ARRAY DESIGN
New approaches and strategies in array
antenna synthesis
Tommaso Isernia
LEMMA Research Group @ DIMET, Universit Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria
Via Graziella, Localit Feo di Vito, I89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Email: tommaso.isernia@unirc.it
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
General Goals
2
Present recent results in the theory and applications of array antenna
synthesis techniques,
 Set the most convenient synthesis strategies for the different problems,
with particular emphasis on radar applications
FOCUS ON :
mathematical characterization of the different kind of synthesis problems;
development of effective synthesis tools such to exploit the intrinsic
characteristics of the different synthesis problems at hand.
WARNING : No attempt is made to provide the state of the art of all
possible synthesis strategies or all possible synthesis problems
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
SUMMARY
3
1. FUNDAMENTALS (obvious things, setting terminology)
2. OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF PENCIL BEAMS AND DELTA
PATTERNS FOR WHATEVER KIND OF ARRAY, AND UNDER
ARBITRARY SIDELOBE CONSTRAINTS
(steerable and eventually wideband in radar applications)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
SUMMARY
4
1. FUNDAMENTALS (obvious things, setting terminology)
2. OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF PENCIL BEAMS AND DELTA
PATTERNS FOR WHATEVER KIND OF ARRAY, AND UNDER
ARBITRARY SIDELOBE CONSTRAINTS
3. OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF SHAPED BEAMS FOR THE
UNIFORM LINEAR ARRAY CASE, AS WELL AS FOR MANY
OTHER CASES OF INTEREST
(Base stations, elevation and azimuth plane of a radar,.)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
SUMMARY
5
4. OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF EASILY RECONFIGURABLE ARRAYS
5. CONCLUSIONS, AND POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS AND FURTHER
EXPLOITATION OF THE ABOVE RESULTS
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
WARNINGS/1
7
By OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS we mean herein :
The achievement of given specifications in terms of
radiated field by using the minimal dimensions, or costs,
or the minimum number of entry points,.
or even
The optimization of some performance parameters (Gain,
separation amongst main beam and sidelobes, other) for
given, fixed resources
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
WARNINGS/2
8
Sometimes field requirements could be given in terms other than the far
field:
1. Near field focusing may be required in imaging applications
2. A uniform field in the near zone is required for Plane Wave Generators,
which are of interest in antenna near field measurements and diagnostics
3. Focusing in a 3D non homogeneous region of space (i.e., spatial rather than
angular focusing) is required in hyperthermis applications of microwaves
Near field constraints could be of interest, as well as taking into
account the presence of known obstacles:
We will essentially concerned from now on with those cases
wherein the field specification are given in terms of the far field
9
A MASK CONSTRAINED POWER PATTERN SYNTHESIS IS ADOPTED I.E.,
Find the parameters of the array such that
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2
m u m u m u UB E LB
a
s s
IN FACT, IT PROVIDES MUCH MORE DEGREES OF FREEDOM W.R.T. FIELD
SYNTHESIS OR TO THE SYNTHESIS OF A NOMINAL POWER PATTERN
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY, AS WELL AS THE ACTUAL CAPABILITY TO
TAKE ADVANTAGE FROM THE ADDITIONAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM, SHOULD
BE CAREFULLY TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
WARNINGS/3 :
A POSSIBLE WAY TO PROCEED
10
Internal Synthesis
11
FROM DESIGN CONSTRAINTS TO ACTUAL ARRAYS :
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SYNTHESIS ARE NOT
SEPARATE PROBLEMS !
WE WILL CONSIDER EXTERNAL SYNTHESIS PROBLEMS POSSIBLY
AUGMENTED BY SUITABLE FEASIBILITY CONSTRAINTS ON THE
EXCITATIONS (ON THE DOF OF THE PROBLEM)
THESE SOLUTIONS WILL BOTH SERVE AS A GUIDE AND FOR
BENCHMARK PURPOSES IN OTHER MORE CUMBERSOME
PROBLEMS (THINNED, CLUSTERED, OTHER)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
An arbitrary classification
12
Available
parameters
EXCITATIONS
EXCITATIONS
+
LOCATIONS
LOCATIONS PHASE ONLY
CONSTRAINED
EXCITATIONS
CONSTRAINED
LOCATIONS
CONSTRAINED
LOCATIONS
+
EXCITATIONS
PENCIL
DIFFERENCE
SHAPED
RECONFIGURABLE
Far
Field
Kind
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
13
Part II :
Optimal synthesis of pencil beams and difference patterns for
arbitrary fixed geometry arrays,
and arbitrary sidelobe bounds
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Optimal synthesis of pencil beams for arbitrary (fixed
geometry) arrays, and arbitrary sidelobe bounds
14
IT IS POSSIBLE, WITHOUT GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION SCHEMES,
TO FIND THE GLOBAL OPTIMUM OF THE CLASS OF PROBLEMS :
MAX E
CO
(r
MAX
)
2
in a given direction (or point) of the observation space S
subject to:
E
CO
(r)
2
< SLL(r) elsewhere, where E
CO
and E
cross
are the copolar
and crosspolar components of the field
E
cross
(r)
2
< SLL
2
(r)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Optimal synthesis of pencil beams for arbitrary (fixed
geometry) arrays, and arbitrary sidelobe bounds
15
( )
2
MAX
E r
WHILE
ELSEWHERE
( ) ( ) r r SLL E s
2
IS MAX
r
MAX
r
SLL(r)
FOR A GENERIC (FIXED GEOMETRY) ARRAY FIND THE EXCITATION
COEFFICIENTS (c
1
,,c
N
) SUCH THAT, IF E IS THE FIELD,
( A SEMAPHORIC NOTATION IS BEING USED)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Arbitrary arrays
16
N
2
1
..
Find c
1
,,c
N
such that
maxE(r
MAX
)
2
subject to:
E(r)
2
< SLL(r) r
LET E(r)= c
n
v
n
(r) be the field at hand,
where v
n
(r) is the field radiated by the nth
antenna under unitary excitation
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Optimal synthesis of pencil beams for
arbitrary (fixedgeometry) arrays
17
FIND (c
1
,,c
N
)
:
MAX Re[E(r
MAX
)]
SUBJECT TO:
Im[E(r
MAX
)]=0
E(r)
2
< SLL(r) r
CHOOSING ZE(r
MAX
)=0
FIND (c
1
,,c
N
)
:
MIN Re[E(r
MAX
)]
SUBJECT TO:
Im[E(r
MAX
)]=0
E(r)
2
< SLL(r) r
The phase reference in the target direction is a degree of freedom of the problem
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
The adopted formulation
IF
n n n
c x jy
SUBJECT TO:
wherein r
1
,,r
M
is a sufficiently
fine discretization of the observation space (M >>N)
18
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
19
THE OVERALL PROBLEM CAN BE SEEN
AS THE MINIMISATION OF A LINEAR
FUNCTION IN A CONVEX SET, WHICH IS
A CONVEX PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
THE COST FUNCTION TO BE OPTIMIZED, I.E.,  Re[E(r
MAX
)]
IS A LINEAR FUNCTION OF THE UNKNOWNS
SIDELOBE CONSTRAINTS DEFINE CONVEX SETS (HYPERCYLINDERS)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
20
THE PROBLEM HAS A UNIQUE MINIMUM VALUE, WHICH IS
THEREFORE THE GLOBAL OPTIMUM AS WELL
SUCH AN OPTIMUM CAN BE ACHIEVED IN A SINGLE POINT OR
IN CONVEX SUBSET M OF THE CONSTRAINING SET C
REACHING A LOCAL OPTIMUM MEANS TO FIND EXCITATIONS
WHICH ARE GLOBALLY OPTIMAL
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
21
IT ALLOWS TO ACHIEVE THE GLOBAL OPTIMUM OF THE PROBLEM
BY MEANS OF SIMPLE LOCAL OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURES
ANY KIND OF FIXED GEOMETRY ARRAY AND SIDELOBE LEVEL CAN
BE DEALT WITH
NEAR FIELD CONSTRAINTS, AND ANY KIND OF CONVEX
CONSTRAINTS ON THE UNKNOWNS, CAN BE DEALT WITH WITHOUT
IMPARING GLOBAL OPTIMALITY OF THE APPROACH
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
22
N=16, d=/2
THE DOLPHCHEBYSHEV SOLUTION IS FOUND
AS EXPECTED IN CASE OF A UNIFORM BOUND
FOR SIDELOBES
ARBITRARY BOUND FOR SIDELOBES ARE
EASILY DEALT WITH
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
23
AN UPPER BOUND MASK CAN BE ENFORCED
ON BOTH THE NEAR AND THE FAR FIELD
Near field intensity without near field constraints
(dashed lines) and with near field constraints
(solid line) on the cut y=0 at a distance 5 lambda
from the 31X31 elements planar array.
The corresponding far fields
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
24
X
Y
s
d
y
L
W
1
2
11
10 20 30
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
mm
m
m
Jx
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
ONE CANNOT DEFINE THE ARRAY
FACTOR AT ALL
The mutual coupling may be such to modify even
the shape of the currents on the different
radiating elements
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
25
LET
N
(r) BE THE PATTERN RADIATED BY THE OVERALL ARRAY WHEN ONLY THE NTH PATCH IS
FED BY AN UNITARY VOLTAGE (active element patterns, which include parasitic currents)
by the
superposition of
the effects
( )
+ =
n
n n
V E
TOT
r
V
n
BEING THE ACTUAL
VOLTAGE EXCITATIONS
THE PROBLEM, INCLUDING MUTUAL COUPLING, CAN STILL BE SOLVED THROUGH
OUR APPROACH (MINIMIZATION OF A LINEAR FUNCTION IN A CONVEX SET)
25
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
THE SAME APPROACH CAN BE ALSO APPLIED:
To the case of conformal arrays, (wherein the array factor cannot be
defined at all);
To focusing problems in the presence of known obstacles (using the
active element pattern);
To spatial (rather than angular) focusing (for instance, in hyperthermia
problems, as long as the field of interest is scalar).
Using zero locations constraints (deep localized nulls, wide angle notches)
Enforcing convex constraints on the excitation coefficients (absolute value
bounds, absolute variations)
Taking into account superdirectivity bounds (bounds on the invisible part
of the spectrum,)
26
26
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Are there other cases where the problem is CP?
27
1. For given SideLobe Level bounds, and a given BeamWidth (BW), maximize
the Directivity of a pencil beam;
(it suffices to minimize the radiated power for a fixed value of the maximum)
2. For given bounds on sidelobes and a given beamwidth, optimize the
performances of a difference pattern;
(add a null constraint in the target direction and maximize slope therein)
3. All the above results on sum and difference patterns can be extended to the
case of wideband performances
4. All the above results on sum and difference patterns can be extended to the
case of continuous (rather than discrete) sources.
5. .
YES, INDEED
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
28
UP TO A GIVEN ORDER, ONE CAN USE STANDARD NUMERICAL
LIBRARIES (F.I. FMINCON BY MATLAB) WHICH LEADS TO A VERY
EASY IMPLEMENTATION
28
IN MANY CASES THE SYNTHESIS CAN BE REDUCED TO A
LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP) PROBLEM, WHICH ALLOWS :
A LOWER COMPUTATIONAL BURDEN
TO DISCUSS UNIQUENESS/NON UNIQUENESS OF THE SOLUTION
THIS IS INDEED THE CASE WITH ARRAYS WHOSE GEOMETRICAL
STRUCTURE IS CENTROSYMMETRIC
(uniform spacing linear arrays, planar arrays having a rectangular
or ellyptical shape,.)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
As an example, let us consider a problem where easy
reconfigurability is required amongst easily sum an difference
patterns [Morabito and Rocca, IEEE AWPL, 2010]
29
The fact one is able to separately solve in a globally optimal way sum or
difference pattern synthesis problems also allows to introduce smart
strategies for other more cumbersome problems (see also sect. 5)
As long as one can act on excitations as completely free
parameters, the synthesis problem can be reduced to
CP or even to LP problems, with the inherent advantages
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
30
GOAL:
to switch the radiation process from the sum to the difference modality by just changing
the amplitude of the central excitations (and switching the sign for half of the elements)
Optimal Synthesis of Sum and Difference Patterns
with Arbitrary Sidelobes
subject to Common Excitations Constraints
RESULT [8] :
The problem of optimizing the performances in one of the modalities while guaranteeing
given performances for the other one, under arbitrary sidelobe constraints for both of
them, is still a CP problem
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
31
Optimal Synthesis of Sum and Difference Patterns
with Arbitrary Sidelobes
subject to Common Excitations Constraints
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
33
Part III :
Optimal synthesis of shaped beams by means of
fixed geometry arrays
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF
MASK CONSTRAINED SHAPED BEAMS
34
For a fixed geometry array, determine
 THE MINIMAL NUMBER N OF ANTENNAS
 THE CORRESPONDING EXCITATIONS
SUCH THAT
) , ( UB  ) , ( E  ) , ( LB
2
m 0 s m 0 s m 0
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
AN EFFECTIVE APPROACH
35
PROPERTIES AND REPRESENTATIONS
OF POWER PATTERN DISTRIBUTIONS
CRITERIA SUCH TO
ESTABLISH A PRIORI
FEASIBILITY OF A GIVEN
SYNTHESIS PROBLEM
NEW SYNTHESIS
PROCEDURES
PARTICULARLY ROBUST
WITH RESPECT TO TRAPPING
The synthesis is splitted in a dimensioning step, which also allows
to shape the pattern, followed by determination of excitations
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Power pattern representation /1 :
Linear uniformly spaced arrays with N elements
36
m 0  =
=
=
cos sin d u e a ) u ( F
x
1 N
0 n
jnu
n
( )
*
p p
1 N
1 N p
jpu
p
2
B B e B  ) u ( F 
+ =
=
=
p
1 N 2
2
u ) u u ( D P
p
1 N
1 N p
p 1 N 2 p
t
=
2
p p
) u ( F P =
F(u)
2
=
wherein and D
p
(u) are the Dirichlet sampling functions
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC Power pattern representation /2 :
A unifying point of view
Whatever the array, the power pattern can be written in a synthetic
fashion as
m 0 + = m 0
=
T
1 P
p p
) , ( B ) , ( P
where T = 2N1 in case of linear arrays, (ULA)
T = (2N1)(2M1) in case of planar arrays (unif. Spacing)
and the basis functions are suitable exponentials in the two cases
Other kind of arrays simply give rise to different expressions of T and of the
basis functions
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC A necessary condition for the existence
of a solution to a given mask constrained synthesis problem
o u s o u +
=
T
1 p
p p
) , ( UB ) , ( B
o u > o u +
=
T
1 p
p p
) , ( LB ) , ( B
)
) , ( ) , (
.... 1 , .... 1 (
) , ( ) , (
1
2 1
1
> +
= =
s +
=
=
T
p
i i i i p p
T
p
i i i i p p
LB B
L j L i
UB B
o u o u
o u o u
SYSTEM (1) HAS TO ADMIT A
SOLUTION
(1)
System (1) defines an existence (or feasibility) criterion for the given
design constraints
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
PROPERTIES OF THE CRITERION
IT ALLOWS TO EXCLUDE A PRIORI DESIGN HYPOTHESIS WHICH ARE NOT
FEASIBLE AT ALL
IT IS EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE FROM A COMPUTATIONAL POINT OF VIEW
IT ALLOWS TO INCLUDE :
CONSTRAINTS DEPENDING ON POWER DISTRIBUTIONS, SUCH AS
DIRECTIVITY CONSTRAINTS OR GOALS
 ZEROES, INCLUDING WIDE NOTCHES
WHAT ABOUT ACTUAL SYNTHESIS ?
(can we be absolutely sure about the exact feasibility of the given design constraints ?)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
THE LINEAR ARRAY (UNIFORM SPACING) CASE
The existence criterion gives back a power density which fulfills design
constraints (and further goals if any)
*
p p
1 N
1 N p
jpu
p
C C e C ) u ( P
+ =
=
=
Fundamental
theorem of algebra
Non negativity
=
I I


.

\

=
u ) N 1 ( j
1 N
1 p
1 N
1 p
*
i
ju
i
ju
1 N
e
z
1
e ) z e ( C ) u ( P
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
) ( * ) (
) ( ) (
) 1 (
*
1
0
1
1
1
1
*
*
1
1
1
1
u F u F e I e I
z e z e
z
C
jnu
n
N
n
jnu
n
N
i
N
i
i
ju
i
ju
i
N
i
N
N
=


.

\


.

\

=
=
=
I I
I
\

I
=
=
) u ( * F
N
1 p
) N 1 ( j
*
i
ju
) u ( F
N
1 p
i
ju
1 N
e
z
1
e ) z e ( B ) u ( P
) ( * ) ( u F u F
SYNTHESIS HAS BEEN COMPLETED!
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
If z
i
is not on the unitary circle, flipping locations of z
i
and 1/z
i
*
furnishes a new solution
2
p
different solutions, where p is the number of zeroes not lying
on the unitary circle
By using additional optimizations, one could pick the more
convenient one in terms of excitations dynamics, or phase
dynamics, or other performance parameters
A VERY INTERESTING CIRCUMSTANCE !!!
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
AN APPLICATION TO THE SYNTHESIS
OF A FLAT TOP PATTERN /1
N= 14
Spacing = /2
THE GIVEN DESIGN PROBLEM CANNOT BE SOLVED WITH
N= 14 ELEMENTS
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
AN APPLICATION TO THE SYNTHESIS
OF A FLAT TOP PATTERN /2
N= 15
Spacing = /2
The existence criterion says it is a
feasible problem, and gives back a
nominal pattern
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
FINAL REMARKS FOR SHAPED BEAMS BY MEANS
OF UNIFORMLY SPACED LINEAR ARRAYS
Feasibility analysis can be conveniently separated from the actual
synthesis, thus avoiding trial and error procedures
Globally optimal solutions are found by means of a deterministic
and straightforward procedure
Inherent nonuniqueness can be effectively exploited to
accomodate furtehr requirements by means of evolutionary
optimization procedures (and the problem is binary)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
IN THE PLANAR ARRAY CASE THE EXISTENCE CRITERION IS, IN
THE GENERAL CASE, A NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT
CONDITION, BUT
THERE ARE REMARKABLE EXCEPTIONS :
 Factorable patterns P(u,v) = P(u) P(v)
Patterns whose simmetry makes it possible to analize the problem in
terms of 1D polinomials (f.i., patterns having ring simmetries
[McLellanParks, 1973] ).
IT IS AN ACCURATE CRITERION ANYWAY, i.e., it does provide reliable
previsions about the number of antennas which are necessary
WHAT ABOUT OTHER KINDS OF ARRAYS ? (1/2)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
48
Fields radiated by a non superdirective source included in a convex
hull admit a truncated Fourier series representation in terms of
suitable variable (the angular variable in the circular case) [3]
The same methods as for linear equispaced arrays can be used to fix
the far field, and hence, by solving a linear system, the actual sources
THE BASIC APPROACH CAN BE GENERALIZED PAYING THE
PRICE OF SOME EXTRA POSTPROCESSING [1,3]
WHAT ABOUT OTHER KINDS OF ARRAYS ? (2/2)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
50
Part IV :
On the Optimal Synthesis of
PhaseOnly Reconfigurable
Array Antennas
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
One possible way to reconfigure :
phase only reconfigurable arrays
Optimal synthesis of fixed geometry linear arrays able to
reconfigure from pencil beam(s) to shaped beam(s) by
just changing the phase of the excitations
Degrees of freedom of the problem :
Common excitation amplitudes and the different phase
distributions (determined at the same time)
An approach similar to what follows will be possible in
case of other kinds of reconfigurability (i.e. other DOF)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Optimal synthesis
Goals, and the basic idea
Exploit at best all the knowledge available in the separate
synthesis of the different patterns
Synthesize easilyreconfigurable sources starting from
the optimal sources corresponding to each desired power
pattern
In order to better get the basic idea, let us focus on the case
reconfiguration is required amongst a pencil and a shaped beam
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Different optimal sources correspond to the same square amplitude far field
Fixedgeometry linear or planar arrays with factorable patterns; circularly symmetric fields.
A first premise (see above): shaped beams
have a multiplicity of equivalent solutions
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
A single optimal set of excitations will be found
for the pencil beam to be realized.
It will be a point in the space of excitation
amplitudes
A multiplicity of optimal sets of excitations
will be found for the shaped beams to be
realized
They will correspond to different points in
the space of excitation amplitudes
In the space of excitations amplitudes :
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
A second premise : relaxation of constraints
a
n
a
1
.
Set of
solutions
a
2
u
F
s

2
1. Consider a single shaped beam and choose an excitation set among all the
available equivalent sets.
2. A relaxation of the radiation constraints corresponds to an enlargement of
the number of sources amplitude distributions fulfilling the requirements.
The set of solutions remains a convex one
in case of slight relaxations of constraints.
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
a
n
a
1
.
shaped
1
(set
152
)
.
shaped
1
(set
13
)
.
pencil
a
2
Consider the problem of reconfiguring the pattern only from a pencil beam to a shaped beam and
viceversa.
Once the shaped beam has been fixed, a number of equivalent solution will be present and each
of them will have a given distance from the solution of the pencil beam problem.
The shaped beams excitation set which more conveniently lends itself to reconfiguration is the
one having the minimum distance in terms of amplitude distribution from the pencil beams
excitation set.
Exploiting multiplicity
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Shaped Beam(s)
Pencil Beam(s)
Power Masks &
Array geometry
The proposed approach
Exploitation of multiplicity to get a
convenient starting point
LOCAL OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE
[Iterative projections method]
1
2
3
4
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Assessment of performances
32 equispaced isotropic radiating elements.
Interelement spacing: 0.5.
Shaped beams ripple: 0.3dB.
F(u) F
S
(u)
2
, F
S
(u)
2
Reconfigurable Power Pattarn
(FlatTop Beam)
Reconfigurable Power Pattarn
(Pencil Beam)
Reconfigurable Power Pattarn
(Square Cosecant Beam)
Peak sidelobe level on pencil beam reduced of 5 dB with respect to a published approach dealing with the same array geometry and shaped patterns
(no constraints on the dynamics of excitation amplitudes are considered herein)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Assessment of performances
Excitation Amplitudes
(Starting Point)
Excitation Amplitudes
(Final Result)
Excitation Phases
(Final Result)
Excitation Phases
(Starting Point)
32 equispaced isotropic radiating elements.
Interelement spacing: 0.5.
Shaped beams ripple: 0.3dB.
Notation: green curve: flattop beam; red curve: pencil beam; blue curve: squarecosecant beam.
Starting point extremely close to globally optimal solution
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
A partial list of references
A. F. Morabito, A. Massa, P. Rocca, and T. Isernia, "An Effective Approach to the Synthesis of PhaseOnly Reconfigurable
Linear Arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 60, n. 8, pp. 36223631, 2012.
O. M. Bucci, G. Mazzarella, and G. Panariello, Reconfigurable arrays by phaseonly control, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,
vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 919925, 1991.
O. M. Bucci, G. DElia, G. Mazzarella, and G. Panariello, Antenna pattern synthesis: A new general approach, Proc. IEEE, vol.
82, no. 3, pp. 358371, 1994.
G. K. Mahanti, S. Das, and A. Chakraborty, Design of phasedifferentiated reconfigurable array antennas with minimum
dynamic range ratio, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 262264, 2006.
R. Vescovo, Reconfigurability and beam scanning with phaseonly control for antenna arrays, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,
vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 15551565, 2008.
S. Baskar, A. Alphones, and P. N. Suganthan, Geneticalgorithmbased design of a reconfigurable antenna array with discrete
phase shifters, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 461465, 2005.
G. K. Mahanti, A. Chakraborty, and S. Das, Phaseonly and amplitudephaseonly synthesis of dualbeam pattern linear
antenna arrays using floatingpoint genetic algorithms, Progr. Electromagn. Res., PIER 68, pp. 247259, 2007.
A. Trastoy, Y. RahmatSamii, F. Ares, and E. Moreno, Twopattern linear array antenna: Synthesis and analysis of tolerance,
IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 127130, 2004.
D. Gies and Y. RahmatSamii, Particle swarm optimization for reconfigurable phasedifferentiated array design, Microw.
Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 168175, 2003.
A.F. Morabito, T. Iserna and L. Di Donato, Optimal Synthesis of PhaseOnly Reconfigurable Linear Sparse Arrays Having
UniformAmplitude Excitations , PIER, vol. 124, pp. 405423, 2012
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Part V :
Conclusions, and further extensions/
exploitation of the above results
62
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
The optimal synthesis of excitations realizing pencil beams
subject to arbitrary upper bounds for fixed geometry arrays is a
closed problem (i.e., it does not need further efforts in
developing solution approaches )
63
The optimal synthesis of excitations realizing shaped beams
subject to arbitrary upper bounds is closed for a large class of
cases of actual interest
A clever exploitation of the above results allows an effective
approach to the optimal synthesis of reconfigurable arrays
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
64
Available
parameters
EXCITATIONS
EXCITATIONS
+
LOCATIONS
LOCATIONS PHASE ONLY
CONSTRAINED
EXCITATIONS
CONSTRAINED
LOCATIONS
CONSTRAINED
LOCATIONS
+
EXCITATIONS
PENCIL
DIFFERENCE
SHAPED
RECONFIGURABLE
Far
Field
Kind
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
The approaches which have been presented for the optimal
synthesis of pencil beams and shaped beams can be generalized
to the case of non superdirective continuous sources
65
Such a circumstance allows to devise at least
three different interesting perspectives
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
I) By exploitation of suitable density taper techniques, which have
been recently extended to the case of complex sources [1], one can
have effective strategies for the synthesis of locations (rather than
excitations)
II) The optimal continuous sources can act as effective reference and
guide for the synthesis of unusual arrays (size tapered [2], clustered,
thinned, other)
III) They can also act as useful nominal fields to be looked for in cases
one looks for both locations and excitations through compressive
sensing [3] or alternative techniques
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
References for part V
1) O. M. Bucci, T. Isernia, A. F. Morabito, "An Effective Deterministic Procedure for
the Synthesis of Shaped Beams by means of UniformAmplitude Linear Sparse
Arrays," in print on IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation.
2) A. F. Morabito and A. R. Lagan, "A sizetapered architecture for high
perfomance isophoric direct radiating arrays," Atti della XIX Riunione
Nazionale di Elettromagnetismo, 1014 Settembre 2012, Roma, Italy.
3) M. DUrso, T. Isernia, A. F. Morabito, G. Prisco, Minimizing the Number of
Sensors in the Synthesis of Shaped Beams Patterns, Fifth EUropean Conference
on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2011, 1115 April 2011, Rome, Italy
(to be completed)
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
68
Available
parameters
EXCITATIONS
CONTINUOUS
SOURCES
LOCATIONS
(via density
taper)
LOCATIONS
AND
EXCITATIONS
(via CS or
hybrid
approaches)
CONSTRAINED
EXCITATIONS
CONSTRAINED
LOCATIONS
.
PENCIL
DIFFERENCE
SHAPED
RECONFIGURABLE
Far
Field
Kind
Lemma
group
DIMET  UNIRC
Thank you for your attention
For further inquiry : tommaso.isernia@unirc.it
To download the updated presentation, see
www.lemma.unirc.it/antenne_tlc.php