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# Chapter Review Chapter 3

Objective Questions 1

The figure shows one of the four legs of a stool. With a base area of 25 cm2, it exerts a force of 50 N on the floor. Each leg forms an angle of 30 with the vertical plane. 5 What is the total force acting perpendicularly on the floor? A 43.3 N B 50 N C 173.2 N D 200 N What is the pressure exerted by each leg on the floor? A 20 Pa B 1 250 Pa C 173 200 Pa D 20 000 Pa

6 What is the pressure exerted by the 12 kg box on the table? [Assume g = 10 N kg1.] A 150 Pa B 500 Pa C 1 000 Pa D 1 500 Pa E 2 000 Pa 2 What is the unit of measure for pressure, expressed in terms of base units? A N m2 B N m2 1 s2 C kg m D Pa

## Questions 78 are based on the following figure.

Questions 34 are based on the figure below. The figure shows a 440 g wooden block.

The surface of the floor can withstand pressure of not more than 20 kPa from the base of a 400 kg marble table. 7 What is the suggested area for the base of the table to avoid breaking the floor? B 0.2 m2 A 0.02 m2 2 C 2m D 20 m2 If the table has a base of 0.33 m2, what is the maximum load that can be placed on the tabletop? A 260 kg B 660 kg C 2 600 kg D 6 600 kg E 6 060 kg Which of the following will not affect pressure in a fluid? A The depth at which the pressure is measured B The gravitational field strength C The density of the fluid D The size of the container

The wooden block will exert the maximum pressure when it is standing on the surface A AEHD B AEFB C DHGC D BFGC What is the minimum pressure exerted by the wooden block? [Assume g = 10 N kg1.] A 55 Pa B 147 Pa C 550 Pa D 1 257 Pa E 1 467 Pa

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Questions 56 are based on the following figure. A large tank is filled with water to a height of 10 m. Water has a density of 1 000 kg m1. What is the pressure due to the water at a depth of 5 m? [Assume g = 10 N kg1.] A 5 000 Pa B 10 000 Pa C 50 000 Pa D 100 000 Pa

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Chapter Review 3

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The figure above shows a container filled with water. The container has three openings X, Y, and Z of the same size. Water spurts out from the opening to different distances. The openings, in increasing order of how far water spurts out, are A X, Y, Z B Z, Y, X C Y, X, Z D Z, X, Y 12 16

Based on the figure above of a simple mercury barometer, which of the following is the correct pressures at points X, Y, and Z? X Y Z A 82 76 35 B 76 82 35 C 82 35 76 D 35 76 82

From the figure, which of the following statements is true? A Point S has the lowest pressure. B Point Q has a higher pressure than point P. C Point R has a lower pressure than point P. D All the points P, Q, R, and S have the same pressure. 13

A U-tube containing mercury has a h cm length of air trapped in it as shown in the figure above. Which of the following statements is not true? A If mercury is added into both openings P and Q at the same rate, the value of h will increase. B If mercury is added into opening P, the value of h will increase. C If mercury is added into opening Q, the value of h will increase. 17

Liquid X is poured into arm Q of a U-tube that is filled with mercury. Arm P is then filled with water until mercury in both arms are at the same level. Which of the following statements is true? A The height of liquid X increases when the atmospheric pressure increases. B The pressure at point T is higher than at point U. C Point R and point S have the same pressure. D The density of water is higher than the density of liquid X. 14 Which of the following instruments is used for measuring gas pressure? A Fortin barometer B Bourdon gauge C Aneroid barometer D Altimeter

A manometer is connected to a gas tank as shown in the figure above. The difference of water levels in the manometer is x. The value of x will decrease if A water is replaced with a liquid that has higher density. B the tube is tilted to the right. C a tube with a smaller diameter is used.

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Chapter Review 3

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A 3 kg block is floating in water with 2 of its 5 volume in the air. What is the buoyant force acting on the block if it has a density of 5 103 kg m3? [Water density = 1 000 kg m3.] A 2.4 N B 3.6 N C 6N D 18 N

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Object P is floating on the water surface whereas object Q is hung from a rope and immersed in the water. Which of the following is true about objects P and Q? A There are two forces acting on object P and on object Q respectively. B The buoyant force acting upwards on object Q is equal to the tension of the rope. C Buoyant force is acting on both of the objects. D The equation Weight = Buoyant force can be applied to both objects. 20 Which of the following is not an application of Archimedes principle? A Hydrometer B Submarine C Hot-air balloon D Bunsen burner Which of the following is not a characteristic of the liquid to consider when choosing a liquid to be used in a hydraulic system? A The liquid cannot be compressed. B The liquid must have a higher density than water. C The liquid must not evaporate easily.

In a hydraulic system, the cross-sectional area of the input piston is 2 cm2 and the input force is 3 N. Given that the maximum output force is 171 N, what is the suitable radius for the output piston? A 6.02 cm B 9.04 cm C 36.30 cm D 114.00 cm 24

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The figure shows a ping-pong ball being held in the air in the filter funnel. What is the principle behind this phenomenon? A Pascals principle B Archimedes principle C Hookes law D Bernoullis principle 25 A furniture factory manager plans to manufacture a table that exerts the least pressure on a soft flooring. Which of the following designs should he consider for the shape of the base of the legs of the table? A B Base Base
area area

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What is the force F needed to lift the load of 500 N in the hydraulic system shown above? A 10 N B 100 N C 250 N D 1 000 N E 25 000 N

Base area

Base area

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Chapter Review 3

Structured Questions 1

76 cm Hg

The figure above shows a simple mercury barometer. (a) What is the atmospheric pressure in N m2? [Density of mercury = 13 600 kg m3, g = 10 N kg1.]

(b) What will happen to the height of the mercury column if (i) the tube is slightly slanted?
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## (ii) there is some air in the vacuum area?

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## (c) Why is water not suitable to be used in a barometer?

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(d)

The figure above shows a small amount of gas trapped in a J-tube. Calculate the pressure of the trapped gas. [Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg.]

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Chapter Review 3

The figure above shows two pistons used in a hydraulic system. The area of the small piston is 0.1 m2. When a force F is applied on the small piston, the 100 kg load will be lifted. (a) What is the value of F if no friction is acting on the pistons?

(b) State the assumption made to obtain the answer for (a).
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## (c) State two characteristics of a suitable hydraulic liquid.

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(d) What will happen if the air sips into the tube containing hydraulic liquid?
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(a)

## Edge of platform Yellow line

At a train station, a yellow line is painted at some distance from the edge of the platform. Passengers are warned to keep the line between themselves and the edge of the platform. (i) Explain why this distance is necessary.
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## (ii) State the principle that relates to the phenomenon in (a)(i).

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(b)

(i)

On the figure above, mark the water levels in tubes X, Y, and Z after the water starts flowing into the Bernoulli tube.

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Chapter Review 3

(ii) State the relationship between the pressure of moving water and the speed of water.
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(c)

On the figure above, mark the water levels in tubes X, Y, and Z when air is passed through the Bernoullis tube. (ii) If the air were to be replaced with a noble gas, would you expect a different sequence of the height of water levels? (i)
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## (iii) Explain your answer in (c)(ii).

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Essay Questions 1 (a) (i) State Archimedes principle. (ii) Without referring to the Archimedes principle, deduce a formula for the buoyant force acting on the cube, shown in the diagram, which is completely submerged in a fluid. Then, prove that your results are in accordance with the Archimedes principle.

(iii) A metal cube with sides 10 cm long is submerged between water and mercury. Calculate the height of the cube in the water layer and in the mercury layer, given that the density of the cube is 8 103 kg m3 and that of mercury and water are 13.6 103 kg m3 and 1 000 kg m3 respectively. (b) As a gas bubble rises from the bottom of a lake, describe your observations of (i) the volume of the bubble, (ii) the density of the gas in the bubble, (iii) acceleration of the gas bubble. 2 (a) State the principal assumptions of the Kinetic Theory of Gases. (b) Without mathematical treatment, use the molecular model of a gas to explain each of the following phenomena: (i) The pressure rises if the volume of the container containing a given mass of gas is reduced, the temperature remaining constant. (ii) The temperature rises if the gas is compressed in a thermally-insulated container. (a) What is meant by (i) pressure, (ii) atmospheric pressure? (b) Explain briefly, with the aid of a labelled diagram, the structure of a simple mercury barometer. Indicate clearly how the value of atmospheric pressure is read from the barometer. Explain briefly why the value obtained is the same when the cross-sectional area of the tube is increased.

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Chapter Review 3

(c) Calculate (i) the weight of mercury in a tank, given that the area of the base of the tank is 0.5 m2, the depth of mercury is 0.3 m, and the density of mercury is 13 600 kg m3, (ii) the pressure that the mercury exerts on the base of the tank. [Take the weight of 1 kg to be 10 N.] 4 (a) Describe a simple experiment you would perform to demonstrate that the pressure in a liquid increases with depth. (b) The diagram shows a simple hydraulic press used to compress a bale of grass. Using a lever, a vertical force is applied to piston P of cross-sectional area 0.004 m2. The pressure applied by the piston is transmitted through the oil in the vessel to piston Q, of cross-sectional area 0.35 m2. (i) Calculate the force applied to piston P when an effort of 40 N is applied at the end of the lever. (ii) What is the pressure exerted on the oil by the force applied to P? (iii) Calculate the force exerted on Q.