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Nanking Massacre

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Nanking Massacre
"Rape of Nanking" redirects here. For Iris Chang's book, see The Rape of Nanking (book). "Nankin Jiken" redirects here. For the 1927 Nankin Jiken, see Nanjing Incident.

Nanking / Nanjing Massacre Rape of Nanking

Massacre victims on the shore of the Yangtze River with a Japanese soldier standing nearby Chinese name Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese

南京大屠殺 南京大屠杀

Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Nánjīng Dàtúshā
Japanese name Kanji 1. 南 京 大 虐 殺 2. 南 京 事 件

Transcriptions - Traditional Hepburn 1. Nankin Daigyakusatsu 2. Nankin Jiken

Nanking Massacre

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Nanking Massacre Battle of Nanking (1937) Nanking Safety Zone International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone Japanese war crimes Contest to kill 100 people using a sword International Military Tribunal for the Far East Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal Historiography of the Nanking Massacre Nanking Massacre denial Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall Japanese history textbook controversies Films The Battle of China Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre City of Life and Death Don't Cry, Nanking The Flowers of War John Rabe Nanking Tokyo Trial The Truth about Nanjing Books American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking The Good Man of Nanking The Rape of Nanking Tokyo

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanking (Nanjing), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.[1][2] Widespread rape and looting also occurred.[3][4] Historians and witnesses have estimated that 250,000 to 300,000 people were killed.[5] Several of the key perpetrators of the atrocities, at the time labelled as war crimes, were later tried and found guilty at the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, and were subsequently executed. Another key perpetrator, Prince Asaka, a member of the Imperial Family, escaped prosecution by having earlier been granted immunity by the Allies. The event remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists,[2] who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines. An accurate estimation of the death toll in the massacre has not been achieved because most of the Japanese military records on the killings were deliberately destroyed or kept secret shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945. The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates more than 200,000 casualties in the incident;[6] China's official estimate is about 300,000 casualties, based on the evaluation of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. Estimates from Japanese historians vary widely, in the vicinity of 40,000–200,000. Some historical revisionists even deny that a widespread, systematic massacre occurred at all, claiming that any deaths were either justified militarily, accidental

Nanking Massacre or isolated incidents of unauthorized atrocities. These revisionists claim that the characterization of the incident as a large-scale, systematic massacre was fabricated for the purpose of political propaganda.[7][8] Although the Japanese government has admitted to the acts of killing of a large number of noncombatants, looting and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking,[9][10] a small but vocal minority within both the Japanese government and society have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Denial of the massacre (and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings) has become a staple of Japanese nationalism.[11] In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright.[11] Nonetheless, recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media, particularly in China, South Korea, and other East Asian nations.[12]

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Military situation
In August 1937, the Japanese army invaded Shanghai where they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties and low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China.

Relocation of the capital
After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew that the fall of Nanking would simply be a matter of time. He and his staff realized that they could not risk the annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Chiang's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China's vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China.[13] Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan, where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938.

Strategy for the defense of Nanking
In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation. The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe. The defense plan fell apart quickly. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai, running from the advancing Japanese army. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders, many of whom were killed during the defense of the city and subsequent Japanese occupation.

"The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanking quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.[16] Perhaps the most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers as reported in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun and the English language Japan Advertiser. Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanking. The Nanking garrison force set fire to buildings and houses in the areas close to Xiakuan to the north as well as in the environs of the eastern and southern city gates. which was based on interviews that Tatsuzo conducted with troops in Nanking in January 1938. at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million (1937) US dollars. The people of Nanking fled in panic not only because of the dangers of the anticipated battle but also because they feared the deprivation inherent in the scorched earth strategy that the Chinese troops were implementing in the area surrounding the city.[24][25][26] . forests and even entire villages—were burnt to cinders. a historian concurred with certain Japanese scholars who had argued that the contest was a concocted story. with the collusion of the soldiers themselves for the purpose of raising the national fighting spirit. the crimes committed by the Japanese army were not limited to that period.[19] In 2000. the veracity of the newspaper article about the contest was the subject of ferocious debate for several decades starting in 1967. The headline reads. the Chinese Ministry of Communication."[15] Novelist Ishikawa Tatsuzo vividly described how the 16th Division of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force committed atrocities on the march between Shanghai and Nanking in his novel Ikiteiru Heitai (Living Soldiers).[23] An article on the "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. rather than turn them over to the opponent. Taiwan As the Japanese army drew closer to Nanking.Nanking Massacre 4 Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking Although the Nanking Massacre is generally described as having occurred over a six-week period after the fall of Nanking.[20] In 2005. a Tokyo district judge dismissed a suit by the families of the lieutenants. Chinese civilians fled the city in droves. On July 31. "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants [14] Go Into Extra Innings". the Kuomintang (KMT) had issued a statement that they were determined to turn every Chinese national and every piece of their soil into ash. private homes.[21] The judge also ruled against the civil claim of the plaintiffs because the original article was more than 60 years old. Flight of Chinese civilians Sword used in the "contest" on display at the Republic of China Armed Forces Museum in Taipei. stating that "the lieutenants admitted the fact that they raced to kill 100 people" and that the story cannot be proven to be clearly false.[22] The historicity of the event remains disputed in Japan. The contest was covered much like a sporting event with regular updates on the score over a series of days.[17][18] In Japan. According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time. Targets within and outside of the city walls—such as military barracks.

[30] Prince Asaka allegedly issued an order to "kill all captives.[27] German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader. Prince Asaka. who informed him that the Japanese troops had almost completely surrounded 300. conducting trade or on missionary trips. gave no orders to stop the carnage.[29] On December 5.[31] Some authors record that Prince Asaka signed the order for Japanese soldiers in Nanking to "kill all captives"[32] Others claim that lieutenant colonel Isamu Chō. the ultimate sanction for the massacre and the crimes committed during the invasion of China were issued in Emperor Hirohito's ratification of the Japanese army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners on August 5. When General Matsui arrived in the city four days after the massacre had begun. and the International Committee took over as the de facto government of Nanking. 1937. and the members of the Committee managed to persuade the Chinese government to move their troops out of the area. Asaka met with division commanders.[34] Prince Yasuhiko Asaka in 1940 Head of a Chinese man beheaded by Japanese is wedged in a barricade near Nanking just before [28] the fall of the city. Many fled the city on December 7." thus providing official sanction for the crimes which took place during and after the battle. Nanking Mayor Ma Chao-chun ordered all Chinese citizens remaining in Nanking to move into the “Safety Zone”. even if Chō took the initiative on his own. . As the Japanese army approached Nanking. Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured.Nanking Massacre 5 Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone Many Westerners were living in the city at that time. leaving 27 foreigners. leaving the city on December 16. sent this order under the Prince's sign manual without the Prince's knowledge or assent. called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city. most of them fled the city. The Japanese government had previously agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military forces. Fifteen of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee. Prince Asaka appointed as commander In a memorandum for the palace rolls.000 Chinese troops in the vicinity of Nanking and that preliminary negotiations suggested that the Chinese were ready to surrender.[33] However. While the extent of Prince Asaka's responsibility for the massacre remains a matter of debate. who was nominally the officer in charge. 1937. Asaka left Tokyo by plane and arrived at the front three days later. On December 1." He assigned Asaka to Nanking as an opportunity to make amends. he issued strict orders that resulted in the eventual end of the massacre. lieutenant-generals Kesago Nakajima and Heisuke Yanagawa. in part because of his status as a member of the Nazi Party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact. Asaka's aide-de-camp. Hirohito had singled Prince Asaka Yasuhiko out for censure as the one imperial kinsman whose attitude was "not good.

. That same afternoon. the 9th Division entered nearby Guanghua Gate. breaching the last lines of Chinese resistance.[13] Iwane Matsui enters Nanking On December 12. and one to the Japanese military authority in Shanghai. What followed was nothing short of chaos. Demand for surrender At noon on December 9. promising annihilation if refused. one to Chiang Kai-shek by way of the American ambassador in Hankow. The Japanese army mounted its assault on the Nanking walls from multiple directions. Assault and capture of Nanking The Japanese awaited an answer to their demand for surrender but no response was received from the Chinese by the deadline on December 10. the military dropped leaflets into the city. and the 16th Division entered the Zhongshan and Taiping gates. facing little military resistance. General Tang Sheng-chi ordered his men to retreat. during which the Chinese troops could withdraw without fighting while the Japanese troops would stay in their present position. John Rabe boarded the U.[35][36] Meanwhile.S. Simultaneously. the 6th Division of the 10A launched its offensive on the western walls.[24] On 13 December. who had ordered that Nanking be defended "to the last man." had refused to accept the proposal. the 6th and the 116th Divisions of the Japanese Army were the first to enter the city. gunboat Panay on December 9 and sent two telegrams. members of the Committee contacted Tang and suggested a plan for three-day cease-fire. Some Chinese soldiers stripped civilians of their clothing in a desperate attempt to blend in. two small Japanese Navy fleets arrived on both sides of the Yangtze River. urging the surrender of Nanking within 24 hours. under heavy artillery fire and aerial bombardment. The next day he was informed that Chiang Kai-shek. General Tang agreed with this proposal if the International Committee could acquire permission of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. and arriving outside the walled city of Nanking on December 9. who had already fled to Hankow to which he had temporarily shifted the military headquarters two days earlier.Nanking Massacre 6 Battle of Nanking Siege of the city The Japanese military continued to move forward. the SEF’s 16th Division attacked three gates on the eastern side. and many others were shot by the Chinese supervisory unit as they tried to flee. General Matsui Iwane waited another hour before issuing the command to take Nanking by force. and the SEF’s 9th Division advanced into the area in-between.

recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy. murder. The contest continued because neither of them had killed 100 people. The safety zone. where the population numbered from 200. When they got to Zijin Mountain. eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese). Massacre Contest In 1937. including the diaries of John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin.000 to 250. primarily in the Xiakuan area to the north of the city walls and around the Zijin Mountain in the east. The Japanese army leadership assigned sections of the safety zone to some units to separate alleged plain-clothed soldiers from the civilians. an area of 3. Prince Yasuhiko Asaka told a war correspondent later that he was in a very perilous position when his headquarters was ambushed by Chinese forces that were in the midst of fleeing from Nanking east of the city. Toshiaki Mukai had killed 89 people while Tsuyoshi Noda had killed 78 people. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of Nanking Massacre survivors.[13] Massacre Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking. in which the two men were described as vying with one another to be the first to kill 100 people with a sword before the capture of Nanking. Although most sources suggest that the final phase of the battle consisted of a one-sided slaughter of Chinese troops by the Japanese. secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking. making it impossible to determine which officer had actually won the contest.000 Chinese soldiers who were making their way Soldiers from the Imperial Japanese Army enter Nanking in January 1938 from Xiakuan. writing in the Tokyo Nichi-Nichi Shimbun of December 13).[37] The Nichi Nichi headline of the story of December 13 read "'Incredible Record' [in the Contest to] Behead 100 People—Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants .85 square kilometres. and other war crimes. arson.000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. the 11th Company of the 45th Regiment encountered some 20.[13] The Japanese army conducted its mopping-up operation both inside and outside the Nanking Safety Zone. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm. Both officers supposedly surpassed their goal during the heat of battle. American missionary John Magee stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre. both from Island troops. Tsuyoshi Noda had killed 105 people while Toshiaki Mukai killed 106 people. the Japanese 16th Division. Toshiaki Mukai (向 井 敏 明) and Tsuyoshi Noda (野 田 毅). the mopping-up effort was concentrated in the safety zone. theft. they decided to begin another contest. Therefore (according to the journalists Asami Kazuo and Suzuki Jiro. China). with the aim being 150 kills.Nanking Massacre 7 Pursuit and mopping-up operations Japanese troops pursued the retreating Chinese army units. C. Japanese troops engaged in rape. Since the area outside the safety zone had been almost completely evacuated. was literally packed with the remaining population of Nanking. as well as the field diaries of military personnel. From Jurong to Tangshan (two cities in Jiangshu Province. some Japanese historians maintain that the remaining Chinese military still posed a serious threat to the Japanese. A group of foreign expatriates headed by Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city. Smythe. On the other side of the city. the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun and its sister newspaper the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun covered a "contest" between two Japanese officers.

his relatives.Nanking Massacre Go Into Extra Innings". Women are being carried off every morning. were raped.. Wilson. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1. often through explicit mutilation[43] or by stabbing a bayonet. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.000 women were raped. In the University Middle School where there are 8. After Japan surrendered. were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100. 5 Xinlukou.[41] A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls.[47] .000. about 30 Japanese soldiers murdered all but 2 Chinese of 11 in the house at No. 1937. Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda were arrested and executed by shooting in Nanking with the criminal charge “Civilized Public Enemy”. 1938.000 cases a night. McCallum wrote in his diary: I know not where to end. and were cut open to allow Japanese soldiers to rape them.[44] On 19 December 1937.[46] Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family: Photo taken in Xuzhou. Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. and raped until they were satisfied. Never I have heard or read such brutality. showing the body of a woman profaned in a similar way to the teenager described in case 5 of John Magee's movie.[42] The women were often killed immediately after being raped. stole food. Two girls. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. there is a bayonet stab or a bullet .. about 16. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval. Bodies of the victims can also be seen in the [39][40] photo. Case 5 of John Magee's film: on December 13. Robert O. Young children were not exempt from these atrocities. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach. including infants and the elderly. and many by day. clothing.[38] 8 Rape The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20. An eight-year-old girl was stabbed but she and her younger sister survived. People are hysterical . over the wall. The slaughter of civilians is appalling. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases. They were found alive two weeks after the killings by an elderly woman shown in the photo. a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone. or other objects into the vagina. afternoon and evening. I think he will live. and Japanese soldiers rammed a bottle and a cane into her vagina. Reverend James M. including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms". Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women. with many women taken captive and gang raped.. long stick of bamboo.[45] On March 7. and to do whatever it pleases. A woman and her two teenage daughters were raped..000 people the Japs came in ten times last night. wrote in a letter to his family.

[49] Sons were forced to rape their mothers. wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities.[53] B. they're shot.[50][51][52] Japanese ultra-nationalists have strongly disputed such death tolls. has described the Nanking Massacre as a genocide considering the fact that the residents were still unilaterally killed in masses during the aftermath. For 17 December: Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. John Rabe wrote in his diary: It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. the leader of the Safety Zone.[55] On 10 February 1938. You hear nothing but rape.. 9 Massacre of civilians Following the capture of Nanking. a Mohammedan named . Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots. with some stating that only several hundred civilians were killed during the massacre. wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase.[48] There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest. Rosen. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. a woman was raped. of over 250. estimated by several. If husbands or brothers intervene. Last night up to 1. which continue even today.. about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. The door was open by the landlord.000 women and girls are said to have been raped. as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.[54] On 13 December 1937. A boy killed by a Japanese soldier We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards.Nanking Massacre In his diary kept during the aggression against the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army.000 residents in the city. continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee. took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese .. although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B.. about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking. Edgerton. Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women. which led to the deaths. When I show them my party badge. The bodies of with the butt of a rifle.) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind.[56] On December 13. John Rabe. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (.. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital . These did not take off his hat. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed. and demanded entrance. kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin. and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. fathers were forced to rape daughters. a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century. During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which. or deposited in the Yangtze River by the IJA. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall. Warriors of the Rising Sun). a massacre was perpetrated by the Japanese army. because he civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. by the way. Legation Secretary of the German Embassy. despite the successful and certain outcome in battle.. Campbell. a figure difficult to calculate precisely due to the many bodies deliberately burnt. as they have indicated.. buried in mass graves. in stopping the activities of their troops. they return the same way. in an article published in the journal Sociological Theory. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well.

she was bayoneted in the chest. Hsia's parents.000 victims. Mrs. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. 'The Army used a trumpet sound that meant "Kill all Chinese who run away"'.Nanking Massacre Ha..000 to 20. The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her. The two girls were then stripped. begging them not to kill anyone else. estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4. The baby was killed with a bayonet. a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide. Ha. Mrs. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. After being stripped and raped by one or more men. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8. with its umbilical cord clearly visible. where Mrs. and tossed it aside. Some soldiers then went to the next room. the woman resisted fiercely . most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. and the younger by 3. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. However.[60] 10 . and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina.[59] Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the "Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch". The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. the elder being raped by 2–3 men. aged 4 and 2 respectively. Since records were not kept. who knelt before them after Ha's death. The soldiers killed her with a revolver.000. As he was trying to rape her. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. Tang Junshan.[57] Pregnant women were a target of murder. testified: The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. who was also in the room. survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army’s systematic mass killings. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children.[58] According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani. sometimes after rape. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus. aged 76 and 74..

It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop. where they were machine-gunned. The lack of resistance from Chinese troops and civilians in Nanking meant that the Japanese soldiers were free to divide up the city's valuables as they saw fit. Japanese troops torched newly built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. he was "forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier" and "roasted his heart and liver and ate them". Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers.500 Chinese POWs were killed. But even last night between 8 and 9 p. in his report to the New York Times.[61] Immediately after the fall of the city. American news correspondents. Many were taken to the Yangtze River.S.Nanking Massacre 11 Extrajudicial killing of Chinese POWs On August 6. who was working for the New York Times. John Rabe wrote as chairman a complaint to Kiyoshi Fukui. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Hirohito had personally ratified his army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. It is estimated that at least 57. we did not find any single Japanese patrol either in the Zone or at the . There was considerable destruction to areas outside the city walls. Two days later. Soldiers pillaged from the poor and the wealthy alike. The following is an excerpt: In other words. on the 13th when your troops entered the city. in which thousands of young men were captured. In the latter process we are glad to cooperate in any way we can. State Assembly Investigating Committee. and opened fire at them. when five Occidentals members of our staff and Committee toured the Zone to observe conditions. Unable to escape. the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. All 27 Occidentals in the city at that time and our Chinese population were totally surprised by the reign of robbery.m. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets.[65] On 17 December. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele. raping and killing initiated by your soldiers on the 14th. The Japanese troops gathered 1.[62]F. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoner of war". and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Durdin. made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north.[63] A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto during the Nanking Massacre. All we are asking in our protest is that you restore order among your troops and get the normal city life going as soon as possible. he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies.. then doused with petrol before being set on fire. we had nearly all the civilian population gathered in a Zone in which there had been very little destruction by stray shells and no looting by Chinese soldiers even in full retreat . including women and children. The victims were blown up with landmines.. second secretary of the Japanese Embassy. 1937. Phillips to the U. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns. This resulted in the widespread looting and burglary.[64] Theft and arson One-third of the city was destroyed as a result of arson. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. According to a testimony delivered by missionary Ralph L.300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. According to reports.

000 Chinese people. nor can one be found. Japanese soldiers wanted a man's cigarette case and when he hesitated.. with her mother and brother."[71] . During the chaos following the attack of the city. The Chinese women were undefended. still undeclared. the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of 450 cases of murder. some by six men.On the night of December 15th. there were many cases of Japanese soldiers entering houses and raping women or taking them away. The girl was 14 years old."[68] "Case 14 – On December 16.. angry. was living in one of the Refugee Centers in the Refugee Zone. 18 I Ho Lu. and either summarily execute them or rape and then kill them.Nanking Massacre entrances![66] 12 Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners The Japanese troops did respect the Zone to an extent.[69] [70] Causes Jonathan Spence writes "there is no obvious explanation for this grim event.000 – 250. with John Rabe using his credentials as a Nazi Party member. about 5 p. Mr. Five returned..)"[68] "Case 19 – January 30th. The man is now at the University Hospital and is not expected to live."[68] It is said that Rabe rescued between 200. 1938. tired."[68] "Case 10.A Chinese girl named Loh. Each girl was raped six or seven times daily."[68] "Case 16. no shells entered that part of the city leading up to the Japanese occupation except a few stray shots. a number of Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuen and raped 30 women on the spot. seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College. The International Committee appealed a number of times to the Japanese army. but the crimes that took place in the rest of the city were far greater by all accounts. The Japanese soldiers committed actions in the Safety Zone that were part of the larger Nanking Massacre. their menfolk powerless or absent. and general disorder by Japanese soldiers that had been reported after the American. So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. Rabe wrote that from time to time the Japanese would enter the Safety Zone at will. robbed or killed at home. More than 30 women and girls have been raped. Sone (of the Nanking Theological Seminary) was greeted by several hundred women pleading with him that they would not have to go home on February 4th.reported December 18th.On the night of December 14th. The Japanese soldiers.) One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her. regardless of sex or age.[67] By February 5. Conditions inside the compound are worse than we can describe. 4 p. The women and children are crying all nights. one of the soldier crashed in the side of his head with a bayonet.m. who had expected easy victory.m. frustrated. They were bored. (. at No. seemed marked out as victims. This created panic in the area and hundreds of women moved into the Ginling College campus yesterday. rape. The war.[68] "Case 5. She said she was too old. Please give us help. The incident occurred near the Kuling Ssu. a noted temple on the border of the Refugee zone (. carry off a few hundred men and women. had no clear-cut goal or purpose.. Perhaps all Chinese."[68] "Case 13 – December 18. some were killed in the Safety Zone. but to no avail. who. They said it was no use going home they might just as well be killed for staying at the camp as to be raped."[68] "Case 15 – There are about 540 refugees crowded in #83 and 85 on Canton Road. was shot through the head and killed by a Japanese soldier. But she survived to come back. British and German diplomats had returned to their embassies.... instead had been fighting hard for months and had taken infinitely higher casualties than anticipated.

the Nanking Safety Zone International Committee was forcibly renamed "Nanking International Rescue Committee". Matsui's reaction to the massacre On December 18. He reportedly told one of his civilian aides: "I now realize that we have unknowingly wrought a most grievous effect on this city. Now. I cannot but feel depressed." On New Year's Day. Skeletons of victims in Nanking massacre. I am very lonely and can never get in a mood to rejoice about this victory. 1938. he grew increasingly dismayed. and looting in the city. When I think of the feelings and sentiments of many of my Chinese friends who have fled from Nanking and of the future of the two countries. an experience they would later recall as horrifically [73] traumatic. On February 18. I offer my sympathy. with deep emotion. but the Army must continue unless China repents. Matsui was still upset about the behavior of the Japanese soldiers at Nanking. and the Safety Zone effectively ceased to function. the Japanese army forced all refugees in the Safety Zone to return home. Over a toast he confided to a Japanese diplomat: "My men have done something very wrong and extremely regrettable. the season gives time to reflect. 1937." He even let a tinge of regret flavor the statement he released to the press that morning: "I personally feel sorry for the tragedies to the people. as General Iwane Matsui began to comprehend the full extent of the rape. After the establishment of the “weixin zhengfu” (the collaborating government) in 1938. order was gradually restored in Nanking and atrocities by Japanese troops lessened considerably.Nanking Massacre 13 Prisoners being buried alive [72] The sheer volume of murdered civilians posed a formidable logistical challenge when it came to disposing of the bodies. immediately claiming to have "restored order". in the winter. . The last refugee camps were closed in May 1938. Many Chinese were conscripted into "burial teams"."[74] End of the massacre In late January 1938. to a million innocent people. murder.

[79] The casualty count of 300. We thus have a total of more than 300. but Prince Asaka remained on the Supreme War Council until the end of the war in August 1945. Hiroshi Yoshida concludes "more than 200.[78] Other nations believe the death toll to be between 150. Suzhou. government archive documents revealed that a telegraph by the U. drowning or by other means.000 Chinese people as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanking. Matsui returned to retirement. ambassador to Germany in Berlin sent one day after the Japanese army occupied Nanking. and the third is the aforementioned figure written by John Rabe in a letter.000 victims. Hangdibao and another is that of Miner Searle Bates of the International Safety Zone Committee. including Iris Chang's The Rape of Nanking.000 to be an accurate estimate.[51] According to the verdict of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal on 10 March 1947. there are "more than 190.000 victims of barbarian acts buried by the charity organizations. Historian Tokushi Kasahara states "more than 100. In December 2007. also conclude that the death toll reached 300. diplomats [in Berlin] pointed to the massacre of an estimated half a million people in Shanghai.000 and close to 200.[76] This estimation includes the surrounding area outside of the city of Nanking.[53] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300. Wuxi and Changzhou". referring to his own book. or whose bodies were interred in mass graves. though he held no further military commands. or maybe more".000 buried bodies.000. based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict. a journalist in China during the Japanese invasion. and another estimate of the civilian toll (excluding soldiers and POWs) is about 40. These estimates are borne out by the figures of burial societies and other organizations. based on reports from contemporary eyewitnesses.[77] Tomio Hora writes of 50."[75] The extent of the atrocities is debated.000–200.000.[50] A number of Japanese researchers consider 100.000–300.S.Nanking Massacre 14 Recall of Matsui and Asaka In February 1938 both Prince Asaka and General Matsui were recalled to Japan.[31] Death toll estimates Estimates of the number of victims vary based on the definitions of the geographical range and the duration of the event.S. one is the Red Army's official journal of the time. whose corpses have been burned to destroy proof.000 mass slaughtered civilians and Chinese soldiers killed by machine gun by the Japanese army. According to the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.000. newly declassified U. 146). which testify to over 155.000" in his book.S. These figures do not take into account those persons whose bodies were destroyed by burning. which is objected by a Chinese researcher (the same book.000–100.000. estimates made at a later date indicate that the total number of civilians and prisoners of war murdered in Nanking and its vicinity during the first six weeks of the Japanese occupation was over 200.[52] with numbers ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred.000 was first promulgated in January 1938 by Harold Timperley. Other sources. Jiaxing. p. He was promoted to the rank of general in August 1939.000 deaths.000.000. According to the archives research "The telegrams sent by the U. Besides. we count more than 150. Hangzhou. Shaoxing. stated that he heard the Japanese Ambassador in Germany boasting that Japanese army killed 500.[80] .000–60. which corresponds to the figures from three sources.

General Matsui was indicted before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for "deliberately and recklessly" ignoring his legal duty "to take adequate steps to secure the observance and prevent breaches" of the Hague Convention. Many Japanese historians seized upon the fact that during the Japanese invasion there were only 200. about 31 km2 in size) and other areas on the outskirts of the city. had committed suicide during the defense of Okinawa. when the divisions of the Japanese Army entered the walled city of Nanking. many historians include a much larger area around the city. Including the Xiaguan district (the suburbs north of Nanking. The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing six weeks.000. Various estimates Japanese historians. 22% women and 2% children. and stretch the end of the massacre to late March 1938. and whom some historians believe issued the "kill all captives" memo. More conservative estimates say that the massacre started on December 14.[82] For example.000 civilians and soldiers just prior to the Japanese occupation.000. the aide of Prince Asaka. the longer the duration. based on the evidence presented at the Tokyo Trials.[81] Some historians also include six counties around Nanking. However.Nanking Massacre 15 Range and duration The most conservative viewpoint is that the geographical area of the incident should be limited to the few km2 of the city known as the Safety Zone. to argue that the PRC's estimate of 300. known as the Nanking Special Municipality. from several thousand to upwards of 200. the lieutenant general of the 6th Division of the Japanese army in Nanking. depending on their definition of the geographical and time duration of the killings.000 Chinese civilians died in Nanking City as a result of the Japanese invasion.[85] . the population of greater Nanking was running between 535. Prince Asaka was granted immunity because of his status as a member of the imperial family. 76% of them men. Hisao Tani. 150.[82] Chinese language sources tend to place the figure of massacred civilians upwards of 200. and that it lasted for six weeks.000–250. asserts that 340.000 and 635. give wide-ranging estimates for the number of massacred civilians. The duration of the incident is naturally defined by its geography: the earlier the Japanese entered the area. A 42-part Taiwanese documentary produced from 1995 to 1997.000 deaths is a vast exaggeration.000 citizens in Nanking as reported by John Rabe.000 in the massacre. and 190. where the civilians gathered after the invasion. The Battle of Nanking ended on December 13.525. the primary officers in charge of the Japanese troops at Nanking were put on trial. a postwar investigation by the Nanking District Court put the number of dead during the incident as 295.[84] Isamu Chō. entitled An Inch of Blood For An Inch of Land[83] (一 寸 河 山 一 寸 血).000 through bombing and crossfire in the five-day battle. Historians who define the Nanking Massacre as having started from the time that the Japanese Army entered Jiangsu province push the beginning of the massacre to around mid-November to early December (Suzhou fell on November 19). War crimes tribunals Shortly after the surrender of Japan. chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army during the massacre. was tried by the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. Prince Kan'in. had died before the end of the war in May 1945. when the troops entered the Safety Zone. Other Japanese military leaders in charge at the time of the Nanking Massacre were not tried.

Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone. Wilson.” formally Imperial Japanese Army HQ building in Ichigaya. Robert O. Lewis Smythe and James McCallum filed affidavits with their diaries and letters. a surgeon and a member of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone. Another piece of evidence that was submitted to the tribunal was Harold Timperley's telegram regarding the Nanking Massacre which had been intercepted and decoded by the Americans on January 17. Other members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone who took the witness stand included Miner Searle Bates and John Magee. Asaka denied the existence of any massacre and claimed never to have received complaints about the conduct of his troops. who was the ranking officer in the city at the height of the atrocities. 1946. George A. Matsui delivered a speech at a memorial service for the Japanese officers and men of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force who were killed in action.[88] Whatever his culpability may have been. Evidence and testimony The prosecution began the Nanking phase of its case in July 1946. Harold John Timperley's telegram of 17 January 1938 describing the atrocities. took the witness stand first. General Iwane [86] Matsui General Hisao Tani [87] Grant of immunity to Prince Asaka On May 1. was also adduced in court. According to Matsui's own diary. 1938. SCAP officials interrogated Prince Asaka. he emphasized the necessity to "put an end to various reports affecting the prestige of the Japanese troops. he instructed the chiefs of staff from each division to tighten military discipline and try to eradicate the sense of disdain for Chinese people among their soldiers. One of the books by Hsü. Asaka was not prosecuted before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East at least in part because under the pact concluded between General MacArthur and Hirohito. In front of the high-ranking officers. Dr. On February 7.Nanking Massacre 16 The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was convened at “Ichigaya Court. 1937. about his involvement in the Nanking Massacre and the deposition was submitted to the International Prosecution Section of the Tokyo tribunal." . Domei News Agency reported. 1938. Fitch. the Emperor himself and all the members of the imperial family were granted immunity from prosecution. Tokyo. one day after he made the ceremonial triumphal entry into the city on December 17.

In court. which charged him with being one of the senior officers who "deliberately and recklessly disregarded their legal duty [by virtue of their respective offices] to take adequate steps to secure the observance [of the Laws and Customs of War] and prevent breaches thereof.From Judgment of the International Military Tribunal Radhabinod Pal. Matsui asserted that he had never ordered the execution of Chinese POWs." Hirota Koki. "should not be allowed to be invoked only for . In the interrogation in Sugamo prison preceding the trial Matsui admitted that he heard about the many outrages committed by his troops from Japanese diplomats when he entered Nanking on December 17. he contradicted the earlier testimony and told the judges that he was not "officially" briefed at the consulate about the evildoings. which has been overwhelmingly piercing my heart. Matsui said that he did not have jurisdiction over the soldiers' misconduct since he was not in the position of supervising military discipline and morals. Groups of Chinese civilians were formed. Eventually he ended up making numerous conflicting statements. bound with their hands behind their backs. waging "a war of aggression and a war in violation of international laws. In the same interrogation session before the trial Matsui said one officer and three low-ranking soldiers were court-martialled because of their misbehavior in Nanking and the officer was sentenced to death. treaties." Pal wrote in his dissent.Nanking Massacre The entry for the same day in Matsui's diary read. and thereby violated the laws of war. vindictive retaliation. however. the member of the tribunal from India. Matsui went out of his way to protect Prince Asaka by shifting blame to lower ranking division commanders. He further argued that he had directed his army division commanders to discipline their troops for criminal acts.. "The name of Justice. "He did nothing. and was not responsible for their failure to carry out his directives. Matsui was convicted of count 55. In court. "I could only feel sadness and responsibility today. At trial. was convicted of participating in "the formulation or execution of a common plan or conspiracy" (count 1)." 17 Matsui's defense Matsui's defence varied between denying the mass-scale atrocities and evading his responsibility for what had happened." Organized and wholesale murder of male civilians was conducted with the apparent sanction of the commanders on the pretext that Chinese soldiers had removed their uniforms and were mingling with the population. Matsui was convicted by a majority of the judges at the Tokyo tribunal who ruled that he bore ultimate responsibility for the "orgy of crime" at Nanking because. In his affidavit Matsui said he ordered his officers to investigate the massacre and to take necessary action." . 1937. This is caused by the Army's misbehaviors after the fall of Nanking and failure to proceed with the autonomous government and other political plans. presumably to avoid admitting any contact with the consulate officials such as Second Secretary (later Acting Consul-General) Fukui Kiyoshi and Attaché Fukuda Tokuyasu who received and dealt with the protests filed by the International Committee.. and marched outside the walls of the city where they were killed in groups by machine gun fire and with bayonets. to abate these horrors.[89] Verdict In the end the Tribunal convicted only two defendants to the Rape of Nanking. who had been the Foreign Minister when Japan conquered Nanking. --. dissented from the conviction arguing that the commander-in-chief must rely on his subordinate officers to enforce soldier discipline. or nothing effective. agreements and assurances against the Republic of China" (count 27) and count 55.

for victims in Nanjing Massacre. July 2008. . In turn. Disputes over the historical portrayal of these events continue to cause tensions between Japan on one side and China and other East Asian countries on the other side. Yanziji Nanjing Massacre Memorial in 2004. A memorial stone at Yanziji in Nanjing. which soon gathered over 300. the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built by the Nanking Municipal Government in remembrance of the victims and to raise awareness of the Nanking Massacre. China and Japan occasionally used Nanking as an opportunity to demonize one another.Nanking Massacre 18 Sentence On November 12. John Rabe's former residence. along with five other convicted Class-A war criminals. In her book Rape of Nanking Iris Chang asserted that the politics of the Cold War encouraged Mao to stay relatively silent about Nanking in order to keep a trade relationship with Japan. Controversy Further information: Historiography of the Nanking Massacre China and Japan have both acknowledged the occurrence of wartime atrocities. In 2005. a six-to-five decision by the eleven judges. It is located near a site where thousands of bodies were buried. "The Forgotten Holocaust". John Rabe's former residence in Nanking was renovated and now accommodates the "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall". Eighteen others received lesser sentences. Matsui and Hirota. shocked the general public and prompted a petition on his behalf. were sentenced to death by hanging.000 signatures but did not succeed in commuting the Minister's sentence. in Nanking.[89] Memorials In 1985. now the "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall". Daniel Kwan held a photograph exhibit in Los Angeles titled. Cold War Before the 1970s.[90][91] General Hisao Tani was sentenced to death by the Nanking War Crimes Tribunal. The death sentence imposed on Hirota. China did relatively little to draw attention to the Nanking massacre. which opened in 2006. In 1995. called the "pit of ten thousand corpses" (wàn rén kēng). 1948.

the Japanese prime minister Tomiichi Murayama gave the first clear and formal apology for Japanese actions during the war. saying..[93] During the 1970s. Justice Minister Shigeto Nagano called the Nanjing Massacre a "fabrication". Shichihei Yamamoto[95] and Akira Suzuki[96] wrote two controversial yet influential articles which sparked the negationist movement."[100][101] On February 24. In response. He apologized for Japan's wrongful aggression and the great suffering that it inflicted in Asia. 2012. confessions and documentation by the Japanese soldiers during the 1950s and 1960s.[98] [99] On February 20.[102] . criticized Murayama for not providing the written apology that had been expected. Katsuichi Honda wrote a series of articles for the Asahi Shimbun on war crimes committed by Japanese soldiers during World War II (such as the Nanking Massacre).. 2007. They accused Beijing of using the alleged incident as a "political advertisement". He offered his heartfelt apology to all survivors and to the relatives and friends of the victims.[92] The debate concerning the massacre took place mainly in the 1970s.[10] Denials of the massacre by public officials in Japan In May 1994. official Japanese government distortion and rewriting of history during the 1980s. arguing that there was no evidence to prove the allegations of mass killings by Japanese soldiers. Two days later he defended his remarks. 2012. and total denial of the occurrence of the Nanking Massacre by some government officials in 1990. I have said [repeatedly] there was no [Nanjing] massacre that resulted in murders of several hundred thousands of people. That day. unequivocal and sincere apology has ever been made by Japan to China" and that a written apology from Japan would send a better message to the international community. Tokyo governor Shintaro Ishihara said that he also believes that the Nanjing massacre never happened. Aspersions were cast regarding the authenticity and accuracy of burial records and photographs presented in the Tokyo War Crime Court. told a visiting delegation from Nanjing that the massacre "probably never happened". Apology and condolences by the Prime Minister and Emperor of Japan On August 15. the fiftieth anniversary of the Surrender of Japan. Iris Chang. which were said to be fabrications by the Chinese government. 1995. artificially manipulated or incorrectly attributed to the Nanking Massacre. a group of around 100 Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) lawmakers again denounced the Nanjing Massacre as a fabrication. minimization of the extent of the Nanking Massacre during the 1970s and 1980s. The emperor offered his condolences and expressed the hope that such atrocities would never be repeated. He reportedly claims it would have been impossible to kill so many people in such a short period of time.[94] The publication of these articles triggered a vehement response from Japanese right-wingers regarding the Japanese treatment of the war crimes. During this time. the Chinese government's statements about the event were attacked by the Japanese because they were said to rely too heavily on personal testimonies and anecdotal evidence.Nanking Massacre 19 Debate in Japan The major waves of Japanese treatment of these events have ranged from total cover-up during the war.[97] On June 19. mayor of Nagoya. She said that the people of China "don't believe that an. Takashi Kawamura. author of The Rape of Nanking. "Even since I was a national Diet representative. the prime minister and the Japanese Emperor Akihito pronounced statements of mourning at Tokyo's Nippon Budokan.

In 2006 former Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi made a pilgrimage to the shrine despite warnings from China and South Korea.[105] Many Japanese prime ministers have visited the Yasukuni Shrine.Nanking Massacre 20 Legacy Effect on international relations The memory of the Nanking Massacre has been a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations since the early 1970s.[103] Trade between the two nations is worth over $200 billion annually."[110] Japan In Japan. rightists believe Perry's opening of Japan and the atomic bombings are far more significant events. how "atrocious" the massacre was is the touchstone of left/right divide in Japan.[106][107][108][109] As a component of national identity Takashi Yoshida asserts that. a panel informs visitors that there was no massacre in Nanjing. a shrine for dead Japanese soldiers of World War II. In the museum adjacent to the shrine. China." Yoshida argues that "Nanking crystallizes a much larger conflict over what should constitute the ideal perception of the nation: Japan. The majority of Japanese acknowledge the IJA committed atrocities during the Nanking Massacre. or . the Nanking Massacre touches upon national identity and notions of "pride. as a nation. . i. Despite this.[104] Takashi Yoshida described how changing political concerns and perceptions of the "national interest" in Japan. Some denialists and Japanese officials have openly denied the incident.. many Chinese people still have a strong sense of mistrust and animosity toward Japan that originates from the memory of Japanese war crimes such as the Nanking Massacre. and Western countries have shaped collective memory of the Nanking massacre. Bilateral exchanges on trade. including some war criminals of the Nanking Massacre. This sense of mistrust is strengthened by the belief that Japan is unwilling to admit to and apologize for the atrocities. . . Although Koizumi denied that he was trying to glorify war or historical Japanese militarism. Japan and the United States] to preserve and redefine national and ethnic pride and identity. but that Chinese soldiers in plain clothes were "dealt with severely"."[111] Recognizing the Nanking Massacre as such can be viewed in some circles in Japan as "Japan bashing" (in the case of foreigners) or "self-flagellation" (in the case of Japanese). claiming it to be propaganda designed to spark an anti-Japan movement. culture and education have increased greatly since the two countries normalized their bilateral relations and Japan became China’s most important trading partner. In many ways. honor and shame. An official from South Korea said they would summon the Tokyo ambassador to protest. leftists feel this is a defining moment of the IJA. stands firm against foreign pressures and teaches Japanese youth about the benevolent and courageous martyrs who fought a just war to save Asia from Western aggression. acknowledges its past and apologizes for its wartime wrongdoings. assuming different kinds of significance based on each country's changing internal and external enemies. His decision to visit the shrine regardless sparked international outrage. The Chinese Foreign Ministry accused Koizumi of "wrecking the political foundations of China-Japan relations". Yoshida asserted that over time the event has acquired different meanings to different people.e. "Nanking has figured in the attempts of all three nations [China.

"[113] Novels • Chand. The Devil of Nanking [2010 First published. • Qi. 2010) • West. 2005. Shouhua. Lian-hong Zhang (2010) ISBN 0-8093-2963-8 .[112] Modern Chinese (including citizens of the PRC. A Choice of Evils (London: The Orion Publishing Company. A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame by Katsuichi Honda (1998) • The Alleged "Nanking Massacre" – Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims by Tadao Takemoto. Shouhua. this 'national unifying event' holds true to middle-school educated peasants and to senior government officials alike. Taiwan.. The Tent of Orange Mist (1995) • Geling Yan. Purple Mountain: A Story of the Rape of Nanking English Chinese Bilingual Edition (2009) • Qi. Mo. not a recreation of the barbarity. The Flowers of War (forthcoming) • Lisa See. ISBN 0-349-11141-3 • The Undaunted Women of Nanking: The Wartime Diaries of Minnie Vautrin and Tsen Shui-fang edited by Hua-ling Hu.(Britain: Bantam Press/Transworld Publishers. 2005)] Tokyo (novel) • Jin. Nanjing Requiem (New York: Pantheon. He intended the piece to be "written in memory of the victims. Paul. • Norwegian thrash metal band Blood Tsunami also wrote a song about the incident entitled "The Rape of Nanking. Purple Mountain: A Story of the Rape of Nanking (Paperback. The song was featured on their 2010 album Exhibit B: The Human Condition.Nanking Massacre 21 China The Nanking massacre has emerged as a fundamental keystone in the construction of the modern Chinese national identity. 2011) • Qi. ISBN 4-12-190795-7 • The Rape of Nanking by Iris Chang (1997) • The Nanjing Massacre. Shanghai Girls: A Novel Random House Publishing Group. Shouhua. When the Purple Mountain Burns: A Novel.. San Francisco: Long River Press. Yasuo Ohara (2000) • The Good German of Nanking – The Diaries of John Rabe edited by Erwin Wickert (1998). 2010 Non-fiction • Nankin Jiken Gyakusatsu no kozo (南 京 事 件―「 虐 殺 」 の 構 造) by Ikuhiko Hata ISBN 4-12-100795-6. 1996) • Hayder. and overseas) will refer to the Nanking Massacre to explain certain stances they hold or ideas they have. Meira." • Chinese composer Bright Sheng wrote a piece entitled Nanking! Nanking! (A Threnody for Orchestra and Pipa) (2000). Popular media Music • American thrash metal band Exodus wrote a song about the incident titled "Nanking". Ha.

html). org/ hyperwar/ PTO/ IMTFE/ IMTFE-8. which is objective and just and is able to stand the trial of history. The Massacre in History. The China Challenge. as they experience the siege. 2005. and fled to the orphanage in Huang Shi.[114] a documentary by Satoru Mizushima denying that any such massacre took place. Mark and Roberts. • The Truth about Nanjing (2007).000 people who were killed by Japanese troops in the Nanking Massacre. • John Rabe (2009) directed by Florian Gallenberger. Samuel. and accounts by Chinese survivors. his Japanese wife. [5] "Scarred by history: The Rape of Nanjing" (http:/ / news. featuring Ulrich Tukur in the title role and Steve Buscemi in a supporting role. html#q8). 2008. Records In December 2007. escaped death by beheading. fall. the PRC government published the names of 13. [8] Dillon. p. com/ 2010/ 03/ 31/ as_film_japan_massacre_documentary/ ). BBC News. . "New film has Japan vets confessing to Nanjing rape" (http:/ / www. stm). [7] Fogel. editor-in-chief of the report. [6] "Judgement: International Military Tribunal for the Far East" (http:/ / www. • Don't Cry. Salon/Associated Press. it is the most complete record to date. November 1948. 2000. a dramatization of the Nanking Massacre. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. • Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre (1995). a Sino-German co-production about the life of John Rabe.[115][116] • Torn Memories of Nanjing (2009) directed by Tamaki Matsuoka. Dana R. and massacre of Nanking. go. states that the information collected was based on "a combination of Chinese. Foreign Policy Q&A. and their children. salon. 6. recreates the events of the Nanking Massacre. Dictionary of Genocide. . • Tokyo Trial (2006) is about the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. 2007. ibiblio. Joshua A. .[117] The report consists of eight volumes and was released to mark the 70th anniversary of the start of the massacre. by Chinese director Mou Tun Fei. page 9-10 [9] "Q8: What is the view of the Government of Japan on the incident known as the "Nanjing Massacre"?" (http:/ / www. References Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Levene. Zhang Xianwen. 298–9. April 11. Min (March 31. Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities). co. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Penny. Iris Chang. page 223-4 Totten.Nanking Massacre 22 Films • The Battle of China (1944) a documentary film by American director Frank Capra. jp/ policy/ q_a/ faq16. • Nanking (2007). 1999. bbc. Lee. Documentary featuring interviews with Japanese soldiers who admit to raping and killing Chinese civilians. The Rape of Nanking. According to Xinhua News Agency. Japanese and Western raw materials. that makes use of letters and diaries from the era as well as archive footage and interviews with surviving victims and those involved in the massacre. Nanking aka (Nanjing 1937) (1995) directed by Wu Ziniu is a historical fiction centering around a Chinese doctor."[117] This report formed part of a 55-volume series (Collection of Historical Materials of Nanjing Massacre (南 京 大 屠 杀 史 料 集) about the massacre. • City of Life and Death (2009) directed by Lu Chuan. page 46-8. mofa. 2010). . . directed by Bill Guttentag and Dan Sturman. • The Flowers of War (2011) directed by Zhang Yimou and starring Christian Bale and Shigeo Kobayashi based on The 13 Women of Nanjing by Geling Yan TV series • War and Destiny (2007) a story about life in Nanking up until and during the Japanese invasion. • The Children of Huang Shi (film) (2008) is inspired by the story of the English journalist George Hogg who took pictures of the Nanking Massacre. It also lists the Japanese army units that were responsible for each of the deaths and states the way in which the victims were killed. uk/ 2/ hi/ 223038.

The Japan Times Online Search. edu/ paperchase/ 2005/ 08/ japanese-court-rules-newspaper-didnt. Special Collection.law. 9.Nanking Massacre [10] "I'm Sorry?" (http:/ / www. JSTOR 133271. cited in Suping Lu. but shall harm neither innocent civilians nor Chinese military [personnel] who manifest no hostility. [18] Japan Advertiser. . 40 [34] Akira Fujiwara.google. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. p. ca/ books?id=rRD_fXL3_swC& pg=PA118) [40] John Rabe.japantimes. pdf). Kobayashi Susumu & Fukunaga Shainjiro (2005). php). cnd. The Independent (London). 2009. Nitchû Sensô ni Okeru Horyo Gyakusatsu. 2007. Japan's imperial Conspiracy. org/ web/ 20050325115933/ http:/ / www. Case 9.co. archive. co. [21] "Jurist . pbs. html). . [14] "War and reconciliation: a tale of two countries" (http:/ / search. [13] Higashinakano Shudo. htm) on 2005-03-25. [29] Bergamini. 1997. jp/ asahi/ unko/ tamezou/ nankin/ 1937-12-08-NewYorkTimesTillmanDurdin. p.edu.com.. The World's Bloodiest History. 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The Rape of Nanking. japantimes.cnd. 23. 2008-09-08. org/ newshour/ bb/ asia/ july-dec98/ china_12-1. . google. [42] "Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing: Chapter X: Widespread Incidents of Rape" (http:/ / museums. [20] Wakabayashi. infoseek.jp (http:/ / andesfolklore. We have surrounded the city of Nanking. p. [30] Bergamini. . . Marc S. page 158. Gagee. 1938. December 13. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 民 国 史 档 案 资 料 丛 书——侵 华 日 军 南 京 大 屠 杀 档 案. "The Nanking 100-Man Killing Contest Debate: War Guilt Amid Fabricated Illusions. 22 [35] Kajimoto. 1998-12-01." [37] Wakabayashi 2000." 7 February 1938. html). Joseph. Museums. David. [39] John G. page 281-282 (http:/ / books. [26] "Japan Lays Gain to Massing of Foe" (http:/ / www.hp. com/ nankingatrocities/ Introduction/ introduction.cnd. ''The good man of Nanking: the diaries of John Rabe''. com/ CL02_1/ 26_S4. Retrieved 2006-04-19. The Journal of Japanese Studies 26 (2): 307. and obey the [f]ollowing instructions.org. Knopf. 39–41 [17] Tokyo Nichi Nichi. Record Group 8. page 157-8. co. Hong Kong University Press. The Japanese Army shall show no mercy toward those who offer resistance. Takashi. Retrieved 2006-04-19. Folder 7. html). ibiblio. sdh-fact. archive. [15] Cummins. . The Unpredictability of the Past. Erwin Wickert. . [43] "A Debt of Blood: An Eyewitness Account of the Barbarous Acts of the Japanese Invaders in Nanjing. cnd. [24] "Five Western Journalists in the Doomed City" (http:/ / web. ne. David. [41] Paragraph 2. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 2007. p. Kikan Sensô Sekinin Kenkyû 9. com/ nankingatrocities/ Fall/ fall_01. [28] Life. If your troops continue to fight. html). Open the gates to Nanking in a peaceful manner. [38] 国 防 部 审 判 战 犯 军 事 法 庭 对 战 犯 向 井 敏 明 等 人 的 判 决 书.pitt. Masato. Yale Divinity School Library. [22] Andesfolklore. The Nanjing massacre: a Japanese journalist confronts Japan's national shame. A.org (http:/ / museums. World War II Database [32] David Bergamini. It is our earnest desire to preserve the East Asian culture. htm). Box 263. 1947年12月18日: 616-621. Jurist. Retrieved 2006-04-19. page 51. uk/ news/ world/ asia/ the-scars-of-nanking-memories-of-a-japanese-outrage-764827. See Seeks's Stand" (http:/ / www. one million strong. 7 December 1937 (an American owned and edited English-language daily paper in Tokyo) [19] Kingston 2008. [11] Yoshida. [25] "Chinese Fight Foe Outside Nanking. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. January 10. Retrieved 2011-03-06. and the government that has lasted for a decade will vanish into thin air. 1012. 1998. 1971–75". org/ njmassacre/ njm-tran/ njm-ch10. org/ hyperwar/ PTO/ IMTFE/ IMTFE-8. co. . htm) on 2006-02-05. independent. 24. This commander-in-chief issues [b]ills to your troops on behalf of the Japanese Army. html). 319. Retrieved 2011-03-06. jp/ cgi-bin/ fl20080810x1. 2006. geocities. geocities. org/ njmassacre/ njm-tran/ ).infoseek. htm) 23 . 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Iris.97 [46] Documents on the Rape of Nanking. . [61] Fujiwara.000 residents of the city. japantimes. Author on Nanjing loses libel appeal. html). net/ ~cbi-theater-1/ roundup/ roundup121643. Penguin Books. (1998). p. Wu Shimin. the Diaries of John Rabe. Tennou no guntai to Nankin jiken 1998. Retrieved 2011-03-06. (1998). Celia Yang. Kaiyuan. Iris Chang. The Good man of Nanking. For instance. wellesley. 424. com/ ). [50] Marquand. The Good man of Nanking. the Diaries of John Rabe. JSTOR 40376129.org. 77. "Genocide as social control". pdf)  PDF ( 310 KB). [51] "HyperWar: International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Chapter 8) (Paragraph 2. yahoo. pdf) [76] Iwanami Shinsho.000 dead. Christian Science Monitor states an estimate of 300. Bradley (June 2009). com/ s/ afp/ 20100516/ wl_asia_afp/ japanchinahistoryfilmnanking). p. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 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"Nankin jiken o dou miruka p.W. sdh-fact. 2006. cn/ 90001/ 90776/ 90883/ 6587967. 160. 1998. stanford. bbc. after the Chinese city of Nanking was occupied by the Japanese in December 1937. html) [65] P.. The Good man of Nanking.edu. the Diaries of John Rabe. The Rape of Nanking. au. (1998). and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokÙ (http:/ / www. (1999) The Search for Modern China. Sharpe. Sekai Shuppan.cn (http:/ / english. [47] Zhang. Museums. IHTP. [79] "''The Nanking Atrocities: Fact and Fable''" (http:/ / www. (1998). [49] P. cbi-theater-1.77. Michael (2007-12-13). 123. [57] John E. [78] Tanaka Masaaki What Really Happened in Nanking (http:/ / www. Higashinakano was unable to prove that she and the girl were different persons. [56] Woods. "Nanjing remembers massacre victims" (http:/ / news. htm). home. Frank. Wellesley.co. Nankin jiken O Dou Miruka. html) [58] The Memorial Hall for the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre: Rhetoric in the Face of Tragedy (http:/ / bootheprize. genocide may occur in the aftermath of warfare when mass killings continue after the outcome of a battle or a war has been decided. Yahoo News! [60] The Memorial Hall for the Victims of the Nanking Massacre: Rhetoric in the Face of Tragedy (http:/ / bootheprize. Hu Yungong. 1997. The Rape of Nanking.home. ISBN 0-393-97351-4. p. the Diaries of John Rabe. [64] CBI Roundup.Nanking Massacre [44] Gao Xingzu. E. [67] Woods. [48] Woods." [55] Woods. (1998). 274. W. peopledaily. pp. Chapter X: Widespread Incidents of Rape. cnd. csmonitor. htm). p. Robert (August 20.fr Le massacre de Nankin et les mécanismes de sa négation par la classe politique dirigeante (http:/ / www. ISBN 4-250-98019-7. page 272-6 [74] Chang. 67. the Diaries of John Rabe. edu/ Polisci/ wj/ China/ Nanjing/ nanjing2. The Good man of Nanking. [54] Campbell. [62] Bristow. [68] Woods.cnd. [45] Hua-ling Hu. [66] Woods.org [71] Spence.peopledaily. John E. 2012. Retrieved 2007 December. [69] John Rabe (http:/ / www. The Nanjing Massacre. . 16 December 1943. co. org/ hyperwar/ PTO/ IMTFE/ IMTFE-8. . edu/ 0506/ PWR-Yang. 24 . html). 2001. Iris Chang. [72] Chapel. BBC News. . Norton and Company. stanford. John E. John E. Population of Nanking. "Denial of the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanking" (http:/ / www. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust. Hiroshi. "Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing" (http:/ / museums. 162. org/ nanjing/ tpopu. p. 271. pdf)  PDF ( 310 KB) Celia Yang (2006) Author refers to source as Yin. 2000. ihtp. John E.japantimes. html) [53] Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed. Woods. and that she was not a witness of the Nanking massacre.. jiyuu-shikan. Page 103. [52] A more complete account of what numbers are claimed by who. p. english. org/ njmassacre/ njm-tran/ njm-ch10. history. Retrieved October 11. ISBN 4-250-98016-2. 254. wellesley. ucsb. 275–278.cnrs. ISBN 4-916079-07-8. Inc. [63] Hua-ling Hu. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20090207b2. search. ne. the Diaries of John Rabe. Jonathan D. Aoki shoten. (1996) The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History in Photographs. American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin. M. 2001) "Why the Past Still Separates China and Japan" (http:/ / www. "Nitchû Sensô ni Okeru Horyotoshido Gyakusatsu". stm). Aoki shoten. Akira (1995). "Also. 2000. Chinese hail Nanjing massacre witness' libel suite victory. Eyewitness to Massacre: American Missionaries Bear Witness to Japanese Atrocities in Nanjing. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 7140357. 95. 1999.jp (http:/ / search. p. co. html). ibiblio. [73] Honda. [75] Tokushi Kasahara. the Japanese Supreme Court ordered Shyudo Higashinakano and the publisher Tendensha to pay 4 million yen in damages to Mrs.281. fr/ IMG/ pdf_interventionsnankin-francais. p. John E. 1015. 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• Galbraith. ISBN 0-375-70197-4 . ISBN 1-59265-041-4 • Qi. David.php?word=ZW). ISBN 4-7942-1381-6 • Honda. 2007-12-04. 248. Penguin USA (Paper).php?word=ZW). • Murase. • Higashinakano. Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone.Nanking Massacre [117] "Nanjing massacre victims named" (http:/ / news. Sharpe. Iris.sdh-fact. ISBN 0-09-946597-3. ISBN 0-472-11134-5 (Does not include the Rabe diaries but does include reprints of "Hsu Shuhsi. 13. BBC News. April 2002 (Article outlining membership and their reports of the events that transpired during the massacre) • Askew. They Were in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Witnessed by American and British Nationals. Foreword by William C. Retrieved 2007-12-04. Akira " The Nanking Atrocity: An Interpretive Overview (http://japanfocus. 26 Citations Bibliography • Chang. "Japan's Imperial Conspiracy. 149 page photogravure) ISBN 4-88900-836-5 (村 瀬 守 保. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 7126455. 1987 (revised in 2005). 2009) ISBN 1-4486-5965-5 • Rabe.Watashino Jyugun Cyugoku-sensen(My China Front). Documents on the Rape of Nanjing. 2005. Kelly & Walsh. "The International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone: An Introduction" Sino-Japanese Studies Vol. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Foreword by Paul Simon. 2005. Douglas. London.私 の 従 軍 中 国 戦 線) • Qi. Tokyo: Soshisha. Shouhua. during. bbc. 1999. London: M. Hong Kong University Press.com/CL02_1/result. Berkeley: University of California Press. David. Purple Mountain: A Story of the Rape of Nanking (A Novel) English Chinese Bilingual Edition (Paperback. ISBN 0-8093-2303-6 • Fujiwara. Suping. 2005. Kobayashi and Fukunaga. The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe. A Winter in China. Vintage (Paper). The Nanking Massacre: Fact Versus Fiction: A Historian's Quest for the Truth (http:// www. "The Nanjing Incident: An Examination of the Civilian Population" Sino-Japanese Studies Vol. March 2000.) • Hua-ling Hu. "When the Purple Mountain Burns: A Novel" San Francisco: Long River Press. and after the massacre) • Bergamini. The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame. Joshua A. (1939). David. • Brook. (2000). 2004.E. pp. Further reading • Askew. 2006. 32–44 • Lu. 14. Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone (reprinted in Documents on the Rape of Nanjing Brook ed. New York. A novel focussing on the western residents of Nanking during the massacre. Nippon Kikanshi Syuppan Center. ISBN 4-916079-12-4 • Higashinakano. 13. Kirby. The Nanjing Massacre in history and historiography. Shouhua. Shudo. John. 2000. 1999. ISBN 978-0-520-22007-2.sdh-fact. 1939". Timothy.org/products/details/ 2553)" Japan Focus October 23. Analyzing The 'Photographic Evidence' of The Nanking Massacre (http://www." William Morrow. Karen trans. Moriyasu. ed. Tokyo: Sekai Shuppan. . 1998. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Masato "Mistranslations in Honda Katsuichi's the Nanjing Massacre" Sino-Japanese Studies. 2 (March 2001) pp. March 2001 (Article analyzes a wide variety of figures on the population of Nanking before. ISBN 0-7656-0335-7 • Hsū Shuhsi. stm). 1971. 1999) • Kajimoto.com/CL02_1/result. 2007. Katsuichi. ed. ISBN 0-14-027744-7 • Fogel.(includes disturbing photos. American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin. Sandness.

S.yale. 2006 (http://video. eds.org/njmassacre/njm-tran/) by Gao Xingzu.) ISBN 0-7656-0684-4 27 External links • The Nanking Massacre Project: A Digital Archive of Documents & Photographs from American Missionaries Who Witnessed the Rape of Nanking From the Special Collections of the Yale Divinity School Library (http:// www. (Tokyo Trial revisited) ISBN 4-944219-05-9 • Tanaka.japanesestudies. .org.The Journal of Japanese Studies.O.H. 2007. Hu Yungong. Meisei-sha.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133p/133p04papers/JChapelNanjing046.org/products/details/2547) • The Nanjing Incident: Recent Research and Trends (http://www. Two hour web documentary.P.2 Summer 2000.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7140357. 2001 (includes documentation of American missionaries M. 2004 • Rape of Nanking (http://www. Vol. 1997. Bob Tadashi "The Nanking 100-Man Killing Contest Debate: War Guilt Amid Fabricated Illusions. L. "Rape of Nanking: Undeniable history in photographs" Chicago: Innovative Publishing Group. Yasuo The Alleged "Nanking Massacre": Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims.net/) A master's degree thesis that delves into the atrocity • English translation of a classified Chinese document on the Nanjing Massacre (http://museums. Foster. Masaaki. ISBN 1-84545-180-5 • Yamamoto.htm) • Nanjing Massacre history site: History.php?word=ZW). A. Wilson. 1937–1938: Complicating the Picture. James.nankingatrocities. April 2002 • Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall (http://www. W. Yin. "Heroic Resistance and Victims of Atrocity: Negotiating the Memory of Japanese Imperialism in Chinese Museums" (http://japanfocus. Steward. Berghahn Books.' Japanese lawmakers say (http://www. Sharpe.google. Minnie Vautrin and R. J.com/Home. Tokyo: Sekai Shuppan. 2000. MaCallum. Shi. ed.C. • Zhang." (http://www. Praeger Publishers.cnd. Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing (Armonk.H.iht. Tadao and Ohara. php) • The Rape of Nanking – Nanjing Massacre -English Language Edition – 1:17:17 – Aug 25. An East Gate Book. Fitch.uk/tol/system/topicRoot/The_Rape_of_Nanking/) Original reports from The Times • The Rape of Nanking — Nanjing Massacre — English Language Edition (http://video. google.com/videoplay?docid=4920138942953644691&q=Rape+of+Nanking&hl=en) • "Denying Genocide: The Evolution of the Denial of the Holocaust and the Nanking Massacre. • Wakabayashi.org/ njmassacre/njm-tran/) • Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing (http://www.A. Smyth.bbc. Fei Fei Li and David Liu. 2000. What Really Happened in Nanking: The Refutation of a Common Myth (http://www.26 No. 842–865.uk/articles/Askew.html) by David Askew in the Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. Daqing.html) • BBC News: Nanjing remembers massacre victims (http://news.org/y/yindex..G. ISBN 0-7656-0817-0.htm) college research paper by Joseph Chapel. Eyewitnesses to Massacre. "Convergence or Divergence? Recent Historical Writings on the Rape of Nanjing" American Historical Review 104. com/CL02_1/result.cnd.com/ videoplay?docid=4920138942953644691&q=Rape+of+Nanking&hl=en). • Young. ISBN 0-275-96904-5 • Yang.nanking-massacre. • Takemoto. Wu Shimin.. J.S. Bates. Kaiyuan. ISBN 4-916079-07-8 • Wakabayashi. 1971–75". & Cha Ruizhen • Kirk Denton. 2000.html) • 'No massacre in Nanking. Masahiro Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity. 3 (June 1999). history. E. NY: M. G.stm) • Online Documentary: The Nanking Atrocities (http://www.sdh-fact.nj1937. Bob Tadashi The Nanking Atrocity.N.co.timesonline.ucsb. Photos and Articles (http://www.co.com/articles/2007/06/19/news/nanking.library. Mills.edu/div/Nanking/index.E. Magee. Inc.Nanking Massacre • Robert Sabella. 2002).

hartford-hwp.html) • The Ghosts of Nanking: Mogollon Connection Special Series by Jesse Horn (http://www.html) • Review of Iris Chang. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (http://www.com/archives/55/481.Nanking Massacre • War and reconciliation: a tale of two countries (http://search.com/ mogollonconnection/?p=1168) 28 .japantimes.co.azalert.jp/rss/fl20080810x1.

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Chinakow. Splette. Jtwang. Viriditas. Beeblebrox. Revth. Ligulem. OspreyPL. Michael Hardy. Arimasa. Nrtm81. Haein45. Socrates999. Cyrius. Closedmouth. Kanatonian. Golgofrinchian. Ghostofnemo. ‫ .org/w/index. Yukarin-En. Imperialist sugar. John Smith's. Skizzik. Xxholyproxx. Chaldean. Arilang1234. Zzyzx11. Guardian Tiger. Rabbit. ZPM. Zombieturtlekid. Sammyy85. Jafro. Hunter1084. Alex. Wolfychan. Yunzhong Hou. Grant65. Hmains. Mateinsixtynine. The Nixinator.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: File:Horrible death. Mistakefinder. NewEnglandYankee. Benlisquare. Colin4C. Cursed Pretzel. Hamish092. JamesAM. Philip Trueman. Glane23. Jayjg._Nanking_Massacre. SecretAgentMan00. K2wiki. Mathonius. DO'Neil. Bahar101. 21655. LizardJr8. PeterCanthropus. DopefishJustin. Colipon. Parubok. Bananasims. Basketball110. BrianLee. Kafziel. Alexsh. Tresiden. Henry Flower. Knife1nhead. Heymid. Esq. Deklund. Ronhjones. Delirium. Materialscientist. Chris Roy. Jfdunphy. Stevertigo. Bdesham.jpg  Source: http://en. Od Mishehu.org/w/index. Nickwolf.wikipedia. TrogdorPolitiks. Vsion. Remurmur. Vertigo893. Kate Sanders. Vfp15. Basawala. Flux8. Elipongo. Jokestress. AdjustShift. Cah1705. Pojanji. Keilana. LordAmeth.jpg  Source: http://en. Ohconfucius. Mozzerati. Yamanbaiia. Pietrow. MER-C. み や 東 亞. GCarty. Mgiganteus1. Demetrius Zaarin. Shaind. Kitty the Random. 0101NGhk. N0 en7ry. Jw919. Plynn9. Richard David Ramsey. Mkill.gadi.msc. Armyrifle9.Article Sources and Contributors 29 Article Sources and Contributors Nanking Massacre  Source: http://en. Watanabe Hisashi. Sejdb. Kacilo. Nandesuka. Epbr123. User:Kintetsubuffalo File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-U1002-502. Ultraxiv. FutureNJGov. Klassykittychick. ProudIrishAspie. Loki De Plume. Haddiscoe. Chairschild. Tomchiukc. Gsp8181. Ideogram. Andromeda321. MuzuMuffin. Nateji77. WBardwin. Daniel. Ian Pitchford. ForestAngel. Hugo999. Esowteric. Destroyer Hinomaru. Rickterp.php?oldid=517454917  Contributors: -js-.php?title=File:Republic_of_China_Armed_Forces_Museum_Nanking. Mboverload. Novacatz. Dragonchink. Stombs.wikipedia. DORC. Tronno. Trusilver. Gifðas. BD2412. Saintbrendan. Shotwell. Filper01. Gelo71. TAIWAN. Wknight94. Lisiate. Plasticup. Ageekgal. Davenbelle. Vrenator. Kguirnela. Harryzilber. clown will eat me. ByeByeBaby. Ryoske. Salvio giuliano. Hare-Yukai. KathrynLybarger. Fottry55i6. Sietse Snel. Ropers. Sus scrofa. Sherurcij. Seresin. Razzledazzle439. MtBell. Bathrobe. Djma12. Cue the Strings. Eusebeus. Jancola. RoyBoy. Scwlong.wikipedia. Jason Recliner.jpg  Source: http://en. Rhinomantis88. Ecelius. Susfele.runner. TakuyaMurata. Aztecangel. J-beda. Licenses and Contributors file:Nanking bodies 1937. Hibernian. George Ponderevo. Speedbird006.php?title=File:Horrible_death. Pink-isnt-well. Userresuuser. Tangmike. Slakr. Wayfarer. Rroser167. Scriptedfate. Erik the Red 2. IceUnshattered. Nachi. Versus22. Rich Farmbrough.wikipedia. Yaojian71. Ashmoo. Triquetra. Clemmy. Headquarters. Luk. Bonadea. Origamiemensch. TiTaNz. Delldot. User:Maksim File:Republic of China Armed Forces Museum Nanking. Fæ. Uncle Dick. Fayedizard.jpg  Source: http://en. Klosterdev. Miya. Berox. Jpers36. Bavgang123. Reaper Eternal. Rande. TalenSoti. JustAGal. Pkravchenko. Funandtrvl. Ypacaraí. Ubarro. Garthgirl8888. Poindexter Propellerhead. Phlegat. Lord Roem. Curly Turkey.org/w/index. Kubigula. Chessofnerd. Gakmo. Nc622. Saint yondo.jpg  Source: http://en. ²¹². Knight. Betacommand.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown . Kasaalan. Khazar2. Mav. Evangeline. Anthony Appleyard. Kevin B12. Just a member. Jmeisen. PiT (The Physicist). Hiilikepie12345. TingMing. Bhandley.JPG  Source: http://en. Bnynms. Caiqian. Dspserpico. Agentbla. Courcelles. EKN. DanJohnson2010. Jkolak. Jak123. Hateless. Thenewestdoctorwho. Moviepush12. Joyous!.jpg  Source: http://en. SMcCandlish. ShrimpCrackers. Masterpiece2000. Aherunar. Samuel. Nuujinn. Sam Hocevar. Sodaplanetpop. Gujuguy. Bydsi. Cgingold. Eclecticology. Lairor. Qweqwewe.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: One of following (Source specifies photo contributors but does not specify who was the copyright holder) 南 支 派 遣 軍 各 部 隊 将 兵 軍 報 道 部 写 真 班 サ ウ ス ・ チ ヤ イ ナ ・ フ オ ト ・ サ ー ビ ス 同盟通信社 東京朝日新聞社 大阪毎日・東京日々新聞社 読売新聞社 File:Chinese head. Telekenesis. Garjun. Roscelese. SkinnedAardvark093. Wenzi. Zatoichi26. NawlinWiki. Tide rolls. Omicronpersei8. CrystalValkyrie. Dkendr. Rjwilmsi. MastCell. Vulturedroid.wikipedia. Orange Suede Sofa.org/w/index. Sumple. Gsklee. J'raxis. Benjwong. Menchi. Stephenw32768. Twiin. Aada89. Shoeofdeath. Ed Poor. Weibsta. Josephabradshaw.wikipedia. CurtisNaito.Bowen. Patsw. Xoxcherishsadiexox. KConWiki. Yaush. Doug. Bourquie. Aree.org/w/index. Tagishsimon. Binabik80. Jason M. Dekimasu. Arigato1. JMS Old Al. Alansohn. Pinethicket. Winhunter. John Z. SummerThunder._Nanking_massacre. Kadzuwo.org/w/index. Tomchen1989. Gareth E Kegg. Nick. Dfrg. Excirial. Shrigley. Mellum. Tangotango. Gaulsman. Joseph Solis in Australia. FWBOarticle. II MusLiM HyBRiD II. Alaz. Kariteh. Benandorsqueaks. TexasDawg. Johnnyboyca. Tydus Arandor. Shirik. AlexiusHoratius. Intershark.org/w/index.org/w/index. Xaosflux. Atama. Astronautics. WikiSkeptic. Angr. HRW in 1899.sg. YODAFON. WhisperToMe. Uncle Whippity.jpg  Source: http://en. 0101laisy. M4gnum0n. Slowking Man. D. Borgx. S. Dajanes.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-U1002-502. IronGargoyle. PC78. 1966batfan. Chiba007. Bedbug1122. Shuipzv3. Takabeg File:Killednanjing. Ajdebre. Sennen goroshi. Marc87. J. ZeppelinFan29. BlizzardGhost. Ronk01. MaJorG. Splash. Eolsson. Beland. Kraftlos. Liftarn. MahaDave. Qizil bayraq. Fair china. OverlordQ. Addps4cat. 村 濑 守 保 File:Contest To Cut Down 100 People. Stevenkrauss. Bueller 007. KristoferM. Kimchi. Tim!. Jim1138.jpg  Source: http://en. Nakon. Youssefsan. Nissyen. Corusant. Shawnhath. Lacrimosus. Sashwindow95194. Alex Shih. Qxz. Yamamoto Ichiro. Syldaril. Shawnc. Donkey87. Mufka. HongQiGong. Unsterblich856. Gurthang. Objectman. Evaunit666. QQT. Irishguy. Stevebritgimp. RevolverOcelotX. Olivier. 1689 anonymous edits Image Sources. Dictioner. Tweisbach. Male1979. Tommy2010. Bxj. Verne Equinox. The 80s chick. Profwujiang. RaseaC. Jason7825.org/w/index. HanzoHattori. Talkmuchlater. Fdt. Biblbroks. Grondin. Ixfd64. Calabraxthis. KC109. Iridescent. 2T. Fadix. Saintjust. Hmarcuse. Maurice Carbonaro. Webbbbbbber. Garion96.delanoy. Naigai. Jschnur. AnOddName. Maxis ftw. MaskedEditor. Drbreznjev. Kablammo. CPLiu. Katieh5584. Ktsquare. Rat144.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Kintetsubuffalo. FreplySpang. Orarch. Akiyama. Jengod. Bustter. LactoseTI. Mailer diablo. Dancter. Ckatz. Jack Merridew. Xenophon777. Tony Young. DTOx. Yuje. Apocalyptic Destroyer. Frank2008. Zundark. C1k3. Tbhotch. Oneiros. Deltabeignet. Riana. Uvaphdman. Thingg. RobyWayne. Icseaturtles. 朝 彦. Malbi. William Pietri. Graylandertagger. Dante Alighieri.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown File:Iwane Matsui rides into Nanjing. Melonbarmonster2. Martarius. Darklilac. AshiroKatr. Gbleem.org/w/index. CLAW112. HIDECCHI001. TheMadBaron. Feitclub. Cripipper. Starblind.wikipedia. XP1. Taeshadow. DennyColt. Jwissick. Carbonite. Karamander.php?title=File:Nanking_bodies_1937. Battleship Yamato. Towps. Krich. Lfcho. Telena hulotova. ErikHaugen. EscapingLife. PFHLai.php?title=File:Boy_killed_in_Nanking_massacre. Buverf. Maximus Rex. Rsreston. Edward321. DarKnEs5 WaRrí0r. Wavelength. Τασουλα. Commonsenses. Rmc. Schmendrick. Alexius08. Liontooth. Vapour. Nanking massacre. Rickyrab. Cla68. CCHIPSS. Clarin. DanteComedy. Viajero. Superswade. Josuechan. Wahtsay. Bakasuprman. Tpbradbury.php?title=File:Killednanjing. WingsAsClouds.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: John Magee File:Boy killed in Nanking massacre. Michael Zimmermann. Graham87. 49danesway. Neilc.php?title=File:Chinese_head. ACSE. Everton. 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Confuzion. Genjix. Chris the speller. Yunboo. L Kensington. Soarhead77. Leandrod. Blah 66. Redsonydeshi. Bsms. Abdullah123. Tsop9. Ikiroid. Lawyer2b. Frank Warmerdam. Melesse. Captain Obvious and his crime-fighting dog. Starbucksian.php?title=File:Chinese_civilians_to_be_buried_alive. Gasheadsteve. Discospinster. Ran. David de Cooman. Ghewgill. Malangthon. Work permit. Eurodollers. Teles. Stephen Hodge. Galoubet. Allysia. Drmies. Paul Barlow. NordicEmily. Dali. Welsh. Smoove Z. Nasnema. Fumpfump. Backslash Forwardslash. Sannse.0 Germany  Contributors: HBR. Cst17. Blueshirts. Tremolo. Apostrophyx. Nanking Massacre. Vidor. Poo-T. Dreamstretch. Candy0202ea. Homun. Noraft. ㍐. Iritakamas. Billhpike. Pibwl. Kmccoy.php?title=File:Iwane_Matsui_rides_into_Nanjing. User2004. Critik. DBaba. Yug. Quadell. Bryan Derksen.wikipedia. Auric. Wikipedia brown. Nell bomber. Rockero. Zhudyzhu. Xwu. Realidad y Illusion. Numerousfalx. Ndgp. Dawn Bard. Enchanter. Lifthrasir1. Montie01. Wareware. Hvn0413. 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php?title=File:Iwane_Matsui.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.php?title=File:NanjingMassacre_Yanziji_stone.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: 范 适 安@www.wikipedia.php?title=File:Nanjing_1937_self-organized_burial_team. Reggaeman.wikipedia.php?title=File:John_Rabe_House.org/w/index.wikipedia.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.php?title=File:Victims_in_Nanjing_massacre.php?title=File:International_Military_Tribunal_Ichigaya_Court.wikipedia.0  Contributors: WL from Shanghai. Reggaeman File:Nanking telegram Harold John Timperley. China File:International Military Tribunal Ichigaya Court.wikipedia.0/ .Image Sources.org/w/index.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amagase.php?title=File:Nanking_telegram_Harold_John_Timperley.php?title=File:Tani_Hisao.wikipedia.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Gil-Ggalad.gif  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: 『 秘 録 大 東 亜 戦 史 東 京 裁 判 篇 』 昭 和28年11月30日 発 行 、 富 士 書 苑 File:Iwane Matsui.org/w/index.wikipedia.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2. Px820.jpg  Source: http://en.net File:John Rabe House. Licenses and Contributors File:Nanjing_1937_self-organized_burial_team.org/w/index.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Scafloc Image:Sekihi02.org/w/index. MtBell.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Sekihi02.jpg  Source: http://en.JPG  Source: http://en. Shika ryouse shomei File:Tani Hisao.0 Unported //creativecommons.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Life Magazine File:Victims in Nanjing massacre.plesser 30 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.jpg  Source: http://en.cchere.org/w/index.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 Unported  Contributors: Thomas.wikipedia.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MChew. Sinopitt Image:NanjingMassacre Yanziji stone.