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Running head: MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III

Module Test Answers for Module III DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013

By RECIS C. DEMPAYOS

Presented to SHERRY JUNNETTE M. TAGLE

Benguet State University Open University La Trinidad, Benguet 02 July 2012

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS MODULE TEST BRIEF ESSAYS ENUMERATION WORKS CITED

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MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS Module Test Brief Essays 1. Are propaganda and DevCom the same? Why? No.

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In the definitional sense, propaganda is information put out by a government, group or organization to promote a cause, an idea, or a policy (Propaganda, 2012). On the other hand, development communication is an approach or discipline wherein communication principles are aimed for social development. It may be said that development communication can use concepts of propaganda in order to bring about social development. 2. What are the differences and similarities among DevCom, communication arts, and mass communication? For the differences, development communication is the usage of communication tools to bring about positive changes in the community. The model for DevCOMM is ideally two-way wherein the messages transmitted by a development communicator elicit a response from his audience that helps him gauge the effectiveness of the communication process in attaining his goals. Communication arts, on the other hand, is the study and practice of communication skills in any given situation. The model for communication arts can be one- or two-way since it encompasses a variety of audiences and circumstances. Finally, mass communication is the use of communication practices to deliver information to a population. The model for MassCOMM is usually one-way since its main concern is to transmit facts to a wide audience where feedback limited or improbable. On account of similarities, all three disciplines involve the use of communication tools and practices to effectively deliver a message. Each has its own goals for delivering such information. Ultimately, they all necessitate the presence of a sender, receiver, mode of transmission, and when permissible, feedback. 3. What values of the development communicator set him or her apart from the traditional media practitioner? Give examples to illustrate how these values are used in the work of a development communicator. Unlike professionals in mass media, development communicators are concerned with how their audience will utilize transmitted information for the betterment of their lives and consequently, the communities they are in. They have utmost patience in delivering information and awaiting feedback because their mostly rural audience is comprised of indigents and elders. Moreover, development media professionals fashion communications materials according to specific goals that adhere to social development.

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 4 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS An example on the use of development communication is displayed in the Farm Radio Forum project implemented in Canada from 1941 to 1965 (Shugg, 2012). It utilized radio broadcasts and printed material to discuss socioeconomic problems and to come up with solutions and action plans to such. By conducting regular meetings among the locals, rural confidence was restored and group action for positive change was initiated. 4. How can the entertainment media infuse the features of DevCom into the materials they produce? Entertainment media has a very broad scope with branches in music, film, theater, television, and new media. But without a doubt, entertainment reaches an extensive percentage of the population, thus making it a viable tool for development communication. The entertainment industry can immerse themselves into the principle of being more and from that, create outputs that teach the economically-capable class how they can take part in community development. Awareness among the elite and bourgeois of the plight of people in depressed areas is already on-going through documentaries, film, and online media. Realities in the community are effectively showcased to prompt members of urban areas to initiate actions of outreach and volunteerism. 5. What are the roles of DevCom in the context of the crisis in lahar-devastated areas? One of development communications roles would be as a mediator to achieve a common ground of understanding between affected individuals and outreach groups. This would ensure a painless delivery of provisions and services. In this regard, DevCOMM takes on the role of being a voice in participatory development. Another role is similar to that of being a mediator to bridge the difference gap between a residents and the government. It acts as a proponent of nation-building. In the aftermath of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, protests from angry residents were hurled towards the government who may have misinterpreted efforts to create a sediment-trapping dam (Bautista, 1999). Some municipalities took it as a way to divert lahar from other areas to their own. As such, internal conflict emerged. DevCOMM can help thwart these meaningless clashes. Additionally, DevCOMM can take on the role of educators to residents of laharaffected zones. Development communicators can teach effective values and practices to reestablish former or even better ways of living and coping. Development media can share discoveries such as decolorizing bacteria (Anonas, 2006) that have the potential to reverse the effects of lahar. 6. Is DevCom the panacea to the problems in the country? Why?

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 5 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS Although development communication is a catalyst for change and desired development, it is not the ultimate cure-all for the countrys problems. DevCOMM may deliver information valuable to a countrys development and its audience may be open to such information; but if the same audience do not believe in or practice the information given to them, then problem-resolution would be unlikely. A countrys potential for progress lies within its inhabitants mind-set. An approach or discipline cannot claim to be all-encompassing with regard to finding answers to problems. Therefore, development communication will need to work with other disciplines in order to bring about the desired social advancements. 7. What other roles can development communication play in a developing country? Aside from those mentioned in the answer to question five, DevCOMM can also have the following roles: Researchers. Development communicators can conduct researches, particularly socioeconomic and demographic in nature, to help refine goal-setting and programimplementation necessitated by select areas. Observers. Practitioners of DevCOMM working with groups, organizations, and the government supervise the delivery of outreach programs. Aside from ensuring effective delivery, they also take note of the effectiveness of such programs and make evalutions and recommendations to maximize resources. Discipline-Developers. Development communication as a discipline is relatively new compared to other academic fields and is still in constant evolution. Practitioners can do their part in refining the study of using communication concepts for development by engaging themselves in continuing education practices and putting out researches and subsequent recommendations. In doing so, academia will have a better understanding on how to impart DevCOMM knowledge to potential scholars. 8. Why do you think was it necessary to create DevCom as a new discipline? The institution of development communication as a discipline in academia was necessary because most individuals, in either developing or developed countries, underestimate the importance of communication in national progress. By moving communication into the theoretical realm of development, a more useful use for media has been established, which is to attain desired economic growth. 9. Why should Filipinos be proud of DevCom? Development communication is a product of years of tussling for a solution to bridge the gap between organized bodies of knowledge and its audience: the underprivileged. This academic discipline started in the Philippines through the offering of

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 6 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS the Bachelors degree in Development Communication at the University of the Philippines Los Baos. Also, the de facto Mother of Development Communication is a Filipino in the persona of Nora C. Quebral. As such, development communication is considered as a proud product of the Philippines and that as a discipline, it is a proud contribution to academia. 10. Is DevCom for rural audiences only? Why? The audience of development communication is all-encompassing. It covers all individuals in developing countries, either in rural or urban zones. Development of rural areas is not an indication of a countrys progressive step towards economic equilibrium. Metropolises must work together with rural areas. Due to the need for inter-zonal cooperation, metropolitan areas can benefit from DevCOMM by being orientated towards the state of and the ways of living in rural areas. Through development media, those living in urban zones would have an idea of what and how to extend a hand to people needing outreach. 11. What channels can be used by DevCom? Development communication can use a wide array of channels for information dissemination, which is very identical to those used in mass communications. Basically, DevCOMM utilizes communication channels that are: Affordable and accessible in rural areas, Able to reach a large population within a concerned zone, and Acclimated to target audiences lifestyles.

Examples of such development communication channels include radio broadcasts; printed materials like flyers, modules, and newsletters; and public community forums. Tools that can be used for presentations (such as those in community forums) include LCD projectors and projector screens (for enclosed spaces), presentation software, videos, live models, large-print images, and demonstrations. 12. What is the philosophy of the discipline? Does this philosophy coincide with what you have as a communication practitioner? The school of thought of development communication is to use communications and media know-how in the service of development (Lagerwey, 1990). Honestly, as an amateur communicator, the concept does not totally agree with what I am at present. I have been blogging, vlogging, and phlogging for years but not exactly in the service of development. Provided, I was self-obliged to post online about ideas that would bring about positive change, but it remained at just thatno follow-ups and no viable

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 7 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS feedback. As an academic writer, my goal was to cater to the instructions of our clients and accomplish what they needed to have. Being in a development communication course has opened my eyes to the possibilities of communications media, specifically new media. It has also instilled in me the significance of such a discipline, which I didnt regard before now. 13. What development project is your agency implementing now? What approach to DevCom would be suited to the communication component of this project? Why? I am an academic writer with a group called, The Proteus Center for Research, Planning, and Development. We have no formal office but in a way, we are affiliated with the Baguio-Benguet Community Credit Cooperative (BBCCC). As such, answering this question will be in the context of the BBCCC. The main projects of the BBCCC that influence development are lending services and skills training (Services, 2008). Lending services are in the form of monetary loans of various types, like the Hospitalization and Emergency Assistance Loan (HEAL) and the Livelihood Loan. Skills training seminars are given free to its members. Two approaches would be best suited for a cooperative such as the BBCCC. These are: Childers Development Support Communication (DSC). As mentioned by Quebral, it is more of the application of public relations, thus being a management approach. Because most of the BBCCCs programs are financial in nature, it will have to put emphasis on how its members look at the cooperative. It will need to employ public relations concepts to establish good lending ratings and thus increase its members and clients. There will also be a need to attract its target audience in the non-member population to increase its viability. Mercados Communication Management Paradigm. This approach is effective in the implementation of training seminars. As defined in-module, in this approach, different communication elements are analyzed, planned out, organized, delivered, and evaluated. It is important that the communication channels employed in training seminars undergo a socalled research process because the success of such seminars depends on how the target audience would respond and apply attained knowledge. Planning out the communication channels of a seminar and attain feedback after will improve the implementation and yields of future training seminars. Enumeration 1. Roles of DevCom The roles contained herein are a combination of those discussed in the module and of personal supplements and perceptions or understandings to what is asked.

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 8 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS Economist: Practitioners of DevCOMM seek to understand and implement economic concepts that are suitable for a developing country. Political Involvement: Development communications seeks to resolve communication problems in national development and to observe and inform the public of their roles in political processes. Observers: DevCOMM professionals take note of how the government and other groups work to bring solutions regarding development problems. Educators: This is a fundamental function of DevCOMM wherein information necessary for development is transmitted to concerned individuals. Mediators: Development communicators help people in impoverished areas determine their problems and probable solutions. They also help them air their need for assistance to the government, groups, and organizations. Researchers: This function goes hand-in-hand with education and mediation. DevCOMM practitioners need to conduct studies to determine the plight of individuals living in rural areas and to make evaluations and recommendations to the government and outreaching groups. Refiners of Practice: Professionals of DevCOMM need to further extend the body of knowledge of their field and pave the way for its evolution to be on par with established academic disciplines. 2. Features of DevCom The features contained herein are a combination of those discussed in the module and of personal supplements and perceptions to what is asked. Goal-Oriented: DevCOMM sets goals inclined towards social development and seeks to attain these within realistic measures. Pragmatic: Practitioners have to make sure that the results they aim for truly are attainable and justifiable. Relevant: Development communicators first identify the needs of a community and from there; plan out steps needed to fill-in those needs above anything else. Specifically-Oriented Towards a Population: DevCOMMs audience are mainly, but not restricted to, those in the rural areas. There is a need for practitioners to come up with channels that effectively reach out to people in such areas. Science-Oriented: There is a need for development communication to work hand-in-hand with the different branches of science to deliver valuable information that can alleviate the destitute and form better lives for themselves. Development communication is thus, interdisciplinary.

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 9 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS People-Oriented: The end of DevCOMM practice is the individual human being. It is crucial that messages delivered to individuals help them rise from their current state. Value-Oriented: A DevCOMM message has a certain value attached to it. Every single information transmitted through DevCOMM can contribute to the overall development of an individual and his subsequent community. 3. Approaches to DevCom The five approaches contained herein are of those discussed in the module with personal supplements and perceptions to what is asked. Diffusion Approach In this approach, only the new and innovated developments within an area are distributed to showcase positivity among its constituents. It is, in a way, biased since it only focuses on the positive development aspects of an area and not existing problems that need to be attended to. Also, this approach emphasizes the source of such information for reliability or credibility of the message. Adaptation/Adoption Approach This approach employs adopting recent ideas and innovations that can bring about desired development outputs within an area. It would seem that the success rate of newly-released development tools is higher compared to previously employed ones. However, it is herein where its weakness lies: not all information can be adapted to every area and this approach does not have a guide or tool for choosing which information would best be suited for specific zones. Development Support Communication For this approach, communication methods are planned, implemented, and evaluated in much the same way as public relations concepts. The communication methods herein cater to pleasing its audience with information that they look for, but not necessarily what they would need. Because of the similarities in evaluation methods with public relations, it has been regarded more of a management function. Communication Management Paradigm This approach is similar to the Development Support Communication approach but is less inclined towards public relations. In here, a communication channel is also planned out, analyzed, implemented,

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III Page 10 of 11 DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS and then evaluated for effectiveness. Because it is a paradigm, it has a higher chance of effectively delivering information because the communication channel employed is modeled to be related to the mode of delivery. Neo-Evolutionist Approach This approach likens development to water. At zero degrees Celsius, water turns to ice, and at boiling point, water turns to steam. However, at present, the association for temperature is still being discovered. It may be a factor in humans that will initiate or expel development, such as mindsets, behavior, or willpower. The factors can also be extraneous in nature like the natural environment, man-made ecosystem, or radical life changes

MODULE TEST ANSWERS FOR MODULE III DevCom201: 1st Semester 2012-2013 RECIS C. DEMPAYOS

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Works Cited Services. (2008). Retrieved July 2, 2012, from Baguio-Benguet Community Credit Cooperative Online: http://bbccconline.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=57&Itemid=37 Propaganda. (2012). Retrieved July 1, 2012, from Dictionary.com, LLC: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/propaganda Anonas, F. V. (2006). Dream to restore lahar-strewn areas outlives scientist, gets environment award. Taguig City: S&T Post. Bautista, C. B. (1999). The Mount Pinatubo Disaster and the People of Central Luzon. FIRE and MUD: Eruptions and Lahars. Lagerwey, C. (1990). Monographs on Development Communication. Manila: Communication Foundation for Asia. Shugg, O. W. (2012). Farm Radio Forum. Retrieved July 2, 2012, from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/farm-radio-forum