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1. INTRODUCTION a. Ad hoc network , Application 2. Theoretical Discussion a. Beaconing b. Beaconless Routing c. Progress Calculation d. Delay Calculation 3.

Problem Definition a. Assumptions b. Basic Mode c. Forwarding Areas d. Backup Mode 4. Different algorithm and Analysis 5. Project Work a. Coding Of Protocol in C++ b. Coding algorithm in TCl c. Simulation of BLR algorithm on ns-2

References1.A Position Based Beaconless Routing Algorithm for 1.Mobile Ad hoc networks . Yingil cao Shengli Xie China 2005 2.BLR: A Beaconless Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad hoc networks . Marc Heissenbuttel Torsten Braun March 2003


An ad hoc network is a transitory association of mobile nodes which do not depend upon any fixed support infrastructure. [...] An ad hoc network consists of a collection of geographically distributed nodes that communicate with one other over a wireless medium. An ad hoc network differs from both wired and cellular networks in that there is no wired infrastructure and the communication and computation capabilities of the network are limited by the battery power of the network nodes. In recent years, the rapid advent of mobile telephony, personal digital assistants, and the increasing deployment of diverse monitoring tools involving inexpensive wireless sensors and RFID tags have brought to the fore a number of commercial applications of ad hoc networks. Examples are disaster relief, conferencing, home networking, habitat monitoring, warehouse inventory monitoring, and personal area networks. The lack of a fixed infrastructure in ad hoc networks implies that any computation on the network needs to be carried out in a decentralized manner. Thus, many of the important problems in ad hoc networking can be formulated as problems in distributed computing. However, there are several intrinsic characteristics of ad hoc networks -- e.g., energy limitations, the need for medium access control, limited computational power, mobility -- that makes this study different than traditional work in distributed computing.

Ad hoc networks are characterized by

Routers are not fixed but they are mobile. Formed on temporary basis Easy to set up Can operate without any preexisting Infrastructure No base station Each host acts a router They try to provide connectivity beyond the range of fixed and cellular infrastructure.


Ad hoc applications provide truly wireless solutions Ad hoc mode allows users to spontaneously form a wireless LAN. For example, a group of people with 802.11-equipped laptops may gather for a business meeting at their corporate headquarters. In order to share documents such as presentation charts and spreadsheets, they could easily switch their NICs to ad hoc mode to form a small wireless LAN within their meeting room. Another example is when you and your associates are waiting for a flight at the airport, and you need to share a relatively large PDF file. Through ad hoc mode, you can easily transfer the file from one laptop to another. With any of these applications, there's no need to install an access point and run cables.

The ad hoc form of communications is especially useful in public-safety and search-and-rescue applications. Medical teams require fast, effective communications when they rush to a disaster to treat victims. They can't afford the time to run cabling and install networking hardware. The medical team can utilize 802.11 radio NICs in their laptops and PDAs and enable broadband wireless data communications as soon as they arrive on the scene. Some product vendors are beginning to base their solutions on ad hoc mode. As an example, Mesh Networks offers a wireless broadband network system based on 802.11 ad hoc modes and a patented peer-to-peer routing technology. This results in a wireless mesh topology where mobile devices provide the routing mechanisms in order to extend the range of the system. For example, a user on one side of the building can send a packet destined to another user on the far side of the facility, well beyond the point-to-point range of 802.11, by having the signal hope from client device to client device until it gets to its destination. This can extend the range of the wireless LAN from hundreds of feet to miles, depending on the concentration of wireless users.


Before making the decision to use ad hoc mode, you should consider the following:

Cost savings. Without the need to purchase or install access points, you'll save a considerable amount of money when deploying ad hoc wireless LANs. Of course this makes the bean counters happy, but be sure you think about all of the pros and cons before making a final decision on which way to go. Rapid setup time. Ad hoc mode only requires the installation of radio NICs in the user devices. As a result, the time to setup the wireless LAN is much less than installing an infrastructure wireless LAN. Obviously this time savings only applies if the facility you plan to support wireless LAN connectivity doesn't already have a wireless LAN installed. Better performance possible. The question of performance with ad hoc mode is certainly debatable. For example, performance can be higher with ad hoc mode because of no need for packets to travel through an access point. This assumes a relatively small number of users, however. If you have lots of users, then you'll likely have better performance by using multiple access points to separate users onto non-overlapping channels to reduce medium access contention and collisions. Also because of a need for sleeping stations to wake up during each beacon interval, performance can be lower with ad hoc mode due to additional packet transmissions if you implement power management. Limited network access. Because there is no distribution system with ad hoc wireless LANs, users don't have effective access to the Internet and other wired network services. Of course you could setup a PC with a radio NIC and configure the PC with a shared connection to the Internet. This won't satisfy a larger group of

users very well, though. As a result, ad hoc is not a good way to go for larger enterprise wireless LANs where there's a strong need to access applications and servers on a wired network.

Difficult network management. Network management becomes a headache with ad hoc networks because of the fluidity of the network topology and lack of a centralized device. Without an access point, network managers can't easily monitor performance, perform security audits, etc. Effective network management with ad hoc wireless LANs requires network management at the user device level, which requires a significant amount of overhead packet transmission over the wireless LAN. This again leans ad hoc mode away from larger, enterprise wireless LAN applications. In a ad-hoc network router are not fixed but they are mobile . So some places it more useful .

1: Military vehicles on a battle field with no existing infrastructure . 2: A fleet of ships at sea . 3: Emergency workers at a earthquake that destroy the infrastructure. 4:Gathering of people with notebook computers.

Each node has to broadcast its position information in form of packets. It is a periodic process. Small packet broadcast by the neighbors to announce their position.

All stations that join the ad hoc network must send a beacon periodically if it doesn't hear a beacon from another station within a very short random delay period after the beacon is supposed to be sent. The random delay minimizes the transmission of beacons from multiple stations by effectively reducing the number of stations that will send a beacon. If a station doesn't hear a beacon within the random delay period, then the station assumes that no other stations are active and a beacon needs to be sent. After receiving a beacon, each station updates their local internal clock with the timestamp found in the beacon frame, assuming the timestamp value is greater than the local clock. This ensures that the all stations are able to perform operations, such as beacon transmissions and power management functions, at the same time. As with infrastructure networks, an ad hoc sleeping station (i.e., power management "on") indicates that they're entering sleep state by setting the power management bit in the control field of any frame. All other stations learn of this by monitoring the frame control fields of all frames. Stations will then hold off transmitting to the sleeping station and buffer the corresponding packets locally.

Regularly, all sleeping stations wake up at the same time during the announcement traffic indication map (ATIM) window, which corresponds with each beacon transmission. If a station is holding packets for a sleeping destination, the station will send an ATIM frame to the sleeping station indicating that packets are awaiting transmission. The station that had been asleep then knows to stay awake through the next beacon interval, which is hopefully long enough for the station buffering the packet to send it successfully. After receiving and acknowledging reception of the packet, the station can go back to sleep.


1. Is costly in terms of battery power For regular beaconing there is need of more battery power but when node is mobile so it is too difficult to a node have a large power battery with it 2. Reduces network capacity creates collision Due to unnecessary beaconing there is a lot of band with used only for beaconing . So effective bandwidth used for data transfer will reduced. 3. Increase delay In this networking also increase delay because each node always busy for beaconing 4. Often unnecessary and inaccurate If beaconing frequency is not high then some times it loop formation and data will not reach to destination


Each node is unaware of the existence of its neighboring nodes. There is some intermediate node through data transfer from source node to destination node. A new class of position based routing algorithms was introduced that avoid having beacons transmitted periodically and hence eliminating the belonging drawbacks. The sender makes non-deterministic routing decisions, implicitly allowing opportune receiving nodes to determine a packets next hoop through contention at transmission time. 3.1.1::CHALLENGE WITH BEACON-LESS ROUTING 1. Mobility of the nodes Node are mobile so it is difficult some extant.. 2. Limited bandwidth of wireless links Due to moving node the link bandwidth is limited. 3. Limited energy available in mobile nodes Nodes are mobile so it is not possible to a large power supply battery. 3.1.2::MODEL NOTIONS AND ASSUMPTIOS We use the unit graph model and, presume bidirectional links and omni-directional Antennas . Like in the poison-based algorithms described .Nodes are aware of their Own position by means of GPS, Galileo,or any other positioning service and there is Any mechanism which enables the source to detect accurately enough thedestination nodes position. But as opposed to other position based routing algorithms, we do not assume that a node needs to have information about its neighboring nodes.Furthermore, there are two system-wide parameters which are known by all the Node.Max_delay indicates the maximum delay a packet can perceive per hope, and A maximum transmission radius r that can be achieved by every node in the network The Max_delay can be in the order of 100 microsecond IEEE 802.11is less than 50 microsecond. 3.1.3ASSUMPTIONS FOR BEACONLESS ROUTING 1. EACH NODE KNOWS ITS POSITION (GPS) 2. SOURCE NODE CAN DETERMINE POITION OF DESTINATION (VIRTUAL HOME REGION,GLS) 3. PACKET IS MARKED WITH COORDINATES OF SOURCE , DESTINATION AND INTERMEDIATE TRANSMITTING NODE

3.2.1::TRADITIONAL PROGRESS Traditional progress only calculates the projection of the distance of the next hop from the sender and the destination. It doesnt think about how far the direction of the hop away from the straight line between the sender and the destination . In our project we combine the traditional progress and direction. We use the improved progress with the beaconless strategy together to forward packet and progress position based beaconless routing algorithm. Traditional progress (p) only calculates the projection of the distance of the next hop from the sender and the destination . It doesnt think about how far (d) the direction of the hop away from the straight line between the sender and the destination .

3.2.2::IMPROVED PROGRESS Improved progress takes care of the direction of next hope from the straight line connecting sender and receiver. Here B will be preferred over a as next hope. In traditional progress only selecting for a node that will be intermediate node On the basis of dcos where d is distance of the neighbor node from sending node and is the angle of that made between straight line connecting sender to destination and straight line connecting between next hoop to sender node.

Take two point A (x1,y1,z1) destination D(xN,yN,zN) and intermediate node I1,I2,I3 I1,(x2,y2,z2) D=SQRT((x1-x2)^2+(y1-y2)^2+(z1-z2)^2) COS= A.B modA*modB

COS=((x1-xN)i+(y1-yN)j+(z1-zN)k). ((x1-x2)i+(y1-y2)j+(z1-z2)k) SQRT((x1-x2)^2+(y1-y2)^2+(z1-z2)^2)SQRT((x1-x2)^2+(y1-y2)^2+(z1-z2)^2) But in this improved progression we will take a new approach to select a new hope for transmitting the data to destination . Suppose two point A,B both having same dcos Then what is way of selecting a node then we have a data dcos *cos that provide a node that having more closer network to destination so the total delay of system will be reduced . So that in many places where a lot of nodes then select improved progress node member