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Regulation: The primary voltage of a transformer must be such that the transformer will deliver rated output at the anticipated power while maintaining rated voltage at the secondary terminals This means that, on no load, the secondary terminal voltage may vary from the rated value due to the effect of the impedance of the transformer. The percentage regulation of a transformer is defined as: V2 (no load) - V2 (rated load) x 100% V2 (rated load)

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When a transformer is supplied with power through a transmission circuit whose impedance is high, the primary terminal voltage may vary with changes in load over an undesirably large range, because of changes in the impedance drop in the transmission circuit. In order to maintain the secondary voltage at its desired value under varying conditions of load and power factor, it is often necessary to provide tapings to vary the turns in one of the windings, so that it is convenient to use them for voltage regulation. Hence the transformation ratio can be varied. Some form of switching device is then provided so that the taps can be changed.



Types of tap changing 1. In its simplest form tap changing is accomplished by changing links. These are situated inside the tank, so before changing the taps it is necessary to de-energize the transformer and remove the tank lid. This method is limited to situations where taps do not have to be changed very often, for example, to cater for long-term changes in load. 2. Change over switch or link arrangement provided in a multi ratio transformer has to be for proper ratio. 3. 0ff - load tap-changing can be accomplished by a simple drum type switch situated inside the tank but operated from outside. It is not then necessary to meddle with the tank lid, but the transformer must be disconnected, as the tap switch is not designed to operate on load. Off circuit tap changes are predominantly used for distribution transformers, and forms

an integral part of the transformer. Since the operation is carried out from outside, care should be taken to have correct alignment of the handle and the actual switch positions of the tap changer. This is confirmed when the ratio tests are done. 4. 5. On load tap changers are used when the transformer is still on energized condition Tap changers designed to operate on load are rather more complicated. This is because in switching from one tap to another, the circuit must not he broken otherwise there is not only an interruption of the supply but also arcing at the contacts. Also the moving switch arm cannot be allowed to bridge the two fixed contacts connected to the taps for this would short-circuit the turns of the winding between the two taps, resulting in excessive current


Various types of on load tap changers are available the most commonly used type being high speed resistor equipment based on Dr. Jansen's high speed resistor transition principle 1. The OLTC is a device, which includes a series, switches which operate in a pre set sequence to permit the load current to flow throughout the operation. 2. All winding taps are connected to the tap selector, which serves to pre-select the next step without interrupting the line current. 3. The tapping, which is adjacent to one, which is in service is pre-selected by the tap selector. 4. The service tapping selector switch carries the load current. 5. A switching device called the diverter switch transfers the current flow from direct connection to one, which permits the current to be by passed through a resister. 6. The switching movement then continues such that the selected and the pre-selected tapping are both permitted to share the load current and an additional circulating current created by the voltage difference between the selected and pre-selected taps is restricted in magnitude by two resistors in the circuit. 7. The switch then continues to move to break contact with that resistor which is connected to the previously selected tapping. 8. Finally by further switch action, the second resistor is taken out of the circuit. 9. The switch is designed to operate very quickly and the resistors are therefore only required to have short time ratings. 10. The complete sequence is therefore actuated by a motor drive mechanism.