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at calculated sunset. are summoned to the mosque by the hiqh place. The times from the beginning the prayer of the call. place They and a mosque or suitable in To a certain the mosque. here largely the modern period. prayer Iie before PRAYER Five may take are termed obligatory place f ajr in daily prayers in are prescribed some other by Islan. except words: became customary all the the five includes at an early prayers which may be made frorn any suitable same for although the tajr trPrayer is The prayer additional the the among the Shica includes The prayer call of God [on earth]". and lisha naghrib prayer just after dawn may be performed.Ii 1l ASTAN ARTS COURSE AI{ INTRODUCTTON TO ISLA}!: CULT A}TD PRACTICE ISLAM: CULT AND PRACTICE fslamic rituals primarily marriage concentrate degree. date. to life (nid-afternoon) (dawn) . An optional (early (sunset). words: 'rcAIL is the vice-gerent terminating prayers at the occasions entail Through the year certain 1 . the use call (dawn. The mid-day additional on Friday by a is obli-gatory from being the for pulpit all adult (ninbar): males this and can of is be the sermon prayer preceded delivered prayers Islamic by any male mernber of the change dai1y. circumcision. better Muslims of the rninaret is the prayer than which sleep". but the public in procession. day. What is described. community. also and death on activities other focus of life involve in the mosque passaqes ceremonies activity reLates tends like and to and pilgrimage. evening). zuhr (rnid-day) . lasr .

. Conclusion that marked by prayer outskj-rts Prophet's of the custom of the Prophet the lid al--Kablr. of the with following fast marriage fasting prayers and in a nonth of R. in to Makka (Mecca) would travel times. numerous water-tanks Darb Zubayda road from Iraq religious the in hajj tirnes desert Ottomans built roads one of greatest later the along Hijdz ra: rl to Makka (Mecca) represent monuments of the early tAbbdsid period.7J Makka (Mecca) is one of the. cubical on two principal of the in the centre structure east of Makka (Mecca). Makka (Mecca). to the Hajj '-Id (festival) at open-at-r Prayers (nawTid also take for a7-nabl) mosques. rituals . while death also mosque with festival the the associated with circumcision. usually place and prayer. world.two muslims pilgrinage the may take sites. (hajj). the slow-moving. The hajj Kacba was built and the Kacba is known belief the of holds that the Abraham) and his Kacba was a centre the of Quraysh. forts at the to watering the ancient places the haii of north Arabia. to in the are on and also coincides towns.g. place Holiest and during focuses Cities is the lesser in Is1am. Haram Mosque at Makka and on cArafat. the any time. pre-Islamic A77ah (House of God). (Biblica1 of pagan pilgrimage in the hands of the Makkan tribe Islamicisation . During the entail fast at sunset water and dates.amadan. A11 the object pilgrinage' of first days of (Mecca) must take place The hajj rnonth of the whereas umra. pray facing ilajj Dhu/!-iiij at Makka ja.risiting the mosque. commemorate some places. birthday droughts and eclipses are an occasion MAKKA (I{ECCA) AND . Islamic by the Prophet Ibrdhrm Before represents the advent the of Islam. along fn The the charitable arduous caravans provision act for of Muslim from different for and the parts the of the Islamic pilgrins is a facilities rulers.mosque. many people break their Muhamnrad. and they built Railway L9O2-1908 as a successor are the guests of A}ldh. pilgrims In earlier Kacba. The pilgrims as the Bayt son Ismacll.

naintained parts of the Islamie nearby for Muslims from different cArafat. the pilgrim garrnent. After betrueen these water as remembrance of the IbrEhln. residences were Mercy. the hajj moves its culmination with the obligatory plain presence around it of the on the Mount of Mercy and the between noon and sunset. on the 9th day of the month. On arrival ihrd. a level external or point by a the at and pilgrims drape. mosque.ch time then return to Mina and on the or stay camels. next is regarded of the between the The repeated 1ow hi1ls search Marwa and by Hajar. covered of the hajj. are a at the boundaries seamless often the cotton of Makka. goats The pilgrinrs have their commemoratingr Ibrdhlm/s a beast the place L2th. during cast God/s command by sacrificinqr Mina until thev heads shaved and each dav they . prayer-times. of sheep. stone to structure.m . plain of to a rocky outcrop known as the fn earlier Islamic ti-mes . kiss which as prescribed. The pitgrims they his sacrifice of own son. a process instigated to is by the Prophet with in the a single fixed it is raised east Muharnmad. hil1s the Mosque has exceeded to the mass of humanity. towards pilgrims of At the the pilgrims head eastwards in an imrnense crowd cArafat.pilgrimage and it made of corner towards greai time the is rites. at following in day. fulfilnent whi. now door. The Kacba is solid it silk if an empty stone by a staircase A black attempt the kiswa. In recent Thereafter. roof. The Kacba is renewed annually prevented by the crowds. During the guides around swirling familiar the assumes haj j with the the make the Since to years they running for pilgrims rituals the centre the ritual accompanj-ed by language (tawdf) and with of the pilgrin. one rni11ion. towards Mount world. 7th the wife a sermon at the Haram Mosque on the of the month of Dh[/l-Hijja. expanded a movement that rise incorporate these perform of the only ceases at the obligatory increasingr have been repeatedly numbers of pilgrims. Prophet regularly run known as the sayy. The pilgrj-rns Kacba at circumambulation of the Haram Mosque in a great of Is1an the ritual Safa. entered gold.

and the of take home with Zamzam in of thern the Devil. tail the fanrily' men: the would The boy of the Rose and accompanied by rnusicians a horse. as Islamic and is associated In 19th century and their at one of the major mosques' After prayers. drums and the burning of incense before a formal lunch procession then took once more to the for guests. should occur between birth and 10 years Female although custom varies' the ages of 3 and 7 preferred and Africa. perform the operation. the fanily of a boy to be circurncised friends would gather regard. is to it to pre-Islamic Arabia. performed' in north-east is especially circumcision The display' unmarked by public matter. followed. The custorn is associated in origin. streets until .nr and it with the faith towards vary it as ceremony. at three On the stones which are reqarded l-2th the garb water hajj rituals holy and many pilgrinrs from the as manifestations end.ed. CIRCUMCISION Circumcision in the It of with Islam Prophet spread law. by an assistant a wooden box known as a carrying would. and traditionally (khitdn) which of male children in which is universal is existed. marked by public lbrdhl. forrn and escort the boy to his house' of the barber who The procession would be }ed. procession was mad. Sometimes for econonYr two boys would share a procession' At Makka guests would assemble at the Haram Mosque before noon prayers a procession on the day preceding the circumcision. pilgrirns resume their prized bottles courtyard normal of well of the Haram mosque. After prayer' accompanied would form and pass through the streets by pipes.e up of orange water would be strewn as the procession passed.pebbles an. a procession would. taken to be pre-Islarnic all vary the parts with age at of the the which Islamic it world schoolS should be different although perforned: approaches Opinions generally. The festive operation was performed The circumcision sunset. hanl be containing riding the barber's instruments. playing and then the ladies pipes the of The procession and drums. a private is entirely practice with local is not universally custom. Cairo.

encouragie the coast in the circumcision by Islamic !'IARRIAGE Marriage negotiations. jhrEm. to fend off details whereas eye. bride bride and the the the bath.s street musicians wedding recitation. is with of private enquiries visited grooms and by for narrigeable daughters prospective As negotiations aqreement day is three with days lights. dt the canopy to the public the bath materials was scattered. the is decorated provide and guests entertainment bride would Before Cairene under a silken sometimes with the evening hands day. On the character south-west underwent Arabian public 1930s. dt at Cairo. with the evil Among some MusIim communities of a bridegroon boys would wear the dress and elsewhere in Java. joined of the a procession well-to-do. Perfumed water and incense hennaed their The following status: in Cairo. the dress he would be dressed as a girl in Java.on the day of the procession would in the days. carried bride's preceded by at the head companions to the column. The scale of display marriages corresponded to the family's floats . While practice vary. two or of the bride verses Cairo. or go is appointed child's wound to heal. Thus. Makka. Haram Mosque. gifts: the Quranic and the the groom. In or to to ceremonj-es are i-nitiated with other the of mothers female privacy the In of relations in harim. and out by a barber. mothers reports confined and the recitation marriage marriage despatch religious procession musicians. of the burnt. in private. and feasting is very similar boy's At Makka Prayers would follow would continue for a nurnber of from place to place' would be lavish. dD essential a society where women are progress marked by for the the is public a before there in dowry for ceremony. Among North Arabian bedouin the boy would wear the pilgrin to ceremony would take place when the north wind was blowing. the gold and silver. be carried or the next morning. groornrs house. bedouin teenagers of a far more extensive custom than is stipulated be made. settled.

y is i-n a prepared and most grave. Makka conservative is marked by no more than a stone at the head and nay be an cases there f oot of the girave. which during at home. place way to In the the cemetery laid sinrplest on the outskirts of the town. a sarcophagus to (tabtlt) may of be constructed. At the the cemetery. oF under awnings up in repeated. wearing 4Oth day after over 4 months.b and prayers prayers may take place at home.uals or after carved death. of the Qur'an the street. the dead. the corPse is laid before the funerary although are performed. upper reflecting classes It the the trades to his that of the Cairene musicians bride's bridegroom this would house be progress to the mosque. and the and prayers These formal death. DEATE Generally.s to and this bier the dead man. of burial the bod. the procession supporting makes its and buried. the groom would marriage consummated. she stays no jewellery and may not remarry. These tend circumabulation of the be lavishly and represent develops. person should be buried on the same day The body is washed and dressed in a sinple white on a bier to in mourningr procession garment and then is carried the in carrying for men to assist the nosque. the where a rite funeral family dead man receives There is also occasions Mourning time are by over several of parts set 20th for days to express condolences. At the mosque.would town. . on the a widow continues at home. visitation After visitors recitation tent wood. with would accompany the Among the without songs praising uncover the procession. facing cases. In other at the or revered irnportant case of the In headstone. inscribed either before may be constructed. the nihr6. as death ociurs. Over a revered in stone or in for a focus the grave. a funerary building individ. From the mosque. returning was after and the face the prophet. It is merit-worthy of individuals flow a continuous 1ead.

derived A sinilar Safavids. much earlier a companion of . the A rather on a sacred. Prophet. the grave However. grandson to ensure that Prophet. is royal close and. Chinese of fine Shica shrines at Mashhad. and Qummby the developed which became a repository ceramics things shrines. and although the prevented Muslj-ms against there are developing this exceptions construction of monumental tornb two Caliphs they did as regarded architecture. of the the custom of visiting especially of the particularly revered Thus. objects to visit of the it the was in the Mosque of al-i'ladina legitimate spread. different 14th/f5th of tombs at a holy place marked by the Timurid to the development based on royal.ead. while the Baptist Great Mosque of Damascus the burial is of narked. Mosu1. becarne a centre of Reverence for holy with monumenta] architecture. AD Shah-i grave of Zinda largely at many earlier Sarnarqand' a female burials the Prophet. and by the to the in 10th century. confined that also to the Shica. cult from their of the process own claims politics religious of can be seen in the refurbishment their great own religious-dynastic of fine Ardabil works of art carpet: this of the great The Safavids at Ardabil. giraves rapidly among the Shica pilgrinrage giraves was not sense developed conferred Bib1ical site with top The Muslims figures. showed interest places and before connotations ancient ca 985 AD a dome was built. is the tell place Mosque of at Abrahamrs (Ibrdhlro) Biblical of the in the on the tomb at Hebron in Palestine. a1-Husayn b.. "A11.The Prophet a cult of the precept initially Muhammad vrarned the d.a holy figures of over burial near giraves of the burial blessings. Fatimids the the of built Caliph family The Egryptian descendents their descent religious also from of the head of St John monumental tombs at the graves of cAlL and over other sites to promote legitirnacy Prophet. not become The graves of the Prophet and the first !. Assyrian Another Biblical Yunah (Jonah) opposite Nineveh. site including lavishing must have been matched at accumulation C./ere arranged worship qraves other although and greet Shica.

mark graves. man. at Tanta in Egypt had its enormous success and by the of cult in the of tomb cult Konya.R. Bukhara. Other of the holy and at of early vary monumental tombs is found in northern domed tombs between (1007). Ahmad a1-Badawi. practice an adaptation c. of a holy would attract by the whirling the as many pilgrims as the Makkan pilgrinagre.Most reconstruction in Islam is religious the shrines have extant undergone subsequent and the earliest octagonal to be which monumental tornb to survive AD). at Mocha in Yemen. tomb AD Samdnid tomb at Gunbad by the Iran.rasa) f ounder/ s tomb . and that A quite areas the different of area east to and as 10 n. SOAS. the tirnes These secular tombs of a mosque.a11 f ormed part there a religious level figures of popuJ-ar belief being transformed object enjoyed evolution Shadhili are numerous examples loca1 saints cult of origin 19th man a Thus the in death into whose tornbs become the 13th century examples Mavlavi of involves of yet the of visitation. Iran of 10th are generally square. religious of their school descendents Ottoman and princely where Ayylbid. King. . (mad. tombs have Saljtrq. possibly Asia at S5marrd' (862 Qubbat al-Sulaybiya A an cAbbasid caliph. and tower immense tower different dynast at tomb of tradition in Radkan dated in l-015-2L. and of the a built the quite local over the Ii-ke graves the concentration and Central princes. the is Swahili are represented tradition Africa reflects dervishes tornb architecture construction this of Islam although of columns as high to to linited local practice. to attributed. century Qabus typified northern generic Manhfk complex. D. At the of religious Iocal in the century.

terms of the is also unique However. towards prayer the The Qur'En provides mosques with the and maintained IX. fI. of mosques throughout the Prophet Muhammad in for the Mosque of in the Hijaz. adult to gather a congregational mosque (nasjid Friday an obligation exhortation to visit and to repair rtThe mosques of A1lah sha11 be visited injunction: in of Allah and the in belief Last in the of act congregatj-onal society. is mosgue derives from the and it in Arabic nasjid. at the Islanic a1-Madrna early sirnple in 622 AD/1 AH sacred shrine The Haram Mosque at and takes focus of model for be found Makka is mosque in precedence the design in the over all and of Is1amj-c prayer pilgrimage. lies by Thy in a mosque fits by such as believe Furthermore. Muslims to pray. of Makka in the Kacba. fn of about and the ft prayer prayer was was AD 62412 AH Islam Jerusalem. arrival provided established the by the Prophet not only frorn Makka. henceforth its was abandoned in injunction.MOSQUE The term place in fslam. Sacred face the lat Makka]: and (Qur. with at the the heart conception Day. first others. antiquity as the world on his date archetypal is to in in the the direction ye are. The design source in the lands established at that rather structures established newly conquered by fslam . The obligation of prayer expression with as prayer other on all and appropriate. of unity one God that enjoined turn Islamic Performance of prayer facing Ehe Qur'd. towards at its the accordance with Qur6nic the HoIy City centre. a7-jdni) maIes. 18).t (Qur. is the place Islarn does not may be performed it for is while architectural which at an clean desirable prayers is Nevertheless.n: rfSo from whencesoever face fact. forth. beginning but with the facing of of this the wheresoever Turn your Makka is Thou startest Mosque direction thither'. towards in performed Hijaz. l-50).rhere considered attendance rnidday of prostration [before God]. meaning of prayer require an anln.

the introduction of of as the the course minbar century. a similar of the courtyard. northern served harsh shift enclosure Muslims prayer. but in overall laid disposition. of the should the however and the organization However. and prostrati-ons. with of the buildings manner of prayer the design to the be both gibJa and in or all the in the of or more the community drawn up in ranks directly mosgues from and deep. on the direction shelter from After on the line. features enclosed Islamic and the minaret--l/ere following period. Prophet. the ft first the a means to of of the the allow Prophet lifetime was constructed as he addressed Caliphs for or the came to congregation. foIlow with of broad the the The enclosure days. Any gaps in from cornrnunity line his Following genuflections the first. haII who was rows would of the mosgue. Prophet that times--maqsEra earliest the fi-rst In pulpit comfort first times it covered on the Makkan retained complex for and an open courtyard---are mosque design. either the behind. those ds well as from winter in ti.the course of the 7th century thereafter. created on the southern qibla side In the roofed.ive prayer niche in of the mosque of (nihrdb). the worshippers rank upon rank. the prayer the Prophet of hinself the lead or one of his would of ' be the filled imEm. worshippers by the the Companions. behind the jmam. area was stand in was created mosque. for mosques founded rectangular earliest. Prophet. of the Muslims surrounded of the the area resting and the sunlight. This careful the alignment of space---the enclosure developments of affected tending mosque towards prayer halI the disposition side of subsequent ornate. a covered side to Jerusalem Arabian by a clay-brick on palm trunks of prayer the of direction at wa1l. that AD. the protect during roofed would leader. followed. absent the by the later Muhammad at a1-Madlna the or pulpit their (ninbar). courtyard. side first out consisted of an open In the the This day rains.'e qibTa to Makka. area. sermon Friday was used and in by the as successors be used in delivery subsequent aL-janc-i) which was a Mosques (nasjid (khutba) a pulpit . several mosque established be seen as format.

has a cave below indicating although Rock in nihrab from that times with the direction Jerusalem of Makka. although Muhammad's minbar mosque at al-Madlna present be commemoratj-ve in . devotions of it.mtakes extant Jordan mihrabs has finished are of the Where the rnihrEb is f1at. the mjhrEb preserved rnain axial. 707-709.central In part the of the obligatory Friday it feature congregational seems to stress there niche in is there the is prayer. part Thus the in the Great atl in mosques in and Iran to nor is regard it and Syria. sense of a room. in front the congregation im6. high apparently niche the nihrdb world. because Great Nevertheless. niche distinguishing was not in dated clear. the the of Dome of The origin been associated use differ pre-Islamic in the it set in the in apses with churches apse. finally up in a house and the Qur'6n first wall the wall of his for use rapidly centre lead at the the in the qibla uses the word. Once the spread in the it to niche throughout of the qibla cornpletion position had been adopted Prophet is in the stands until curved Mosque of The nihrdh sitting inEm often and waiting congregational prayer. with the in paid certain Christian altar. the nihrab although of the Mosque. early nihrab elevated curved of and the the Islamic prayer. in Iraq correct tend to be rectangular E}:re nihrab respect those than is as synonymous with any other to then. case of the extensions according the Azhar mosque in original nihrdb on the the 972 AD/361 AH to extend site where the seems wall qibla when the gibia wa11 was broken stood in his through L75L-52 AD/1165 AH. to It architectonic until The rnihrab as a recessed introduced the 69L. The earliest survives not nihrdbs is and mainly earliest It the of in the the up his 8th century whereas the in plan. A nihrab nature. was no qibla flat which not waIl. fn the subsequent was retained mosque in Prophet to case of the as the oldest mosque the eayrawdn in been retained belief. more revered of prayer-hall. Companions of the Prophet building. nihrEb may be but of its an entirely The term earliest mosques. meaning form and ritual appears of the the and honoured chamber. identity i-s stiII not the Great mihrabs of the who founded associated nihrdb in Mosque of Damascus. fn the of Tunisia. Mosque of has local to it is first Cairo.

fourth recent end of the LOth century accentuated include often the nave. and the Ab[ Dulaf Mosque at SdmarrSt (847-6J.ras are not qibla that off walls these of Great of concentrated ornament. domes are Other the enclosed security atternpted mosques already mentioned inserted the near architectural area device date mosque in explained protect introduced Caliphs feature political enclosures Great assassination at prayer earliest in C. the Great Mosque at Qayrawan (836). decoration the on columns (1oth (ca 7o2 AD/83 AH in a special area and the Mosque at Nayrn in striking cordoba of g6s. It the accentuate of the mosque where would stand. Isfahan introduction inam. rraq marked the Thus. of the mosgue by means of a remarkable intersecting evidence of the is the figure the suggests intention to this domes in first l-088. Gradually. the qihla as of an a in the magsfira. AD). AD. so much Mosque of constituted concentrated recommended itself maqsfr. that rn the the Great but. increased of the in size early the and area degree include which of the is mosques of the on axis with fslamic nihrab world. Muc6wiya b. architectural the other area high or Most suggest colonades maqsfrras. and the rran. as areas wasit Iran is the the second and the and this the extant of the light had already may well have history. is to ornate provides maqsura of no protection arcades. Mosque of stresses construction cases.and the main in nihrab the of of stand some way south. By that been murdered However. the Great Mosque of Cordoba (784-6) . security of 66L. architecture in the Great self-contained dome chambers in the an ancient mosques of Mosque of system in shows itself combines with .). The axial stress on the nihrEb is sometimes enhanced by a dome at the in several by the early the to the in of the early end of features fslamic nihrab. the nihrilb area of sumptuous. governor rslamic Related use of of great This in Iran accentuation earry maqsfira. mihrEb. Mosque at Jerusalem (early 8th C. the the of the that period This is Caliph. front AD) Umayyad. which by ornament. which all these prince. decoration Other i-ntroducti-on means mihrabs principal accentuation a wide nave nihrab found in the Great Mosque of Damascus (7O5-7L5) | in the a1-Aqs6. after Sufy6n in front of the nihrab.

AD. ablution. carefully represented Although courtyard. east a minaret to call to call Nevertheless. balance for architectural century. face need of ablution are two and even three rather call the whence to before minarets. rnake the This the the 20th roof i-nto combination Indeed. of this the long vaulted hall known as an areas during fundamental the Arab a1-Madina. the ablutions positj-oned earliest area the those washing do not the sma11 mosgue at dated pools rather or in than Makka. of the parts were of often call the had been hitherto rsramic from would mosque with Prophet's from origins roof. one of the examples of washing opposite al-Gharb:had in syria. by the practical. the the had become the normal place conservative of from the ca11i-ng the a minaret. use place a custom persj-sted from the Arabia. suitably architectural This begin to frorn which forrn driven appear taII to in shows itself by concern with j-n franian initially pairs one. fountains at cairo have been decorative. to the plan its domed maqsfi. pairs slnnmetry. running the to perform Ablut.architectural iwEn future and the standard form in Iran. century. 16th of to than adhan. mosgue rather north not its hiqh Africa used. and c. by a covered some early these unayyad palace at Qasr al-Hayr mosques seem to ca 727. outside appear to have been situated 5 .n becomes a and neighbouring perhaps in early than Arabia the first is feature centuries.ra and iwd. developed lands.ion water and of is the the for but the comnencing often found loeated mosque with so that These facilities courtyard facirity the mosque. rbn Tulun The Mosque of facilities had a fountain. rslam day. become ottoman meet the mosgues where minarets By the i-l-th increasingly using them and less visuar mosques accumulated create call practical ritual facilities drainage. own mu'adhdhin left a high until rather part a minaret. a place (wudut) The prayer is the signal near the are the worshipper the in prayer. of mosques in Iran of his what transformation courtyard In prayer was not minaret prayer. minarets for to a an and on the Although developed from African utilitarian the was not a liturgical need prayer necessity. tower and spread from which prayer rn neighbouring By the latter in than of the 7th century areas down to central coast.

the Damascus and of churches Sophia Haghia is use converted Byzantine a royal century was made into churches mosque by the there for converted Ottomans in 1453. nubaTTigh ha1l. be place to the courtyard. washing proper. and period Great into down to mosques of Mosques of cathedrar ought not revert converti-ng this are Examples Hama in the 7th Istanbul disused the in in of to a non-religious the earliest the a church are abound from Syria widespread. Some of have pouring baths ablutions. were both AD.. of Constantine at Bethlehem. and synagogues fslamic communities. platform inside size accomodate far the the a7here of dikka congregations. mosgues may not the refusal up with or inside if an Islarnic of the second Caliph cUmar b. the been cubicles "AsIr and shower facilities coated in water-proof that other vessels while exterior.mosque enclosure Istanbul of enclosure. like The Ottoman other built fn against mosqlue Sultan the period of the in sides Sulaynan the at (1550 AD). to shrines to to cease to serve in 638 AD/17 AH to pray that he did right in the Basilica at Jerusalem. facilities on the masonry metal for for mosques of had ranks mosque Arabia. by an individual . close be relayed imam as he led tended sirnultaneous a raised at a point so that genuflections As a resulL. or Once a mosque has been no a temple a mosque. while no shortage as mosques by The sense that purpose is tied al-Khattdb He argued would insist the detrirnent so prominent In large at to the later back of in London and elsewhere growing imrnigrant in England. into in mosques. washing with the surviving intended intended founded obstacle examples modern from it to of times. a Muslirn as timesr of the with the ds mosques increased it became difficult or in the the mosque the in for prayer. of Muslims because as mosques. south-western plaster. are provided survive vessels must were ro1e. the worshippers and echoes termed the courtyard utterances interfere congregation. the Church of the Nativity Sor subsequent to use these generations churches on their of the Christians' rights at their cumar had prayed there. loudly would covered prayer the words of the jrnEm could entrusted with this task. use in presumably There is (hannans).

mosaic before was east. the of following antecedents. the Mongols. liberalism in in in rslam mosgue lamps and carpets. in rslam ornarnent c. non-figurative.R. Whatever elsewhere art rigorously religious earliest buildings motifs. and geometric meaningful is one of the most highly a principal element madrasas and tombs.D. on floral. not necessary community finest rnitially. . and these are found in either wood. candle-sticks. to carry ornately readings in had syria.En readers sit to recite from the the holy mosques is Decoration their mosgues to Muslin match the rs1am. in decoration mosgues rsramic later Africa. and felt in mosques but it necessary that of churches rnarble fron to the early on embellish Byzantines the finest in the In be north to around include all of a nonByzantine where eur. decorated. but with carved under the development of mosque decoration ottomans Decoration wall and in tends and moulded plaster Timurids. built by the L4th century Qur'Ens which became fashionable and rran. rerigious rsramic in became widespread. conform art. SOAS regard representational to and other images strictly From the religious art forms is rslamie society. were of broader there the is is favoured. times. deveroped King. glazed ceramics other to particularly nihrEb. religious always in hostility context. and architectural of religiousry applied period.Other the in large Egypt items of mosque furniture include the kursI. Another type of platforrn found in rarge the kursr is is aL-sura. 2520 words. which illuninated figurative art concentrated on the qibla and especially decoration aesthetic to areas the mosques. decoration mosques concentrated calligraphy and is in mosques. book. or metar.

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