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Information and Communication Technology ICT 201 AutoCAD Handout

AutoCAD commands are normally in either italics or boldface, but those in boldface are commands you are being instructed to carry out as part of the tutorial; so the commands should be typed exactly as shown. Those in italics are suggestions or other references to commands. Lines beginning with an asterisk contain instructions to carry out a process of some kind. We are probably not entirely consistent in these matters, but . . . As the tutorial progresses, some of the instructions will become less complete, on the assumption that you have learned a good deal about the system and can figure out more on your own. If you find an incomplete description of a command, please check to see if a fuller description was provided earlier. We recommend that you work with the tutorial and otherwise work with AutoCAD for more than an hour at a time during your first week and that you try to work with the system daily for the first week. You will find that your comfort level increases and you will relax with the system more readily if you work with the system frequently and for longer stretches of time during the learning period. Please note that we are instructing you to use keyboard commands exclusively. Virtually every one could be initiated with a menu selection instead. Feel free to experiment with other ways to activate the commands we've chosen; they should work the same whether started from the keyboard or a pull-down menu. We did choose to have you type commands, though, because we think that is quicker in the long run - and because the keyboard commands are consistent from one version of AutoCAD to another, while the pull-down menus are not always consistent in terms of on-screen location. (You will note that the commands are visible in the three-line command window below the drawing window. The size of the command window is adjustable via standard Windows procedures.) IMPORTANT NOTE: Some newer versions of AutoCAD include a feature called Dynamic Entry that changes the way entries typed at the keyboard are echoed on the monitor screen. This feature can be toggled on and off via a button at the bottom of the AutoCAD screen (next to "OTRACK") called "DYN." You should be sure that this feature is toggled off. While it will not invalidate any of the procedures used here, it will seriously complicate data entry by making typed numbers hard to find. (For an image of this feature and work and some further comments, see the CSA Newsletter, Vol. XIX, No. 1, "AutoCAD 2006: A Review, by Harrison Eiteljorg, II. That review of AutoCAD 2006 also points up another problem concerning AutoCAD layers. Since that concept will be introduced later in the tutorial, the problem will be discussed at that time.)

Finally, we have found through experimentation that you should read all of each command procedure before beginning to carry out the instructions. Sometimes things seem unclear but are quite obvious if you know the full sequence at the beginning; at other times, the first steps will be puzzling if you aren't aware of the ones to follow. In any case, the point is not to do the exercises; it is to understand how to use the commands.

Session One:
Basic Drawing commands - units, limits, redraw, regen, control-c (escape key), help, line, zoom, id, endpoint, F2, erase, undo, pline, qsave, 3dpoly, distance, move, copy, point specifying processes, text, editing objects, mslide, end First begin AutoCAD. * When the system is ready, type new and a carriage return or enter (hereafter <cr>) and give your file a name. (AutoCAD 2006 will start with a new blank document and does not require the new command. A name will be required when the document is saved. - AutoCAD 2000 requires that you select the new file icon in the start-up menu and will not require a name until you are ready to save the file. When you start a new file, AutoCAD 2000 will ask you to select whether you want to work in English or metric dimensions. Please choose metric. Before you start working with your file, please type save and <cr> and give the file a name.) The name you choose is up to you, but we recommend a six-character name that will leave two characters (in a DOS, eightcharacter naming system) to identify different versions of the file. Thus, you can save each successive iteration of the file under a new but related name, differing only by the numbers in the last two characters of the file name (e.g., myfile00, myfile01, myfile02, etc.) and preserve the file from each session separately. AutoCAD automatically appends the .dwg extension to the file name. Please note that there is now an icon with arrows in the lower left corner of the drawing window. The arrows indicate the directions for the x and y axes. There may also be a W in it, indicating that you are working in the world coordinate system. Don't worry about that for now, but do note that the direction of the arrows will change as you manipulate the drawing, always indicating the x and y axes. UNITS Before starting a drawing, you must determine the units with which the drawing will be made, the ways numbers are displayed, and some other drawing procedures. (If you are using AutoCAD 2000, the choices are similar, but there are now Windows-style dialog boxes for you to make your choices; the AutoCAD 2006 version is shown in the Illustration. It should be clear how to match the suggestions that follow for R14.)

Fig. 1 - An empty AutoCAD drawing, with the dialog box for units showing. Note arrows for the x and y axes in the lower left corner. (This and the following two images will be presented at full size unless your browser automatically reduces them. That may make viewing a bit more problematic, and it will certainly make printing more difficult, but it should make the screen shots more clear while you are still in the beginning stages of this exercise.) * Type units and <cr>. You will then be presented with a dialog box or asked, in sequence, to choose the following: If you have a dialog box instead of the list of questions, use it to make the same choices. * the measuring system (choose decimals - the system does not care what the base unit is, only whether it will be divided into decimals or 12ths or whatever - for our purposes the base unit is the meter), * the number of decimal points to be displayed (choose 3 so that we are dealing with millimeters as the smallest unit displayed), * the way angles will be measured (choose decimal degrees), * the number of fractional places to be displayed for angles (choose 4), * where the zero angle will be (choose North- the default is East - you will need to go to the next dialog box - Directions - in AutoCAD 2006), * and whether you will measure positive angles as clockwise (choose yes). Note that the latest versions of AutoCAD will require you to call up a sub-window for some of these selections.

After the last choice, you should see your drawing window again. But, on some DOS systems, that won't happen, and you will still be looking at the text screen. If so, press the F1 key to return to the drawing screen. Current versions of AutoCAD use the F1 key to call up help. F2 is used to view or hide the text window with past commands shown. That window can be scrolled to let you see the commands you have entered since the beginning of your drawing session. Looking back through your commands to diagnose a problem can be very helpful. (It is possible to save the entire sequence of prompts, commands, and responses in a log file. This can be useful in some circumstances. The process can be found in an AtudoCAD manual.) LIMITS Another set-up process is setting the drawing limits. You don't have to set limits, but if you do set them, you can protect yourself from erroneously drawing things outside those limits. Setting limits also makes it easy to call up in your viewing window only that area defined by the stated limits. * Type limits and <cr> and then give two sets of coordinates (x and y only) for the limits. * Type -10,-10 and <cr> for the lower left corner. * Type 15,15 and <cr> for the upper right corner. * To make the limits active, type limits and <cr> again and choose on and <cr>. (With limits set but turned off, you can draw outside the limits, something you may want to do on occasion.) Now you will be unable to draw anything with an x or y value greater than 15 or smaller than -10. REDRAW, REGEN, Control-C (escape key) Note that the commands redraw and regen (regenerate) can be used at any time to refresh the screen; these commands remove the marks left from various editing processes; the escape key generally accomplishes the same task. Redraw simply draws the same image again; regen requires the system to start from the database and reconstruct all parts of the model from scratch. As a result, if you have changed a system variable that alters the appearance of the display, Redraw will draw the same image and not reflect the change of the system variable; regen will reflect the change in the system variable. Feel free to use these commands at any time. Also note that controlc will interrupt most processes. If you find yourself in the midst of something you want to stop, just type control-c - but in Release 13 and later, use the escape key instead. (It's easy to type control-x instead of control-c; if you do type control-x the word delete may appear - depending on the version you're using. That does not mean that a part of the drawing has been deleted; control-x should just cancel a command that has been partially typed.) Please note the use of the term model in the foregoing. A CAD model is more than a drawing, since you can zoom in and change viewing angles; so we will try always to use the term model to refer to the computer version of your work.


you must be sure not to type a space by habit or. Use the mouse to select the point for the end of the line (wherever you like) and type <cr> to terminate the command. The first point needs a diagonally opposite one to define the window. that AutoCAD will treat a <cr> or a space at the command prompt as a restatement of the last command. we will use <cr> to indicate either.6<cr> and then 3.perish the thought -. (There is an AutoCAD system variable that will change the window selection process to click-and-drag.) (AutoCAD treats a space as equivalent to a <cr>. so it can be confusing if there is little showing on screen.0<cr>. when we complete this command.4. Let's make another line that starts from the the same point as the first line. look below at the <Undo> command. this tutorial is not crystal clear -.) Since the space is equivalent to the <cr>. either a mouse click or another set of coordinates. but if you just click. You have a series of options available. * Type line<cr> (or l<cr>) and use the mouse to select the starting point of a new line. LINE * To begin our drawing.6. but I want you to have zoomed in very close for this). * Enter the ending point 6. The F1 key also takes you to the Help system on later versions.3. You may be able to move the crosshairs from one point to the other to see where the two points are.5. in addition. and click again with the mouse or type two sets of coordinates (x and y only).4. but it zooms in on the center of the can type help (or ?) and <cr> to get AutoCAD's help menu. * Having entered z<cr>. That can be very useful. the system will assume that you mean to define the corners of a window for the new view. ID.If. continue by typing 3. type line (or just l) followed by a space or <cr>. (If you make a mistake and cannot figure out how to correct it. Thus. * Then type <cr> to end the command. we could use the <cr> key to start the line drawing process again. if you do type the space.6<cr> to define a zoom window with two diagonally opposite points (you could do that with the mouse. Endpoint * Type z<cr> (for zoom). Or do you? ZOOM. again.4. but this is not the time to worry about changing system variables. for any reason. with no space between. Obviously. Now you have two lines that meet. You have now zoomed in very close to the origin points of your two lines and can see that you may not really have the second line beginning precisely where the first one did. to omit the <cr>.) More recent version of AutoCAD will also zoom in if you simply use the scroll wheel on your mouse. now enter the coordinates 2. * The Line command was started. just look at the coordinate window at the top of the drawing .0<cr> to specify the starting point of the line. Note. move the mouse. we will continue to use a convention of command and <cr> or command<cr> to indicate that you should type first the command and then the <cr>. Start it just at the beginning of the last line. so from here on.

Or you can specify the use of an existing point in the model with a command such as endpoint. (You may have to use the F1 key if you are using a DOS version of AutoCAD. but all Windows programs are supposed to use F1 for help. It is safest to use the keyboard to enter point coordinates in your model directly. Now any time you are near an endpoint and trying to select a point. type F2 again to return to the model. F2 in Windows versions (or F1 in DOS versions) * You have chosen to examine two sets of coordinates. type endpoint<cr> or select the right mouse key.) The full text screen will show much more text. * Type id<cr> and then type endpoint<cr>. the system will automatically select the endpoint near the cursor.and often unwanted . though with AutoCAD 2000/2006 you may have had unseen . From this point on. but you should understand that to mean either the F2 key or the F1 key. check to be sure on your version of AutoCAD. Then choose Endpoint from the list of object tracking modes. Better yet. If you need to place a point very close to another. endpoint<cr>. and then pick the point you want. including the numbers you asked for. be sure to turn off the object . to have the object snap feature over-ride an attempt to place a point very close to an existing point. When you're ready to choose the point. Check the from the system to attach your second line to the first one. If object snap mode is on. Otherwise. If object snap mode is off.type id<cr>. but you won't be able to see both sets of numbers at once with the small text area at the bottom of the drawing screen. * After you've compared them.window to see your location. and select the end of the line. even when using coordinates from the keyboard. the corner of a rectangle. Note that asking for the identification of a point requires that you specify that you want the endpoint of the line (you could also specify midpoint or center). clicking on osnap at the bottom of the AutoCAD window will turn it on or pop up the dialog box if no tracking modes have been selected. Put a check mark in the box for Object Snap On. A dialog box will appear giving you too many choices. Experimentation will show how close you need to be to an existing endpoint to select it.or no key at all if the text window pops up by itself. (Now do the same for the other line . The system will display the coordinates of the end of the line . etc. not just the point where the cursor lies. not just a point in space. with endpoint being one of the first words shown. It may cause a pop-up menu to appear. let the computer tell you precisely where the end of each line is located. depending on the system you are using . (The right-click procedure does not work with AutoCAD 2000 or 2006.) The simplest was to select an endpoint is to click the osnap button at the bottom of the AutoCAD 2000/2006 window. but not for Object Snap Tracking On. you would simply receive the coordinates of the point where the cursor lay. try it the next time you need to use endpoint. (A warning: it is not uncommon. not the end of the line.. You may be able to use your mouse to indicate that you will pick an endpoint of a line. the tutorial will instruct you to use the F2 key on occasion. Move your mouse to put the box around the end of one of the lines and click to select it. The cursor will become the shape of a small box. The F1 key was the standard until Windows. so you may need to type the F2 key to call up the full-text screen. Try using the right button on your mouse. you can just click in the drawing window if you're using AutoCAD 2000/2006.using endpoint tells the system that you want it to find the end of a line. clicking on the button may turn it off. If that works. This exercise should have demonstrated that you can't rely on your hands and eyes for precision.

* For the third point.8. This problem has been less in evidence in recent versions.0. * Oops. Then type <cr> to complete the command.8. ERASE * Erase the two lines by typing erase<cr> and selecting both lines with the mouse. . * For point two. -1. (When using polar coordinates.) * Now. y-..8. but you can use a similar notation system to indicate an angle of elevation or an absolute elevation of the new point. So point three lies at 6.0<cr> .-. the same x-value as point two. * Type z<cr> and p<cr> to zoom to your previous view. the new point will be at 3. This type of specification is also based on the previous point.) Let's now get back to the original view and delete the lines we just drew. We only drew them to make the point that your model may not necessarily be as precise as it appears on screen. UNDO * Type u<cr> now to undo the last choice. for point two.) Since 270 degrees will make the line go to our left.75.8. the < character indicates to the system that you are using polar coordinates in the same sense that the @ character tells the system you are entering coordinates relative to the prior point. Type @0. Typing redraw<cr> after you finish with the line will remove them.25.e.0<cr>. type 3. * Then type c<cr> to indicate that the figure should close onto its first point. a y-value . Now we'll start our model again.8. 7.8. We won't try to deal with those notation systems yet.0<cr>. Note that the variable you saw when setting the units will determine how the 270-degree entry is treated by AutoCAD.8.snap feature and then check your results to be sure the new point is where you intend it to be. you will use what are called polar coordinates to specify the position of the point.these are the x-.8.75 units smaller than that of point two. 7. the z-coordinate is omitted and the new point is placed at the same elevation as the previous one. * Type l<cr> to start a line. * For point one. and a z-value 1 unit smaller.75. y-. * For the fourth point. You can always enter coordinates directly from the keyboard like this. -1. the coordinates for the second point. you are going to tell the system where the point is to be. type 6. (In a sequence like this. you can keep typing u<cr> to undo all but the very first point in the sequence. type 5.8.25. not in absolute terms as you've done thus far. and z-coordinates of the first point of the line. but relative to the second (last) point. but you may see the markers on the screen indicating the points you chose. you should have typed 6.-1<cr> to indicate that the new point has those x-. i. and z-coordinates relative to the prior point. Type @3<270<cr> to indicate that the new point is 3 units distant and at a 270-degree angle from the third point.

type @0. But.. regardless of how much or how little had been drawn. You can see that there is a problem here. * Then type c<cr> to close the figure. The model will be fitted tightly to the lower left corner of your window. Now your drawing is a bit small.2x<cr> to indicate that you want the new display to reduce the size of the drawing to one fifth the current size. type @. the window would include all the area within the drawing limits. You can make a window with your mouse to indicate the zoom window or give it coordinates. and we have another rectangle that we will call Rect. since I will be trying to keep track of your drawing progress. type pline<cr>. we will call it Rect. * For the third point. AutoCAD will treat all the pieces of a lightweight polyline as parts of a single entity in the model. * For the second point.75. but it will be obvious in a 3D view. So you can do what AutoCAD calls a transparent zoom. There are two differences. You should note that the third and fourth points have elevations different from the elevation of the first two points. However. if we asked it to zoom to "extents" (abbreviated e) it would show only the parts of the drawing actually containing drawing entities. The process is not much different from the process you used to draw a line. * Use the coordinates 3. This will make what AutoCAD calls a polyline (LW polyline or light-weight polyline in later versions). please return to the previous image size after you zoom in.0<cr>.0<cr>. it should be drawn as a polyline so that it can be treated as a single item. type 3. Feel free to do that at any time. as we did before. i.-6<cr>. each line segment would be treated as a distinct entity.e. * For the fourth point.Now you have drawn a simple rectangle.or z space-key e space-key) to indicate that the drawing window should include all of the pieces of the model. First. * For the first point. Two. Type 'z<cr> and then type . so type zoom<cr> extents<cr> (or z<cr> e<cr> .) During the course of these exercises you may need to zoom in to make your image larger. That does not show in a plan view. All points must lie at the same elevation. The apostrophe tells the system that you are invoking a command transparently. If you drew the same figure with the line command. a light-weight polyline is a 2D figure. Return to the previous image size by typing zoom<cr> previous<cr> . PLINE * To draw a similar figure with a different process. a zoom in the middle of a command without interrupting the command.9<cr> for the upper left corner and 7.75<270<cr>. The new figure does not show in the drawing window. (If we asked for the system to zoom to all of the drawing. A. B. type @.8. * Type zoom<cr> or z<cr> to zoom in on the figure. If you want to move or copy a line with many individual segments.3. Now you can see enough to continue. within another command.6<cr> for the lower right corner.

to convert lines into a polyine if and only if the lines all lie in the same horizontal plane. stating the action and then picking the object to act on (verb-noun). as mentioned above. * Type 3dpoly<cr>. save from the pull-down menu works as qsave from the keyboard does . we entered a z-value only once. for the second rectangle we gave all the points the same value for z. At this point. You have now drawn Rect. * For the fourth point. it's probably easier to select the item and then name the action if you are only working on one item. Note: The pull-down menu commands are different here. type @. is to use the command 3dpoly. If you want to save the file under a different name. * Type qsave<cr>. but that's from the point choosing process. because.) QSAVE Since you have drawn a couple of figures. type @-2. there are differences we will talk about later). for the first point. the last corner of the figure may show some extra marks. you have to remind the system of the file name. This command creates a 3D polyline (not to be confused with a standard or light-weight polyline. It is not possible automatically to convert the polyline into lines or a 3d polyline. Note that you have three rectangles. 3DPOLY Another way to make a polyline. Depending on your version of AutoCAD.8. * Then type c<cr> to close the figure. Use save as from the pull-down menu to save a file under a new name.1<cr>. it's a good idea to save often to make sure you don't lose your work.75<180<cr>. (If you had tried to provide a z-value. just type save and then enter the new file name. * For the third point. C. It is possible. but a polyline with variable z-coordinates.0<cr>. standard AutoCAD polylines must have the same elevation throughout. type 3. and one of a single 3d polyline. AutoCAD will permit you to do either. nor is it possible to convert a 3d polyline into lines. if you just type save.You will see that this figure is another rectangle. but better to .0. of course. one of a single polyline. If you type redraw<cr>. the system would have rejected the input. As with any program. you should now stop to save your work.0<cr>. Generally speaking. Using qsave eliminates the need to type the file name. the extra marks will disappear.0. you should hear about the difference between choosing an object and then saying what to do to it (noun-verb) and the reverse process. Once we supplied a z-value with the first point. * The system will prompt you for "Close/Undo/<Endpoint of line>:" The brackets indicate the system's default expectation. * For the first point. * So for the second point. However. all successive z-values were determined. one consisting of lines.saving the file under its current name. simply type @2.5. though.

You may. then type midpoint<cr> again. if you have chosen an object. to ask AutoCAD to supply distances between the points in the model. and select the left side of Rect. you may end your drawing session by accident when you type end. We can use midpoint or mid instead of endpoint to find out more simply than by starting with endpoints. however.50. DISTANCE To use the distance command. In AutoCAD 2000 you will find that using endpoint works. C. A to the middle of the facing end of Rect. the last rectangle looks a little too low. to align them for our purposes. and it will remain highlighted until you do something to it or type control-C twice (escape key with Release 13 and AutoCAD 2000/2006) to deselect all objects. A. That is. if you look closely.05. C. As it is. We must first know how far we are going to move it. however. you will see that the difference in xcoordinates is 0. Please note that. You must be sure. it is not possible to identify such object points precisely with the mouse alone. That's more difficult to do if you name the objects first. not points in space. but we are only concerned with the y-coordinate difference. When you would select the endpoint of a line with the mouse. As you saw earlier. we really want to know what the distance is from the middle of the side of Rect. it will be highlighted (with a broken line and. and the difference in z-coordinates is 0. you can query AutoCAD with the command distance ( or dist)<cr>.state the action first if you are working on many items at once.375. But that's not really the right distance for us to move Rect. the difference in y-coordinates is . we just want to move Rect. if you mistype dist so that the system does not understand that to be a command. we need to change the ycoordinates but not the x. you can keep adding (or removing) objects to act on until you are satisfied. * Now let's move the last rectangle we drew so that the three rectangles form a letter F. We would like the rectangle to be in the middle of the vertical rectangle on the left. If you state the action first. in later versions. C up by 0. C. You should find that the middle of the side of Rect. Type dist<cr>. so we need to move it up. AutoCAD would interpret that as the end command described below . type endpoint<cr> again and select the other end of the line with the mouse. C. but the designers assume you would rather use the object snap feature. but. so AutoCAD must be told to seek points on the objects.627 units from the middle of Rect. then select the right side of Rect. The distance between the two points should then be displayed by AutoCAD. The distance reported includes the distance the two points are apart in all three axes . blue squares to indicate the crucial points of the entity).375. So. use either procedure with equal results. * In this case.but remember that the mouse probably lets you avoid typing altogether). you would type dist<cr> and then endpoint<cr> (end will also work.or z-coordinates. MOVE .627. But where is the middle? To find out. then midpoint<cr>. The three-dimensional distance between the points is 0. because we want the middles to be in line horizontally but not to be in the same place.that is. A is 0.

Finally. . at the second prompt. * We can specify those coordinates in two steps. a corner of the figure. You would have entered the displacement at the first prompt. B and the y-value of the lower right corner of Rect. when prompted for "Second point of displacement:. and that's not easy. C.375. you may select a base point at the first prompt (with coordinates from the keyboard or with the mouse or with endpoint<cr> and the mouse) and then. initiate the command if you have not already done so. * Then type copy<cr> and. and then. B with the mouse. and then indicate which point on the item should be used to determine its position (the "base point"). 375 unit in the y direction. * Then type move<cr> and. A and the left side of Rect. That would tell the system to move the object nothing in the x direction. and you want to place that new rectangle so that it fits the pattern . new points from the keyboard. B.375 units in the y direction). For instance.) * You will then be asked for the second point of displacement.) * You know that the figure is to be moved . (Be sure not to include any of Rect.* To move Rect. when prompted for "<Base point or displacement>/ Multiple:. then you must deselect . indicate the new location of that point with the mouse. If you select too much so that Rect.) The system will indicate that you still need a y-coordinate and a z-coordinate. then endpoint<cr>. (Be certain to type endpoint first. Another way to look at that is to realize that the lower left corner of the new rectangle should have the x-value of the lower left corner of Rect. B. either by enclosing it in a window or by just clicking on each line making the rectangle. B). or vectors (the @-style locations we used before). * Alternatively. .x<cr>. That would accomplish the same result. (The period before the x in that sequence indicates that you are supplying only the x-coordinate for the new location.C by clicking on any part of it." ("Multiple" will not be included in AutoCAD 2006) you should choose the lower left corner of Rect.) You will need to be sure you have each line of Rect. and nothing at the second. A or C. you will first select the item to copy. that's the point you will position accurately. A has also been selected. B. * Begin by selecting Rect. (That's what makes using AutoCAD either interesting or infuriating. you could first select.. since it was drawn using the line command instead of the polyline command.using Control-C or the escape key twice . you will define the new location for the base point (the "second point of displacement"). you can copy the horizontal rectangle at the top (Rect. The whole rectangle should be highlighted. Note: if you had responded with m<cr> that would have indicated that you wanted to make multiple copies .0<cr> and then." you have two different options." just type <cr> to complete the command. B. then pick the appropriate corner of Rect. COPY To place another rectangle along the bottom and to make our F into an E.. when prompted for the "Base point or displacement:. as follows: type .0<cr>.375 units up (. A. To copy it and put it in the correct place. as the base point.with its corner aligned with the bottom of Rect. when prompted for the new location of that point. select Rect. so you could type 0. depending on your point of view.and start again. and nothing in the z direction.375. type some versions of AutoCAD.

Now you could just drag to a new point. (In AutoCAD 2000 you will need another carriage return. and you have a Rect. Type 0<cr>.3<cr>. right. You should see the lines highlighted and a blue box in each corner. i.0. We recommend . It would look better as the leg of an E if it were about . * You will probably find that the text is too far to the right. in AutoCAD parlance). the system will use 90 degrees as the default. you can just click on the handle and drag the text to the left so that it falls entirely inside the rectangle. * Pick a point in the middle of rectangle B (the horizontal one at the top) with the mouse or type the coordinates. the system would have used those. * Type the text.. it will turn solid red.* Type . but you know that using the mouse alone for location can be dangerous. AutoCAD calls the blue boxes handles. D. D (just click on the lines with the mouse). Click on it and note the blue square at the left end (the handle. B<cr>. Pick the box in the upper right corner. you will want to rotate the text so that the label fits. (What would have happened if you had only selected the line on the . The system will then indicate that you still need a z-coordinate. you can move them easily.and z-coordinates of the point then selected. D. the x.and y-coordinates or the x.e. When you label Rect. and then do the same for the bottom right point.4. and then pick the appropriate corner of Rect A. The new figure should now be in the correct place. since we have specified 0 degrees as north. What should the rotation angle be? Type qsave<cr> to save your work. but it seems too short. * Label the other rectangles in the same fashion. and bottom of Rect.) TEXT * The rectangles should be labeled on screen so that we can refer to them more easily. Do that. So you can also type @.8x<cr> (to make the new image only 80% the size of the current image). But we can't quite reach all the edges of the rectangle currently. prompted you for the missing third coordinate. you should respond with the height of the text . then endpoint<cr>. * Type text<cr>.in drawing units. * The next prompt asks for rotation angle. and then placed your object.xz. since multi-line text is permitted.xy or . Let's change it using one of AutoCAD's easiest editing features. The command for this is text and you will have to choose the location for the text with your mouse or with coordinates typed at the keyboard. Now select the lines that make the top. EDITING OBJECTS * The lowest horizontal rectangle should be Rect. so type zoom<cr>.0<cr> to move the point.y<cr>. A. * You will then be prompted for height. (If you had typed . Accept the default.4 unit longer. Instead of typing move. Rect.

But it's only an image.) Fig. this is built into the tutorial in case an instructor wants to be able to check your progress easily by seeing what the screen looked like at the end of the session. and the rectangle would have been pulled apart. Other than showing you how to make a screen image. by typing mslide<cr> and giving the slide the same name you have used for your model file plus the character "1.sld to the file name.") AutoCAD automatically appends . (This command allows any screen image to be saved ." the slide file will be named "jsmith1.and then retrieved for viewing." (For example.) MSLIDE * Now save a screen image as a file for an image only .The completed model after session 1. END . 2 . If you are using the tutorial alone.right of the rectangle? The move would only have affected that line. if your model file is named "jsmith. you need not save additional screen images.

3dface. this isometric view makes the rectangles appear to be very irregular. using Release 13 or later you could use the VIEW pull-down menu. we put its lower left corner at the elevation (zvalue) of 0. Later releases also have a view command that will provide access to preset views. They are. in the sense that the corners have different elevations. You will also see that the Rect. . you will be prompted to save the drawing file if there have been changes since the last save. the four rectangles you have drawn seem to present simple figures.) AutoCAD 2000/2006 does not recognize the end command. transparent commands. pan. however. and select. of course. Type end<cr>.) As you can see. In plan view. (If you just say quit. undo. using the open<cr> command or the pull-down menu. southeast isometric. erase. vports. oops Begin by opening your model. hide.1<cr>. osnap. but AutoCAD will prompt you to be sure that's what you intend.* Now you need to save the file and quit. D are not at the same elevation. (Alternatively. list. zoom. they will look quite a bit different.-1. B and Rect. but when we drew the original rectangle. VPOINT * To obtain a view from the southeast (assuming the x axis to be the east-west axis). Can you figure out why? When we copied Rect. chprop. pedit. vslide. so use quit<cr> instead. type vpoint<cr> and then type 1. under preset. If you view them three-dimensionally. with a viewing position that will give you a 45-degree angle looking downward. B (a 3d polyline with each corner at a different elevation). we put the upper left corner at 0 elevation. End of Session One ******* Session Two: vpoint. your work since the last save will be lost.

If you type elev or elevation. it will tell you the total length of the polyline and. C looks very strange because its corners are at different elevations. so some of them look as though they are in the wrong place here. but correct. Users of AutoCAD 2000 or later will find that nearly all the same information can be found in the Properties window.) LIST * Type list<cr>. B.and y-values when we picked the point for the text.Fig.) To return to the drawing window.The model seen in an isometric view . among other things. that is 0 now. Rect. type F2. Note that elevations of the points show how we changed them when we copied Rect. (If you use list on a polyline. Where are the labels? They are all drawn at an elevation of 0. then select the lines in let you be reassured that what you have drawn is correct . 3 . (There is a default value for elevation. the area enclosed. D. . and it determined the elevation of the text. if it is a closed polyline. Then type <cr>. you can change that default . B and Rect. since we could only indicate the x.but please don't do that now.ridiculous looking. You will find a new window or the text screen showing the beginning and ending points of the two lines.

in plan view." restricted to the right side of the AutoCAD window. The active viewport (some commands will affect only the active viewport) is the one with the heavy border and the only one in which the mouse cursor is indicated by a crosshair. The command will always show you the complete drawing. Type vports<cr> in later versions of AutoCAD and then select two vertical view ports. Just type pan<cr> and then (older versions) pick a point and a second point to indicate the distance and direction of the pan or (newer versions) use the hand icon to move the model around until you are happy with its location and then just <cr>. and it is more efficient for most purposes. you can click with the mouse in the inactive one. or you can type control-c or the escape key to interrupt the process.VPORTS * To see that. If you want to change the active viewport. CHPROP * Use the viewport containing the plan view. users of AutoCAD 2000 or later may prefer to use the Properties window.) PAN You will probably find that the figures are too close to the corner of the viewport. you can accomplish the same changes by using the pull-down Modify command and selecting Properties. the properties of any selected entity or entities will be shown. * You are going to change the thickness of the lines. you should now type chprop<cr> to change one or more properties of the rectangle. depending on your version of AutoCAD) will appear. For this set of changes . * Having selected Rect. (Note: Thickness does not mean what you would expect. In older versions.) . In that case. (If you click in the active viewport. type plan<cr><cr> again to return to the basic plan view. the rectangles are still positioned as they were. Don't worry about that variable for now. They can be changed in this window or with the command sequence described in the following. which is shown in brackets. and then type plan<cr><cr>. the system will assume that you are trying to select an object. so you should type t<cr> and then set the new thickness to 1. If you are using AutoCAD 2000 or later.) * Select the viewport on the right. It does not refer to the width of the line as drawn but to the height or depth of the line. When you have finished. with only its width adjustable. A by clicking on it with the mouse.and any following uses of the chprop command. let's divide the drawing window into two halves . Then you must type another <cr> to complete the command. and select Rect. Experiment with this command to see how it can help you get the right part of the drawing where you want it. so you may want to use the pan command to shift your image so that the part you are interested in lies more nearly in the center of your drawing window. A. you may need to click again to finish making a selection window.AutoCAD calls them viewports. you will need to type vports<cr> and then 2<cr> and just <cr> (to accept splitting the screen on a vertical line). if it's not the active one. It should be clear how to work in this window to accomplish the changes described. (The second <cr> tells the system to accept the default UCS. A new window (which may be "docked.

switch to the isometric viewport and type hide<cr> in the command line. but it only works on the active viewport. (An isometric view is a 3D view without foreshortening. That version of the command will make all views of the model hidden-line views until the command is countermanded by the View. these thick lines are treated as surfaces. A now have thickness (in AutoCAD's terminology). A. It's quicker to generate and easier to move about in than a true perspective view. It now looks as if Rect. Notice what is hidden. I don't know why. Shade. a change which is visible only in the viewport with the 3D view. A is a box with no top or bottom. A. There is also a hidden command in the View. (But the box should hide the text.Observe the change in Rect. so you may have to change viewports and try again. Note that the hide command can be invoked from the View pulldown menu in recent versions of AutoCAD. depending on your version. "Rect. furthermore. HIDE * To see that these thick lines are treated as surfaces. it is.) . The lines for Rect." and may not. We will not bother with perspective views for a good while. Shade pull-down and fly-out menu. For all practical purposes. 3D Wireframe command.) That command shows how the model should really look with surfaces (here only thick lines).

but experience suggests caution nevertheless. did you use endpoint when you made the top of the box? If not. Look in the manual to see what the other possibilities are and to see how else to turn the object-snap function on and off. you can tell the system that all mouse clicks are intended to find the end of the nearest line (easier than typing endpoint before selecting the point. type 3dface<cr> and then pick the four top corners of the box with the mouse. just use the toggle button. easier still. as we did before. Since you are going to use only existing points in the model to make this surface. etc. So it can be dangerous to work with the object snap on all the time. as mentioned above.) 3DFACE * To make the new top surface. If it does not work for you. starting with any corner and working counter-clockwise. and the hidden line drawing looks a bit different. But the text may still show in some versions! If your figure does not look correct. * Since we've finished drawing the 3D face.) Hit the <cr> after selecting the fourth point and again to finish the figure. with later versions. You can't select the top corners. midpoint.The split viewport with hidden-line isometric view on the left and plan view on the right. 4 . you must make an explicit surface. (Osnap stands for object snap. If a new point is to be very close to an existing one. using the 3dface command. we need to turn off the requirement that the system find the ends of lines. (A 3dface may have more than four corners. right-click the osnap button and the dialog box can be invoked by choosing settings. a dialog box will pop up for you to make one. A. do not select the first point as first and last point. * Type hide<cr> again to see the results. If you have made no choice. this command simply allows you to select a standard part of an object . (Some people have reported problems with this command. * Type osnap<cr> in later versions of AutoCAD or. difficulties can arise. if we don't. So type osnap<cr> and then off<cr> or use the toggle button. as opposed to the bottom ones.) Now the hollow box has a lid. the corners will not be in the right place. You can turn the object snap off by typing osnap<cr> and then off<cr>. If you have made a choice and want to change it. (The button is an on/off toggle unless you have made no choices for what kind of point should be selected. select the button at the bottom of the screen and then check the endpoint choice.and have the cursor snap to it. but the use of more than four points is tricky. . the system may choose the existing point rather than making a new one even if you're typing the coordinates of a new one.Fig. Check your manual. in the plan view. OSNAP The only surfaces we have made so far are on the sides of a hollow box. you will need to follow the command with endpoint<cr>.endpoint. This seems to have been remedied in recent versions of AutoCAD. To give the box a top. look in the View pull-down menu for the hide command. when you're going to do so several times). (Be sure to work on the 3D view. (Using the object snap can cause problems when you're trying to pick a point close to another.) In older versions. Rect.) Now AutoCAD will try to find the nearest end of a line any time you specify a point with the mouse. .

colored. the program will not find the endpoint.* This is a good time to save your work. z=0.800.but this is the place to use the Properties window if you are using AutoCAD 2000). if you are working with a 3dface or a polyface mesh and wish to use the osnap<cr> feature (either implicitly by toggling the feature on or explicitly by typing endpoint<cr>).800. and the entire polyline is one entity. each line is independent and must be given a new thickness independently. but it can be confusing with a shape like this. They can have a different elevation for each vertex. so be sure you understand the figure and then select the 3D viewport. You will need to work in the 3D viewport to make the 3dface. Now select the other sides of the two rectangles and make them 1 unit thick. rotated. though. If layer 0 is turned off but not frozen. D thick as well.000. type id<cr> and then. C. D (using the direct click method. Only part of each rectangle has thick lines.000 (1 unit above the corner we just located). However. one that has different elevations at the corners so I recommend the plan view here). . in AutoCAD 2006. let's make the lines for Rect. there should be no problem. on the other hand. I cannot be sure about other versions since AutoCAD 2000. when you start up again. Now change the thickness to 1 (the command is chprop. and altered in other ways with a single selection. Polylines can be moved. * Now click on the other viewport and type redraw<cr>. add explicit surfaces (3D faces) to the basic rectangle with the 3dface command. C. are multiple entities. If layer 0 has been frozen. B and the top edge of Rect. (If you were to quit now. select the top edge of Rect. However. there is a serious potential problem of which you should be aware. lines with multiple segments. there would still be two viewports. To do that. you would find that. But "normal" polylines (now officially called light-weight polylines or lwpolylines) cannot have different elevations at different vertices.375. PROBLEM WITH AUTOCAD 2006. lines cannot. was made of a polyline. * Using either viewport (the 3D viewport is often best with complex shapes. Why? Because each rectangle was constructed of lines. using osnap<cr> to attach to any point on a 3dface or a polyface mesh will not work. We can.375. 3D polylines cannot have thickness. The system should respond with x=3. they have not been tested. find the coordinates of the northwest corner of Rect. So there are now 3D polylines that are different. A. That's why you weren't asked to give thickness to Rect. Type qsave<cr>. Rect. after typing endpoint<cr>. we can define where the corners of our 3D face must be in order to make another box with sides one unit high. B and Rect. Using the plan view viewport. Using that information. The first corner will be at 3. so the entire polyline was made thicker when we selected one side of the rectangle. y=5. CHPROP (again) * Since we've seen that thick lines make good surfaces. One of the advantages of using a polyline is that it can be treated as a single entity. not a window). * Type hide<cr> again to see the results of adding these new surfaces.5. however. remember? -. C.1. That would not work. select the northwest corner of Rect.

The coordinates of the vertices. you can also . Now. you should be able to make another 3D face for each of the other sides of Rect. type 3dface<cr>. * Now change to the plan viewport and draw another polyline ( pline command) * From point 9.1<cr>. You will need another <cr> to complete the command. Transparent Commands The pan and zoom commands are valuable viewing aids. C without knowing any coordinates but knowing that the last point will always be 1 unit above the third one. the perimeter. PAN. type list<cr> and then l<cr>. and the size of the area enclosed by the polyline will be displayed.5. though. remember to type z<cr>p<cr> (for zoom previous) when you finish. type @0. for last object drawn. (With older versions of AutoCAD. LIST * Now use the list command. ZOOM. but they can also be crucial ways of letting you see the appropriate part of a model while you are making a new figure.) But be sure to use endpoint!) You may want to zoom in on the figure before trying to draw all these faces. You could also use the zoom<cr>e<cr> command to zoom to the extents of the current model. That's called a transparent zoom (I don't know why they call it that either).* So. don't try to use the osnap command to avoid having to type endpoint over and over again. ZOOM & PAN * In the plan view you may not be able to see the entire new polyline. so type zoom<cr> . * Then enter the coordinates of the first point of the new surface. you can be in the middle of making the entity when you realize that you need to pan or zoom. If so. This is one of those figures that will cause problems. and here type arc<cr> (a<cr> would do) * and then 9. then type pan<cr> and use the mouse to get the model where you want it.375. (Remember that typing <cr> will invoke the last command. In an earlier lesson. however.0. so you needn't keep typing 3dface again and again. you used the command 'z to zoom in the midst of a pline creation. and you will see no real differences between the thick lines and the 3D faces.9. type endpoint<cr> and pick the northwest corner of Rect. if you start with the correct corner. for the second point. 3. and then <cr> again to finish choosing objects.0.1<cr> (to place the last point is 1 unit above the third one).0 * To 1. Note. type endpoint<cr> and pick the southwest corner. C. Sometimes. * For the third point. You may need to use the command more than once. * Then. * For the fourth point.5x<cr> to make it smaller.8. * Type hide<cr> again. for the end of the arc.0 * To 1. * Type close<cr> (or cl<cr>) to close the polyline.9. that only rectangle A has a top. the others have only sides. of course.

indicates to the system that it can interrupt the current process to perform the command and then return to finish the current process. UNDO.many commands but not all . (If it does not. type mid<cr> (for middle) and select the line that makes the bottom of Rect. it will be the point after the first one in the polyline (assuming you did not move to another point before starting to insert the new point). the prompt stretch to point . You should now select the location of the point you want to insert. OOPS *Since we don't want the point you just inserted to remain in the model. Your new point will be in the middle of that line. type undo<cr>. Now type p<cr> (for previous point) and keep doing that until you get back to the first point. Check the manual to see what other commands can be used in this way. D. in fact. . (The apostrophe before a command . * Type m<cr> (for move) and type@0.) PEDIT * You can edit a polyline in two ways. with number being the default.stretch . showed in the command prompt area. You typed the coordinates to indicate how far to move . you can select any point to change. Typing <cr> will be taken to indicate the last command only (equivalent to 1).the point. Now type @0. Type pedit<cr> and then select the polyline with the mouse. make sure osnap is off if you are using an older version of AutoCAD. * Type e<cr> (edit vertex) * and then type i<cr> (for insert). * To locate the point.) When you first clicked on the handle to make it solid.use 'p to do a transparent pan. * The other way to edit a polyline is to type pedit<cr> and then select the polyline with the mouse. You will be prompted for a response. . . The number you type will be taken to be the number of command operations to undo. The vertex should move up one unit. (The polyline will not be highlighted.1<cr>. The easiest way is to click on it so that the "handles" show. typing 'help<cr> or '?<cr> will not only bring up the help screen. panning in the midst of another process.1<cr>. Note that you can use the help command in this way. * To move the southwest vertex of the last-drawn polyline. but the editing possibilities will show at the command line. Using this system. Type x<cr> twice and you will have finished the command. There were some other possibilities that we will ignore for now. click on the handle so that it is solidfilled.) * Type e<cr> (edit vertex) * and then keep typing n<cr> (for next point) until you have reached the last point in the polyline. it will display the section pertaining to the command in progress. * Type x<cr> twice and you will have finished the command. ERASE. So type a <cr> to undo the editing of the polyline. *You can also add a new vertex to a polyline with the pedit command. The handles are the little blue boxes at the vertices.

either type erase<cr> and select the polyline. and it applies only to a small group of commands. Oops differs from undo. . because each viewport must be treated independently. then give your slide a name. Select one viewport. you have changed your mind * so type oops<cr>. You will need two slides. Erase the polyline using one of the methods just described. type mslide<cr>. Having done that. or select the polyline and type erase<cr>. however. Save your work by typing qsave<cr>. including erase. The resulting slides can only be seen within AutoCAD. but they could provide useful markers for a work in progress. Make sure you have a plan view showing. Then switch viewports and repeat the process. You may not want to make a slide of your current work. because it is intended only to change the last command.* To erase the polyline. Now return to a single viewport using the vports command. Time to stop. Undo is a far more flexible command.

) Type end<cr> or quit<cr>. (solmesh). Be sure to use the endpoint command to put the corners in the correct spots. union. zoom.The model at the end of the second session. End of Session Two ******* Session Three: 3dface (again). rotate. extend. ddlmodes. layer. trim Open your model again. . Use the hide command to be sure you have the top in the correct spot. the images will be reduced in size.Fig. B. 5 . extrude. 3DFACE (again) * Make a 3dface on the top of Rect. shade. subtract. copy (again). perp. (From this point on.

. lineweights. (You can find out what layer anything is on with the List command or by looking in the properties window.lines. You need to be able to show the parts you want when you want to see them. the result would be very confusing. No layer need be above or below another. is not held in RAM. and type <cr> <cr> to exit the command. circles. so be sure to type correctly. can be frozen/thawed. Some of the pieces will be common to both phases. and the pieces that make another phase can be used at another time. The pieces. the only layer is the one called layer 0. we'll add a VR later). on/off. called layers in AutoCAD and many other CAD programs. more than one of which existed in the same place at different times. surfaces. so frozen layers help models to be dealt with more quickly.) Type layer<cr> (-layer<cr> if you are using Release 14 or AutoCAD 2000/2006) and then m<cr> to make a new layer. VL is the current layer now instead of layer 0. When a new AutoCAD file is opened. for instance.LAYERS CAD models become very complex. All the pieces together make up the model. chronological. a model of a building with a complicated history of additions and alterations. So the pieces that make up a particular phase of a building can be used at one time. A layer that is frozen. but not all have to be used -. A layer that is off (but thawed) does not show on screen (or in a printout). Make the name of the new layer VL (for Vertical rectangle. As you can imagine. etc. and plot styles assigned to the entities placed on them. They can also have specific colors. Each layer contains drawing entities . You will see that the box in the upper left now has VL in it. To deal with such complexity. . CAD programs permit you to divide the model into pieces. let's create some other layers so that we can begin to divide up the entities in the model. or conceptual. there are many other reasons to separate pieces of a model from one another.shown on screen or on paper -. but it is held in the RAM dataset for the model while you work on it. it becomes the current one. each is simply a portion of the model. the place differs with different versions of AutoCAD. others not. though a simple model need not be. We will name them. Others must be explicitly made. meaning that any new model entities will be placed on that layer. When you make a new layer with that process. locked/unlocked. They may be physical. If you show all the parts. lintetypes. and they can be named or numbered. on the other hand. Imagine. So we have been drawing everything on layer 0. (You will see a 0 displayed in the appropriate place to indicate the current layer.) Even though our model is not really that complex. layers have no necessary physical relationship to one another. A complex model really must be divided into multiple layers in order to be effectively used. Although these different pieces of CAD models are called layers. and the way we construct our names will turn out to be very important.which have something in common. Each item we have drawn thus far will stay on layer 0 until we explicitly move it to another layer. We can create any number of layers. the same time.

From this point on. * Select Rect. just closing it will not suffice. the Layers drop-down list works for AutoCAD 2000/2006 as well.HB. * Now type layer<cr> (-layer<cr> if you are using Release 14 or AutoCAD 2000/2006) again. because it can be much more efficient for turning layers on and off in groups. Otherwise. AutoCAD 2006 has some important differences in the layer dialog box. The odd "star over the manger" (my description. using the appropriate layer name for each. Layer 0 will remain (note the check mark. Type HT. the changes will be lost. you can learn what the commands do by letting your mouse hover over an icon until its function shows. but you must be sure to click ok to exit the dialog box. * Type la<cr> to indicate that you want to change the layer for everything selected. are quite obscure. type plan<cr><cr>. As you can tell. oddly enough. when the instructions ask you to type -layer<cr>. The dialog box brought up by the layer command is now full of icons that. you now have a 3D view only. You will see a dialog box that permits you to do the things we have been doing. you should type layer<cr> if you are using a version of AutoCAD prior to Release 14. in my view. then type chprop<cr>. and HB for horizontal rectangle at the bottom. Just select an entity and then choose its new layer from the drop-down list. not theirs) is the icon for making a new layer. you may use either command. You should check to see see what you can change there. If so. Using this process.HTT. HM for horizontal rectangle in the middle. Fortunately. (Note that you could not put any spaces in that sequence.HBT.VLT. vr. though I've certainly tried it often enough). using the names in this way will make it relatively easy to know what is on each layer. From here on. Note that if you had the 3D view in the active viewport. You should also note that some work with layers can be done via the layer pull-down tool bar if you are using a recent version of AutoCAD.and lower-case letters. Since it will be easier if you work in the plan view. * Then give the system the new layer name. AutoCAD 2000/2006 users may accomplish the same task via the Modify -> Properties window. VL<cr> and then another <cr> to complete the task. Vr. Some of these tasks are easier with the dialog box. A layer named VR can be found with VR.) You can add several new layers at once with the new command but not the make command.) One last general comment about layer names.HM. A. Other tasks are easier to do by typing at the command line.If you are using AutoCAD R14 or later. AutoCAD's handling of layer names is not case-sensitive. "1" won't work in the command line. the new layer will not be the current one. or vR. type vports<cr> and then si<cr> or choose single viewport in the AutoCAD 2000/2006 dialog box (for single viewport. please understand that. but this time follow with n<cr> to make new layers. but I would recommend that you make yourself familiar with the command line approach. Although we may use upper. Follow the same process for the other rectangles. . try the layer command without the beginning hyphen.EXP<cr> to make eight new layers at once.HMT. Or use one of the other methods for later versions of AutoCAD. You need to use the chprop command again. * Now let's put the model entities on different layers rather than leaving them on layer 0 where they are. HT for horizontal rectangle at the top of the drawing.

a familiar practice today. If. You can also use a free-form polygon to select all objects inside it or a free-form crossing polygon to select all objects even partially within it. Any selections you make then . and the command will be carried out. and the selection set can be augmented or reduced rather easily until you have everything you want . That selection set. you start on the right and move left. If you recall. In the newer versions. These ways of dealing with selection sets work in all versions of the program. Just click on it. once you have selected some objects. You know how to select something. B on the correct layer with the rest of the figure. The advantage of using the verb-noun system is that AutoCAD has offered a number of ways to create a selection set. any object even partially included in the window will be selected. You may need to read the following to be sure.Now you will find some difficulty selecting the rectangle you want. so it's time to talk more seriously about how to select entities for editing.and nothing more than you want . can still be added to or reduced before the command is initiated. One last comment while we're on this subject. That makes it possible for you to select objects much more effectively. For any command that needs a selection set. and that will remove the item (or windowed group) from the selection set if it has been selected in error . just as if the items had been selected with a window or direct selection method.or add it if it is not yet in the selection set . You can simply use the shift key as you select to add something new or remove something already in the set. But the window is more powerful and flexible than you probably realize. though. you can't use all these helpful tools in older versions of AutoCAD. . (Make sure you get the top of Rect. typing r<cr> (for remove) will tell the system that your new selections are to be removed from the selection set. that will not work in older versions. you can state the process and then select the items to be processed (verb-noun) or do the reverse. you can hold down the shift key while making a selection. There is also a selection system called a fence. If you are selecting after stating the command (verb-noun process).will be removed from the selection set. as noted above. select the items and then name the process (noun-verb). on the other hand. If you make a selection window by starting on the left and moving to the right. You also know that you can select something by using a window. moving. only objects entirely contained in the window will be selected. Let's start with the basics. The items selected are called a selection set. a free-form polygon that selects all objects the edge of the polygon passes through.if you are using the verb-noun system by typing p<cr> (for previous) when prompted to select an object.) Earlier we talked about the difference between noun-verb commands and verb-noun commands. If you start with the object selection. and the removal process will continue until you type a<cr> (for add) to return to the process of adding items to the selection set. copying. however. you just type <cr>. etc. This process will work with any version of AutoCAD.with a direct choice or with a window . You can remove objects from the selection set as easily as you add them. you can automatically choose the items in your last selection set .and are ready to initiate the process. though. When you are satisfied that you have the correct items in your selection set.

1<cr> to recreate the 3D view. B" to HTT. We will put it on layer EXP. not the side surface. because I don't know how you drew the selection window when you were changing layers for the rectangles. the top of the box is a 3D face. What layer is the polyline that we drew last time on now? I can't tell you. But what do you do about the top. That will remove the top surface from your selection set.0. in this case the top of the box. "Rect. so select the text "Rect. you can type z<cr> (for zoom) and l<cr> (for last) to go to your last view. It's probably easier to do. (From Release 13 on there is a new way to deal with the problem of always picking the last item drawn . B by clicking on its upper edge. (You could also hold down the shift key while picking the top surface. and so on. * Use the chprop command to change the layer to EXP.) When you have finished moving the polyline to layer EXP. * Let's put the polyline on layer EXP. and you will have only the side surface selected.0. Once again.-1. The easy window would be one made from right to left. (Using the coordinates 1. * If your last view in this viewport was the 3D view. (If you don't know what layer the polyline is on.-1. it should still be on layer 0. That would also remove it from the selection set. but we see them both as surfaces) include the edge you selected.* We want the text items to be on separate layers.) * Now let's type chprop<cr> and try to select the north side of the box we made out of Rect. AutoCAD will choose the last one drawn. the last one drawn.1 to define an isometric view provides the angle defined by a line from the point 1. you can't see the surfaces. Otherwise.holding down the control key when picking the first item will make AutoCAD choose one object. users of AutoCAD 20002006 may use the Modify -> Properties dialog box or the Layers drop-down list instead of the chprop command. You can select it by clicking on it with the mouse or by using a window. the list command can be used. When you pick such an edge or line that exists in two entities. with the T appended.-1. too. What is highlighted? It should be the top surface of the box.) It is often a . Why? Both surfaces (actually the side is a thick line. A (the vertical surface on the north side of the box). In the current plan view. A" and change its layer to VLT. just touching a piece of the polyline and nothing else. type vpoint<cr> and then 1.) * Now you can continue the command. Picking again will make AutoCAD select the next oldest object sharing the line. The layer name is the same as the name for the rectangle. which is still highlighted? * Type r<cr> (for remove) and select the edge of the top surface again. so you must return to a 3D view. but also prepare the system for finding others that share the line. and continuing the process will get the system to cycle through all the objects there so that you can select the one you need. it's a newer feature. moving the surface to layer EXP. try to change the layer for the north side of Rect. * So now you can click on the other edge of the side of the box to select it as well. Change the label. If you used the system we just discussed.1 to 0.

y [yellow] for HB. D is now gone . so both HB and HBT will be frozen. change the color for all the layers that have text on them to white (which will display as white on a black screen or black on a white one) by typing c<cr> for changing color. Then press the <cr> to end the command. La will be used from here on in place of layer. giving each of our layers a different color (use r [red] for HT. Note that the Layers drop-down list can also be used to turn layers on/off or to thaw/freeze them.or at least it should be! You could use the hide command or draw more objects. better yet. then c<cr> (for color). * So type -layer<cr> again. and <cr> to end the command. Note that Rect. then VL<cr> as the name of the layer to make blue. since the asterisk indicates that any characters fit the pattern. t<cr> (thaw). AutoCAD will understand that the command should be applied to all layers with three characters. then you can either exit the command or. the last of which is a T (the ? is a wild-card character. w for white. t<cr> (thaw). D would not be affected. * Type chprop<cr>. is one of those tasks for which you will find the -layer command-line approach is much quicker than using the dialog box. and HB as the layer name. and finish the command. Then press the <cr> to end the command.) * Type -la<cr>. and m [magenta] for EXP). * Before you exit the command. g [green] for HM. Now each layer has its own color. Now let's suppress the material on layer HB. Indeed. and then ??T as the layer name.good idea to use a different color for each layer (until you run out of colors) so that you can tell the items on different layers apart. (This last command. f<cr> (for freeze). * Type -la<cr>." was still showing seemed silly.) It should have been mentioned earlier that la .either as la or as -la will stand/in for the whole word layer. *<cr>. so the north side of our box on Rect. Then exit the command. then b<cr> for blue. repeat the color changes. but it indicates any number of unspecified characters. We should put it back on the correct layer. including none. . f<cr> (freeze). select that box. (The asterisk is another wild-card character. B is the wrong color. That will thaw all layers. the rectangle will reappear. When you thaw the layer again. and Rect. so it will make white the color for all entities on layers with two characters followed by a T. So type -la<cr>. D. You're back where you were. changing the colors of several layers at once. having layer HB not showing while the label. "Rect. so two question marks indicate any two characters). D. HB*<cr>. That will freeze all layers beginning with HB. The rectangle and the label will be gone. indicating to the system that any character in that spot will do. and HB as the layer name. * Type -la<cr>. even in the space occupied by Rect. and <cr> to end the command.

but it won't be easy. It shows because the text is at an elevation of 0. This is a good way to see that you really have surfaces where you need them.and put it on the right side of Rect. A. Then I used the Layers drop-down list to put the new rectangle on layer VR. D as Rect. return to our isometric view and shade the drawing. I returned to plan view. So. it takes several steps to accomplish the same processes if you use the dialog box that is next on our list of topics. Make the color of layer VR cyan. D. and used the text command to make the label. for instance. but. so it does not hide the text. and we'll put it on a new layer called VR. Now try shade instead. I started by copying Rect. VR and VRT. SHADE You have used the hide command. Finally.and y-coordinates. DDLMODES Ignore this and move on to SHADE unless you are working with a really old version of AutoCAD. D.the basic rectangle without its top . I used the layer command to make two new layers. It's time to save your work. I put the copy at the right edge of Rect. The surfaces are now solid-filled with the colors of the outlines. COPY (again) * I want you to make a copy of the box called Rect. A and D to determine the x.-1.Using wild cards in layer names is very much like a DOS or UNIX search. using only the distance between objects in the x-direction. Using all the possibilities for specifying layers in groups makes it very easy to manipulate layers using typed commands. data in Release 13. AutoCAD will also let you search for characters after an asterisk. but most of the rectangle is well above that elevation. rotating it as we did with the label for Rect. I placed the rectangle using the corners of Rect. We will call it Rect. A in the isometric view where I could distinguish between the rectangle and the top.) As already mentioned. That dialog box can also be brought up with the command ddlmodes or by using the pull-down menu called settings in Release 12. (Commands with dd at the beginning all open dialog boxes.moving it only in the x-direction. By comparison. and to make cyan the color of layer VR. unlike DOS or UNIX. with a label on layer VRT.) * Type shade<cr>. Notice that only the text for Rect. Then I used the distance command to find out how far apart rectangles A and D are and moved the new rectangle that much to the right . just as far to the right of Rect. A . the layer command alone in Release 14 or AutoCAD 2000 will bring up the dialog box in those versions of AutoCAD. C still shows. You should be able to do all that without instructions. set the current layer to VRT.1<cr> to get our isometric view back again.) . You can click on the layer push-button to get a dialog box that will let you make the same adjustments to layers (Release 13 only). (vpoint <cr>1. E. (Here's how I did it. If your current view is not our isometric one. A is to its left. the character string *P would work to indicate our layer EXP (any number of unspecified characters followed by a P).

) Extrude it for 1 unit with a taper of -15 degrees. When you extrude a figure. in the hidden line drawing.EXTRUDE * If you did what I did and changed to the plan view. the new figure will be on the current layer. See what happens if you use shade instead. Issue the command. not simply a collection of surfaces. (Don't forget to regenerate the image if your view is a shaded or hidden-line one. It can be given mass and volume. (Use the solmesh command on this figure if you are using Release 12. but it is more complex. * Let's put a truncated pyramid atop the box you just made. Before you make this figure. Note also that. but it isn't. rotate<cr> and select the point about which it will be rotated. but please do it now if you are using Release 12. Now you will see that your 3D view seems wrong. Rect. Then enter the rotation angle of -45 degrees (counter-clockwise). (Unfortunately. You must issue the command solmesh and select the solid in order to add surfaces to the solid block if you are using Release 12.) * Type extrude<cr> and then type l<cr> (last) to select the polyline. The new figure has a top and a bottom. First make a polyline around the top of the box.) Then rotate it again using an angle of -60 degrees. Try hide and shade to see how it looks. You may need to regen first. (This command does not work as a noun-verb command. * Select Rect. And if you are using Release 12 to learn now. * Select it.) * Type hide<cr> to see how this looks. remember?) It is now only a rectangle again. and many calculations can be performed to determine properties of a solid object with the shape of this figure. Note the effect of the lid we put on Rect. and the system understands that it is a solid object. this figure is quite different from a series of surfaces. be sure you are on layer VR. choose the nw corner of the base of the pyramid. That is not necessary if you are using Release 13 or later. . * Type extrude<cr>. * Let's undo the rotation. but both were actually correct. return to the isometric view. That looks better.) Now give a height of 1 and a taper angle of 0. E now looks as it did before. E. AutoCAD does not produce a line where two surfaces to let us know that. (Be sure to use the endpoint sub-command to pick the points and to close the polyline. and select Rect. Change the thickness to 0. even though the figure already exists on a specific layer. (You can probably use zoom-previous. B. That is an important distinction. E again. the solid object has no surfaces if you are working with Release 12. (It is the last entity drawn.) ROTATE * Now let's move the the truncated pyramid by rotating it. please send an email to nicke@csanet. (Use chprop.

) Now rotate the pyramid so that it is properly aligned with the rectangle. COPY an entity to a new layer Copying an entity and putting it onto a new layer is a two-step process. we have the effect we want. Now issue the chprop<cr> command and the p<cr> to select the previous selection set (the two solids that we copied). Enter 0.0.Now create a new layer. SUBTRACT *Subtract the resulting cylinder from the larger solid surrounding it. You should be able to do that without further instruction. we want both the new solids to be on a layer named Solids. you can't copy directly to a new layer. however. Rect. which will not actually freeze Solids because it is the current layer. They are on different layers (VR and Trash). so freeze all layers except Solids. This should be very simple.0. but we can still copy both of them with one command. CIRCLE * Now we will make a circle at 7. (Rotate and use the diagonal as your reference points. Now extrude the circle 3 units. as above. Trash. Instead. You will be prompted for the base point or displacement. The appearance is not different. the box and the pyramid.0<cr>. change them to layer Solids. Finally. That will create copies in the same place as the originals. and put the truncated pyramid on that layer.-1.3). Let's try it for the two solids we have drawn. as it's just a 2D command. When we do so. Then <cr> again to complete the command.5. E and the pyramid. They will become one. UNION *Let's make one entity of the two.625. Since these are digital copies and are truly identical. (Use one layer command to set Solids as the current layer and to freeze all layers. The subcommand asking for radius or diameter can seem confusing. . Simply enter union<cr> and select the two entities. each copy will be on the same layer as the original. but they are now a single item in the model and will be treated as one. The same items on different layers and in the same locations. it permits you to enter the radius or to type a d<cr> to indicate that you will enter the diameter instead.1 (SE viewpoint).) Then use a 3D view with coordinates 1. Now select both the entities and issue the command copy<cr>. This process actually moved the originals to the Solids layer and left the copies on the starting layers. We are now going to do some additional experimentation with the solids. Type circle<cr> (c is actually sufficient) and then provide the location for the center of the circle and the radius (. So first create a new layer named Solids (and make it blue).

which are not terribly clear in line drawings. it is recommended that. and we will now remove the cylinder with the subtract command. So change the viewpoint (vpoint) to 1. approach the work systematically.-1. Furthermore. Making solids can therefore be very time-consuming and frustrating. Type subtract<cr> (the command was solsub. solids are difficult to edit when they have been finished.To make a hole in the solid. . we constructed the cylinder. (See "Parametric Modeling in AutoCAD -. Try shade<cr> and things are only a little better. and make sure you understand the real-world object before you try to make a model of it.) We will not return to the modeling of solid objects. for complex solids. Doing so will test both your patience and your understanding of three-dimensional geometry. When you find it necessary to make solid objects. Note that the cylinder was taller than the a record of the process . but that had no impact on our results.html. As a result. but it is difficult to model complex retained so that it can be edited and re-used to correct errors.2. You should have some sense of a hole through the object. for solid subtract on some earlier versions of AutoCAD) and select the entity from which another will be a text file . Finish the command to see the results.Almost" at http://csanet. Solids are constructed via this process of adding and subtracting solid entities to/from one another. Then type <cr> and select the cylinder so that it will be subtracted from the larger solid.

You should experiment with them. Zoom-window. of course. Xscale Your lines may not show fully.The solid just constructed at an angle showing the hole passing through it. * Type <cr> to indicate that you have no more boundary lines to locate. a number gives you a magnification relative to the zoom-all view. In the latest version of AutoCAD. but if you do the process again. vmax. all gives you the entire model.5x<cr> to indicate that you want to zoom to half the scale of your current view. type z<cr> (zoom) and then . Don't exit the command but select the line to be extended again.2. With later versions of AutoCAD there are other options. . The perp command makes it easy. PERP Thaw all layers except Trash. the line will extend to the next crossing point. Note that both line segments are perpendicular to the earlier polyline.). without going back to the file and starting afresh. you can specify the window corners with the mouse or with typed coordinates.0.8.extents. EXTEND * Make a new line from 10. including empty space. especially the feature called dynamic zoom.2. Your line only extended to the first crossing point on the polyline. Finish the command.2 and again type perp<cr> and select the polyline on layer EXP. all. the scroll wheel will also zoom for you. There are several choices in the zoom submenu. * Draw a polyline starting at 12. 6 . * You can extend the new line to meet the polyline you just drew. set the current layer to EXP. and Freeze the layer Solids. allows you to pick a window showing the area to be enlarged. up to the limits.0 to 10. ZOOM .5. Return to the plan view.5. vmax gives you the largest magnification possible without a regeneration of the image. with the center of the window remaining in the middle as the image gets larger or smaller. a number with an x (as we just did) gives you a magnification relative to the current view. that is. Then type perp<cr> and select the polyline we drew earlier on layer EXP. and your line will make it to the last crossing point.0 on layer EXP (and keep using that layer throughout this section). we did not give the layer an explicit color. previous gives you the last view. (That should be a white or black line. Sometimes you need to make a line perpendicular to another but can't know the exact numbers to make it work. Make the next point 12. Type extend<cr> and then select the polyline as the boundary. then select the last line you drew as the one to be extended. previous. Make sure you try the right-click to switch between dynamic zoom and pan and that you understand how to terminate the command.Fig. extents gives you all the drawn objects and no unnecessary empty space.

Then make the second point of displacement at the first point of the polyline. Next select the line to be trimmed . * Put the polyline and your two parallel lines on the layer Trash.) . so we don't need to save again. TRIM * Trim the original line you extended by typing trim<cr>. Make a slide of your model again. To do that. * Type copy<cr>. Then end the command with the two ends of the line still in place but the middle section gone.Now make a line that is parallel to the line you've extended. Time to save again. Then select the polyline as the trimming or cutting line and hit <cr> (gently!) to indicate that you've finished selecting trimming lines. (Making the slide did not change the model.but where? Try the end that you extended. You will note that they disappear. select the line and make the new copy pass through the first point of the polyline. Then quit. Then type u<cr> and try the middle section of the line. make the "base point" of your copy at the first intersection of the line and the polyline (use intersection as you have been using endpoint. because that layer is frozen. Keep undoing and reselecting until you are comfortable that you know what to expect when you select a part of a line.

The model at the end of the third session. move and rotate with reference angle Open your model again. You should see small dots indicating the corners of one-unit squares. Note that layer Solids has been frozon. 7 . it is possible to specify the grid spacing. using two viewports. GRID * Type grid<cr> and on<cr> or select the appropriate box at the bottom of the screen (more recent versions). . plot. snap. End of Session Three ******* Session Four: grid. Make sure you have a plan view. but one-unit squares is the default. so the solid entity does not shows here.Fig. an isometric. 3D wireframe view in the left viewport and a plan. ortho. tablet. shaded view in the right viewport.

(If you have not set the limits. all lines drawn with the mouse or a digitizer will be horizontal or vertical. and that may seem pointless. it will turn on or off the ortho mode. (If you haven't noticed before. the grid will only cover a small portion of the model. that tells the system to set the grid spacing to equal the snap spacing.6. You can also choose snap as a choice in the sub-menu after typing grid. the first of which is an H. * Now turn off the grid and the snap requirement. You will have instructed the system to freeze all layers. Make your current layer VL. You can determine the size of the grid and the configuration of the snap points independently. To use the grid and snap features. so VL will still be on.1 to 3. you can force the system to choose only points on the grid. Thaw layers H? (layers with two letters. But if you want the grid and snap spacing to be different. the coordinates of the current cursor location show in the box at the top of the model. but the system will not freeze the current layer. now use the mouse to draw a polyline (staying on layer EXP from 1.) Put the new polyline on the layer Trash.or. ORTHO * This might seem a good way to draw a horizontal or vertical line. here again. Type grid<cr> off<cr> and then snap<cr> off<cr>.4 to 5. Type snap<cr> and choose on<cr> . it will not print out. If you type it.4 to -5. select the appropriate box at the bottom of the screen if you are using a more recent version. showing the vertical rectangle (A) without the label. (Control-O serves as a "toggle" switch.) SNAP * With the grid turned on. Make sure you have a plan view. Type ortho<cr> and select on<cr>. You have something the shape of an E. but you still can specify a point not on the grid with the keyboard.) Save your work. but it's easier to use the ortho command. Freeze all others (type -la<cr>f<cr>* <cr> and then <cr> again to complete the command. Draw a few lines to see how this works. and your snap spacing to a different number. LAYERS (again) The importance of layer can't be overstated. . then set the grid spacing to any number except 0.Note that this grid is an on-screen grid only. They will be the same if you set the grid spacing to 0. more or less in the center. The cursor will now snap to the grid corners. Let's try a couple of layer manipulations to see how we can use the layers creatively. the grid will cover the area defined by the limits. if you have set them.

If it doesn't. * Select full preview and then ask for a preview. Make certain that the area you outlined will fit on the paper. but the shorter side of the rectangle.) There are checkboxes for full or partial previews . it causes an error. but it should be easy to figure out the requirements.) If all is set correctly. . A. you can ignore many of them. Note that there are two tabs in the dialog box that pops up in AutoCAD 2000 but not 2006. (Don't use the transparent pan command on your model while trying to specify the window. try going ahead with the drawing. Freeze layer HT and thaw VR. the Windows system printer will work. making the window only as large as necessary to include that rectangle.) * Then select the window push button so that you can specify the window to be plotted by outlining a window on your model with the rodent. (I often get an error message telling me that the drawing won't fit on the paper. if you get the same message. Plotting is a difficult area. and one for drawing units. first set the current layer to VL. You have specified the part of the model to be drawn. If you need to pan. make the drawing. see the CSA Web document. one for plotted mm. Select mm. may not be measured so accurately. There is a place where you can indicate whether your drawing is to be measured in mm. or inches. but it is usually a spurious message. You need to fill in the boxes with the appropriate numbers. The system for doing so is odd. If you are using a recent version. (This process will be slightly different with various versions of AutoCAD. make sure that there is no check mark in the plot-to-file box. you have the shape of an F. on paper (plotted) equals 1 drawing unit in the model. You may need help from someone to set up your plotter and to make sure the paper and pens are properly installed. (The window check-box may automatically be checked. so. This process may also be different in various versions.Freeze layer HB. you have an H. Apply the scale factor. as a result. stop the plot process. You will see two boxes. First. and calculate the size of the rectangle. that means a scale of 1:25 .) * Measure the rectangle on your drawing. * Now type plot<cr>. (That may be hard to find if you are using AutoCAD 2000/2006. CSA Layer Naming Convention. At least in my version of AutoCAD. start over with the window specification. You should be able to say that 40 mm. Compare that to the model.) Select the pick choice and make a window around Rect. so you will need to spend time with the manual to learn many of the intricacies. do a regular pan. and then type plot<cr> again. PLOT Skip this if you don't have a plotter attached to your system. I think you will find that the long side came out to be a round number (6 meters) and.check the math to be sure you understand that. Forget how to get the size of the rectangle in the model? Use dist and endpoint to get the measurements. was measured more or less exactly.) * Now you must specify the scale of the drawing. then freeze all other layers. (Assuming that our drawing units are meters. not being a round number. For now.or simply a selection button for each. For more information about layers and naming them. * To make your first paper drawing. you will get a dialog box with many choices.

x .) Note at the beginning that the digitizer has a sighting device. (If you are using a paper drawing. So you can't enter all three coordinates from the digitizer. Check your model and use the id command (with endpoint) to get the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle.2 and the upper right to be 3. When you traced the rectangle. the system must respond to a specified movement on the digitizer as equivalent to a larger movement in the real world.) * Start the process of calibrating the tablet with the command tablet<cr>. the elevation was assumed to be the default elevation.and pick the four corners with the digitizer puck. tape the drawing on the digitizer surface. Then you will be asked for the coordinates of the point.TABLET Skip this if you don't have a digitizer attached to your system. Do the same for the other known point. and freeze VL. that has crosshairs and perhaps some magnification. called a puck.line or pline or 3dpoly . however. We will trace it on the digitizer. To trace the rectangle. high and . We'll see how accurately we can use a drawing to enter information. clear corner. (Make sure snap and osnap are off. Type them in.and y-coordinates chosen and prompted you for the z-coordinate. you could have typed . That is. (The process may not be the same in more recent versions of AutoCAD. You do that by picking two points on the model and identifying the coordinates of the points in real-world terms (x and y only. consider the lower left point to be 3.xy before picking the point.75m. so experiment now. make a new layer called trace. To start the process. The system would have accepted the x.) If. The digitizer is now scaled to match the scale of the drawing. but I have found that I prefer not to align the crosshairs with the drawing lines when I have a sharp. but you can use it for two and type the third coordinate. you wanted to make a specific elevation for any of the points you selected. You will have to place the crosshairs precisely on the points you're trying to pick.) * Before tracing the rectangle. . Also check the coordinates of each point and compare them to the coordinates for Rect. Pick one of the corners for which you know the coordinates. you can't expect the digitizer to figure out an elevation when it's flat). which you would have entered with the keyboard. or to try to have all the lines stand clear of one another? It will vary from person to person.8. then type cal<cr> (for calibrate).75 m. wide and use that drawing instead.) Close the line to make your rectangle. (That can be changed with the command elevation<cr>. (If you don't have a drawing to use. A. you need only issue the command . Now let's use the drawing we just produced to make a copy of the rectangle. Now check your new rectangle (with endpoint and either id or dist) to see how close you are to the original size 6 m. Is it better to align the crosshairs with lines when picking a corner.75. what did you do about the elevation of each point? If you only entered the point picked with the digitizer. Make trace the current layer. You will be asked for a point on the digitizer. you must get the system to recognize that the digitizer is working at a scale other than oneto-one. You must be the judge for your own style. make a scaled drawing of a rectangle that is 6m. * First. But I do usually align them when I have a less clear corner.

use it in the following.039. It acts as a toggle. we could have calibrated with the correct scale but not the actual model coordinates. A that you used before.594. When digitizing any drawing.106. changing the tablet mode back and forth from calibrated to normal.2.0 (x being the distance from corner to diagonally opposite corner .0467 . making sure that both rectangles have one corner in exactly the same place. it will be more accurate. First find the distance between the two diagonally opposite points of Rect.315. We'll do that now.6. as we instructed the computer to do). and rotate it to fit. Now recalibrate the tablet by picking the same two points on your drawing. it's best to calibrate with the best points you have (the ones you know most certainly) and the two such points farthest apart. from 0. Return to the isometric view.1. for instance.1. The scale is correct but the position is arbitrary. in turn. to .We chose to calibrate the tablet in a specific way for a reason.if you do. You can turn the calibration off and back on (so long as you don't quit AutoCAD in the interim . That. so you would want to start digitizing with points at the extremities of your drawing and recalibrate with them if you must quit and restart the program. using the pline command. . You will have to recalibrate in that case. Thus. Put it on layer trace. the error inevitably introduced when we tried to pick specific points was the smallest achievable percentage of the distance. * Now turn back on layer VL so you have Rect. to -3. it will lose the calibration) with Control-T.) * Although we calibrated with the actual coordinates from the model. A.6.021. Using the diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle. Move the new rectangle with the aid of the endpoint feature so that one corner lies precisely on the appropriate corner of Rect. to -3. now we will move it to the correct location. This time.I think it should be 6. meant that we used the longest distance between known points available on the drawing. Don't forget to close the figure. let's match the angle from corner to corner of the new rectangle to the comparable angle in the original one.0 and the second one x. please draw one. but label the first point 0. rather than one of the sides. A to guide you. (Get the computer to find the distance. A.884.047 when rounded off to three decimal places. 591. Draw the rectangle as before. make it the current layer and freeze all others. MOVE AND ROTATE If you do not have a digitizing tablet and therefore do not have the new rectangle to use. * Now type rotate<cr> to start the process of rotation. Use the id or list command to check your move. which we can't do with numbers.6.551. and the axes are capriciously oriented. since we don't know the rotation required. We want to tell the system to use the angle from corner to corner of our new rectangle as a starting reference and to rotate the rectangle so it matches the angle from corner to corner of Rect. because the tablet is calibrated.) Then make another new layer called trace2. (Note that the tablet calibration will not survive if you exit AutoCAD. meant that the same absolute error in our digitizing process was spread over the largest distance possible. You may have trouble with the next command.

Then type another <cr> to end the sequence. That should complete the rotation. Then the system will prompt you for the new angle. COPY MULTIPLE * Making multiple versions of something is one of the things a CAD program does very well.) ******* Session Five: copy multiple. and make sure that all the layers that are not text layers are displayed. @6. ARRAY An easier way to make multiple copies for a regular grouping of items is to use the array command. select the corner of Rect. (Not necessary in Release 2006. you must give the system a staring point and then indicate new points.12 To copy that line. * Then type m<cr> to indicate multiple copies.0<cr>. Again using endpoint. however. and type copy<cr>. bhatch Open your model. choose .000>:. You may want to experiment with this to be sure how it works if you are using Release 2006.10 to -8." Pick the ends of the diagonal on the new rectangle to define the reference angle. and make it the current layer. You have just made four copies of the line. Make a layer called Grid. mirror.0<cr>. you can just keep adding copies until you hit the <cr> key. Get a plan view. @4. each two units apart. you know that you can type copy and make a new line in another place. * Type array<cr> and pick the last of the lines you just made (the rightmost line)." Type ref<cr> to indicate that you will provide the reference angle. the prompt will be "/Reference:. A where the corner of your new rectangle belongs. The new prompt is "Reference angle <90. * You will be prompted for whether your array is to be rectangular or polar (rotational). Then you need to type <cr> to indicate that you have no more objects to select. Start with the end at the base point.) * Now pick one end of the line (using endpoint) and indicate where the copies will go by typing @2. and @8. * So select the line.* After you've picked the rectangle and located the base corner around which to rotate it. Draw a line from -10. Time to save your work again. one at a time.0<cr>. But first you may need to zoom to be able to see the line you just drew. End of Session Four (We added so little to the model that there is no new drawing here.0<cr>. You can also type copy and make many new lines in several places. you cannot do so with displacements alone. array. and be sure to use endpoint.

Done! You may need to zoom out to see your handiwork. use the right vertical edge of the polyline as the mirror line. so the lines that make the boundary in plan view may or may not constitute a true boundary. The results are similar to those we obtained with the multiple copy command. So to make the mirror line you need only select the top and bottom of the right side of the polyline. Now indicate that the original polyline should not be removed. In practice.a line that will mark the half-way point between the original and its mirror image. but you now have a mirror image of the original polyline. Escape will return you to the dialog box. * Pick one of the existing patterns (trust me on this. put the hatching on it. use the mirror command.) * Make layer EXP the current layer.) * In this case. Start by picking a point within the latest polyline (the mirrored version of the earlier one). don't try to make your own yet). The dialog box will reappear. * Then use the <cr> to indicate that you have picked the point(s) you want. but accept the defaults and select preview. If you want to make a mirror image of an object instead of a copy. angle. you may need to construct a mirror line to use the command. but may be a line implied by two sets of coordinates. (Note that the mirror image is on the same layer as the original. (The system counts the existing line as part of the completed array. So it may be hard to get the results you want. * You will get a very complicated dialog box that varies rather dramatically from version to version of AutoCAD. and spacing. since they may be at different elevations. * Type bhatch<cr>. you will see that in the hatch options dialog box there are indicators of scale. but we requested two rows and five columns. .) * In the dialog box indicate that you are going to pick a point and do so. Don't try to change those now. and freeze Grid and Trash. * Having picked the pattern. BHATCH The command bhatch puts cross-hatching of some sort in a bounded area. Lines that are not in a horizontal plane will be ignored.r<cr> for rectangular. (This line need not be an actual line in the model. and you can keep trying until you like the results. The easiest way to use the command is to begin by picking a point in the model that has boundaries. * Now you must choose a mirror line . * Type mirror<cr> and select the polyline that surrounds the rectangles. You may find that a very small scale is required to get an effect that is useful. * Then indicate that you want 2 rows and 5 columns. choosing one or more points that lie inside bounded areas. * Then tell the system that you want the rows and columns to be 3 units apart. Make a layer named Hatch. (This is a 2D notion. though the current layer was VL.) MIRROR Make your current layer VL.

* That surface will lie below all the lines and surfaces of the rectangles we've drawn (but not the polylines on layer EXP).5.1. To prove that there are surfaces. We have been making combinations of lines. 7. not shaded. VR. in fact.) End of Session Five. So let's begin by making a box.5. 2. Use the vpoint command to make views from 1. 8. entirely constructed of faces. so the quit command is better there. A separate command called VPLAYER can be used to deal with layers in only one viewport. -1. 1. Make sure your view is 3D wire-frame. (You can always use end instead. on all viewports at the same time. polylines. thawed/frozen. but not on later versions. (Depending on your versions of AutoCAD.1.5. 3dface and complex surfaces. Save and quit.5. but let's now make a figure that consists entirely of faces.5. Make a layer called FACES. let's move around the box and see how it looks from various angles.-1. AutoCAD's layers are on/off. Grid. These are the kinds of figures we should make.) You will find that the views from below the level of the . use the hide command to see how the box appears.1. splframe Open your model. Hatch. and make it the current layer. surfaces. and 3D faces so far. Get a plan view. and -1. -2. because I don't want to save when I am only looking at a model rather than editing it. -2. ******* Session Six: Another short note about layers.-1. Now copy it and put the copy at an elevation of 2.-1.1. That's good. After generating each viewpoint. 8.5. and thaw all layers except Solid. -2. * You should now have a six-sided box consisting only surfaces. and all that have text. Remember that you will want to use an isometric view and the osnap with endpoint option to make the sides of the box. when constructing 3D models unless we need to make solids. * Use the 3dface command to make a face with the following corners: 2. 7. 1. Put sides on the "box" by using the 3dface command. -2. 1. you may or may not need to restate the hide command.5. edge. etc.-1. As you may have realized.5. It also means that I am not in the habit of using the end command.Make a slide of the current screen. to contain all the horizontal and vertical rectangles we've drawn so far. Trash. I prefer to save as a separate process before quitting so that I can be more certain that the model has been saved before I have quit working.5. * Now you have a top and bottom surface.

with a line separating them.7. quadrilateral shapes. (Only the last figure can be a triangle.3. In fact. It has been my experience that this process is so fraught with error that it is far better to build 3dfaces out of joined three.3. 1. * We can try this again.3.5.3. 3. 8. to get a pentagonal figure.1. four. 1. but we have to be careful about choosing the points in the right order. one that contains the box we just drew (let's call it Box 1) but not the polyline. five. 3. 3. freeze all the layers except PENT. there are still two separate surfaces. (the ones with -1 as the z-coordinate) to be very deceptive. and five (or three. 3. Use the hide command and the list command to see what has happened. We can make them appear to be a single surface by hiding the line of separation. (You will need to use <cr> twice to complete the command. four. First. 11. 1.5. (You will. 8. We must enter the points so that the first four points will define a quadrilateral figure and the next point (or two points) will make a second figure. always in the order entered. 5. First erase your last surfaces (there are two separate ones) and enter the points in this order: 1.) * The results should be quite unsatisfactory. In addition. make a new layer called PENT. * However. and one triangular face.7. out of points three. using the first four points specified. but this time they should cover the entire area correctly. 8. 8. * So far. we could just make two figures. you would need to erase both the quadrilateral and the triangular ones. each new figure is based on the last three or four points entered. and the result is not really one entity but two (or more). Do that now by using osnap and choosing the points already in the model in the pentagon already drawn. we've only worked on four-sided boxes. in that order. we start a new quadrilateral or triangular figure based on the last two points entered and the next one or two points. it is possible to keep adding new points indefinitely. 11. make it the current layer.7. Try the hide command to be sure.3. 5. Type EDGE and select the line of separation. since there as a boundary line on each of the surfaces. 1.3. Parts of the polylines will be hidden in some views because the box will be in front of them. entering the points in a different order. even though they appear to be one. * As we just learned.or four-sided faces. 3. need to use <cr> twice to complete the command. You will have picked five points. again.3. 8. When . and six). because they lie entirely outside the box. using the last three points specified.) What do you have this time? You should have another quadrilateral figure and another triangular one. * In order to see what we're doing better in what follows. but each time we finish a quadrilateral figure. You will probably have to do that twice. 3.1. the rectangles we drew before are hidden and the polylines are not. Now let's make a 3dface using these 5 points: 1. If you were to try to erase the pentagonal surface. but you will have drawn one quadrilateral face. a four-side one and a three-sided one. there are still two figures. 3.3. Now let's try to make a box with five sides. either a triangular or a quadrilateral figure. You should see the pentagonal figure from a reasonable viewing angle. in each view. 8.3.) The ordering of the points is crucial. rather than a single pentagonal surface. But you should find that. we can make figures with more than four sides.5. 3. To do that in the case of the pentagon just constructed.

) * First. * If you look at this figure. 10. 13. HT.1 so that the instructions will be clear. and the line between the two surfaces will show as before.) * Now thaw again the layers HM. HB. Now it is up to you to see if you can make the 3dface command sing. VL. and no z-values could be entered after the first point of the polyline. 0.-1. and FACES. If you aren't ready to do it on your own. Try looking from different viewpoints to see what is hidden. leaving the ones made before. 15. That will make it easy to refer to the points." Put a "2" near the second and so on. Now use 3dface again to make the triangular surface above. That should not be difficult if you use the osnap setting. Please note that (as pointed out near the beginning of this tutorial) you will be unable to use the osnap command on the 3dfaces already drawn is layer 0 is frozen. and again type i<cr> before selecting the third point. . using a polyline as the boundary so that we can re-work the surfacing possibilities without typing coordinates again and again. 1. but start with the point at the far right. 13. but do not use that command. once you specified an elevation for the first point. We will not try to minimize the number of 3dface commands used. you will have the same two figures we made with the single command. Then finish up (without a fourth point). 15. * Move the last two 3dfaces to an elevation of -3 (6 below its current location). then the one at the bottom of the window. Connect them with five 3dfaces by making a face between each corresponding edge. 5. go to the next point (counter-clockwise). but we will use the invisibility option to be sure the result is as we wish. but it's not too difficult if you exercise care in selecting the individual surfaces that will compose the larger real-world surface. 3. Start the 3dface command and choose the point to the far left. Instead. all succeeding elevations were determined.) Use the hide command to see what finish. 16. (Remember that. VR. Near the first point of the polyline use the text command to place a "1. then type i<cr> to tell AutoCAD that the next edge (between the third and fourth points) is to be invisible. erase the two faces just made.5.two 3dfaces without the edge between them. The edge command will hide that "seam" as it did before. so you must thaw it. Now let's try to make a surface within the boundary of that polygon. Draw a closed polyline (still on layer PENT) using these coordinates: 11. in my view. Using the combination of multiple 3dface commands and the invisible option is. 7. Return to the plan view. I think you will find that it would be all but impossible to make a surface with this boundary with a single 3dface command. much quicker and less error-prone than trying to make complex surfaces with a single 3dface command. so if you are in the middle of a 3dface process. 9. You should now have a figure identical to what was drawn before . you could use H? and V? to get all the rectangles. Let's see how to approach this task. 4. * Making larger surfaces can become a bit complex. zoom in to make the polyline occupy most of your screen area.remember limits from the first session? it's one of the transparent commands. (Remember.5. you can use 'limits<cr> and turn the limits off without stopping your 3dface command. 0. Then pick the third and fourth points and finish the command. let's add some text to make the description of the process easier. First make certain that your viewpoint is 1. Now start the figure again. (You may need to turn limits off . 12.

7. 2. 8 . 5. If you use the shade command.Fig. make another surface with points 4. . Without the shade command. and 8. Start with a 3dface for the area bounded by points 1. 6. Finally. and 7 . the one between points 4 and 7 and the one between points 7 and 2. it should look like Figure 9. If your result is not correct. and 7. 4. it should still look like Figure 8. 3.The Polyline to be used for 3dfaces. Now make another four-sided surface using points 2.with one edge made invisible. This time there will be two invisible edges. Make sure that you make the edge between points 2 and 7 invisible (remembering that the I<cr> must be before the first point of that edge). try again.

Sometimes we want to see them. Notice now that the invisible lines.The Polyline filled with 3dfaces. * This may be a good time to check your AutoCAD manual. Type regen<cr>.and making the view a 3D wire-frame. zooming as necessary so that you can see all the surfaces we just made and the other parts of the model . 9 . ******* . Time to save and stop. Type splframe<cr> again. are now visible. You have just changed one of the AutoCAD system variables. End of Session Six. the ones in the figures we just constructed and the ones in the pentagon. The 3dface command is not easy to use. and type regen<cr> again. The lines are invisible again. change the value back to 0. Type splframe<cr>. Make the value 1 instead of the default value of 0.Fig. more than one explanation may help. * Now. this one controls the visibility of the edges we have declared to be invisible.