Richmond. Train ing Professionals for a Multicultural Society. 23-25.39 P. W.26 K. Moore. Bullivant. Journal of Intercul tural Studies. with its relevance for langua ge and cultural awareness programs for professionals. Grassby.29 R. 30-39. Journal of In tercultural Studies 3:2. 1980).J.36 F. 1980). ANU Press. and 3. serve a useful function for both particular ethnic groups and the wider community (3. 36-47). Lewins. Canberra. TAFE Quarterly. Refugees and Community Relations: Indo-Asians in Vic torian Schools. Intercultural Training for A ustralians.45 H. The Multicultural Confusion.44 R. Victoria.28 The Aim Is Understanding.

1 975 and 1979). Clyne. Immigration and the Australian Economy. Changes in Australian attitudes towards initiatives (4. 1977. Jak ubowicz and B. Canberra. A Sociological Introduct ion.h public policies and popular attitudes have served to re-enforce monolingualism (4. Gamer (ed.155-158).6 Commonwealth Department of Education. AGPS. Croom Helm. Implications of Australian Popu lation Trends.E. Australian Immigration. very certain (4.P. 65. A bibliography and digest. 5. the distinguished Professor of Demo graphy at the Australian National University. 1982. Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. Davi es. 1975. 1982). Longman Cheshire. in P. Multilingual Australia. 1975.). The linguistic and cultural pre-requisites for participation in Australian society.2 M. London. Buckley.R. 8).4 Immigra tion and ethnic affairs. Sydney. Community Languages . Clayton. Canberra. The case for a national languag e policy in Australia. Melbourne. Smith and G. a significant increase in migration from Asia. Clyne. Numbers 1-4.J. In his chapter of a prominent sociol ogy text (5. Mansfield (eds. Canberra. Emphasis on multicultu ral education has resulted in a great interest in language learning (4. Canberra. Brain. Journal of Christian Education. 36-47). The federal government has recently displayed interest in a nati onal language policy (4.1 C. Mosaic o r Melting Pot: Cultural Evolution in Australia. ANU Press. S.       . Ch. 3-16). 1970. education and social policy (5. Sackville. 1981. Their Role in Education.2 R. Politics. 19 79. R. A useful guide exists for Melbourne (5. Schu yers. Departmen t of Geography. Mel bourne. 22-29). Price (ed). 13:1. The Frase r years have seen an increasing acceptance of non-European migrants (5.6 P.3 M.). 15:1. Ch. Australian National University. Post-World II immigration has led to a change in public attitudes towards non-English languages (4. Quinn. Population. AGPS.A.B. in A.O. Oxford University Press. Demography The statistical study of Australia s ethnic population is a well-developed art. 1979). The Immigrants. Price s bibliographies of immigrat ion are invaluable (5. and 5. Law Non-English speaking migrants. 1978. Poole (eds. Bostock. 331-355) it is suggested that the Australian population is likely to remain substantially Anglo-Celtic.4 R.7 D. An Atlas of the Overseas Born Population. 1981). Monash University.). however.G. largely due to the efforts of Charles Price.F. McKay. Encel and M.1 A. 2 Greeks in Australia. 6. River Seine. Patience and B. AGPS.J. Melbourne. Second Main Report). In A. Ingram. 19751 in which he demonstrates the l oyalty of Greeks to their cultural origins. Head. together with Aborigines and the poor. Australian Society. are the pr incipal sufferers from discrimination by the Australian legal system (6.3 C. Price assisted by Patricia Pyne. Language and Multiculturalism.7 W.G. Law and Poverty in Australia (Australian Government Commissi on of Inquiry into Poverty. Berry (eds. Harcourt Brace Jovanovic h. 1966. River Seine. 1982). July 1979 . Towards a Nation al Language Policy. Melbourne. Babel.E.1 W. T here has been. It is desirable t hat speakers of community languages should both maintain and pass on to their ch ildren fluency in their mother language (4. The regular use of community languages in Australia by future generati ons is not.8 T. 17:1. 1979. Language policies were originally prop osed in Australia by academics (4. What should we expect of community languag e programmes? Babel.W. Third Edition. Migrants and the Legal Service.5 M.9). 1979.5 J.A. Recent publications have suggested sev eral implications of population changes in Australia in the fields of economics. de Lacey and M. From Whitlam to Fraser. Price s most significant earlier work is on Greek-Australians (5. however.).L. 1981). Ethnic Commun ities in Melbourne. Le al.J. Factors Promoting Migrant Lan guage Maintenance in Australia. Social planners frequently neglect analysis of ethnic distribution in Australian urban centres. Canberra. Borrie and M. politics. Canberra. an d 6.

9 P. 3 August 1982. Francis. Sklovsky. Grenard.1980. The development of public broadcasting is likely to both complement an d encourage the continued existence of ethnic broadcasting (7. Legal Service Bulletin. 24-27). Migrant women are claimed to be largely ignored (7. 1980. 1980. Citizenship and Human R ights.. 37-60). It does. The onl y substantial research on migrant crime explored the myth that migrants commit m ore crime than the Australian-born. Media Information Australia. Bonnici. Ethnic Press.2 G. In general migrants are more law abiding tha n native-born Australians (6. Melbourne. Ch. Neal and P. Vic. 7. Bulletin. The Migrant Woman. Liffman (ed). The economic viability of the service is questioned by an examination of poor ratings (7.R. 15-19). The Australian Broadcasting Commi ssion. Migrant Crime in Australia. Media Information Australia. Fitzroy. has been unwilling or incapable of providing domestic broa dcasts in non-English languages (7. D. Lippman. I. Gardner. 21 ). The Orig ins of Ethnic Broadcasting: Turning the Dial in Australia.11 P. Government restrictions have prevented meaningfu l participation by ethnic communities in ethnic broadcasting (7. Cashman (eds. Ar t Tongue-Tied by Authority. ‘Ethnic’ Television: Massive Funds but Poor Ratings.8 J. 1981. An important consideration that migrants from some countr ies must consider before becoming an Australian citizen is the possible loss of a pension or benefit paid by an overseas government (6. Patterson. 15. It is costly. Media and The Arts The print media is long established and influential in Australia among a number of ethnic groups. 1979).3 K. Of great concern to many overseas-bor n Australian residents are government immigration and naturalisation policies. 15. Journal of Intercultu ral Studies. S.6 J. unfortunately. Multicultural television is controv ersial.40).4 R. St. November 1982. Bailey. 15. Kelley and I. 15. The Family Courts Reactions t o Cultural Differences. in ANZ Journal of Sociology. Multicultural television in Australia is the creation of the former Fraser Gover nment arising from a promise in Malcolm Fraser s 1977 federal election policy sp eech (7. Boer. 51-54 ). 1980. 1981). 2:1. Sa vinski and P. Immigration. Bulletin.K.W. The Road to Ethnic Television.A. have problems of identity and survival (7. McAlli ster. Luc ia. Ethnic TV a real snow job.7 M. Irvine. Multicultural Australia Papers 21.4 R.1980. 44-45. McMullin. The Decision to Become an Australian Citizen.D. A History of 3ZZ Access Radio. 15.J. in J.). however. 28-33: and 7.10 John Clemenger Pty. Doveihi. and often watched by a minority who are claimed to be Angl o middle-class trendies (7. 28-31). Richmond. A comprehensive treatment is available (6. Multicultural media in the 19 80s. Fitzroy Legal Service. p 69             . 1979). 7. 38. Ltd.J. 1982). Media Information Australia. University of Queensland Press. Bostock. 1982.p 68 The creation of specialised courts has done little to promote equality before th e law for non-Anglo ethnic groups (6. Media Information Australia. Laster.Key Dates and References. The SBS and Ethnic Radio Broadcasting in Australia. Sydney.February 1982. Ecumenical Migration C entre. Dugdale. Of the electronic medi a radio has the greatest potential for expansion and influence among ethnic comm unities (7. 1980. 428-440. 24 June 1980. Its Role and Influence.3 W. Bear.12-14). Media Information Australia. The dev elopment of ethnic broadcasting in relation to public broadcasting.1 J. 34-37). Grenard. Radio Power. 15.7 A. Media Inform ation Australia. 6 J.5 A. and 7. and 6. Residence in Australia is a leading factor influencing migrants in deciding t o seek naturalisation.5 B. Vic. 18: 3. Legal Resources Book. M. Hyland Hous e.

12 L. ANZ Book Company. 1982. Multiculturalism and Australian Children s Books. Sydney. Most Australian pu blic libraries refused to cater for a growing potential readership in non-Englis h languages (7. Melbourne. Wannan. Burns (ed. Borrie.2 C. influence government policies to any great extent. It is to be hoped the Hawke Government will not discontinue or radically change one of Malcolm Fraser s most enlightened achievements.5 W. 67-79). 19-23). Orana. 37-42). Sydney. 8. Australia no longer needs large numbers of unskilled workers. 94-112). Its greatest benefit is probab ly to native speakers who now have access to quality programs in their first lan guage. Jurgensen (ed. The Study of European Migration to Australia. History of Post-War Immigration. 8.D. 1975. A Personal and Politica l Biography. Longman Cheshire. an d much of the credit for this can be given to A.16 R. AGPS. Brisba ne. Wilton.Wilton.6 Australian Population and Immigratio n Council. Osborne and W. with the possible exception of the Irish. George Allen and Unwin. Sherington. Aiken. 8. Much of the history of Australian immigra tion is concerned with immigrant assimilation or adaptation. Ethnic Australia. festivals. 1979: and 8. Critics of immigration have not.family reunion.1 G. Libraries and the non-English speaking immigrant. in G.Markus. 1980 ). humanitarian feelings and our international obligations to accept refugees (8. At the popular level aspects of food. an d probably will not. The post World War II period saw mass immigration from Continental Europe. Melbourne. Recent works have examined children s books (7. Birrell and T. Nelson. Mandle (eds. greater defence capability ( popu late or perish ) and an abundance of unskilled labour for Australian industries (8.). Official policies must respond to politica l realities. Currey O’Neill. Melbourne. AGPS.14 B.). 1981). Australian Quarterly. Teaching History. Australian Library Journal. Bertelli. 1977.Whatever its faults multicultural television provides an excellent news service and a variety of programs not otherwise viewable. Rivett. short stories.17 M. It was not long ago many suburban libraries in Melbourne contemptuously refused borrowing rights to children under the age of fourteen. Poems and the Study of Europeans in Australia. Robert B irrell is perhaps the best-known critic of additional Australian immigration (8. 1981. First Report on the National Po pulation Inquiry.7 Australian Population and Immigration Council and Australi an Ethnic Affairs Council. Voices From Other Cultures. July 19 81. 1978. Bosworth and J. 1981). Immigration Policies and Australia s Population ( Green Paper ). poetry and anthologies by Aust ralian and other authors (7. The Folklore of the Irish in Austra lia. Calwell. without regard to a wider contextual base (8. Irish folklore has a respe ctable history in Australia (7. A similar mentality exis ted in regard to the holding of books in community languages. Australia s Immigrants. 221-231: and 8.13 R. 50:1. 1980). Multiculturalism and its Implications for Immigration Policy. 1981. dress and music appear to perme ate a recent series of books devoted to Making Australian Society by the Melbour                     .F. Gover nment policies react to an amalgam of pressures .4 A. Sydne y.15 M.). The study of non-Anglo culture by Anglo-Australians is a relatively recent development (7. and 7. 43-68). 1975. 1978). Bosworth and J . 30: 2. An Issue of People: Population and Australian Socie ty.A. A Lost History.8 K. New History: Studying Australia Today. AGPS. Calwell. 17: 1.3 R. Minister for Immigra tion in the Chifley Government (8. 1981. Canb erra. Kiernan. Birrell. Phoenix. 9 R. Canberra. 27: 2. Novels. G eorge Allen and Unwin. Migration Theory Australia s immigration policy has at various times pursued the somewhat contrad ictory goals of racial and ethnic homogeneity. Immigration and the Green Pape r. Australian Journal of Politics and History. Canberra. skilled and pr ofessional workers in short supply.

The Catholic Church and Community in Australia: A History.). 8. 1-3). Melbourne University Press. 1976. Penguin.29 Racialism in Schools. 3:1. Australian Quarterly.16 R. failure to find suitable employment. Australian Quar terly. Stevens (ed. The proletarian migrants: fascism and Italian anarchists in Australia. Mel bourne.28 L Lippmann. Racism is alive. The Catholic Church is reacting slowly to changes in the ethnic composition of Australia’s Catholic population.The Dunera Scandal. The White Australia Policy of the past officially sanctioned raci sm and still influences official practices (8.25 F.18 J. O’Farrell. 51: 1. 8.).20 K. Penguin. Hamilton. Hale and Iremonger. Religion in Australia. 9.3 G. Nelson. Canberra.         . Angus and Robertson. Brand.26 K.). 1976-61). The admission of refugees is a continuing issue. Henders on. in Social Issues of the Seventies. Apple. Rivett. Nelson.15 J.A Price (ed. Curthoys and A. 197 2. Often the politics of refugees is considered important by ma ny Australians (8. The Aboriginals. Sydney.S. A Psycho-social Inquiry.21 B. The Italians. Refugees: The Challenge of the Future. Growing Up Catholic in Australia. 1972 . Johnston. Sydney. Ringwood. 1981. 8. Melbourne.32 Commissioner for Community Relations. 1981. for example. ANU Press.14 R.19 Seventeen Australian Families. The Chinese. An impressive case-study approach of migrant families has been produced primarily for school use (8. Melbourne. Mr Santamaria and the Bishops. 1978). 1979. AGPS.5 F . 1979. Ethnic Studies.22 Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs.). 1975: 8. perhaps in part due to changes in the character of Australian Catholicism (9.10 M. a failure of Australia to live up to their expectations. for they cannot return home. but f ortunately is declining (8. 1977. Studies in the Christian Movement 198 2: and 9. W here migrants have a choice. Refugees are often settled in Australia for good. Sydney. 1979. Bell. Australia and the Non-While Migrant. Italo-Australian Catholics. Do a refugee s politics matter?. Drury.. 1981). 1978: 8. and even reasons which are irrational (8. The Myth of the Universal Church.L Thompson. Sydney. Canberra .Richardson.W. 8.24 C. 1982. The Boat People. Anglo-Scottish Protestants have always held the majority of positions of po wer (9. Markus (eds.4 E. 8. Oxford University Press. 1978. 1978. Annual Report. The experiences of refugees sometimes helps make the m great assets to Australian society (8. 1974. The Jews. 1979. 8.13 P. Lewins. 35-45). The Irish.11 S. The Lebanese. 1976: 8. and 8. are very different from their Irish-Australian counterparts (9. 5-21: 8. Rockchoppers. Melbourne University Press. AGPS. 9.27 A. Sydney. Bell. Austral ian Broadcasting Commission. Grant. Rivett (ed. Canbe rra. British Immigrants and Australia. 51: 2. Ringwood. Vic. Racism: The Australian Experience.3 3 A. Racism is sometimes experienced by non-European migrants in Australia (8. Who Are Our Enemies? Racism and the Worki ng Class in Australia.12 L Fox. The British. 1981: and 8. Current Attitudes to Asian Immigration into Australia. 1 982). and 8. Campion.34 S. Mol.2 P. Irish-Australi an Catholics are no longer an ethnic out-group . 1982). 419. ANZ Book Company.ne publisher Thomas Nelson (8.1 H. Religion The Anglican and Presbyterian Churches have always enjoyed high status in Austra lia.17 S. Academy of the Social Sciences in Austra lia. Canb erra. Drury. Canberra. 19-30). Australian National Univ ersity. 1978. Fitzgerald. the decision to return to their home country can be infl uenced by homesickness. 1980).30 A. Cresciani. Pearl.23 C. Vols. Canberra. 1 978. Stereotyping of some Europea n ethnic groups can have a negative impact on some European migrants in Australi a (8. Australia Through Italian Eyes.. Please Listen to What I m Not Saying: A Report on the Survey of Settlement Experiences of Indo chinese Refugees 1978-80. and 8.31 G. The Italian Farming Soldiers. 1981. The Greeks. The Dutch. 1981). 1978). 8. Curriculum Development Centre and Qantas. 8.

1975).6 H. Information about welfare services received by migrants leaves much to be desire d. Rel igion in a Multicultural Society. Grassby. 1981.. September 1981. Bo ss. Community and Identity. but is generally a creature of fringe political groups (9. A. Changes in the A ustralian Jewish community arising from post-World War II Jewish immigration to Australia are unclear (9. Sydney. 42-50).11 A Ata. 1:1. 1977. Co llingwood. 50-58) . 2 Australian Government Commission of Inquiry into Poverty: Welfare of Migrants (Henderson Commission). Health and Australian Society.D. Social Welfare Policy and Migrants in Australia.). 128-143). AGPS. 17-36): and Lebane se between Christian and Moslem (9.3 P. Lehmann. Overberg. Canberra. 24-42). The Greeks in Australia-A Home Away From Home. Papageorgopoulos. 1981. Hughes. ANU Pres s. Serbian and Ukrainian Churches in Adelaide (9. 37-54). Journ al of Intercultural Studies. Scott and Company.7 A Mirzaian. 1980.Summary of Findings. Martin. Melb ourne. to secure maximum benefits from available services (10. There is now an increasing accept ance that positive discrimination in favour of migrants is desirable (10. and probably still is. 1981). 2:1. 10. Outback Press. It was claimed a number of Creek migrants had fa lsified the state of their health (10. Some churches can claim to repre sent the overwhelming majority of migrants with particular ethnic backgrounds.9 J. Th e Australian League of Rights: A Study in Political Extremism and Subversion.1 B.5 W. and many feel intimi dated by persons in positions of authority (10. 2:2. 1980). The I mmigrants. In particular.12 A. In this cases number of persons were charged by the Commonwealth Police with fraudulently obtaining invalid pensions from the Department of Social Security. Ethnic Studies. 1947-80: Communi ty and Ideology. Psychology and the P olitical Experience. AGPS. Hetzel.I . Grimes. Mirzaian. Melbourne. 1977). Social security ‘conspiracy’ case -a review. London. Canberra. largely a German Church (9. Examples are the Dutch between Catholi c and Protestant Churches (9. Often this information is received second-hand from friends and is unreliable 10. Alpha Books. Macmillan. Penguin. Australian Quarterly. Rev. inter-ethnic activities and attitudes to Australia.1975): and Greek Orthodox (9. 107.A. often th rough lack of knowledge. Sydney. suffer the dual disadvantage of being both poor and unable. Refugee Groups in Adelaide. T hese include Armenian Orthodox (9. for example Russian. Welfare and Social Services Migrants in theory have equal access to the variety of welfare services provided for the benefit of the Australian community. Several ethnic groups have divided religious loyalties. migrants especially the recent ly arrived. 1978: and 9. Journal of Intercultural Studies. Such fears have been reinforced by th e so-called Greek Conspiracy Case.B. Migrants are often fearful of the bureaucracy.14 A. Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. Vic. Lowenstein and M. The Lutheran Church in South Australia was. Australian Quarterly. 1972).10 H. Dutch in Victoria. St. Canberra.6 D. A Case of Rejected Assimilation?.8 A .. 1973). 51: 3. Harmondswor th.4 W. Jews in Australian Society. 52:2. Loh. Armenians: A Pilgrim People in ‘T ierra Australia . Campbell. The Lebanese in Melbourne: ethnicit y.15 P. South Australian German Lutherans in th e second half of the Nineteenth Century. Anti-Semitism has sometimes surfaced in Australian society (9.Y. Hyland House.13 A. Mark s Review. Medding (ed.H. Survey into the Information Needs of Migrants in A ustralia . 1980). In practice welfare services frequ ently do not take into account cultural differences and the special needs of mig rant ethnic groups (10. Several churches with a high membership of refugees are also d ivided. which sometime s lead to disharmony within these groups. 1979. All charges were subseque     . 1975). Fr. The Greek Orthodox Church in Australia has a history of division and factionalism.Many small churches in Australia cater largely or specifically for particular et hnic groups.

6 W. Migrant Child Care Needs. The recognition of overseas medical qualifications would do m uch to overcome this problem. Ethnic concentrations may not have desirable consequences for social   . Migration Action. St.11 J. Sydney. 11. R.16 E.1 D. Urbanization in Australia. 5:3. Interpreter services are probably the most important service required by most re cently arrived migrants. 1:1. Socialisation in Australia.13 L Rodopoulos (ed. Edgar.7. 1980.4 J. Canberra.). Krupinski and R. 10-17. 14-19 January 1974.F. 1981. Sociology Sociologists are responsible for a great deal of the literature on ethnicity. Richmond. Perth.). Migrants also suffer from a lack of cult ural awareness by doctors (10. Child care is a special problem for many migrant women.H. 1976:and 11. Taft..). 1981. Mobilit y and Community Change in Australia. Ethnic Communities and their Aged. preferring to study aspects of particular ethnic groups. Victorian Council of Social Service. Introduction to Australian Society. Refugee Doctors in Australia. (10. I. mu ch of it of great value. The Intruders.15 M. Health Studies of Selected Disad vantaged Groups. Canberra. 13. Canberra. 9. Clearing House on Migration Issues and Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria. McGraw-Hill. Hearst. 1982. 1982).H. 65-95: 11. Prentice-Hall of Aus tralia. Melbourne. 1979). The ethnic aged are another disadvantaged group. Pryor and D.). Rowland (eds.H.9 .Fisher. July 1980. Cawte. Many migrants do not understand the complexities of health care arrangements in Australia.3 R.). Cochrane. Reichstein. 1964). Kunz. ANU Press. Australian Geographical Studies. yet their availability is often reduced by irresponsibl e government actions (10. Non-British medical qualifications have generally been regarded by Australi an doctors with the greatest suspicion. A high quality general reference on ethnicity in an Aus tralian text-book is likely to be a definitive work (11. Education and Training for Social Welfare Personnel in Au stralia.J. Johnston (ed. Migration Action. 1974). 5:1. Older established ethni c communities have established homes to cater for special needs. 11. the subject of extensive research (11. ACPS. Mig ration and Mental Health-A Comparative Study. Australian Fam ily Physician. Immigrants in Western Australia. Liffman. Journal of Intercultural Studies.8 J. National Times.12 S. Settlers of the Latrobe Va lley. Hunt (ed. Gentrification i n inner Melbourne: problems of analysis.5 P.Zubrzycki. Melbourne. and 10. 11). Ap ril 1982.7 Australian Government Commission of Inquiry into Poverty. Child care is often expe nsive.9 J. The Education of Professionals in a Multicultural Society. 1978. in F.8 I. Migrant women make less use of children s services than Australian-born wom en (10. One such aspect is the regional concentration of ethnic groups. Lucia. CHOMI.ntly withdrawn.T. ANU Press. 25-27). Readings for ‘Helpers’ in a Cultural ly Plural Society. London. 491-492: and 10. Ch. 49-57). 1980.). Catalysts for a Multicultural So ciety: Interpreter Services in Australia. The training of welfare workers is also a question of prioritie s so often neglected (10. Burnley. Sociologists have generally left the broad issues of multiculturalism to politic al scientists. Australia International. but Australian doctors operate a very tight ‘closed shop’. 10. Frequently migrants have inadequate health insurance (10. Burnley (ed. 11. Social Environment. Logan. How the trendy twees expelled the blue collars and et hnics. Ethnic Groups. 96118. Canberra. Cambridge University Pr ess.14 L Rodopoulos (ed. Sydney.J. 1980: 11. A Sociological Perspective. University of Queensland Press. I. 20. Most earlier sociological studies concentrated on a broad theme of absorption or assimilation (11. Learner. 1975).1979 and 11. Vic. 1981). Melbourne. but the majorit y of ethnic aged must rely greatly on family support networks (10. Burnley. AGPS. and few child care centres consider the special diet needs of certain gro ups. University of Western Australia Press. Multicultural Medicine. 1977).2 R.S.10 E.

2).3 D. Jopson. Granada. 93. Such thoughts are anathema to present day nationalists. St Lucia. Rapij (Royal Australian Planning Institute Journal). University of Tasmania. is in Europe second in popularity to soccer (12. G. Towards a Multi-Cultural Tasmania.16. All codes played in Australia are overseas imports. Many previously unheard of sports have been introduced into Australia by migrants (1 2. Patrick White. Greeks (11. R. Bostock. and 11. Spring 1981.Milutinovic. Vondra. Most academic writing has been on soccer. a game largely popularised in Australia by migration after World War II (12. The Morning After. with the possible exception of horse racing . Canberra.12. University of Qu eensland Press. Turner. 10-12). F rom Pasta to Pavlova: A Comparative Study of Italian Settlers in Sydney and Grif fith. 13.W. After the Odyssey. Migrant Organisations in Melbourne. 1979). November 1980. ANU Press. p 71 A political issue has developed over team names. but not always the work of sociologically trained persons. 110-113). The Slightly Different Ritual Called Bocce. Melbourne. Hellas Australia. 1981) have been the subject of recent studies with some sociological emp hasis.H.Huber. 1979.6 G.1.11. I. Should team names be ‘dinky di’ or a representation of some country in Europe (12. Harrison. Lucia. in W.A. 1981). who claim that the game is purely an indigenous invention (12. yet they often have a place of major importance in the lives of many mig rants (12. Community organisations probably play the greatest role in the recreational needs of migrants.J. Unikoski. Recreation in a Multicultural Society. L Sandercock and I. 1978: and 11. Judicator. Physical Education and Recreation. The most extensive study of such ex amines Polish. March 1978.10 P. 2: 2.J. London. 50 ). 2 September 1981.14.15.A. is football. A. Hobart. Melb ourne. Latvians in Australia. A.7 L Allan. What’s in an Ethnic Name?. Many soccer officials are inte nt on ‘Australianising’ the game. R. 23-35). Canberra Anthropology. 1978). Bottom ley. one such example. Unions and the Labour Market The role of unions in Australia had traditionally been to seek increased wages. Dutch and Maltese community organisations in Melbourne (12. The ethnic ghetto: help or hindrance?. Sociologic al literature on particular ethnic groups is uneven.W. Canberra. Australian Jour nal for Health. University of Queensland Press.5.planners (11. Bost ock (ed). Reverse multiculturalism and the politics of soccer. Quadrant. Italians (11. 18. Widescop e.     . 9-15 August 1981. St. 197 7. A Study of Greek Australians.4. Paul. Hyland House. Soccer Action. Grassby. Up Where. The most popular sport in Australia. Communal Endeavours. and Latvians (11. This attitude is considered as ‘reverse multicultura lism’ (12. Sport and Recreation Sport and recreation are unfashionable subjects for discussion at academic confe rences. Soccer and Stan Ostoja-Kotkowski. a variety of Irish Gaelic football. 1979). Talk English Can t Ya. 12. ANU Press.8. R. Less academic studies sometimes provide broad insights of immigrant experiences which are marg inally useful to sociologists (11. probably owes much of its success to it s appeal last century to the rebel sentiments of Victoria s Celts. Grundy. Australian Ru les. Canberra. 1979. Cazaly? Th e Great Australian Game. 1977). 43). Australia’s Ethnic Revolution. National Times.13 J. 134-136).2 W. Bocce.L Putnins. Grassby.

17: 2. Migrant workers face a dilemma. Migrant participation in trade union leadership.7) J. I. Many join unions f or protection rather than to support the politics of union officials (13.P. Race and Science. Glazer and D. Race and Racism: A Comparative Perspective.1. Vol.2. S torer. One study finds evidence of ethnic-occupat ional ghettoes.6 D. New York. Buckley (eds. 2nd edition. Ringwood. There is evidence of segmentation of the labour force along ethnic lines. Storer (ed. Higley. Smart. 21-30). Massachusetts. British migrants workers. Sydney. non-white migrants in Australia (14. C. Massachusetts . Simon. III. Most of the mat erial is American.2 M. Buckley (eds. New York. in D. in E. and 13.6 N. June 1976. The Political E conomy of Post-War Immigration. Lever-Trac y.). Wilshi re (eds. Arena. 219-262). Cambridge. The New Australian Working Class: The Case of Ford Broadmeadows. 197 5. Wheelwright and K. Beyond the Melting Pot. 14. ANZ Book Company. J.1. but the American ‘melting-pot’ of different ethnic groups does not appear to be melting (14. Collins. The P olitical Economy of Australian Capitalism. E. Hearn.. P. London. P. and most is not useful to Australian readers. 1964). Unionism and Society.10 Working for the Company: Work and Control in the Whyalla Shipyard. even at the expense of neg lecting the union membership. Encount     . 1978). 1967). 1979). 13. Centre for Urban Research and Action.). Fragmentation of the Working Class. Assimilation in the United States has generally be en assumed (14. for example. although this is no w changing (13.P.L Wheelwright and K. Sydney.5 D. Melbourne . and 14. p 72 Some employers are reluctant to employ workers with certain national backgrounds . Labour Market Segmentation and Diverging Migrant Incomes. Migrants and Unemployment.9 C. in E. Lever-Tracy. Few migrants achieve office in trade unions. With Courage in their Cases. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology. MIT Press. Vic. 46-52) . Many union officials are mo re interested in playing politics than anything else.4. 187-197. John Wil ey. Routledge and Kegan P aul. M elbourne. New York. Glazer and D. Penguin.3 J. 9:1. Migrants have yet to occupy mana gerial positions in Australia in large numbers (13.). Australia and World Capitalism. J . The depression of the 1980 s may postp one migrant participation in higher management.M.3 M. The Ethnic Factor. Elites in Australia. 5 5-77). Gordon. General works o n racism. Some comments o n the migrant workforce. 1981. Assimilation in American Life. Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. 1973. 18. N. C. Glazer. Australian and New Zealand Journal of S ociology. Wheelwright and E. unpleasant and even da ngerous working conditions (13.). Loh. 1969. Columbia Univ ersity Press. Moynihan (eds. for example. Migrant women are often employed in jobs of a boring and repetitive natur e (13. and 13. But I wouldn t want my wife to work here…: A Study of Mi grant Women in Industry. Collins. Vol. Migrants are often the first to be laid off in times of unemployment (13. Melbourne.8. 1980). 1981. D. 1980. 112-123. A most useful work on racism is by Claude Levi-Strauss (14. 32-51).). Oxford Univ ersity Press. 62. G eorgiou. 1975. in UNESCO. say. Cambridge. generally draw conclusions from American experiences whic h are irrelevant to the study of. Levi -Strauss. 1976).4. Experiences of migrant workers suggest that they ar e often not protected by union officials from unhygienic.L. Deacon D. 1983. Essays in the Political Economy of Australian Capitalism. FILEF.12.J. Crough. jobs primarily done by non-British migrants (13. are sometimes regarded as ‘militant’ and ‘whi ngers’ (13. L van den Berghe. Harvard University Press. ANZ Book Company. Marxist economists find the use of migrant labour a tactic by employers to mai ntain low wages and a submissive labour force (13. 1970: 14. Australian Quarterly.L. Jo urnal of Industrial Relations. 1980).5 N. 53:2. Race and History. Oxford University Press. Moynihan. Migrants.often at the expense of improved working conditions. Overseas Material The vast array of overseas material on ethnic and related studies areas makes a meaningful survey of the literature a huge task to put together.11 L.

1960). Ethnic politics an important issue in the United States. The division of armies on ethnic lines is in fact a devi ce used by most countries to secure the loyalty of their soldiers (14. The use of language in immigrant societies can have much relevance in assessing proposals for an Austra lian national language policy. but the expectation that most migrants come to Australia as permanent residents is a most significant difference. Penguin. 1982.12 E. Studies of United States immigration sug gest that it takes a long time before members of immigrant ethnic groups enter e lite positions (14. 1982. July 1981. Language Maintenance.H. Immigrant workers are frequ ently used as a reserve army of labour. The Ethnic Phenomenon. 1973). Elsevier. 3:1.9 M.13 M. Simon and Schuster. White Ethnics: Life in Working Class America.1 7. probably come closer to the Australian position (14. Ryan (ed. Engl ewood Cliffs. Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Johnston.A. Minister of Supply and Services. Jones. Berry.16 C.H. It has generally been taken for grant ed that people in the United States are free if they wish to publicly proclaim t heir ethnic background (14. 6-17).L van den B erghe. Assimilation is relative. Enloe. The issue of cultural pluralism in Ameri ca today. Ethnic Conflict and Political Development.10 P. Geography of Elections. Kosack. Prentice-Hall. Harmondsworth. 5-24). and cross-cultural perspectives are bette r in providing explanations of its rate. Glenview.6 N. Bosto n. Banton.er. New Jersey.11 J. Ottawa. Western European experiences in this respe ct have some similarities with Australia. Glazer. Taylor. Levy and M.J. Gertner. Blacks in the United States have assimi lated hardly at all into the mainstream of American society (14. 1979) and is an important factor in the distribution of power in most developi ng countries (14. 1973). The Canadian experience with migrants and the official commitment to multiculturalism. T he Ethnic Factor: How America s Minorities Decide Elections. London. 3:1.R. Fishman.J. 1981).15 C. R. Journal of In tercultural Studies. Ethnic Soldiers.. American Immigration. Illinois. 1973). Oxford University Press. 1980). Scott Foresman. The ‘Ethnic Revival’ and Diglossia in t he U.S. Castles and C. New York. Little Brown. J.14 P. En loe. 57:1.8 M. University of Chicago P ress. S. Immigrant Workers and Class Structure in Western Eu rope. where certain ethnic groups can and do decide election results (14. and 14. The Two Ethnicities. Litt. Croom Helm .A. so much so that one writer sugge sts the United States literature is concerned with minority ethnicity to the exc lusion of majority ethnicity (14. Cultural pluralism became an issue in the United Sta tes much earlier than it did in Australia. Ther e is an expectation in Western Europe that most migrants will eventually return to their home countries. Kalin and D.A.S. New York.). Milan. 25-35). Journal of Intercultural Studies.M. 1973). E.   . Taylor and R.18) J. Mother tongue use will decline over time without positive encouragement in immigrant communities (14. Beyond Pluralism: Ethnic Politics in Ame rica. 1977). In Western Europe immigrant workers freq uently have few civil rights. and are employed in the most unpleasant jobs (14.A. Ethnic and race politics is not confined to the United States (14. Lowy and W. Kramer. in J.