LITERATURE REVIEW

Different products available in market        Sheeting fabrics, Towels, Curtains, Pillow/cushion/bolsters covers, Mats, Rugs, Carpets

The history of different products Sheeting fabrics - Beds of some sort have been around for millennia. It is unknown when sheeting was first used to keep the sleeper comfortable but it is likely that the first true bed sheets were linen. Linen, derived from the flax plant, has been cultivated for centuries and was expertly cultivated, spun, and woven by the Egyptians. It is a laborious plant to cultivate but the finished fabric is perfect for bed sheeting because it is more soft to the touch than cotton and becomes more lustrous with use. Linen sheeting was made on conventional looms that were between 30-40 in (76.2-101.6 cm) wide, resulting in bed sheets that had to be seamed down the center in order to be large enough for use. Europeans brought linen culture to the New World; linen processing flourished in the Northeast and Middle Colonies for two centuries. However, because of the painstaking cultivation process, linens were difficult and time-consuming to make. Nevertheless, many seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth century American women worked relentlessly producing linen goods—pillow cases, bed sheets, napkins, towels—for family use upon their marriage. By about 1830 in the United States, cotton cultivation and processing was becoming wellestablished. Previously, it was difficult to remove the tenacious seeds found in short-staple cotton which grows easily in the American South. Eli Whitney's development of the cotton gin enabled the seeds to be stripped from the cotton wool easily and quickly; southern plantations immediately began growing the now-lucrative plant using enslaved labor. At the same time, New England textile mills were quickly adapting British cotton manufacturing technologies and were able to spin, weave, dye, and print cotton in huge quantities. By about 1860, few bothered to make bed sheets from linen anymore—why spend the time when cotton sheeting was cheap and easy to obtain.

Cotton fibers are produced from bales of raw cotton that are cleaned, carded, blended, and spun. Once loaded onto a section beam, the bobbins are coated with sizing to make weaving easier. Several section beams are loaded onto a single large loom beam. As many as 6,000 yarns are automatically tied onto old yarns by a machine called a knotter in just a few minutes. Looms became more mechanized with human hands barely touching the products and bed sheets have been made on such looms since the later nineteenth century. Recent innovations in the product include the introduction of blended fibers, particularly the blending of cotton with polyester (which keeps the sheet relatively wrinkle-free). Other recent developments include the use of bright colors and elaborate decoration. Furthermore, labor is cheaper outside the United States and a great many bed sheets are made in other countries and are imported here for sale. Today, the southern states, particularly the state of Georgia, includes a number of cotton processors and weavers. Many of our American cotton bed sheets are produced in the South. These are primarily used for bed coverings. They are medium weight, closely woven fabrics woven eigther in plain or twin weave. Sheeting fabrics are made in different widths. High quality cotton sheetings are made in plain weve with a width of 64" x 58" and in twill weave with a width of 60"x72".

TowelsCurtains- In all likelihood, somewhere in a Neanderthal cave, the lady of house figured out that the
elements posed a problem and used animal hide to cover open portals of light. Animal hide, fur and membrane are the ancestors of today’s curtains used in numerous window treatments.

Over time, curtains on windows, doors and showers areas became a necessity. Curtains have been used on old sailing ships, covered wagons and log cabins. Colorfully painted wooden Gypsy wagons were adorned with small windows covered in dainty curtains. North American native Indians stretched hide for tents. Doors of these tents were fashioned into a curtain flap for entering and exiting. But, the flap also served the purpose of keeping out dust, insects and bad weather elements. With the advancement of cultures and elevation of societies, curtains evolved into an ornamental window treatment. Long cross pane windows in castles and homes of lesser royalty were adorned with exquisite drapery in elegant fabric like velvet, organdy or finest lace. Belgium and Ireland produced the finest handcrafted lace for curtains.Even in the bedroom, curtains had their function. Bed curtains attached by rings to a square or round frame high above the bed were considered a necessity for centuries in Scandinavian and European countries. Most bed curtains were made from more serviceable materials like cotton or dimity. In tropical climates, curtains were used as a protection from sudden dust storms and insects. In the Orient, seductive beaded curtains, made from colored glass and hung vertically, or those made from bamboo cane added to the mystique and allure of a room.

In other Oriental countries, gossamer materials in brilliant fuschia, purple or green served as curtains for harems, throne rooms and bedrooms. Curtains had been designed with a pocket sewn on the inner side through which a rod could then be inserted. Often, a cornice, a decorative wood covering was added to a window above the curtain rod. Europeans preferred a combination of curtain and drape, no doubt as a hedge against the cold and damp weather. Certain styles of curtains were identified with social status as well as by the costly materials brought by traders in the Far East or other exotic areas. Huge bolts of finest materials were brought aboard ships and sent across the seas to be sold. As time passed, curtains diversified into various styles such as pinch-pleated draperies, tabpleated, swag and smocked, until the present time that has as many styles in curtains, rods, valances and ornamental cornices and accessories such as curtain tie-backs with tassles and fringe. In primitive times, curtains were simply attached to a window using sticky sap. As curtain sophistication grew, curtain rods were made from hand-hewn wood, usually oak, birch or similar hardwoods. Some rods are still constructed of wood, although most are metal or synthetic material. Beaded curtains are still quite popular for special room accents. Bed curtains have been replaced by four-poster beds with an overhead canopy. Bamboo curtains are another popular window treatment used in many enclosed patios, sun rooms, conservatories and for special effects in bedrooms, living rooms and kitchens. Down through history, curtains have remained singularly useful for any decor. Though curtain styles change through trends and new innovations in design, curtains still serve the purpose for which they were originally intended: protection from overexposure to sun and drafts. Yet, curtains also give any room a finishing touch. The Neanderthal lady of the cave would certainly be pleased with such a wide range of styles, designs and materials from which to choose. Mats/Rugs- Matting or Floor Covering or Rugs is a general term embracing many coarse woven or plaited fibrous materials used for covering floors or furniture, for hanging as screens, for wrapping up heavy merchandise and for other miscellaneous purposes. In the United Kingdom, under the name of "coir" matting, a large amount of a coarse kind of carpet is made from coconut fibre; and the same material, as well as strips of cane, Manila hemp, various grasses and rushes, is largely employed in various forms for making doormats. Large quantities of the coconut fibre are woven in heavy looms, then cut up into various sizes, and finally bound round the edges by a kind of rope made from the same material. The mats may be of one colour only, or they may be made of different colours and in different designs. Sometimes the names of institutions are introduced into the mats. Due to the Silky nature and tensile strength, Jute Mats or Mattings have started being used as Floor covering or Doormats, runners and in different forms. Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. Jute Mats and mattings starting from 1 mtr width to 6 m width and of continuous length are easily being woven in Southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves like, Boucle, Panama, Herringbone, etc. Jute Mats & Rugs are made both through Powerloom & Handloom, in large volume from Kerala, India. Indian Jute Mattings / Rugs are being widely used in USA and European countries, due to its soft nature. Jute can be easily bleached, colored or printed, similar to textile fibres, with eco-

friendly dyes & chemicals. Hand-knotted Jute carpets & mattings are also being made from Kerala, India. Another type of mat is made exclusively from the above-mentioned coir rope by arranging alternate layers in sinuous and straight paths, and then stitching the parts together. It is also largely used for the outer covering of ships' fenders. Perforated and otherwise prepared rubbers, as well as wire-woven material, are also largely utilized for door and floor mats. Matting of various kinds is very extensively employed throughout India for floor coverings, the bottoms of bedsteads, fans and fly-flaps, etc.; and a considerable export trade in such manufactures is carried on. The materials used are numerous; but the principal substances are straw, the bulrushes Typha elephantina and Typha angustifolia, leaves of the date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), of the dwarf palm (Chamaerops Ritchiana), of the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis), of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) and of the screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), the munja or munj grass (Saccharum Munja) and allied grasses, and the mat grasses Cyperus textilis and Cyperus Pangorei, from the last of which the wellknown Palghat mats of the Madras Presidency are made. Many of these Indian grass-mats are examples of elegant design, and the colours in which they are woven are rich, harmonious and effective . Several useful household articles are made from the different kinds of grasses. The grasses are dyed in all shades and plaited to form attractive designs suitable for the purposes to which they are to be applied. This class of work obtains in India, Japan and other Eastern countries. Vast quantities of coarse matting used for packing furniture, heavy and coarse goods, flax and other plants, etc., are made in Russia from the bast or inner bark of the lime tree. This industry centres in the great forest governments of Viatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Kostroma, Kazan, Perm and Simbirsk. Carpets - The certainty of the origin of the carpets would always continue to be shrouded in mystery. However, it is definitely out of the debate that woven forms of floor coverings were present during the Neolithic Age (7000 BC). The very mysteries of how the carpet actually came into existence would always remain the same in the absence of the documentary evidence. However, according to Enza Milanesi’ The Little Brown Guide to Carpets’ there are two theories to ponder upon.

The first theory says that the carpets were invented to serve the practical purpose of the rough nomadic populations. They were thickly knotted to protect the people from adverse climatic conditions. This also served the purpose of them not to give up their valuable animals for their hides. Therefore, it also fulfilled their original intention of no direct contact with the ground. It is believed that such carpets came as rudimentary forms of floor coverings what we see today. Evolved since the early times, the previous forms of the decorated tents of the nomadic lifestyle were specimens, uniquely colored and decorated with the particular sorts of motifs and established beautification styles. In addition, they wove on the vertical loom that could be dismantled and transported easily.

The advocates of the second theory pronounce that the knotted carpets did born early. However, they evolved as artistic pieces with the settled people that were artistic and utilitarian both, in function. Forming as the permanent parts of homes, they became important during festive and traditional ceremonies, leading their way towards becoming an essential part of peoples’ lives. Different raw material used The different raw materials used in the production of the home furnishing fabrics arei) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Cotton Polyester Linen Acetate Acrylic Nylon Olefin sheeting fabric, terry towels, rugs sheeting fabric sheeting fabric, curtains, rugs draperies, upholstery, curtains blankets, quilts, carpets carpets carpet and carpet backing

The physical and chemical properties of the above listed fibres arei) Cotton Physical properties - Morphology  Length  Fineness o Sea-land cotton: 1.28 o Upland cotton: 5.23  Color and luster - Strength  Tenacity : 3 to 5 g/d in dry state; 3.3 to 6 g/d in wet condition  Elongation: 3 to 7 %  Recovery: 75 % when 2 % elongation o 50 % when 5 % elongation - Density : 1.54 g/cm2 - Moisture regain: 8.5%-10% Chemical properties - Long exposure to cold dilute acids gradually degrades the cotton. - Strong acids and hot dilute acids cause disintegration. - Cotton is highly resistant to alkalies. ii) Polyester Physical properties - Soft handle and good drape - Wrinkle resistant

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Superior wash quality Retains heat-set pleats and creases Resistant to strong light, weather conditions and most strong chemicals Quick drying Very durable May pill and attract lint Chemical properties

iii)

Linen Physical properties - Morphology  Length: avg length of 25-40 cm; can go up to 100 cm  Fineness: avg fiber has a width of 21 micrometers. - Strength  Tenacity: 5.5 to 6.5 g/d; 20% increase in strength when wet  Elongation: breaking elongation 2.7 to 3.3%  Resilience: at 2 % elongation fiber shows 65% recovery - Density: 1.5 g/cm3 - Moisture regain: 8.75 %; can go up to 12%. Chemical properties - Long exposure to cold dilute acids gradually degrades the Fiber. - Strong acids and hot dilute acids cause disintegration. - Linen is resistant to alkalies

iv)

Acetate Physical properties - Burns, melts, forms black beads with vinegar like odor. o Luxurious feel and appearance o Wide range of colors and luster o Excellent drapability and softness o Relatively fast drying Chemical properties - Soluble in acetone - Degrade in UV light Acrylic Physical properties - Mechanical properties similar to wool but stronger - Medium tenacity, better than wool - High elastic recovery at low strain level 90  to 95% at 1 % strain

v)

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Moderate abrasion resistance Bulky: tend to crimp Wick but do not absorb water Low specific density: 1.12 - 1.19 g/cm3 Static electricity built up Soft and warm Feel like wool Retains shape and it is resilient Quick drying, Good drape Durable and crease resistant Excellent pleat retention quality

Chemical properties vi) Nylon Physical properties - Smooth round cross-section and uniformity - permit close packing - Tenacity: high due to high orientation and crystallinity - Elongation: high due to zigzag structure - Recovery: high due to zigzag - Energy of rupture: high due to high tenacity and high elongation. - Abrasion resistance: high - Water absorption: highest among all synthetic fibers - Swells when absorbing moisture - Static: not enough water absorption - Low specific gravity: 1.14g/cc - Resilience: high: wrinkle free - Can be laundered but not easy to clean Chemical properties - Vulnerable to degradation in acids - Low resistance to sunlight

vii)

Olefin Physical properties - It has wicking properties - Strong; very lightweight - Excellent colorfastness - Quick drying - Sensitive to heat - Abrasion resistant

Chemical properties - It is a synthetic fiber made from alkenes

Justification for the use of above specified raw materials in the home furnishing industry i)
ii) iii)

Cotton- Soft, easy to clean, durable, launders well, dyes easily. Polyester- Strong, easy care, resists wrinkles, abrasion, stretching and shrinking; dyes easily,
holds colour well, non-absorbent.

Linen - Strong, durable. Dyes easily, but colours may run in washing. Somewhat stiff,
wrinkles, and may shrink unless specially finished.

iv) Acetate -lustrous appearance, drapes well v) Acrylic -resists abrasion and wrinkling, dyes well vi) Nylon-Strong and elastic, washes easily, resists abrasion, dyes well, and resists wrinkles,
moths. vii) Olefin- Strong, resists abrasion, lightweight, free from pilling, fast-drying, resists soil.

Cotton as a raw material for home furnishing products (finishing) The use of cotton as the prime textile material is by no means entirely due to its cheapness and abundance, but rather to the fact that it provides material whose laundering properties are excellent because of great resistance to hot alkaline detergents. Compared with other textile materials, cotton survives household treatments of sufficient severity to ruin the fibres, either by disintegration, dissolution, diminished strength, shrinkage, matting and felting, and so forth. Most soiled garments contain a large amount of greasy or fatty matter which is most easily removed by boiling in a mildly alkaline solution, often with rubbing. Another contributory factor to the popularity of cotton is its strength and durability. Although some special types of cotton, in certain weaves, provide very attractive textile fibres, yet it cannot be said that a typical cotton fabric has an inherent appeal such as may be found in linen, wool, silk or rayon; nevertheless, the robust nature of cotton is such that t forms an excellent material on which the main part of the art and science of finishing may be brought to bear. Many of the finishes for cotton arose from attempts to transform this somewhat humble substance into a rather cheap imitation of the fabrics from more expensive fibres; hence methods were devised to improve its lustre to simulate silk, to stiffen cotton to imitate linen, or to impart some of the characteristics of wool. Without some of these special finishes, cotton has great utility but less beauty. At one time it was customary to classify the finishes for cotton under three headings(a) Pure (b) Assisted (c) Stiffened The pure finish is mainly for goods which are intended for subsequent printing or dyeing, and is in the nature of an intermediate finish for the final finishing processes are applied after the colouring of the material; this intermediate pure finish generally consists in opening the cloth which has been bleached in rope- form, washing and drying- during the drying process, the opportunity may be taken to rectify the width of the cloth and to adjust any distortion of warp and weft which may have occurred during bleaching. The white cloth trade, however, demands a more merchantable or attractive fabric than that merely prepared for dyeing and printing, and certain additional ‘pure’ finishes are generally applied which have much in common in with the smoothening of fabrics for

household ironing, and depend mainly on imparting smoothness and brightness by calendaring. At this stage it is not possible to draw a sharp line of demarcation between the pure and assisted finishes, for although the pure finish depends mainly on mechanical methods, such as calendaring or breaking and softening, yet the effect is generally enhanced by small amount of various softening preparations ; fundamentally however , the pure finish is a mechanical treatment including stretching to the required width and calendaring to smooth and brightens the cloth, but depending to the minimum on added substance. The stiffened finish relies to a much greater degree on the presence of stiffening, binding, filling, and weighting agents in the considerable quantity; most of this added substance are removed again at the first wash, but it must be remembered that many heavily-filled goods are not intended for wearing apparel. On the other hand, there has been a tendency to sell starch and china clay instead of cotton merely to give the effect of a thicker, better, and more robust fabric. Such practices are disappearing as permanent stiffening methods are evolved and the public become educated to the fact that a cheap temporary finish is much more expensive than a dear permanent finish. Starch is probably the commonest finishing agent for cotton goods, and it may be applied as a stiffening agent, alone or with a little softener; alternatively, it may be applied as a binding material for filling and weighting substance such as china clay and other compounds which would normally ‘dust out’ of the cloth. The function of many of these filling and weighting compounds is more or less self-explanatory, but in general they ad substance to the fabric, and it has been found over that cotton is an excellent vehicle for these applied finishing preparations. More recently, methods of permanent finishing have been devised whereby it is possible permanently to improve the lustre of cotton, or to soften it, or to stiffen it, and even to apply stiffening and binding agents whose durability far exceeds that of starch, etc. Highly specialised chemical treatments have enabled new durable finishes to be evolved, relying on the chemical stability of cotton to various reagents on one hand, and its reactivity on the other. Where a smooth effect is required in cotton goods, it is customary to singe any projecting cotton hairs before bleaching, and even before the finishing processes proper, a heavy calendaring finish is often applied by water mangle to flatten the threads and close the interstices of the cloth, thus providing a satisfactory groundwork on which later to apply binding, stiffening, and filling materials. The common operations in the finishing of cotton goods include stiffening (or softening) and weighting, damping, stretching and calendaring. The objective of the stiffening process is to give the fabric a firmer handle and increased body; softening and weighting agents may be added at the same time to impart mellowness and substance. The degree of stiffness is mainly determined by the nature and consistency of starch paste, the amount absorbed, and the method of application. In general the fabric is passed over tension rails

to smooth it before impregnation, and then dried on steam heated cylinders or stenters (which dries and stretches the cloth); often both cylinders and stenters are applied. Cotton as a raw material for home furnishing products (dyeing) As far as the dyes are concerned, cotton can be dyed as well as printed with very fast dyes , such as vats and reactive, which can be boiled without loss of colour, while most of the chemicals normally used in dyeing and printing, and the dyes themselves, cause no damage to the fibres. The expectation is strong oxidising agents but, even so, hydrogen peroxide bleaching can be carried out in controlled conditions.

Finishing processes for the fabrics The term ‘finishing’ in its widest sense has been held to cover all the processes which fabric undergoes after leaving the loom. The objective of finishing is to improve attractiveness and or serviceability of the fabric. In 1939, there were some 1500 finishing agent on the market, addition to the many thousands of ideas incorporated in patent specifications, but not commercially developed. With the exception of certain special compounds, these recent developments may be classified as followed(a) (b) (c) (d) Long chain fatty compounds, Synthetic resins, Cellulosic derivatives, Quaternary ammonium compounds

The last three groups can be utilised to produce permanent effects, in contradistinction to the transient nature of most of the older finishing preparations On the basis of temporary and permanent effects, the following may be regarded as transient or impermanent finishes: Mechanical calendaring, beetling, schreinering, embossing and glazing, breaking and stretching Filling starch, gum, Epsom-salt, china clay and other mineral fillers Softening oils, fats, waxes, soaps, and deliquescent substance such as glucose, glycerine and magnesium chloride.

There are different processes undertaken for employing different finishes to the sheeting fabrics used in home furnishing. The different finishing imparted to the fabrics are1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Permanent set Anti-shrink Softening Waterproofing Mildew proofing Moth proofing Fireproofing

Permanent set Most of the fibres have a tendency to get deformed when stretched in water to 60-70%. Sometimes the fibres gets back to its original stage and sometimes not. The changes in the load extension curves of the fibres produced by steam or hot water are permanent to cold water. In other words, when fibres are stretched in cold water they are elastic, but the behaviour of the fibres which has been stretched in hot water for some time is different; it becomes set and does not cold water even in the absence of tension. This behaviour has been utilised in the textile finishing processes from very early times, and is often described as permanent set. True permanent set requires the prolonged action of steam, and it is now becoming common to refer to the set which is permanent to cold water as temporary set. The fact that fibres specially wool stretched in steam or hot water shows a highly diminished tendency to return to its original length, even when immersed in cold water, received little scientific attention until the work of Harrison, who attributed the effect to the plasticising action to steam or hot water, whereas Shorter considered that stem had a annealing effect. The aspect of the setting process was also examined by Astbury and Wood, who found that when stretched cellulosic fibres is set by caustic soda solution, or in steam, when contraction to less than original takes place, this effect was termed as super-contraction. Super contracted fibres can be stretched to twice their original length in cold water and show complete elastic recovery in cold water. The chemical mechanism responsible for permanent set has been examined by Speakman. Experiments on setting at various pH values revealed that the maximum setting properties of fibres are developed at pH 9.2; control of pH had not previously been generally exercised in the textile finishing process of crabbing and blowing, and uneven effect may easily result from various amounts of alkali in the fabric depending on the scouring and rinsing technique. The high degree of the permanence of the set obtained by boiling for 30 minutes in 0.05 M borax solution is seen by the fact that there was a little difference between the values of the set persisting after 2 minutes and 60 minutes release in boiling water.

From these results it appears that setting should be carried out at pH 9.2 or the highest figure below this value consistent with the necessary strength of the fabric; borax solutions of 2% concentration afford a simple means of realising this value. The processes used to impart permanent sett are crabbing, blowing, and boiling. The crabbing processes involve the use of hot water and tension, and in full crabbing process the effect is enhanced by wet blowing. The blowing process depends on the effect of steam at 100 C on cellulosic fibres under tension for a prolonged period; pressure blowing is a variation of this process. Boiling also involves the treatment of cellulosic (wool fibres under tension with water at 100 C, for a short time or at 75 to 80 C for a long time. In the process of crabbing, blowing and boiling, the cloth is usually wound on a roller under tension, so that a greater pressure is build up on the inner part of the roll than that which obtains on the outside; it is for this reason that it is generally advisable to give the piece a double treatment during which it is unwounded and reversed so that a uniform finish is obtained. The pressure during these processes improves the lustre of the goods. The crabbing process is directed to obviating any distortions of the yarn and cloth which might arise in wet processes due to the release of the latent strains in the fibres which, it will be recalled, is highly elastic. The actual conditions of crabbing must be determined to some extent by the subsequent processes through which the pieces have to pass. According to the process, the pieces are passed through boiling water at full width and under tension, and then run on to a beam for some time and allowed to cool. An alternative method is to wind the pieces under tension on a perforated iron cylinder which is immersed in water and the water is boiled by passing steam; the piece are then allowed to cool and are generally run on to a second cylinder, and the process is repeated in order that both ends of the goods should be evenly treated. This second method is sometimes referred to as a full crabbing process. In the ordinary crabbing machine there are two or three troughs supplied with hot and cold water or steam, and each trough contains crabbing roller with a weighing roller above; at the end of the machine is situated a perforated cylinder for steaming. The fabric runs over an expanding roller on to the first crabbing roller under suitable tension and pressure, where it revolves in the oiling liquor for the required length of time. It is then wound on to the second crabbing roller, and the process repeated; the goods are allowed to cool slowly on the final roller. A continuous crabbing process has been devised whereby the cloth is passed at a full width over a series of small rollers through a trough of hot water, and then cooled in cold water. The crabbing liquors may range from water to soap or alkali, but if crabbing takes place o scoured goods, then water alone is generally used. Blowing consists in subjecting the cloth to the action of stem, which is forced through the fabric under pressure; this process is also termed decasting. Steam is applied to the fabric while it is in a state of strain so that some permanent set is produced.

The fabric is wound on a perforated roller whose perforations are covered with a cotton or canvas wrapper; the winding takes place under tension, which must not be excessive or ‘pressure marks’ will result. A wide wrapper is then applied and the ends firmly bound with cords. Steam is blown through the rolls of the fabric for from 8 to 15 minutes, the fibres becomes plastic, stains are released, and various tensions relax to give a stable balanced product. This state is fixed by cooling, which is usually carried out by blowing cool air through the roll. It is essential that the cloth should be blow dried before removal. As with most of these treatments, it may be necessary to re-wind the fabric and blow again, so that both ends receive approximately the same treatment. This second treatment is usually of shorter duration since the fabric is generally hot from the first blowing. Anti-shrink The shrinkage of cotton goods on laundering has long been on e of the major problem requiring attention by textile technologists. All of us, at one time or another, have been subjected to annoyance by the shrinkage of our personal clothing during laundering, collars and shirts in case of men , undergarments and frocks with women. Parts of this shrinkage was undoubtedly due to the severe stretching of cotton goods during their manufacture, stretching which was deliberately undertaken in many cases to produce the maximum possible length and width. Even without any purposeful and drastic stretching for the profit motive, a certain amount of tension must inevitably be exerted on the cloth during the finishing operations as it passes through the various processes. Stenters- for the maximum contractive effect the previously moistened cloth is fed tangentially fed into the drums of the stenters. The drums have a chain of pins in both of the sides that come closer after the cloth is fed contracting the cloth in the warp direction. A series of ripples or small loops are thus created as the cloth proceeds up the stenter , where it is dried in a normal manner, but during the passage of the cloth the chain rails that are caused to diverge,as is usual at stenters, and slight extension of the weft removed the ripples in the warp direction, and this produces a stable cloth which has been contracted warp way. The stenters cause a positive shortening of the cloth in the direction of its length, due to the increase of crinkle in the warp threads consequent upon a partial reduction of crinkle of the weft threads; the positive contraction that is given by the feeding device is absorbed by the slight extension of the weft during the drying process, so that the cloth is delivered in a flat condition when dry. Sanforizing - in the sanforizing process, shrinkage is achieved by passing the cotton fabric on to a movable elastic felt blanket which is in a state of tension : when the tension on the blanket is released , it assumes a shortened condition, and the cotton fabric is forced to conform to this compression as it is held firmly in contact with the blanket by the drum. Before passing the cloth in a sanforising range, it must be tested in a standardised manner I order to determine the warp and weft shrinkage it will undergo on washing, for which the sanforising range is adjusted to cope with the potential shrinkage of the material.

The cloth is fed in the saforizing range through the feed roller s of the mangle, whose function it is to hold back hold back the material and only allow the blanket to contract it the required amount, as otherwise the blanket contracts the cloth to the maximum capacity of the blanket i.e., it is possible to over shrink the material. From the feed rollers the cloth passes between sprays which moisten it, thereby rendering the yarn soft and plastic and more easily compressible by the felt blanket; this moistening is assisted by a steaming apparatus called the skyer. The cloth then passes through a short clip expander or a stenterette which controls the width of the goods as they are fed to the blanket. The small stenter runs on the track so that it may be pushed back in order to adjust the small components of the machine. Then the fabric is kept in contact with electrically heated components for shrinkage and then after further treatment the both sides of the fabric is given an uniform look. Chemical methods- the goods which swell less upon immersing in water creates the problem of shrinkage. For such goods they are treated with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst to break the hydroxyl group of cellulose by the acetyl groups present in cellulosic fibres. Softening Softness is very frequently required in textile materials. The softening agents are derived from the natural fat or wax. Softeners therefore are applied as a finish to the materials to impart smoothness, fullness, suppleness, and flexibility all of which affect the draping properties. Fundamentally the softening of textiles depends on the surface application of oil, fats or waxes in one form or another. It is not always easy to express in words the exact differences between various softeners, but an excess of almost any softener gives a greasy effect, sometimes termed as slazy. Softening agets are divided into following classesi) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Emulsions of oils, fats and waxes Soaps Sulphonated oils Sulphated alcohols Fatty acid condensatation products Quaternary ammonium compounds

These all softening agents basically used direct or in the for of emulsions have a common characteristics of their fatty component which provides the suppleness to the fabric when treated with the same. Waterproofing The water proofing of fabrics can be divided in two broad categories-

(a) Process in which the interstices of the fabric , as well as the surface of the material, are covered with a film or skin in such a manner that the treated materials is not only water repellent, but impermeable to air and moisture (b) Processes whereby the fibres of the material are made water repellent through coating with a hydrophobic substance or by a chemical reaction, but the fabric remains porous to the air. The home furnishings products employ the second process for waterproofing as comfort has to be kept in mind. This process is often called as shower proofing. The different methods employed to give the finish arei) ii) iii) iv) v) Aluminium compounds applied alone, or with soap in order to form a hydrophobic metallic soap. Oils, fats, and waxes applied from solution in organic solvents or form aqueous emulsions. Vegetable and animal proteins Synthetic compounds of high molecular weight Chemical reactions produced on the fibre to give an actual compound with the textile material; the surface compound is both hydrophobic and permanent.

Treating with aluminium compounds is preferred as they don’t leave a disagreeable odour on the fabric and can be made easily. The general method is to run the cloth through the bath of aluminium compounds without squeezing and then roll them into a batch; this was repeated several times after which the cloth was plaited on a wagon and allowed to drain and then the fabric was dried by using steam. Paraffin wax is applied to the fabric for shower proofing. For the application different methods are employed which includes friction rubbing, spraying and emulsifications. The advantage of emulsification is that the treated fabric resembles the original fabric a lot. Mildew- proofing As spores and bacteria exist everywhere, the formation of moulds and mildew is possible on most textile fibres. The actual destruction of the textile fibres are due to the enzymes which are secreted by the micro-organism. The use of antiseptic materials is most common means for avoiding the growth of mildew in cotton goods, particularly cotton which contains starch or size. Substances such as phenol, cresol, salicylic acid, formaldehyde, and zinc chloride have been extensively used . Moth proofing Two chief methods that has been developed, and may be termed as temporary or permanent. The temporary mothproofing depends on impregnating the fibres with a substance of low vapour tension and the protective agent is the toxic vapour produced.

For permanent moth proofing different chemical compound such as alkaloids, nicotine, brucine, caffeine, and quinidine as well as synthetic organic compounds and inorganic salts of fluorine and silico- fluorides are preferred. Fire-proofing A fire proof fabric may be defined as one which does not propagate flame beyond the charred area. In general there are two fire proofing processes(a) The deposition of soluble salts (b) The precipitation of insoluble compounds on or in the fabric. The most common fire-proofing agents are ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, borax, sodium silicate, and zinc chloride. Many mixtures of soluble salts have been suggested, borax often being one constituent in conjunction with an ammonium salt. The permanent fire proofing is obtained by double decomposition between two soluble salts, the common process was to impregnate the fabric with a soluble salt, dry the goods, and then impregnate in a second salt solution to give an insoluble precipitate

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