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Computer programming is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming language Programmers use a program code to make software Program code : a set of instructions that signal the CPU to perform circuit witching operations

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A language designed for writing system software It offers more direct access to the physical hardware of the machine System Software : Operating System, Language Processor & System Utilities Major System Programming Languages
C, C++, ESPOL, PL/I, BLISS

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A language designed for writing application software Application Software : Payroll system, Inventory System, Attendance System etc. Major Application Programming Languages
C, C++, VB.NET, Java, etc.

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Procedural Programming Languages


Procedural programming specifies a list of operations that the program must complete to reach the desired state. Each program has a starting state, a list of operations to complete, and an ending point. This approach is also known as imperative programming. Integral to the idea of procedural programming is the concept of a procedure call. Procedures, also known as functions, subroutines, or methods, are small sections of code that perform a particular function. Procedural programming can be compared to unstructured programming, where all of the code resides in a single large block. It splits the programmatic tasks into small pieces, procedural programming allows a section of code to be re-used in the program without making multiple copies. It also makes it easier for programmers to understand and maintain program structure. Two of the most popular procedural programming languages are FORTRAN and BASIC.
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Structured Programming Languages


Structured programming is a special type of procedural programming. It provides additional tools to manage the problems that larger programs were creating. Structured programming requires that programmers break program structure into small pieces of code that are easily understood. It also frowns upon the use of global variables and instead uses variables local to each subroutine. One of the well known features of structural programming is that it does not allow the use of the GOTO statement. It is often associated with a top-down approach to design. The most popular structured programming languages include C, Ada, and Pascal.
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Object-Oriented Programming Languages


Object-oriented programming is one the newest and most powerful paradigms. In object oriented programs, the designer specifies both the data structures and the types of operations that can be applied to those data structures. This pairing of a piece of data with the operations that can be performed on it is known as an object. A program thus becomes a collection of cooperating objects, rather than a list of instructions. Objects can store state information and interact with other objects, but generally each object has a distinct, limited role.
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Low Level Programming Language


Machine Language Assembly Language

High Level Programming Language

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Low Level

Machine Language

Computer understand only a language that is known as Machine Language It consists of set of instructions in form of 1s and 0s Example of Machine Instruction
1110001110000

It is difficult for human to read and write machine language

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i) It makes fast and efficient use of the computer. ii) It requires no translator to translate the code i.e.Directly understood by the computer

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i) All operation codes have to be remembered ii) All memory addresses have to be remembered. iii) It is hard to amend or find errors in a program written In the machine language iv) These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular Machine language can be used on only one type of computer

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Inconveniences of machine language. Assembly language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0s and ls. These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combination
e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START, LABEL etc.

Because of this feature it is also known as Symbolic Programming Language. This language is also very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small
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Advantages of Assembly Language


i) It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language. ii)It is easy to locate and correct errors.

iii) It is modified easily Disadvantages of Assembly Language


i) Like machine language it is also machine dependent. ii) Knowledge of hardware required

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High level computer languages give formats close to English language and the purpose of developing. It enables people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English). High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes. Each instruction in the high level language is translated into many machine language instructions thus showing one-to-many translation
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Readablity Portability Easy Debugging Easy Software Development

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