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Chapter 6 - References

PA Drivers Manual

CHAPTER 6:
REFERENCES
This chapter will provide a quick reference concerning helpful information, forms, publications and literature.

CUSTOMER CALL CENTER


Information regarding driver and vehicle services is available 24 hours a day if using a touch tone telephone.
Customer Service Representatives are available between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. - Monday through Friday

For direct assistance except on major holidays:


In-State 1-800-932-4600, TDD 1-800-228-0676
Out-of-State 1-717-412-5300, TDD 1-717-412-5380

ROAD TEST AND SPECIAL POINT EXAMINATION APPOINTMENTS


Appointments must be made to take the Special Point Examination and the Non-Commercial Road Test. When you
are ready to take the Road Test or Special Point Examination, you may schedule your test online via the Driver and
Vehicle Services Web site at www.dmv.state.pa.us. If you do not have access to the Internet, you can schedule your
test by calling 1-800-423-5542 between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays.
Remember: If you are under 18 years of age, you may not take your Road Test for six (6) months after
you have received your learners permit and you must have completed the 65 hours of
behind-the-wheel skill-building requirements.

DEPARTMENTAL FORMS AND PUBLICATIONS ON THE INTERNET


Information, forms, publications and fact sheets relating to driver licensing and motor vehicles are available for
customer convenience and are located on PennDOTs Driver and Vehicle Services Web site at www.dmv.state.pa.us.

STATEWIDE AND COUNTY MAPS


For information on statewide and county maps, call 1-717-787-6746, Monday through Friday, except holidays,
between the hours of 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.

INFORMATION ON OTHER PROGRAMS


Other publications on safe driving available from PennDOT are listed below. To get copies, write to the Bureau of
Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, P.O. Box 2047, Harrisburg, PA 17105-2047.
Occupant protection materials (seat belt/child restraint).

Alcohol awareness related materials.

Crash scene Dos and Donts.

Operation Lifesaver materials.

Pennsylvania Bicycle Drivers Manual.


The United States Department of Transportation has an Auto Safety Hotline at 1-800-424-9393 or on the Internet
at www.nhtsa.dot.gov.

511PA
511PA provides free, 24-hour information services including traffic delay warnings, weather forecasts, regional
tourism information, and links to transit agencies and major airports. The service is available by calling 511 from
cellular phones and land lines or through the internet by visiting www.511PA.com. The 511PA roadway network
includes all 1,759 miles of interstate including the Pennsylvania Turnpike, as well as other major roadways in
Harrisburg, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Traffic information for the majority of this network includes incident
reports such as crashes, construction activities and winter road conditions. Additionally, average traffic speeds
are available for several interstates and other major roadways in urban areas. Users are also able to register
through the Web site to receive personalized traveler alerts, provided through e-mail and text messaging.
PennDOT encourages motorists to not call 511PA while driving. Callers should safely pull off the road to call the
system, or check for travel delays before heading out.
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INDEX

PA Drivers Manual

TOPIC
PAGE
Accelerator Sticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Accidents (See Crashes)
Address, Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Air bag Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Alcohol and Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Alternative Testing Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). . . . . . . . . 89
Appointments:
Road Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 92
Special Point Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Backing Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Bicyclists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 54
Blind Pedestrians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Blind Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Brake Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 60
Buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
School Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Changing Lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Child Restraint Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Circular Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Classes of Drivers Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Communicating Your Intentions to Other Drivers . . 43
Controlled Substance:
Driving Under the Influence (DUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Crashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34,79
Critical Driving Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Crossing Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Curves, Negotiating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Customer Call Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Deaf/Hearing Impaired, Interpreters for the. . . . . 89
Driver Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Alcohol and Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Diseases and Medical Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Driving Distractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Drugs and Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Health Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Inattention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Lack of Sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Drivers License Compact (DLC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Drivers License/Learner Permit:
Classes of Drivers Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Junior Drivers License Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Junior Learners Permit Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
What Class Do You Need? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

PAGE
TOPIC
Drivers License/Learner Permit:
Who Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Driving at Night . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Driving Emergencies, Dealing With:
Accelerator Sticks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Brake Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Brake Suddenly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Drifting Off Pavement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Flooded Roadways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Horn, Using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Hydroplaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Signals, Using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Skidding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Slippery Surfaces - Road Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . 39
Snow and Ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Tire Blowout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Vehicle Approaching Head On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Wet Pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Driving Record Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Driving Under the Influence (DUI) . . . . . . . . 33, 34, 80
Drugs and Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 80
Emissions, Vehicle Safety Inspection . . . . . . . . . 90
Emergency Vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Fleeing or Eluding Police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Flooded Roadways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Foreign License Holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Forms and Publications, Departmental . . . . . . . . 92
Four-Second Rule, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Funeral Procession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Guide Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Headlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Headlight/Windshield Wiper Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Head Restraints, Adjust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Health Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Highways and Interchanges, Negotiating:
Entering Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Exiting Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Traveling on Highways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Horn, Using Your . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Horse-Drawn Vehicle and Horse Back Riders. . . 58
Hydroplaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Inattention (How it Can Affect Your Driving) . . . . 32
Information on Other Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Inspection, Vehicle Safety and Emissions . . . . . 90
Insurance, Driving Without . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

- I1 -

INDEX

PA Drivers Manual

TOPIC
PAGE
Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Interpreters for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired . . . . . 89
Intersections:
Approaching Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Jughandles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Negotiating, Who Must Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Roundabouts and Traffic Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Signs & Pavement Markings for Lane Assignment 47
Traffic Signals & Stop Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Traveling Across. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Turning Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Turning Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Interstate Route Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . 20
Junior Drivers License Information. . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Junior Learners Permit Information . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Keeping Your Vehicle Where It Can Be Seen . . . 37
Laws:
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) . . . . . . . . . . 89
Anti-Littering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Child Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Drivers License Compact (DLC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol
or a Controlled Substance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Headlight/Windshield Wipers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Implied Consent (Chemical Testing for
Alcohol or Drugs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Insurance, Driving Without . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Name or Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Passengers in an Open-Bed Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Required Notification for Change in Name or Address . . 87
Parking Areas for Persons with Disabilities . . . . . . 89
Seat Belt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Snow/Ice Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Steer Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Underage Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Zero Tolerance (Under 21 DUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Learners Permit:
Applying for a Learners Permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Junior Learners Permit Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Junior Drivers License Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Learning to Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Looking:
Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Behind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
To the Sides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Managing Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Managing Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

PAGE
TOPIC
Maps, Statewide and County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Merging With Traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Military Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Motorcycles/Mopeds, Sharing the Road . . . . . . . 54
Name, Change in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Negotiating at Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Night, Driving at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Organ Donation Awareness Trust Fund . . . . . . . 90
Organ Donor Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Areas for Persons with Disabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Parallel Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 52
Passing:
In General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
May Not. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
On a Two-Lane Road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
On the Right. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Pavement:
Drifting Off The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Pedestrians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Point Removal for Safe Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Point System, Pennsylvanias. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Police, What to Do if Stopped By . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Railroad Crossbuck Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Railroad Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Railroad Crossing Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Regulatory Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Road, Conditions:
Flooded Roadways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Hydroplaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Slippery Roads/Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Snow and Ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Wet Pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Road Rage, Dealing With. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Roundabouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
School Buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Seat, Adjust the Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Seat Belt, Fasten Your . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Signaling:
Using Emergency Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
When Changing Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
When Slowing Down or Stopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

- I2 -

INDEX

PA Drivers Manual

TOPIC
PAGE
Signals (Traffic):
Flashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lane Use Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lights and Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Non-Functioning Traffic Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Pedestrian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Railroad Crossing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Ramp Metering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
School Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Signs:
Guide Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Exit Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Highway/Expressway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Interstate Route Numbering System . . . . . . . . . 20
Mile Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Route Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Tourist-Oriented Directional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Regulatory Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Warning Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Channeling Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Electronic Arrow Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Objects Adjacent to the Roadway . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Work Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Skidding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Slippery Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Slow-Moving Traffic, Reactions to . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Snow-Ice Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Snow Plows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Social Security Number Information . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Space Cushion:
Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Behind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Four-Second Rule, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
To the Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Speed:
Managing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Posted Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Steer Clear Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Suspensions and Revocations
of Driving Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

PAGE
TOPIC
Tests:
Alternative Testing Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
If You Fail the Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
If You Pass the Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Tires:
Blowout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Traffic:
Circles, Roundabouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Handling Traffic Conditions One at a Time . . . . . . 42
Slow Moving Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Traffic Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Traffic Lights (See Signals)
Trucks:
Backing Crashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Escape Ramps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Following a Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Oversized Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Passing a Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Truck Passing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Turning, Merging, and Passing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Crossing Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Left and Right Turns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Merging with Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Passing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Turning From or Into a Center Turn Lane . . . . . . . 44
Turning Right at a Red Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
U-Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Underage Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Vehicle Checks, Preparing to Drive.. . . . . . . . . . . 31
Visibility Conditions:
Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Vision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 33
Warning Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Wet Pavements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Winter Roads, Slick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Work Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 53
Channeling Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Work Zone Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Zero Tolerance Law (Under 21 DUI) . . . . . . . . . . . 81

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