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2 2011 Question Two:
(iii) Fully explain TWO characteristics of the population structure of a named country or region you have studied. Refer to specific information about the population of your named country or region, as well as some of the ideas from the box below, to support your answer. Population characteristics  Birth and death rates  Dependency ratio  Ethnic groups  Life expectancy  Male/female ratio  Natural increase

Source: http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/browse-categories/snapshots-of-nz/nz-inprofile/2012/nzip-2012.pdf

BIRTH AND DEATH RATES (2009):
Births and Deaths: December 2009 • Life expectancy at birth was 82.4 years for females • and 78.4 years for males in 2007–09. • The gap between male and female life expectancy has narrowed from 6.4 years in 1975–77 to 4.0 years in 2007–09. In the December 2009 year: • 62,540 live births were registered in New Zealand, down from 64,340 in the December 2008 year. • 28,960 deaths were registered. • Births exceeded deaths by 33,580. • The total fertility rate was 2.1.

DEPENDENCY RATIO:
Age dependency ratio, old, is the ratio of older dependents--people older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.

Source: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.DPND.OL/countries/1W-NZ?display=graph

Table 1: Demographic Projections 1996-2051

Source: State Services Commission http://www.ssc.govt.nz/node/5406

ETHNIC GROUPS (2006):
67.6 percent of people in New Zealand belong to the European ethnic group. Throughout New Zealand, 14.6 percent of people belong to the Māori ethnic group. Ethnic Groups(1) in New Zealand, 2006 Census
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% European 2,609,589 67.6 Māori 565,329 14.6 Pacific peoples 265,974 6.9 Asian 354,549 9.2 Middle Eastern/Latin American/African 34,746 0.9 Other ethnicity New Zealander 429,429 11.1 Other ethnicity–other 1,494 0.0 Total 430,881 11.2 (1) People can choose to identify with more than one ethnic group, therefore percentages do not add up to 100. Birthplace o 22.9 percent of people in New Zealand were born overseas. o For people born overseas who are now living in New Zealand, the most common birthplace was England. o 1.6 percent of Māori in New Zealand were born overseas. Languages spoken Total population o Apart from English, the next most common language spoken in New Zealand is Māori, which is spoken by 4.1 percent of people. o 80.5 percent of people in New Zealand speak only one language. Māori ethnic population o Apart from English, the next most common language spoken by Māori in New Zealand is Māori, which is spoken by 23.7 percent of the population. o 73.4 percent of Māori in New Zealand speak only one language. Note: The Māori ethnic population is the count for people of the Māori ethnic group. It includes those people who stated Māori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnic groups.

LIFE EXPECTANCY (2005-2007)
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A newborn girl can expect to live 82.2 years and a newborn boy 78.0 years, based on deaths in New Zealand in 2005–07. This is an increase of 1.0 years for females and 1.7 years for males since 2000–02. Females can expect to outlive males by 4.1 years based on deaths in 2005–07, down from the largest difference of 6.4 years in 1975–77. Māori life expectancy at birth is about 8.2 years lower than for non-Māori. A newborn Māori girl can expect to live 75.1 years and a newborn Māori boy 70.4 years, compared with 83.0 years for a nonMāori girl and 79.0 years for a non-Māori boy.

The longevity gap between Māori and non-Māori has closed slightly. The difference in life expectancy at birth of 8.2 years in 2005–07 compares with 8.5 years in 2000–02 and 9.1 years in 1995–97.

Source: http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/health/life_expectancy/NZLifeTables_HOTP0507.aspx Based on the mortality experiences of New Zealanders in the period 2007–2009, life expectancy at birth was 78.4 years for males and 82.4 years for females. Since the mid-1980s, gains in longevity have been greater for males than for females. Between 1985–1987 and 2007–2009, life expectancy at birth increased by 7.3 years for males and 5.3 years for females. As a result, the gap between males and females in life expectancy narrowed from 6.0 years to 4.0 years over this period. The gains in life expectancy at birth since the mid-1980s can be attributed mainly to reduced death rates for people in the late-working and retirement age groups (55–84 years). However, reduced death rates for infants (from 11.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1986 to 4.9 per 1,000 in 2009), for people aged 45–54 years, and for women aged 85 years and over were also significant. Figure H2.1 Life expectancy at birth, by sex, 1985–1987 to 2007–2009

Source: http://socialreport.msd.govt.nz/health/life-expectancy.html

MALE/FEMALE RATIO:

NATURAL INCREASE:
Under series 5, annual natural increase (births minus deaths) is projected to decrease steadily from 33,000 in 2010 to 20,000 in 2031 and 5,000 in 2061. Only in series with the low fertility assumptions (series 1 and 2) do deaths outnumber births by 2061. Source: http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Browse%20for%20stats/NationalPopulationProjections/HO TP09base-61/NationalPopulationProjections09base-61HOTP.pdf
In the June 2012 year:  61,031 live births and 29,846 deaths were registered in New Zealand, resulting in a natural increase (live births minus deaths) of 31,185.  There were 1,628 fewer births and 521 more deaths compared with the June 2011 year.  The total fertility rate was 2.0 births per woman.  The infant mortality rate was 4.7 deaths per 1,000 live births.

Source: http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/births/BirthsAndDeaths_HOTPYeJun12.aspx