Global Vision international east AfricA

Mkwiro, kenya

ExpEdition REpoRt 061 March 2006

in partnership with Kenya wildlife service and One earth SafariS

Introduction & Objectives Methods Results Future work

3 4 6
6 7 8 9

Introduction Study sites Aims & Objectives Line Transect Sampling Introduction Methodology Results Primate Community Survey Introduction Methodology Results Habitat survey Vegetation & Regeneration Survey Introduction Methodology Results Disturbance Survey Introduction Methodology Results Ground & Canopy Cover Survey Introduction Methodology Results Casual Wildlife Observations Primate Behavioural Observations Community Involvement Future work

10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 14 15 17 17 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21

Community Timetable Weekly Activities Daily Activities Teaching English Training Mkwiro School Adult Education Orphanage work Community groups Mkwiro Youth Group Mkwiro Womens Groups Mkwiro Village Committee Mkwiro Village Dispensary Group Other community based activities

22 22 23 25 25 26 28 29 30 30 32 32 33 33

Acknowledgements This report and the work achieved during the first GVI East Africa expedition, Mkwiro, Kenya would not have been possible without the dedication, hard work and commitment of the expedition staff: Graham Corti, Expedition Manager Brett Trollop, Base Manager Rachel Crouthers, Marine Officer Hugh Finn, Marine Officer Becci Jewell, Marine Officer Sara Trafford, Community Officer Shafii Vuyaa, Boat Captain Piet Oudejans, Intern Craig Robertson, Intern Tanya Cowan, Intern And the hard work and enthusiasm of all expedition members: Sarah Archer, Benjamin Ansell, Tracey Ashworth, Hilary Backwell, Sheryn Bellas, Emma Browning, Mary Ellen Conway, Leah Cowan, Heike Fischer, Laurel George, Gavin Howells, Robyn Hutchings, Susan Lacey, Charlotte Le Page, Ewoi Yeronimo Losuumuni, Persephone Manwaring, Veronica Marsh, Richard Nutbeam, Allan Pearce, Shelley Pope, Sara Saad, Lacey Strong, Erin Townsend, Jenna Wadsworth and Julie Young We wish to express our gratitude and appreciation also to: Sophie Greatwood, Regional Director, for her dedication and extraordinary hard work in setting up the expedition and continued support during it.

Steve Gwenin, Director of Programmes, for his valuable contribution in setting up the expedition and to all the staff at our UK and regional offices for their contribution and support. Ranjit Sondhi for his invaluable assistance throughout the set up and continuing support and loyalty to the expedition, and to all the staff at One Earth Safaris, Nyali Reef Hotel and Shimoni Reef Lodge for their help and support. We wish to mention Captain Haruni in particular, who was present alongside us on Stingray throughout the expedition and contributed greatly to our marine research programme and the experience for expedition members. Ben Kavu, Assistant Director and Janet Kaleha, Senior Warden and all the staff at Kenya Wildlife Service who have shown on going support and assistance in the development of our expedition programme. Kwale District Council and in particular J.W Chiuri, District Education Officer, for their support and co-operation in enabling us to work with Mkwiro Primary School. Jimbi Katana and his staff at National Museums of Kenya, for their significant contribution, assistance and support for the expedition’s activities. We are also indebted to Saidi our botanist of the Coastal Forest Conservation Unit for his cooperation and expertise. We are indebted to our local partners for their welcome, friendship, support and enthusiasm: All the committee members of Mkwiro Village Council, Mkwiro Primary School Committee, Mkwiro Orphanage Committee, Mkwiro Youth Group, Mkwiro Women’s Groups, Shimoni Village Council, Shimoni Slave Cave Committee, Shimoni Youth Conservation Project, Shimoni Conservation Committee, the teachers and pupils of Mkwiro Primary School, the children of Mkwiro Orphanage and the villagers of Mkwiro. Our gratitude is also extended to our local staff of askaris, fundis and domestic assistants, as well as the staff of Paradise Divers, Maya and Pat Hemphill of Pemba Channel Fishing Club, Sally and Steve of Charlie Claw’s, Alex Rhys-Hurn of the Colobus Trust and everyone else who has offered us their support, advice and guidance since our arrival in Kenya. Introduction This is the first report from the GVI East Africa Mkwiro Programme, having set up in November 2005 and conducted our first 10 week expedition between 16th January – 27th March 2006. The expedition research and work programme is conducted in partnership with Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and has been implemented with their guidance. Working relationships have also been developed with other local and national stakeholders and our work programme conducted over the course of this expedition has been shaped by input from a number of partner organisations. The expedition work programme can be broadly categorised in to the following three areas, although we maintain an integrated approach that: Marine research programme, Terrestrial research programme and Community development & capacity building. The GVI East Africa Mkwiro expedition is based in Mkwiro village at the Eastern end of Wasini Island. Mkwiro lies across the Wasini channel, approximately 1.4km South East of Shimoni Village

on the mainland. The area falls under the administration of Shimoni sub-location, Msambweni location, Kwale district, Coast province. South of Wasini Island lies the Kisite Marine National Park encompassing Kisite island, and Mpunguti Marine National Reserve encompassing the Inner and Outer Mpunguti Islands. Together they form the continuous Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) under the administration of KWS. The KMMPA attracts around 300 tourists daily, largely on day excursions from Diani and Mombasa, the major drawcard being dolphin watching trips, combined with snorkelling, diving and lunches at Wasini village. KMMPA is scheduled to be officially branded by KWS as Kenyan’s primary destination for dolphin tourism. The KMMPA incorporates a number of coral reef, sandy sea bed and limestone rocky habitats, as well as deeper water, attracting a high diversity of marine life. The wider marine environment, sitting at the top of the Pemba Channel also attracts tourists for deep sea angling. Mkwiro village is a small rural community, still largely reliant on artisanal fishing. Women of the village also collect shells for the curio trade. The only commercial operation in the village is Paradise Divers who offer limited tourist accommodation but cater primarily for day excursions of divers who visit their premises in the afternoon for lunch. This represents the only regular source of tourism for the village and aside from locally employed staff the only income generated is from a small stall selling souvenirs. Tourists are offered tours of Mkwiro village by staff of Paradise Divers. One of the primary limitations in accessing tourism for the Mkwiro community is access with a broad wave cut platform preventing the landing of boats close to the village except for a narrow window of opportunity at high tides. The village itself does not offer any form of accommodation or restaurant facilities for tourists and there are no publicised attractions associated with the village. The village contains a primary school and an orphanage supported by the villagers which takes children from the district whose families are unable to support them. The village also contains a government dispensary, supplies for which are reportedly funded by DANIDA, however there is no financial support available to staff the dispensary and as a result it is currently not functional. Funding. The greatest daily problem facing the community is the absence of fresh water on the island. The village does have large ground storage tanks and water catchment areas. The tanks are reported to have the capacity to supply the village with freshwater throughout the year if filled during the rains, however the water catchment areas are in disrepair and do not support the collection of enough water at present. Instead fresh water has to be purchased and transported from Shimoni on the mainland for potentially 4 months of the year, at cost to the villagers. Mkwiro has an interesting oral history relating to the arrival and settlement of the Shirazi peoples and adjacent to the village is the Kaya Bogoa forest, gazetted by National Museums of Kenya for its cultural value. Wasini village lies at the Western end of Wasini Island, and benefits to a much greater extent from tourism. Members of the Wasini community operate private boats for tourists to visit the marine protected area, it receives the bulk of daily tourists for lunches and also offers a Coral Gardens Boardwalk operated by a women’s group having been funded by PACT Kenya which is successfully marketed. The village of Shimoni is the largest habitation of the Shimoni Peninsula sub-location and whilst fishing remains the primary livelihood for residents, it is also the centre of fish trading with a fish market that supplies coastal resorts. Shimoni also has a small commercial port with immigration and customs offices and the centre of Shimoni has a number of small commercial businesses. Shimoni hosts the local KWS office overseeing the KMMPA and also a number of small tourist operations including lodges and operators. Shimoni holds a great deal of significance in terms of national history and features in the national school curriculum as a result. The extensive limestone cave network, only small sections of which are currently accessible, opens in the centre of Shimoni

and local history and artefacts link it to the slave trade as a holding pen for slaves awaiting transportation to markets in Zanzibar. The cave also contains an area used as a shrine for traditional religious and cultural belief systems and above the cave is a small area of coastal forest. The cave entrance site and forest above it have been gazetted by National Museums of Kenya as an historical monument. Shimoni was also the original place of settlement for the British Imperial East Africa Company and hence the origin of Kenya’s British colonial history. Associated with this are a number of important historical monuments distributed along the waterfront in the centre of the village. These include the Colonial District Commissioner’s Residence one of the oldest colonial buildings in Kenya, the colonial administrative building, the former colonial prison, the oldest prison building in Kenya, and the colonial graveyard with an impressive grave for Frederick Eyre Lawrence of the Riffle Brigade reported to have been killed in action fighting to remove the Arab slave traders and secure the area for the indigenous population. These historic monuments are in various states of disrepair and there is no signage or marketing rendering them insignificant and anonymous to visitors. However all the historical monuments and the central area of Shimoni encompassing them are due to be officially gazetted by National Museums of Kenya in the next few months. Around Shimoni, specifically in the South East corner of the peninsula is a large area of indigenous coastal forest that is unfortunately not subject to any formal protection. The area of forest is a long standing traditional natural resource for surrounding communities, however much of the forest area seems to be divided in to plots under private ownership, particularly those sections bordering the sea. Clearance of these plots for development has been in evidence as has land clearance for shamba (agricultural use). Poles have traditionally been extracted for fish traps and construction and timber extracted for construction and boat building, however resource extraction is evident at seemingly unsustainable levels at present and there is evidence of forest degradation. Kenya’s forests in general have been a declining resource over the preceeding decades and coastal forest has suffered in particular from tourism developments. The Shimoni forest, apart from it’s inherent biodiversity value, also contains a significant population of the Angolan Black and White Colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus), a highly charismatic species considered vulnerable in East Africa. Marine Research Programme

Introduction & Objectives Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) covers an area of 28 sq km. The KMMPA and marine wildlife it contains act as a huge draw card for tourists, making it an important resource for the Shimoni community. The three islands contained within the KMMPA are all surrounded by coral reefs, and these attract divers and snorkellers. Additionally, swim-with-dolphin and dolphin watching companies operate from Shimoni, travelling through Wasini Channel and into the KMMPA each day. These dolphin dhows most frequently encounter bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, and also, less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis. There is, however, no code of conduct followed when manoeuvring around the dolphins, nor are levels of interaction monitored or regulated in any way. The impact this may be having on the dolphins is unknown. In particular it’s not known whether increased, or even current, levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable. Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of the Tropical Western Indian Ocean, so little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species; information that is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed. The main objectives of the marine research are therefore to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data

on those species of dolphin that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. Initially the focus will be on assessing abundance and, later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and diel movement patterns . Other large marine vertebrates, such as turtles, whale sharks, dugongs, and seabirds (herein referred to as marine megafauna) also occur within the KMMPA and surrounding area. These species attract tourists and are therefore a valuable resource for the Shimoni community. Additionally their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity at a number of levels. Therefore, a further objective of this marine research project is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine megafauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly. Our main working partners are the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Marine Fisheries Research Institute (KEMFRI). The research conducted by GVI will be shaped to satisfy the objectives of our local partners, to assist them towards their aims. All data collected thus far will be available to them to aid management of the study area. Methods During the first expedition two survey vessels have been used; ET, for nearshore surveys, sometimes within the Marine Reserve, and Stingray, for surveys further offshore and in the KMMPA. Between the two vessels, the KMMPA and surrounding waters have been surveyed. During expedition 061, data was collected in accordance with two different methods of population abundance estimation: photo-identification and mark-recapture methods. Photo-identification refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (such as shape, outline and natural markings) of their dorsal fins. These features allow known individuals to be resighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-identification can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results, a number of conditions must be met: 1. A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption, only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals. 2. Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated. 3. ‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured. 4. Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated, as many individuals should be captured as possible. 5. The population must be closed i.e. with no emigration or immigration. A record of the boat based surveys was kept in the form of an event log (refer to table 1, Appendix). Search effort was recorded, along with environmental conditions, such as Beaufort sea state, swell, cloud cover, tide etc, and events, i.e. dolphin or marine megafauna surveys.

Following an encounter with dolphins, the dolphin survey form was completed (refer to table 2, Appendix). Behavioural observations from the first 5 minutes were recorded to show the dolphins’ predominant activity type and information such as location, habitat type, group size and composition was noted. Following an encounter with marine megafauna, the marine megafauna encounter sheet was completed (refer to table 3, Appendix). A third form, the Photo-ID data sheet, was filled in during the encounter to record details of photos taken (refer to table 4, Appendix). Information from this sheet was later used to aid the division of photos into separate encounters for the catalogue, as well as recognising which photos were of which individuals and subgroups within the encounter. Following the pilot study, in week eight of the expedition some changes were made to the data sheets to accommodate changes that will be implemented for the second expedition, and to increase the accuracy of data collected. The event log was revised (refer to table 5, Appendix) and an additional sheet, the sightings form, introduced (refer to table 6, Appendix). The sightings form is for recording dolphin sightings when it’s not possible to behaviourally survey them, for example when they are being observed by dolphin-tourism dhows. The dolphin survey form was simplified (refer to table 7, Appendix) and the time allowed for the collection of behavioural data was increased from 5 to 10 minutes. Results A total of 255 hours and 38 minutes were spent on search effort this expedition, which resulted in 85 dolphin surveys, 64 mega fauna surveys and photo-ID work being done on 81 occasions.

Number surveys completed Total number of photos taken

Bottlenose dolphins 62 of

Humpback dolphins 19

Spinner dolphins 4

Mega fauna 64





Bottlenose dolphins Behavioural surveys of Bottlenose dolphins were completed on 62 occasions. Work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable individuals encountered and the re-sighting rate of those individuals, which will indicate population size. Humpback dolphins As with the Bottlenose dolphins, work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable individuals sighted, and their re-sighting rates. Initial impressions suggest a large percentage of encounters are re-sightings of previously seen individuals, suggesting a small population size. Spinner dolphins Four surveys of spinner dolphins were completed and a total of 287 photos taken.

Megafauna Sixty-four marine megafauna surveys were completed and a total of 168 photos taken. Species Cephalopod Green turtle Unknown turtle species Egret Palm nut vulture African fish Eagle Greater crested tern Greater/lesser tern City gull Unknown bird species Total Number of photos taken 12 08 08 02 16 4 43 24 11 40 168

- Turtles Short surfacing periods and environmental conditions make it difficult to identify turtles to species level. Turtle species Loggerhead Green Unknown Number of times sighted 2 2 30

Additionally, four dead turtles were recorded, two of unknown species and two Green turtles. Future work For the second and subsequent phases, data will continue to be collected to provide information on the baseline ecology of the dolphin and megafauna species encountered within the KMMPA and surrounding waters. This information will form the foundations of a long-term cetacean monitoring programme, as well as providing valuable information that can be used to better implement a management plan for the cetaceans, and cetacean tourism, of the KMMPA. Currently the study area is not been sampled in a systematic way. To solve this, a grid of transects is being designed and randomly placed over the study area. Transects will then be randomly selected each day and completed, which should result in even coverage of the study area over the second expedition. In addition to this, the distance and angle to sightings from transects will be recorded to meet the conditions of line transect distance sampling. This should result in three population size estimates being calculated, from mark-recapture techniques, the photo-identification catalogue and distance sampling methods, which would allow comparisons of the results gained from these different methods. A land based survey will be conducted from the NE coast of Wasini Island to record the presence and behaviour of dolphins. The presence and type of vessels will also be recorded, allowing the response of dolphins to boat traffic to be investigated. The first phase of the second expedition will serve as a pilot study for this project, after which the methods will be reviewed and any necessary amendments made.

Terrestrial Research Programme

Introduction The Eastern arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging but fragmented distributions and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern arc forests for example are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests of which much less is known but which represent an important and unique yet diminishing forest habitat. The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, formed on old coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. This in conjunction with salinity levels and the coastal climate influences the plant community that is found and the structure of the forest, for example favouring shallow root systems that reduce stability. Study sites The research is conducted in Shimoni forest positioned between Shimoni village on the western side and the sea on the southern and eastern side (picture 1. in the black circle). The location is situated between the coordinates 04º64.900'S, 39º38.600'E and 04º64.300'S, 39º40.300'E.

Picture 1. Research area

Shimoni forest represents an area of important indigenous coastal forest, but is currently threatened by resource extraction and clearing of land, a situation that may be exacerbated by the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly for tourism. The area of forest was selected for biodiversity research primarily because at present it still forms a viable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black & White Colobus. Discussions with community based organisations in Shimoni highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Conservation Youth Project were keen to seek protection and sustainable management. As a result we have developed our Terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level the forest is readily accessible and we are logistically able to support a long term wide ranging biodiversity survey of the area. Aims & Objectives Our aims for this expedition were to cut four full length East-West transects in the forest, and conduct disturbance surveys and primate surveys along them, as well as recording casual observations of other forest fauna. We also aimed to initiate and complete vegetation and regeneration surveys on two of the transects. In addition we were aiming to support the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee in the development of their nature trail. The objectives we are trying to accomplish with our research are:  To assess the biodiversity of the coastal forest in the Shimoni area. To support long term sustainable management of forest resources and help building capacity amongst the community.  To support Shimoni Youth Conservation Group, Mkwiro community groups & National Museums of Kenya.  To support national and international conservation of threatened habitats and species. Line Transect Sampling

Introduction The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system. Our first objective was to establish the beginning of the transect grid system from which all surveys would be conducted. Methodology To cover the whole forest we ustilise west-east transects. Parallel transects are spaced 200m apart, facilitating a 100m survey distance on each side of the transect. This spacing was selected following the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring

(TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol. Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised more easily and facilitate distribution mapping. A South-North ‘spine’ was also cut to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects. To cut the transects we used a panga (local name for machete). The transect lines need to be straight and relatively easy to walk to enable the surveys to be conducted. Disturbance was minimised where practical by utilising ‘off sets’ – where it was not practical to continue the transect line on an Easterly compass bearing, measured sections of the transect were staggered to the North or South of the bearing to bypass obstacles before resuming the original bearing. We marked transect lines with yellow plastic tags for recognition in the field, and labelled double-tagged 50m section markers and triple-tagged ‘off-sets’. Results In total we spent 28 days laying out the transects, where two groups cutting transects simultaneously counted as 2 days. In this first expedition we achieved the completion of 3 transects and approximately half of the fourth. The forest proved to be very dense in patches throughout which combined with the climate made the cutting of transects a slower process than originally envisaged. Table 1 below indicates the total number of sections and lengths of each transect. Transect 1 was initiated 100m North of the southern coastal edge of the forest area, and subsequent transects initiated 200m North of each other. A total of 5.25km of transects were cut. Table 1. Laid transects Sections West of North-South spine Transect 1 0 Transect 2 8 Transect 3 9 Transect 4 1 Total 17

Length West (m) 0 400 450 50 900

Sections East of North-South spine 17 26 32 12 81

Length East (m) 850 1300 1600 600 4350

Primate Community Survey

Introduction Primate surveys were conducted to assess primate distribution and density as well assessing group structure and population ecology. Methodology The primate community surveys were based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team walked behind ensuring that they did not draw attention to any primate groups that the nominated

observers had not recorded. For all groups of primates (a solitary individual counted as a ‘group’) the sighting distance was recorded (the distance from the observer on the transect line to the geometric centre of each group of primates). To be able to estimate the distance reliably expedition members underwent training in distance estimation and testing. Only those who demonstrated the most consistent and accurate estimations were utilised for distance estimation. Distance sampling analysis utilises the perpendicular distance from the transect line to the geometric centre of observed groups and to calculate the perpendicular distance the sighting angle was also recorded from the transect line at the position of the observer to the centre of the observed group. This was done using a compass. Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions including random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals were recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group with a perpendicular distance of 0m from the transect line have a 100% probability of detection, an assumption that we are satisfied we are able to meet.

The behaviour of the primate group when first spotted was recorded alogn with primate species and group size. Where possible time was taken to identify individuals in each observed group by sex and age class; 0-3 months (‘infant’), 3-6 months (‘juvenile’) and > 6 months (‘sub-adult’ / ‘adult’). Age classes were selected on the basis of colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate by relative body size. Results In total primate community surveys were undertaken over 14. Each group of observers working simultaneously counts as one day’s work. We recorded 44 groups of colobus monkeys. The results are summarized in table 2. The sightings are shown in chart 1. Table 2. Colobus distribution research Total research area Colobus research area (m²) 770 000 Colobus groups 44 Individual colobus 145 Mean individuals per group 3.5

Chart 1. Sighting of Colobus monkeys on different distances from the transect line. Distances are categorized in 10 metre groups.

Colobus group sightings
12 10
# groups

8 6 4 2 0
10 0< 20 0< 1 30 0< 2 40 0< 3 50 0< 4 60 0< 5 70 0< 6 80 0< 7 00 90 <1 0< 8 90

Distance (in m)

We also encountered 7 groups of Sykes monkeys. The Sykes encounters are to low to start analysing. Habitat survey A two meter corridor running parallel to the North of the transect line is used for forest habitat surveys. The forest composition research encompasses the following:  Vegetation survey;  Disturbance survey;  Ground and canopy cover survey; Vegetation & Regeneration Survey Introduction The vegetation in the forest is important not only for the primate community. The local human community makes use of the natural resources. The vegetation survey is used to gather information about the composition of the forest. Information is gathered about species diversity, maturity and canopy profile. This provides data on plant species composition and recruitment. Methodology Species identification was done by a botanist attached to the National Museums of Kenya Coastal Forest Conservation Unit. To measure tree size we recorded Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) following UK forestry protocol. To measure the height of mature trees (DBH >15cm) we used a clinometer to measure canopy angle and calculated from vertical height from the horizontal distance to the tree base adding in the height at which the angle was taken from the ground. The canopy radius we measured by visually estimating where the mean canopy radius extended to and measuring the distance to the tree base.

Results A total of 9 days was spent undertaking vegetation surveys. In the 9 days of surveying we covered 5 sections on transect 1, the results shown in table 3. Table 3. Vegetation survey. The total amount of trees measured and their height or diameter at breast height. Tree height (in m) if DBH DBH (in cm) <1cm Total <0.5 0.5-1 >1 1>5 5>15 >15 519 199 297 125 12 8 1160 The results of the total survey is shown in table 4. Table 4. Forest trees and shrubs species list Height category (m) 0.5 or DBH (cm) < 0.5 –1 m m Species 1 Alchornea laxiflora 2 Alchornea sp 2 4 3 Ancylobotrys 2 petersiana 4 Anisocycla blepharosepala 5 Carpodiptera 15 8 africana 6 Cordia monoica 7 Dichapetalum fruticosa sp. 8 Dichapetalum 2 2 madagascariense 9 Dichapetalum sp. 2 1 10 Dictyophleba lucida / 1 Lamdofia kirkii? 11 Ecbolium 3 1 amplexicole 12 Erythroxylum 3 emarginatum 13 Fernandoa magnifica 1 2 14 Lecaniodiscus 1 fraxinifolius 15 Mallotus 5 oppositifolius 16 Manilkara sulfata 3 17 Markhamia zanzibarica 18 Millettia usaramensis 5 1

>1 m

5– >1 15 cm cm 1 9 1

Poten> 15 tial cm pole

Canopy height

4 1 12

8 1 1



1 1



1 1

21 1 2 1






Height category (m) or DBH (cm) Species

< 0.5 m

0.5 –1 m

>1 m

5– >1 15 cm cm

Poten> 15 tial cm pole

Canopy height 23.0, 14.2, 15.9, 12.6, 25.3, 19.4

19 Monanthotaxis fornicata 20 Monanthotaxis sp. 21 Monodora grandidiea 22 Ochna thomasiana 23 Polysphaeria parvifolia 24 Premna hildebrandtii 25 Rhopalopilia sp. 26 Salacia madagascariensis 27 Securidaca longipedunculata 28 Sorindeia madagascariensis 29 Synaptolepis kirkii 30 Synaptolepis sp. 31 Teclea simplicifolia 32 Teclea sp. 33 Tricalysia ovalifolia 34 Trichilia emetica 35 Turraea mombassana Unidentified specimen 36 Uvaria acuminata 37 Vangueria randii 38 Vangueria tomentosa 39 Vepris simplifolia 40 Vepris sp. 41 Xylopia parviflora

6 9 1 1 9

5 1

35 5


1 3


8 1

2 241

114 1

2 1 150 2 1 2

18 2 11 14 1 28 115 3 4 1 5 4

9 3 5 2 2 33 3

6 1 1 2 1 1 9 49 3 8 22.2

1 4

1 2

From the results it can be seen that the undergrowth is dominated by Salacia madagascarienses and Uvaria acuminata with an additional 39 other species present. Both species are shrubs or lianas reaching up to 6 metres. The canopy is dominated by Millettia usaramensis in the sections surveyed thus far.

Disturbance Survey

Introduction The local communities use the forest for their livelihood. Women gather firewood, herbs and medicine; men gather timber and poles. The disturbance survey is therefore intended to assess levels of human resource extraction and disturbance and in association with vegetation and regeneration data assess its sustainability. In total we spend 5 days gathering information for the disturbance level. Each group working simultaneously counts as one day’s work. Methodology Disturbance was monitored within the 2 metre corridor to the north of the transect. Two meter north was chosen over 1 meter on each side to minimize the disturbance level we inflict ourselves by laying the transects and walking them. We monitored the transects recording all clear evidence of:  Cur Poles (old and new) defined as 5-15cm DBH or at base where cut;  Cut Timber (old and new) defined as >15cm DBH or at base were cut;  Pit saws;  Shelters;  Snares;  Firewood and  Fire. Cut poles and timber were only recorded when the tree base was within the 2m corridor. Any other evidence of human disturbance they was noted. Results Three transects were surveyed. The results of the disturbance research are summarized in the three histograms. Per section is pointed out what kind of disturbance has been monitored. Chart 1. Disturbance on transect 1.
Disturbance Transect 1
Disturbance level

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 S# 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Section
pit saw s # old timber # new timber # old poles # new poles

Chart 2. Disturbance on transect 2.
Disturbance Transect 2
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -5 -2 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 Section
shelter snares firew ood fire pit saw s # old timber # new timber # old poles # new poles

Chart 3. Disturbance on transect 3.
Disturbance Transect 3

Disturbance level

Disturbance level

25 20 15 10 5 0 -9 -6 -3 0 3 6 9 12 16 19 22 25 29 Section

snares firew ood fire pit saw s # old timber # new timber # old poles # new poles

Transect 3 in particular has had intensive pole harvesting. The most disturbance in the three transects comes through cutting of poles. These are used both in the construction of houses and shelter and also for fish traps. Ground & Canopy Cover Survey

Introduction A basic measure of ground cover and canopy cover was recorded in order to describe the forest profile and compliment faunal surveys and distribution patterns. Methodology At the start of each 50m section a 1m2 quadrat was placed directly to the northeast of the marker. In the quadrat an estimation of the percentage cover at ground level of the following categories was recorded: exposed rock, bare earth, leaf litter, woody vegetation, non woody vegetation and other. The canopy cover was measured at the marker of each 50m section. An estimate was made of the canopy cover by standing in the square meter and looking straight up through inverted binoculars. Results A total 5 days was spent on Ground and Canopy Cover surveys. Each group working simultaneously counts as one day’s work. The dominant category for the ground cover was leaf litter. It generally accounted for more than 90% of the ground cover. The canopy cover varied from 0 to 98%, the average being 55%. In Chart 4 the canopy cover of every section in the three transects is given. The canopy cover of transect 1 (T1) is towards the front, the canopy cover of transect 3 (T3) towards the back

Chart 4. Overview of the canopy cover on the three transects.

Canopy cover
100 80
% coverage

60 40 20 0 -9 -6 -3 0 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 Section 3 6

T1 T2 T3

Casual Wildlife Observations The observations of other fauna (wildlife) during the conducted research were also noted to contribute towards biodiversity data. Confidently identifications of the following species were recorded during the overall research programme: suni (Neotragus moschatus), Harvey’s duiker (Cephalophus harveyi), boomslang (Dispholidus typhus), zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi), narina trogon (Apaloderma narina), African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) and silvery-cheeked hornbill (Bycanistes brevis). Further sightings of animals occurred but the species couldn’t be confidently identified. Primate Behavioural Observations During this expedition, preliminary behavioural observations were made of Angolan Black & White Colobus to assess the viability of behavioural research. One troop in particular towards the beginning of transect 3, close to on going human disturbance, proved to be particularly valuable for behavioural observations with only limited evidence of disturbance from the presence of observers, confined to the first 10 minutes after arrival. Troops encountered further in to the forest tended to flee and maintain a spatial distance from observers that made behavioural observations impractical. Observations were conducted in pairs with observer using binoculars and one scribe. Observations were conducted on focal individuals and for the purpose of this preliminary work, observers were asked simply to record what they could in detail regarding an individuals behaviour, posture, social interactions and spatial separation. In the course of the observations some interesting anecdotal records were made of feeding behaviour and the use of hands, the soliciting of grooming, and the handling of infants. It is hoped that further observations will be conducted in order to establish definitions for a ethogram and to attempt to habituate further troops before a structured behavioural survey is developed. Community Involvement At the request of individuals of the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project, members were invited to join us throughout the 10 week expedition of training and survey work in order to gain an understanding of forest research techniques and build capacity for future community based management. They were particularly keen to work with the botanist and learn tree identification. Between 1 and 6 individuals joined us daily throughout the expedition, an individual choosing to join us for between 1 and 5 days of the week. With the support of our National Scholarship Student, Ewoi Yeronimo Losuumuni, the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project participated in environmental awareness and sensitisation meetings facilitated by GVI, and subsequently took these to the 6 villages of Shimoni sub-location surrounding coastal forest as art of a sensitisation

programme to build support for community management of their forest resources. From this exercise the Shimoni Conservation Committee was created with 35 board members, representing the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project and at least 2 elders and one woman from each of the 6 villages. As a result a petition has been planned to elicit community support and a proposal is in development in order to request authority for community management of the forest, addressing issues of sustainable resource extraction, monitoring of human disturbance, tourism initiatives and conservation. Future work  Primate behavioural observations will continue with a viw to developing an ethogram as the basis for methodical focal behavioural research and time budget data collection. Exposure to observers will also be incorporated as part of the process of habituation for different troops of Angolan Black & White Colobus. Due to lack of reference material the vegetation survey was dependent on the availability of the botanist. To counter this we aim to develop our own field herbarium for reference and tree identification catalogue so that samples can be stored for later identification. This phase we surveyed the vegetation on transect 1 up to section 2 for the whole 50 meter. From that point we reduced the survey to 10 metres per section using a random 10m sample selection. The reduced sample size was to facilitate more rapid data collection over the transect grid area. Having further reviewed the data collected we will use the reduced 10m sample per 50m section for small vegetation ( up to 15cm DBH) but revert to surveying the whole 50m section for mature trees (>15cm DBH). Three transects have been cut and a fourth started, so the transect gird will continue to be cut until the entir forest area can be accessed for survey work. All other survey work will then be continued to cover the new transects. In addition the Primate Communtiy Surveys will be repeated on those transects already surveyed in order to monitor seasonal variation and build up a large enough data set for distance analyses of the probability of detection. GVI’s support for the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee Nature Trail has been postponed while the committee has worked alongside volunteers from another organisation to construct the trail and clean up the area. Following talks with committee members it has been agreed that next expedition GVI will offer a series of lectures and workshops designed to develop capacity for nominated guides o deliver information to visitors and develop an interesting and educational visitor experience.

Community Development & Capacity Building Programme

Community Timetable

Weekly Activities Table One outlines the weekly schedule for the groups on community in Expedition One. In Phase One the orphanage sessions were on Tuesdays and Thursdays only, with the third group offered the option of joining other groups on either of those days. In Phase two Monday sessions in the orphanage were added, the third group being allocated their own dedicated time in the afternoon on one of their Marine days (to be avoided in Expedition Two, as this time should be dedicated for inputting marine data). Adult Education was offered three times a week in Phase One, and four times a week in Phase Two with the addition of a women’s class on Saturday Mornings. The School hours were allocated so that each team taught the same two English classes twice a week, except for third group who taught one English class twice on Wednesdays. This ensured continuity for both Expedition Members (EM’s) and students, and allowed EM’s the opportunity to develop a better rapport with students in their particular classes. Table 1: Expedition One Weekly Community Timetable Day Group AM Monday 1 Mkwiro School (6 & 8) Adult Education (Men) Orphanage (Group 3) Tuesday 2 Mkwiro School (5 & 7) Orphanage Wednesday 3 Mkwiro School (4’s) Adult Education (Men) Thursday 1 Mkwiro School (6 & 8) Orphanage Friday 2 Mkwiro School (5 & 7) Adult Education (Men) Saturday 3 Adult Education (Women)



Women’s Group meet about products

Table 2: Proposed Expedition Two Weekly Community Timetable Day Group AM Monday 1 Mkwiro School (6 & 8) Orphanage Tuesday 2 Mkwiro School (5 & 7) Adult Education (Men) Community Wednesday 3 Mkwiro School (4’s) Orphanage Thursday 1 Mkwiro School (6 & 8) Adult Education (Men) Community Friday 2 Mkwiro School (5 & 7) Orphanage Saturday 3 Adult Education (women)







supervision, Group or remedial Meeting? reading sessions after school? During Expedition One, no formal time was allocated to the various community groups. Instead, meetings were held on a flexible basis with the various groups as and when the need arose. The exception to this was in the second phase when Rukia’s women’s group met with us on Tuesday afternoons, for consultation on product development and marketing with Sara and two of the EM’s specialised in these areas. In week 8 and week 9 of the second phase, one of the Mkwiro School teachers approached us for help with remedial reading for several of his pupils. Individual reading sessions were then held by some of the groups, in which pupils with learning difficulties read aloud under a tree to the EM’s for half an hour, with books supplied by GVI, focusing on segmenting and blending reading skills. It would be beneficial for pupils if this could be be formally timetabled into the program on a daily basis in the next expedition. The frequency of this occurring will depend on whether community groups want to meet on some of the afternoons as well. Weekly Timetable Recommendations:  Implement the schedule of weekly activities outlined in Table 2 ( to be amended if we change to a 1,1 - 2,2 - 3,3 system of daily work rota’s, instead of the current 1,2,3 - 1,2,3). This includes changing the scheduled orphanage sessions to three times a week, and reducing adult education with the men to twice a week. Continue to deliver a two hour womens group lesson on Saturday mornings. Ask whether particular community groups would like us to structure in time on specific afternoons to further develop their aims and objectives, or continue to meet on a flexible basis as and when the need arises. Implement remedial reading with school students at least three times a week on Orphanage days, and more often if the community group meetings remain flexible.

supervision, or remedial reading sessions after school?

Group Meeting? More Remedial reading?

supervision, or remedial reading sessions after school?

Group Meeting? More Remedial reading?

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Daily Activities Table 3 below outlines the typical structure of a basic day spent on community in Expedition One. EM’s at the base on community were also required to do fresh water, salt water and food runs in the mornings, and although these runs regularly interrupted the morning activities, the EM’s recognised that they were a necessary part of camp life and adapted well.

Table 3: Expedition One Daily Timetable Time 6.30/7.008.00 Activity EM’s revise their lesson plans for the morning, making last minute materials or resources required to implement the lessons smoothly, and ensuring all involved know their roles and responsibilities during the lesson. Lessons are delivered at Mkwiro School. Review and reflection time, assessing what worked and what could have been improved in the lesson. Lesson planning for their next community day later in the week. Lunch Adult Education lesson planning (3x a week on week days)* Down time/data entry/school sports/remedial work/extra class time* Adult Education Lessons were delivered at Mkwiro School (3x a week) Orphanage sessions (2x a week during first phase, allocated 3x a week in second phase, including one afternoon on a marine day).

8.0010.00 10.0010.30 10.3012.30 12.3014.00 14.0015.00 15.0016.30 17.0018.30

*Weekday afternoons included optional activities: On the days the EM’s worked at the orphanage, afternoon lesson planning for the adult education classes did not occur, freeing up a couple of hours. The EM’s were given a choice of activities during this time; catch up on Marine or Forest data entry, help with other classes in the school as teacher aides or participate in afternoon sporting activities, or take free time. Most EM’s took up the first or latter option, which was acceptable as they still worked every evening. We had been subject to very hot weather, and many illnesses, and if EM’s wished to try and recoup some of their energy during these afternoons, we permitted them to do so. However, in the next expedition as discussed previously, we would like to introduce and formalise afternoon remedial reading sessions, these would last no longer than 30 minutes, still allowing plenty of ‘free time’ for the EM’s if they wished.

Saturday Morning

A two hour TEFL session with local women was implemented at the start of phase two, between 10 and 12 on a Saturday morning. The group working on a Saturday spent their first hour or two planning and developing these lessons, before implementing them in the Nursery School.

Daily Timetable Recommendations:  Continue to help with the water runs in the morning during lesson planning and reflection activities. Continue to deliver English lessons in the mornings, but trying to avoid lessons immediately after the morning school assembly (see Mkwiro School section, page 7, for further details). Continue to run some of the afternoon activities as optional, but schedule in remedial lessons with pupils from the school. These sessions would be compulsory for EM’s, ensuring continuity for the students involved.

Teaching English Training The training went well over the initial two week period in phase one, with lots of positive feedback from Expedition Member’s (EM’s). However, training for the second group of five week EM’s proved more difficult to implement, and they basically relied on ‘on-the-job’ training, as the official TEFL training did not finish until the middle of week nine. The new GVI TEFL training program has been printed and will be photocopied and implemented in the next expedition (aprox 10 hrs). The new training booklet looks interactive and well planned, although we have concerns about the lack of focus on teaching children, and that the syllabus we’re meant to implement for adults is geared towards beginners, when most of our adult students are intermediate. Also the lesson plan templates are directed towards longer lessons, and as such are double paged (most of our lessons are 35 minutes). As the grids below show, in expedition one the EM’s did two weeks of training, and then worked in the school for 8 weeks. However, in the next expedition, the children will still be on holiday in the first two weeks after the training period finishes. The first two weeks after training will involve a holiday program for students including sports, games, environmental workshops etc. It would be beneficial if EM’s could start planning the skeleton of this program during the second training week. Expedition One 16th Jan – 27th March Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T S S S S S S S S Expedition Two 10th April – 19th June Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T H H S S S S S S

Training Recommendations  Construct an additional booklet aimed at teaching children (games, circle time, brain gym, warmers, behaviour management for children etc) and teach in conjunction with the official GVI TEFL course. Timetable a more structured approach to TEFL training for the second phase so that EM’s receive the training before the end of week eight at the latest. Continue to use the Lesson Plan format already constructed (we can still teach the more complex ones) as in practice these will be easier and just as effective, particularly with the shorter 35 minute lessons. Prepare EM’s during the training about the different ability levels of our adult classes, and possibly offer an intensive course for beginners as well. Start constructing the basic skeleton of our holiday program during training week two, to be fleshed out in the mornings before actual delivery.

Mkwiro School After several trips to Kwale permission was finally granted to work during school hours in Mkwiro Primary School. As part of the agreement it was stipulated that we must follow the Kenyan Primary Schools Syllabus. As such we purchased the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using this as the basis around which our lesson plans are constructed. Using this method has been effective, in that we are seen by the regular teachers to be following the syllabus, we have a solid framework around which we can plan lessons, and we can also introduce our own activities into the lesson. However, there have been some complaints and frustrations from the EM’s in that the syllabus is actually far above the level of the students we teach. The EM’s are completely justified in this opinion, as for many of our students the syllabus is indeed way beyond their level. We have employed various methods to try and circumvent this problem, while still delivering the national syllabus. We have been pre-teaching a lot of extra vocabulary from the books, simplifying our lesson plans, and focusing on a very small part of each chapter at a time. Chapters have been allocated in consultation with each class’s regular teacher, so that GVI becomes responsible for a whole chapter and there is no over lap between us and the regular teachers. Table 1 shows the times we have been teaching in the school. Most groups have taught two classes twice a week, while the third team teaches one class twice a week on a Wedenesday. The framework of this timetable would also work if we were to change to the 1,1 - 2,2 - 3,3 system of daily work allocation (as there is a class that has English twice on a Friday, so that group could still have the same class twice). Table 1: Mkwiro School & GVI timetable Day Monday Tuesday





Humpy Monkeys

Lesson 1. Standard 8 8.20am Lesson 2. Standard 6 8.55am Lesson 4. 10.35am

Cetaceans from Team Random Awesome Nations Standard 7 Standard 4 Standard 5 Standard 4

Cetaceans from Humpy Random Monkeys Nations Standard 7 Standard 8 Standard 5 Standard 6

A major problem with this timetable that was not anticipated are morning assemblies. These sometimes goes for longer then anticipated, it often cuts into our lessons leaving us with insufficient time to deliver our lesson plans (e.g 15mins). EM’s have adapted as well as can be expected to this, and regular teachers have been very sympathetic and substituted in with us on the odd occasion to make up the time. However, as the morning assembly is also often used for disciplinary procedures (corporal punishment is still the accepted norm, and used liberally) it would be beneficial for the EM’s peace of mind to avoid these lessons if possible in the future. Unfortunately we are limited to the timetable for subjects given, and in most cases English is actually the first subject of the morning, so this may be unavoidable for 2006. However, when timetabling for next year GVI can request morning lessons, but not the very first one of the day, if this is acceptable with the school. The structure of lessons given has varied, but basically consist of a GVI staff member leading a quick introduction or warmer activity, before breaking into small groups, allocating 4-5 students per EM to work with. We originally started with splitting EM’s into pairs and working in slightly larger groups, but soon found that the EM’s worked best, and students responded best, when working with one EM at a time. In the first few weeks of teaching in the school, the students were relatively reticent and the EM’s found the lessons challenging, although still very rewarding. However, in the last few weeks of Phase Two, the EM’s commented that they had really noticed a difference in the students, and found the lessons much easier. The students did indeed become much more interactive and confident in using the English language, but also both the EM’s and the pupils settled into their teaching/learning styles, and their expectations of each other were more realistic. In some classes the EM’s started putting up vocabulary lists on the walls and regularly doing spot tests to encourage the learning of the vocabulary. This worked well and should be extended to all classes, including getting students to make their own vocabulary lists to go home and learn on pre-made vocabulary cards, possibly supplied by GVI. Regular vocabulary tests will also help to encourage spelling, so EM’s should try to mark more work, especially when it is set by us, to encourage homework completion. EM’s suggested using a different coloured pen (ie not red like the teachers, but green or another colour), and we would like to request marking stickers, gold and silver stars etc to be brought out by the new EM’s if possible.

At the end of Expedition One several library books were donated to the school with a card system of borrowing in place on the inside back cover of each book. The library is still in a fledgling stage, but the school is hoping to purchase a bookshelf to accommodate the new books and to create an open library (at the moment what books there are, are locked away). Additional resources such as Dolphin Fact sheets are being sent out by a UK based Cetacean charity, and these will be implemented into the program, either in the school holidays, or in lessons within school. Mkwiro School Recommendations  Continue using the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books as a framework to construct lesson plans, but pre-teach extra vocabulary, focusing on small parts of each chapter at a time, and add in extra activities to reinforce the subject matter taught. Continue to split students into small groups, allocating 4-5 students per individual EM in the body of the lesson. Request morning lessons next year in the timetable, but try to avoid the first lesson of the day. Put up Chapter and extra vocabulary lists on the walls of the classes, encourage students to memorise spellings and meanings using the vocabulary cards introduced by GVI and regularly assess both vocabulary and subject matter. Use different coloured pens for marking (e.g green for GVI) so teachers can keep track of GVI marking, also utilise any stickers brought out by the new EM’s in expedition 2. Continue to support the library by providing books, and encouraging students to read the books by asking questions about them and doing their own book reviews.

Adult Education Adult education lessons were offered in the first week after training, between 5pm and 6pm in class 8 of Mkwiro School. Students attending the first classes were given a questionnaire to assess their motivation for attending classes, their expectations and the subjects they were interested in. Students basically wanted to learn conversational English and to extend their vocabulary, they ranged from lower intermediate to advanced learners, and we had very few beginners. When asked how often they wanted lessons, most of the students wanted them every day – however this didn’t fit in with our other objectives, so three lessons a week were offered.

Average class sizes for the men were about 6 pupils, and ranged in size from about 4 pupils to 12 pupils. No women attended the evening classes, despite encouragement, and it was subsequently found out that their evening duties precluded them from being available. After having a meeting in the village for the women, it was decided to offer one two hour lesson a week on a Saturday between 10 and 12, in the nursery school. At present the class sizes for these lessons are about 15 - 20 women, although they are still in the early stages and will probably settle at a slightly lower number, as the mens classes have done. Women are free to bring their children and young babies to these lessons, to encourage attendance and so that they are able to breast feed while still accessing the curriculum. The majority of the students attending the men’s classes the most regularly were at an intermediate to advanced level, and benefited from things like debates, discussions, formal letter writing, and vocabulary extension. We tried two methods for teaching the varied levels in the classes, both inclusive education and dividing the class into two levels. After 2-3 weeks of teaching adult education and assessing everyone’s levels, we separated the beginners from the advanced but found that this did not work very well, and caused a feeling of exclusiveness. Preferring an inclusive education approach the groups have been bought back together and we have attempted to include activities which are accessible to those with lower abilities, as well as those for the more advanced. To cater for more students who are less advanced English learners, we may decide to advertise and implement a beginner’s only course and see what attendance is like. We have also decided that providing adult education twice a week instead of three times might encourage higher numbers at those particular lessons. The majority of the womens group appear to be beginner, with one or two more advance pupils, so we will try to adapt the syllabus suggested in the new TEFL training manual to the once weekly 2 hour lesson we can provide. Adult Education Recommendations

Amend the syllabus suggested in the GVI TEFL training manual for our womens only group (mostly beginners), but accessible only once a week. Possibly provide an intensive four week evening course for beginners, structured around the syllabus given, but alternate with intermediate-advanced classes so that our current students continue to receive lessons in an inclusive manner.

Orphanage work Spending time with the 22 boys living in the orphanage has proved to be one of the highlights of many expedition members’ weeks. The boys are hugely responsive to the attention given to them, and have really enjoyed participating in activities led by EM’s. These have included: - playing sports such as frisbee, football, volleyball, acrobatics and athletics


other physical activities such as hacky sac, poi dancing and dancing to music creative arts like colouring in, using crayons, felt tips, and paints to create paper murals for the walls help with homework and exam study reading library books and listening to stories

The sessions with the orphanage boys became so popular that students who were not actually orphans kept trying to join in, however this became problematic as the caregivers for the orphans felt that they were unable to keep tabs on everyone. GVI also believe that these times are special and should be devoted to the orphans only, so that they are the ones receiving the most attention. The other village boys have the benefits of having homes to return to after the activities have finished. To assist in making sure we know who is who, the caregivers will give us a list of all the boys, and we now have photo’s of all those living at the orphanage for easy identification. Once GVI staff members get to know and recognise more individuals in the orphanage, it will be easier to decipher those who are from families in the village. Orphanage Recommendations  Continue providing support to the orphans in the evenings, extending our scheduled hours from twice a week to three times a week. Seek funding to assist in developing the orphanage, to provide bedding and blankets, to make a water storage facility, and to build furniture. Seek funding to finance the staffing of the medical dispensary.

Community groups Various meetings have been held with the community groups, mainly focusing on identifying tourist activities within Mkwiro, and developing products produced in Mkwiro for sale. The Shimoni Youth Group have been participating on a daily basis with the terrestrial research programme. GVI buy fish and bread from members of the community, and have initiated a small scale clothing industry with a sewing fundi in the village to make ‘fisherman pants’, water bottle holders etc. With help from EM’s we hope to brand these items as well as other crafts made, and them to tourists. In this way ‘Made in Mkwiro’ will get to be a known brand, and the village will be promoted. Twenty percent of all transactions made between GVI and the villagers go into a central village fund. This is used by the village committee for the benefit of the whole community. At present approximately six thousand shillings (revenue from fish sales, clothing sales, bread sales and the laundry women) has been raised, which has been earmarked to assist in purchasing iron sheeting to mend part of the community water storage facility. Fixing this central water storage facility has been cited as the number one priority for all the community groups, as water is very scarce and a hugely limiting factor for villagers. Mkwiro Youth Group

In conjunction with members of the youth group, and the adult education group, a joint proposal with GVI was written up with eight accompanying letters of support (discussed, drafted and written in adult education), asking for a donation from Bamburi Cement of 10 tonnes of concrete. This amount is what is required to fix the central water storage facility on the island. GVI took the proposal to the Mombasa plant of Bamburi Cement, and met Mr George Nyeshi, the Mombasa Marketing Director. Although he was not able to approve the proposal, Mr Nyeshi was very positive that Bamburi Cement would be able to help, and suggested we go to the head office in Nairobi. He thought that 10 tonnes of cement was a “small amount” and that it was for a very good cause. The proposal will be taken to the Nairobi Head Office of Bamburi Cement on Tuesday 28th of March. Members of the Youth Group and the Village Committee also met to discuss tourist activities that the village could provide, to be advertised in the new Shimoni Development Centre which GVI is helping to develop. A list of activities was formulated and include the following:  Fishing Trips traditional line fishing in a small dug-out canoe with local fishermen checking traps with local fishermen octopus hunting with the local women catching squid (calamari) on a small dug-out canoe with local fishermen

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Village Tours visit local fundi’s (craftsmen) making or repairing the dhows see where the fisherman store their fish in ice, with no electricity to keep them cool visit the village water storage facility visit the football field Nature Walks take a guided walk in Kaya Bogoa, a forest with cultural significance to the local community visit the beach and the Mangrove Forests on the south side of the island hunt for (catch and release) the large and rare Coconut Crab with a local tour guide Cultural Walks visit the grave of Mwauze Tumbe and hear the story of her life and death visit Jiwe jahazi, or ‘dhow rock’, and hear the story of how it changed from a dhow into an island visit the sacred cycad trees, where offerings are still made visit cultural cave sites where the villagers’ ancestors went to pray Drumming Lessons Msondo (men and women, in lines) Kipumbwi (general drumming) Msapata (dangerous…)

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Cooking Lessons cook in the home of a local women, and learn the secrets of her trade take the fish you caught earlier in the day, and cook on an open fire while listening to village stories around the flames Develop the Community Centre one of the women’s groups have a co-operative building that at the moment is lying idle, if this could be developed, it could become a focal point for the community. This is where they could advertise the tourist activities provided in the village, where GVI could put up presentations on the research being conducted, and where they could sell some of their goods.

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Mkwiro Womens Groups Rukia, the chairlady of one of the two local womens groups approached us in the second phase to help develop woven products being made and sold in the village. Two of our EM’s with a background in marketing and sales assisted in identifying finishing touches and adapting the products for easier sales. Shikoo, a local curio shop holder has agreed to sell these products in her shop. These products, and others such as the fisherman pants made of Kikoi material will be branded with the ‘Made in Mkwiro’ brand (hopefully with a dolphin above the words). It was originally suggested that we should screen print these, and material and paint was bought for the EM who suggested this, unfortunately she left two weeks early without using the materials. However, she has proposed to manufacture 1000 labels professionally with a company in the UK, and to arrange for them to be brought out to us so that they can be added to the products here. We will also be writing a small information sheet to be given with each product sold, outlining the method, time, and materials used to make the crafts. This will also detail how 20% of the profits will be going to a central community fund, and give a brief history of the women and the groups involved. Again, they will also be labelled with the ‘Made in Mkwiro’ brand, in the hope that not only will the products gain recognition, but Mkwiro itself will gain a reputation for certain products, and attract interest from tourists.

Mkwiro Village Committee As there is now a substantial amount in the village fund, a ledger book was donated by GVI to keep track of all transactions, and to formalise the procedure for the rest of the village. GVI entered all transactions into the ledger for the duration of Expedition One, but will be handing this duty over to the treasurer, in ensuring he is

Mkwiro Village Dispensary Group In conjunction with a member of the Village Dispensary Committee, a proposal was drawn up asking for assistance either in providing staff for the dispensary, or financial assistance to employ local staff. Other community based activities As expedition one was a set up expedition, much of the time and energy was spent setting up the basic community initiatives, and ensuring they were working well, leaving very little time for extra activities. However, EM’s were able to deliver a presentation to Paradise Divers, a commercial tourist operator located next to the GVI base camp, to start work on the Shimoni Development Project, and to mobilise community members in Shimoni to start the process of protecting local forests. A presentation was given at Paradise Divers in Week 8 of the expedition, this was received very positively by the tourists staying there. The aim was to outline the work being done by GVI, and to promote tourism in the village, not only to the tourists but also for the tour operators at Paradise Divers. In week 4 GVI was approached by National Museums of Kenya (NMK) to assist in the development of the Shimoni Development Management Proposal. NMK are planning to gazette a number of old colonial buildings along the waterfront of the village together with the strip of land encompassing them. This is expected to be ratified in the next few months. As a result NMK plan to develop Shimoni Village for tourism, intending a long term plan of restoration of the buildings and rehabilitation of the village. Their priority is to restore the Colonial District Commissioner’s Residence and use it as a visitor’s centre, promoting the whole Shimoni sub-location to tourists. GVI were requested to provide creative in put in to the process, starting with plans for the development of the visitors’ centre into a functional building and developing the content within. Expedition members were asked on a voluntary basis to contribute their time and ideas in developing a proposal and have achieved during this expedition a plan of the current building and plans for the layout of a visitor centre as well providing ideas for content and presentation. To support the development and marketing of all potential tourism activities, including those being supported by GVI in Mkwiro, a selection of questionnaires have also been designed and begun to be distributed in order to base proposal plans of visitor, business and resident information. A skeleton proposal has been formulated, a draft layout of the visitor centre and skeleton plan of the visitor content and presentation created. This provides an excellent opportunity for GVI to support many of the individual community activities it is involved in. Recommendations  Try to deliver at least one environmental education workshop in the second phase to try to find alternative solutions with locals to the environmental problems they are facing within the community, as well as simple education about environmental concerns in the area.

Clean up operations in and around Mkwiro, to show by example that littering is not acceptable and that there are alternative methods of waste removal.

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