Global Vision International East Africa

Expedition Report 06-2 10th April – 19th June 2006

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The achievements of the Global Vision International East Africa expedition over the previous three months would not have been possible without the support, hardwork and dedication of the following people. We extend our sincerest appreciation and gratitude.

GVI East Africa Local Partners: Kenya Wildlife Service Ben Kavu, Mohammed Dida, Janet Kaleha, Tom Amisi and all the wardens and staff at the KWS Shimoni Headquarters and KWS Coast Headquarters in Mombasa. Kwale District Education Department J.W Chiuri One Earth Safaris Ranjit Sondhi, and the staff at Shimoni Reef Lodge and Mombasa Reef Hotel. National Museums of Kenya Jimbi Katana and the staff at the Mombasa and Ukunda offices.

The committee members, staff and students of Mkwiro Primary School, the committee members, staff and children of Al-Hanan Orphanage, the committee and members of; Mkwiro Village Committee, Mkwiro Youth Group, Tumaini Women’s Group, Shimoni Village Council, Shimoni Slave Cave Committee, Shimoni Youth Conservation Project, Shimoni Conservation Committee. The community members of Mkwiro and Shimoni, for their friendship, enthusiasm and support.

Global Vision International head office staff Richard Walton, Sophie Greatwood, Steve Gwenin, Tabitha Cooper, Paul Jones, Rowana Walton, Ian Redgewell, Andy Woods-Ballard and all the other staff that support the expedition behind the scenes. Global Vision International East Africa expedition staff Graham Corti, Rachel Crouthers, Sara Trafford, Piet Oudejans, Kyla Graham, Becci Jewell, Erin Townsend and Richard Nutbeam. Expedition Members Lucy Blakey, Katie Briggs, Elizabeth Cranstoun, Nicola Day, Matthew Finn, Claire Fraser, Tekau Frere, Adam Furse, Jane Hainsworth-Birt, Dayna Hambrick, Katie Howell, Angela 2

James, Joanna Kirby, Janet Kirwin, Laura Knight, Amy Mclean, Alesha Naranjit, Lisa Pepperell, Lousie Priaulx, Sharon Richter, Sarah Rowe, Catherine Scott Plummer, Sehail Sheikh, Laura Steed, William Wachira, Imogen Webster, Rachael Williams & Warren Young

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Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................................4 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................7 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................7
Global Vision International .........................................................................................................................................7 Global Vision International East Africa.....................................................................................................................9

BACKGROUND .....................................................................................................................10 EXPEDITION TRAINING .......................................................................................................13 MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMME ...................................................................................15
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 15 Aims .............................................................................................................................................................................. 16 Methods ........................................................................................................................................................................ 17 Vessel based dolphin survey methods ................................................................................................................... 17 Vessel based dolphin survey forms ........................................................................................................................ 20 Boat based mega fauna surveys............................................................................................................................. 25 Land based dolphin and mega-fauna surveys ....................................................................................................... 25 Land based forms..................................................................................................................................................... 27 Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................................................. 29 Bottlenose Dolphins ................................................................................................................................................. 31 Humpback Dolphins ................................................................................................................................................. 34 Marine Mega Fauna ................................................................................................................................................. 35 Conclusions and future work ................................................................................................................................... 36

TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME ........................................................................38
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 38 Study sites ................................................................................................................................................................ 38 Aims .............................................................................................................................................................................. 39 Methods ........................................................................................................................................................................ 40 Line Transect Sampling ........................................................................................................................................... 40 Primate Community Survey ..................................................................................................................................... 41 Primate Behavioural Observations ......................................................................................................................... 42 Vegetation & Regeneration Survey......................................................................................................................... 42 Disturbance Survey .................................................................................................................................................. 43 Ground & Canopy Cover Survey............................................................................................................................. 43 Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................................................. 44 Line Transect Sampling ........................................................................................................................................... 44 Primate Community Survey ..................................................................................................................................... 44 Primate Behavioural Observations ......................................................................................................................... 46

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Vegetation & Regeneration Survey......................................................................................................................... 46 Disturbance Survey .................................................................................................................................................. 47 Ground and canopy cover surveys ......................................................................................................................... 49 Casual Wildlife Observations .................................................................................................................................. 50 Discussion and further work .................................................................................................................................... 50

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ....................................................................53
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 53 Timetable of Activities ............................................................................................................................................... 54 School Programme Timetable ................................................................................................................................. 54 Weekly analysis of activities .................................................................................................................................... 55 Daily Activities .......................................................................................................................................................... 59 Teaching English ........................................................................................................................................................ 60 Training ..................................................................................................................................................................... 60 Mkwiro School Lessons ........................................................................................................................................... 61 Adult Education ........................................................................................................................................................ 63 Orphanage work.......................................................................................................................................................... 65 Community groups and initiatives .......................................................................................................................... 67 Beehive keeping ....................................................................................................................................................... 67 HIV/Aids Awareness ................................................................................................................................................ 68 Mwaozi Tumbe Village Tour .................................................................................................................................... 69 Mkwiro Village Compensation Committee.............................................................................................................. 70 Mkwiro Dispensary ................................................................................................................................................... 71 Mkwiro Garment Industry......................................................................................................................................... 71 Recycling .................................................................................................................................................................. 72 Roles in a committee workshop .............................................................................................................................. 72 Shimoni Development Proposal .............................................................................................................................. 73 Shimoni Slave Cave Committee ............................................................................................................................. 73 Tumaini Women’s Group ......................................................................................................................................... 74 Village Community Fund.......................................................................................................................................... 74 Water Storage/Purification....................................................................................................................................... 74 Other community based activities ........................................................................................................................... 75 Concerns and funding of individuals in the community ..................................................................................... 76

NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME .........................................................................77 OVERALL ACHIEVEMENTS .................................................................................................77 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE AIMS ...................................................................................78 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................80 APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................80

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Table of Figures
FIGURE 1: DOLPHIN SPECIES IN KISITE-MPUNGUTI MPA FIGURE 2: VESSEL AND LAND BASED SURVEY EFFORTS FIGURE 3: COMPARISON OF EFFORT AND NUMBER OF SIGHTINGS BY RESEARCH PLATFORM FIGURE 5: SURVEY EFFORT BY VESSEL FIGURE 7: COMPARISON OF SIGHTINGS AND SURVEYS FROM VESSELS FIGURE 8: NUMBER OF DOLPHIN PHOTOS TAKEN DURING EXPEDITION 06-2 BY SPECIES FIGURE 9: PERCENTAGE OF SURVEYS DURING TIDAL STATES FIGURE 10: REACTION OF DOLPHIN SPECIES TO RESEARCH VESSEL FIGURE 11: DOLPHIN SIGHTINGS FROM LAND BASE AND TIME OF DAY FIGURE 12: PROPORTION OF VESSEL BASED AND LAND BASED TURTLE SIGHTINGS FIGURE 13: COMPARISON OF TURTLE SIGHTINGS BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND EXPEDITIONS FIGURE 14: RESEARCH SITE FIGURE 15: TRANSECTS CUT FIGURE 16: COLOBUS DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH FIGURE 17: SIGHTING OF COLOBUS MONKEYS AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM THE TRANSECT LINE FIGURE 18: VEGETATION SURVEY; THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TREES MEASURED AND THEIR HEIGHT OR DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT FIGURE 19: REPRESENTATION ANALYSES FIGURE 20: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 3 GOING WEST FROM THE NORTH-SOUTH SPINE FIGURE 21: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 4 FIGURE 22: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 5 FIGURE 23: OVERVIEW OF THE CANOPY COVER ON THE THREE TRANSECTS FIGURE 26: EXPEDITION 06-2 WEEKLY COMMUNITY TIMETABLE (DURING SCHOOL) FIGURE 27: EXPEDITION 06-2 WEEKLY COMMUNITY TIMETABLE (DURING HOLIDAY) FIGURE 28: HOURS SPENT IN THE COMMUNITY WEEKS 5-10 FIGURE 29: DAILY TIMETABLE FIGURE 30: MKWIRO SCHOOL & GVI TIMETABLE 24 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 36 36 39 44 45 45 46 47 48 48 48 49 56 57 58 59 62

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INTRODUCTION

Global Vision International

Global Vision International (GVI) aims to build local capacity to support conservation through long-term, sustainable community development. GVI was formed in 1998 to provide support and services to international charities, non-governmental, non-profit and governmental organisations. Through our international network of 50 professional personnel and 50 projects in over 20 countries GVI continues to support many of the most critical and humanitarian projects around the world.

GVI is a non-political, non-religious organisation, which through its alliance with local organisations throughout the world provides opportunities to Expedition Members to fill a critical void in the fields of environmental research, conservation, education and community development. To date, over 2000 volunteers have joined projects resulting in significant direct financial and practical support.

GVI sources and supplies long-term experienced staff (1 to every 4 Expedition Members), trained people, equipment and funds directly to local organisations, government

organisations, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and universities. This immediately increases the short-term capacity of the local groups to monitor their local environment and trains local people and researchers to assist in this vital work.

Through the work of GVI programmes, and its in country training, GVI increases the long term capacity of the local organisations and communities, assisting them to both utilise their resources and monitor the effect of this use. Thus, it helps the local populations to acquire the capacity to monitor the effects of development, and enables them to decide between short-term profit and long-term, sustainable revenue.

GVI’s local partners select the projects they feel are of the highest priorities, work they either want to initiate but have not had the resources to previously, or ongoing programmes that they wish to expand through GVI’s additional resources. The partners choose the methodologies that they feel are most useful locally and that can be compared on a regional

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level. The Expedition Members’ contributions fund the programmes, and, through training with the experienced GVI staff, it is the Expedition Members that undertake the work.

It has been shown in several instances that with suitable and rigorous training programmes, non-specialised volunteers can provide useful and reliable baseline data for use in conservation management strategies. All Expedition Members undergo a rigorous training programme, learning prior to arrival and through the entire expedition. All Expedition Members must pass both theoretical and practical in field examinations (95% and 100% respectively), on species recognition and research techniques prior to joining the survey teams with retesting during the expedition. All survey teams and data are checked by the experienced staff prior to being accepted. Thus the standard of knowledge of the surveyors, and the baseline standard of the data collected, is quantified.

GVI employs both international and local national staff to organise the Expedition Members and co-ordinate the programme, and the Expedition Member’s work alongside local people, researchers and teachers. This is an essential part of all GVI programmes. Each year, GVI invites 30 to 35 local researchers, students, environmentalists and teachers to join the expeditions for free, training and working alongside the GVI Expedition Members. Thus GVI recruits and funds 1 to 2 full time nationals per expedition.

All expeditions focus upon the promotion of their individual partners’ area, and each project complies with one or more of the criteria summarised below: 1. Increase scientific knowledge and interest in the area 2. Increase conservation value for the area 3. Local community cultural and environmental awareness 4. Local community training 5. Tourist cultural and environmental awareness and training 6. Increased sustainable revenue to the local communities

Thus, GVI facilitates local groups to record and document their local area and the effects local development is having upon it. GVI aims to draw in international partners to help conserve the area, brings in funding for the local groups and draws in other international researchers, whom all spend monies in the local communities. GVI discusses the effects observed with the local communities, businessmen, governmental groups, and allow them to 8

draw their own conclusions. GVI aids local communities directly through assisting with funding, direct manpower where needed, helping them with their own initiatives, and through English Language lessons, this allowing them greater access to the tourism revenues. Within some of the areas that GVI operates, this is as an alternative to other kinds of resource use, such as poaching and petroleum. Additionally, the programme is aimed to allow local people to access the tourism, rather than immigrants to the area from richer areas or countries, whom utilise the resources of the local communities, develop the area and take the benefits. GVI aims to present cultural and environmental presentations to tourists and local community members alike, providing information of the history of the area, the people and the impact of the varied uses of the area’s resources. This leads to the overall aim of assisting local communities to utilise their resources in a sustainable way. GVI assists in accessing sustainable sources of income, through promotion of the area and in direct recruitment of responsible tourists. In addition, the science and community training programmes enable them to monitor their environment to judge if the use of their resources is sustainable. Thus, through successful, sustainable use of resources, the conservation of the area is assured as it is this resource that the sustainable revenue relies upon. Global Vision International East Africa The Global Vision International (GVI) East Africa expedition was initiated in January 2006 and is based on Wasini Island on the Southern Coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centred around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA), which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The marine programme research activities are undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel and Funzi Bay. The terrestrial research programme is focussed on an area of coastal forest in the South-East corner of Shimoni peninsula, next to Shimoni village. The majority of activities under the community programme are focussed on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. The GVI East Africa expedition is a partnership primarily with KWS supporting their research and management objectives in respect of the KMMPA. Additional partners in the area include Kwale District Education Department, National Museums of Kenya and Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute as well as a number of community

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based organisations in Mkwiro and Shimoni. Expedition members are trained by GVI’s international expedition staff to conduct research and community development activities on behalf of our national and local partners. This report summarises the marine and terrestrial programmes’ research activities and the community programme’s community development and capacity building activities over the 10 week period of the 06-2 expedition, between 10th April and 19th June 2006.

BACKGROUND GVI’s scientific research and community development activities in Kenya are carried out on behalf of our local partners, at their request, addressing areas that they have identified as priorities in terms of research and capacity building. Methodologies and activities have been implemented in response to their needs. GVI merely facilitates the achievement of their objectives through the provision of experienced staff, trained personnel, equipment and resources. GVI East Africa currently operates in support of 13 partner organisations, 4 of which are governmental, 1 is non-governmental and 8 of which are community based organisations, as follows:

The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS); a governmental organisation responsible for the management of Kenya’s National Parks, National Reserves and wildlife. The marine research programme is undertaken in direct support of their objectives for the management of the KMMPA. The community programme is also undertaken at their request to build capacity within the Mkwiro community which so far does not receive the economic benefit from tourism that is evident in both neighbouring Wasini and Shimoni villages. The terrestrial programme and community development activities in Shimoni also supports the organisation’s objectives for community outreach.

Kwale District Education Department; a local government department responsible for school education in the district. GVI East Africa is supporting the national curriculum for primary schools in English language learning at Mkwiro Primary School. Expedition Members under the supervision of GVI teaching staff take English classes for standards 4 to 8 during term time with additional environmental education activities outside of term time. All activities in the school are undertaken in liaison with the teaching staff and Mkwiro Primary School Committee, a community based organisation.

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National Museums of Kenya (NMK); a governmental organisation with responsibility for the management of Kenya’s national historic and cultural monuments and through their Coastal Forest Conservation Unit, the protection of forest biodiversity. The terrestrial research programme supports coastal forest biodiversity research, whilst Expedition Member involvement with the Shimoni Slave Cave nature trail, an area that falls under the protection and management of National Museums of Kenya, directly supports the organisation’s management aims. Further to this, Expedition Members have conducted work on the historic monuments in Shimoni in support of National Museums of Kenya’s Shimoni Development Proposal.

Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI); a governmental research organisation responsible or marine research and conservation in support of national objectives and international collaborations. As GVI’s marine research programme develops it is expected that we will be able to support a number of the organisation’s research objectives including baseline cetacean research and marine habitat monitoring. World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA); an international non-governmental organisation concerned with animal welfare. The organisation is planning to work in collaboration with KWS on anti-whaling awareness in Kenya and restore Kenya as a voting representative on the International Whaling Commission. Expedition Members supported the organisation’s awareness campaign through a community initiative that will build capacity for income generation through the recycling of rubbish washed up on Kenya’s coast. GVI East Africa has also provided volunteers to assist in the organisation’s environmental awareness activities at the Zanzibar International Film Festival. Al-Hanan Orphanage Committee; a community based organisation that runs the orphanage in Mkwiro, accepting children throughout Kwale District who can not be supported by their relatives. The orphanage is entirely reliant upon donations, primarily coming from Islamic organisations throughout the South coast. The organisation also receives donations from the Global Vision International Charitable Trust to improve the conditions and facilities. Expedition Members have visited the orphanage to undertake activities with the children and provide more practical assistance in the development and maintenance of their dormitories.

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Mkwiro Village Committee; a community based organisation that oversees the interests of the Mkwiro community. Expedition Members have delivered adult education classes to support English language acquisition in the community, participated in a variety of workshops and GVI East Africa is helping set up a community fund so that proceeds from tourism and other community initiatives can be administered for the benefit of the whole community. Mkwiro Youth Group (MYG); a community based organisation with the objective of furthering health and environmental education in the community and developing alternative sources of income generation including accessing tourism. Expedition Members have worked closely alongside members of this organisation to develop workshops and the Mkwiro Village Tour with its associated tourism activities.

Tumaini Womens Group (TWG); a community based women’s group in Mkwiro that make traditional hand crafts for sale primarily to tourists. Expedition members have been working with the organisation to help develop products for the tourist market and to aid the marketing of their products. Shimoni Slave Cave Committee (SSCC); a community based organisation that has been delegated responsibility by National Museums of Kenya to manage and operate the tourism at Shimoni Slave Cave, a gazetted national monument. The committee operates a guided walk in to the cave and are looking to develop the tour further by incorporating a nature trail through the forest above the cave which by default is also under protection from National Museums of Kenya. The guided tour targets tourists visiting KMMPA and also attracts school parties from across Kenya, Shimoni’s history forming part of the national curriculum. Proceeds from the Slave Cave tour go towards a Shimoni community fund which pays for teachers in the local primary schools, scholarships for students to attend secondary school, pharmaceuticals for the local dispensary and other community projects. Expedition members have been assisting the committee in developing their nature trail. Shimoni Youth Conservation Project (SYCP); a community based organisation that aims to promote environmental awareness, responsible management of natural resources and development of sustainable sources of income generation. Members of SYCP have joined expedition members during their forest biodiversity training and research activities as part of a capacity building programme to enable them to manage and monitor their natural 12

resources. Under the stewardship of GVI, SYCP committee members created the Shimoni Conservation Committee (SCC) with representatives including two elders and one woman from each of the six villages within Shimoni sub-location that are stakeholders in the forest areas. Following the awareness and sensitisation activities, the SCC with GVI support has petitioned community members and submitted a proposal to relevant government authorities requesting that they be designated authority to manage their forest resources on behalf of and for the benefit of local communities. Through community management they aim to designate conservation areas, manage sustainable resource use, reduce illegal timber extraction and develop ecotourism initiatives. EXPEDITION TRAINING Expedition members are put through a two week intensive training programme upon arrival on the expedition prior to participation in programme activities. Theoretical and practical tests are conducted at the end of their training period. Training consists of:  Marine Research Programme: Expedition members receive classroom training on cetacean species identification and marine megafauna identification. Expedition Members learn field identification of nine species of cetaceans. Eight of these are dolphin species and include: Indian Ocean Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.

Truncatus and aduncus), Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleaoalba), Pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuate), Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), and Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus). In addition to the learning the dolphin species the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeanglia) is known to occur in the Kisite-Mpunguti area.Reference material is available for self study. Five species of marine turtles are known to occur in Kenyan waters and during training EMs are also taught and examined on the identification of these species. These include: Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), and Loggerhead (Caretta caretta). This is followed by testing utilising slides, requiring a 95% pass mark. Expedition members receive classroom-based presentations and practical field training in cetacean and megafauna survey techniques and theories, the collection of environmental data, accurate completion of data forms, distance estimation and GPS

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training. This is also subject to testing with a pass mark of 95% prior to participation in research activities.  Terrestrial Research Programme: Expedition Members receive classroom-based presentations and practical field training on primate identification and behavioural ecology, transect laying, vegetation, disturbance and casual observation of fauna surveys. Training is followed by a theoretical test requiring a 95% pass mark. Practical training and in field testing is also undertaken on the use of the panga, compass and GPS. Expedition Members receive distance estimation training and in field testing for which participation in sighting distance estimation during primate community surveys is contingent on expedition members achieving an average error within 10m.  Community Development Programme: Expedition Members receive the GVI Introduction to TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) training and an additional Introduction to TEFL for Children course designed to prepare them for teaching in Mkwiro Primary School and activities at the Al-Hanan Orphanage. Their training incorporates practical activities and guidance in classroom management. Following training Expedition Members receive practical testing in the form of lesson planning. Expedition Members receive individual assessment and feedback.  Health & Safety: Expedition Members are all subject to comprehensive health & safety awareness training in the form of risk assessments, a specific hazardous marine life presentation, forest field safety talk, a boat safety orientation, radio protocol training, emergency oxygen use training and fire extinguisher & fire safety orientation. Further to this all expedition members are put through the Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care training courses. Assessment for certification is optional. Expedition Members are also asked to complete a 200m swim test, if unsuccessful then wearing of life jackets in the boats is compulsory.

In addition, Expedition Members receive additional training, presentations and talks during the expedition on oceanography, marine environment, primate evolution and ecology, biogeography of Africa, Kenyan history, Muslim culture and Kiswahili.

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MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMME Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and includes both the National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands, covering an area of 28 sq km. The KMMPA and marine wildlife it contains are a major draw card for tourists making it an important resource for the Shimoni and other surrounding communities. The three islands contained within the KMMPA are all surrounded by coral reefs which attract divers and snorkellers. Additionally, swim-with-dolphin and dolphin watching companies operate from Shimoni travelling through Wasini Channel and into the KMMPA each day. These dolphin dhows most frequently encounter bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis. Currently, there is no code of conduct followed when manoeuvring around the dolphins nor are levels of interaction monitored or regulated in any way. The impact this may be having on the dolphins is unknown. In particular, it’s not known whether increased, or even current, levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable for local dolphin populations. Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of the Tropical Western Indian Ocean. Very little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species, information that is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed. Therefore, the main objectives of the marine research program are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on those species of dolphin that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. These areas encompass a wide range of habitats, from mangrove forests, coral reef, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds, and offshore areas. During the initial phase the research will focus on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and diel movement patterns will be analysed.

Other large marine vertebrates such as turtles, whale sharks, dugongs, and seabirds (herein referred to as marine megafauna) also occur within the KMMPA and surrounding area. These species also attract tourists so are a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity

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at a number of levels. A further objective of this marine research project is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine megafauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly.

Our main working partners are the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The research conducted by GVI will be shaped to satisfy the objectives of our local partner so as to assist them towards better management. All data collected thus far will be available to them to aid in the management of the study area.

GVI is supporting our local working partners to collate data by conducting vessel and landbased surveys. The project will primarily focus on two research areas: (1) the ecology of Humpback and Bottlenose dolphins and (2) the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins within the area and improve the scientific basis and baseline data for management strategies. This information can help lead towards long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area. Aims GVI East Africa conducted a pilot study in the first and second expeditions (06-1 and 06-2 respectively) to determine species distribution within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. During this pilot study research questions were set to ensure that all the research methodologies collated the relevant information to satisfy the objectives set by our local working partners.

The marine program would like to collect data to assess the following relating to dolphins and megafauna in the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area and surrounding areas.

From vessel based surveys:      Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition Residency Habitat-activity relationships Diel movement & activity 16

  

Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

From land-based surveys:      Tidal and diel movement Diel activity Dolphin behaviour before, during, and after exposure to vessels Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

Methods Upon successful completion of training and the examination, Expedition Members (EMs) participate in the boat and land-based surveys for the rest of the expedition. Some of the EMs only spend the first five weeks or the last five weeks of the expedition; these EMs have the same training but only participate in 3 weeks of post-training research.

Vessel based dolphin survey methods After reviewing findings from the previous expedition opted to maintain the same procedures for boat survey methods. One exception to this is the slight modification of the Dolphin Survey form (see Forms discussion) but this did not impact the research methodologies used.

GVI East Africa primarily uses one research vessel to conduct surveys within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Stingray is a 5.83 m catamaran style power vessel with two 85 horsepower motors. In addition to Stingray, the 6.19 m power vessel ET was used during the initial training weeks and as a support vessel in cases of mechanical failure. Photographs are taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens).

To obtain information on population size, demographics and other biological parameters photo-identification (Photo ID) and mark-recapture methods are used for data collection. In addition, GVI will be adding a third survey technique, distance sampling, to allow for a more accurate assessment of population data.

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Photo-identification: Photo-ID refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be re-sighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs.

The primary aim of photo-ID will be to try to determine population size. Photographers attempt to photograph all the individuals within the group on that survey so as not to bias the data by focusing on individuals with distinctive markings or certain behaviours. Results can vary due to conditions, surfacing bouts and animal behaviour.

Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependant on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting and clear shot of dorsal fins. During a photo ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The primary aim during a photo ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with latter analysis of photographs (See the Forms section for further explanation of this procedure).

Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved into the photo-ID database. This database is divided into various users so that they are analysed individually without any bias. Each user identifies the individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photo-ID catalogue will be created of which individuals are given unique ID numbers and/or names. This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long term basis. Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals.

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Mark-Recapture: Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met.

A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption; only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.

Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.

‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured.

Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.

The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Distance Sampling: This third methodology GVI is planning to use in the marine program is based on the estimation of population density. This methodology involves sampling

distances and angles along a line transect during a survey.

During a line transect survey four or five EMs will act as observers as the vessel travels along a designated path of travel or line transect. Once there is a sighting the observer who made the initial sighting will tell the scribe the distance and angle to all ‘animals’ detected. As well, the initial number of individuals present, broken down into minimum, maximum and best categories, will be noted. All EMs are previously trained in distance estimation from the vessel using a GPS. Distances are taken from a buoy and expedition members are asked to estimate the distance from the vessel to the buoy.

This methodology allows that some animals within a certain distance of the vessel will not be detected. Only those animals that are detected within 180 degree angle from the bow are recorded. By noting the distance and angle from the boat the perpendicular distance of the sighting from the line transect can be calculated. The methodology accounts for the fact that

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objects are more likely to be detected if they are at a nearer distance and smaller angle from the point of observation along the line transect.

Central to the concept of sampling is the detection function:

g(y)= the probability of detecting an object given that it is at distance y from the line

• •

Usually assume that g(0)= 1, that is, objects on the line are detected with certainty Accurate estimates of abundance can be obtained if certain conditions are met

Three main conditions for line transect sampling are:

1. 2.

Objects directly on the line are always detected Objects are detected at their initial location, prior to any movement in response to the observer – responsive movement of animals can create real problems!

3.

Distances and angles are measured accurately.

For further information on distance sampling, refer to Introduction to Distance Sampling (Buckland et al, 2005)

GVI East Africa hopes to implement this methodology in the near future.

Vessel based dolphin survey forms Four forms were used to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size, demographics and behaviour. These forms include the Event Log, Sightings form, Dolphin survey form, and the Photo ID form. Event Log: Throughout the survey day an Event Log (Appendix 1) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with the number of surveys completed and environmental and condition changes. Every fifteen minutes one person (the scribe) records the current environmental conditions and records any environmental or effort changes. Observers rotate their duties every half hour so that the scribe has a half hour 20

break from observing. Every half hour the observers rotate roles and view points. Therefore, every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break. If a dolphin is spotted then all observers maintain the same position while filling out their specific survey form. This allows for consistency in data notation making it possible for questions regarding data collection, i.e. reading illegible handwriting, to be easily answered.

At the beginning of the day and at every interval of data collection the recorder notes the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Date Vessel Time (24hr clock) GPS Co-ordinates ( using WGS84 datum, so it can be used in a GIS) Event ( See Appendix 1 to see categories) Dolphin Survey number, each new survey of that day starts as DS01 Speed of vessel Environmental conditions (swell, beaufort, cloud, precipitation, visibility and tide; All

categories are listed in Appendix 1) 9. Additional comments

Sighting Form: The sightings form is used to record all sightings of dolphins and megafauna. This form collates the relevant information to conduct distance sampling. It also produces valuable information if a behaviour survey can not be conducted, for example, due to weather conditions or when there are too many vessels present. The recorder notes if the sighting occurred due to the presence of a vessel or whether our land based platform informed us of the presence of dolphins. This information is then included in the analysis to include any sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye or if the vessel was simply not in the same area as the sighting.

Once dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the recorder documents the following data into the sighting form (see Appendix 2).

1. 2.

GPS Co-ordinates Effort type 21

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sighting number and survey number Distance and angle to sighting Species Group size on initial sighting Reason for sighting Photo IDs conducted Comments

Dolphin Survey Form: This data form is used to record basic behaviour data when conditions allowed a dolphin survey to be conducted (Appendix 3).

The survey protocol provides a systematic approach for sampling the behaviour of freeranging dolphins. This survey is used in conjunction with the Ethogram (see Appendix 4) which provides a guide for behaviours that may be observed during surveys and focal follows. GVI East Africa has simplified this methodology to ensure that accurate information is gathered. All EMs receive training on dolphin behaviours to ensure that each individual will be able to recognise behaviours in the field. As well, there is always at least one marine officer assisting with data collection to ensure that behavioural observations are consistent across observers.

Survey encounters differ in many ways—e.g. the number of animals encountered; the degree to which to individuals can be directly observed and identified. As such, the depth and quality of data that are collected during surveys may vary widely. While detailed and individualspecific observations are desirable, at times it is only possible to collect basic data such as the time and location of encounter.

Dolphin surveys commence once the sighting form has been completed and the species is identifiable (See species list below, figure 1). Dive durations are measured from the time of the first positive identification until the time of departure from the group. A scan sample of behaviour and group composition is conducted over a 10 minute period. This sample is intended to provide an unbiased ‘sample’ of the behaviours and the identity of the individuals present for the calculation of association coefficients and other analyses. Initially the observation time was five minutes but has been extended to a ten minute time period because it represents a more suitable amount of time for collecting the desired data. This 22

interval is: (a) is short enough to approximate a true scan sample (more below) and (b) long enough to cover (on average) two to three surfacing bouts during which identifications can be made and group activity, direction, and the stability of group composition can be assessed. This time frame was also chosen to reduce the effect the vessel may have on the original activity of the dolphins when first sighted. The observers note how many animals are present as early as possible once a group is sighted—group size indicates how many individuals we need to try and identify visually or through photo-id.

For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below), individuals in a ‘group’ must be linked in a 100 m radius of the group. According to the survey protocol two individuals must be within 100 m of each other or within 100 m of the initial group to be in the same ‘group’. If fifty percent or greater join the group within 100 m, then they will be classed as a sub-group and a sub-group behavioral survey completed. If another group joins from outside this radius a new survey form is completed.

According to Mann (2000) cetacean behaviours can be distinguished as either events (short duration behaviours) that include, spy hops, tail slaps, leaps or porpoises or states (longduration behaviours) such as resting, travelling, foraging and socialising. The predominant group activity or state is defined as the activity that 50% or more of the group members are simultaneously engaged in (See Appendix 4 Ethogram). Observers scan the group to determine the group’s state and then record it on the form. Any secondary behaviour states, i.e. when most of the group is foraging but a couple of animals are resting during the survey, are also noted. Events that do occur during the survey period are noted in the ‘activity notes’ section.

To help aid the process of identification and number of individuals present any distinctive fin shapes, obvious scars or speckling of individuals is noted. Data is collected on the presence of mother-calf pairs and whether they include neonates or young of the year. The notation of this data combined with information from Photo-ID should allow for the determination of female animals and the identification of their calves.

Vessel interaction is also recorded during this survey to assess the impact that the research vessel may have on dolphin behaviour. This is recorded by noting whether the following reaction around the vessel occurs: away from, toward or not at all. This data was previously 23

recorded on a scale of 1-3, however this was modified because the definition of this scale was subjective and not clearly defined in an objective, quantitative scale.

Once the ten minute scan sample is over the scribe completing the Event Log continues recording every fifteen minutes while the vessel continues to follow the dolphin group for the collection of Photo-ID data. When both surveys are complete the forms are reviewed by all observers to ensure that the information recorded is accurate and all observers agree with what is written. The 10 minute scan sample may be reduced due to environmental conditions or when there are too many vessels present. Should this happen it will be recorded on the form.

Figure 1: Dolphin species in Kisite-Mpunguti MPA

Common Name Bottlenose Dolphin Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin

Scientific name Tursiops truncatus/aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grumpus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuate

Highlighted in bold are the 3 species which have been identified to date. Photo ID Form: This procedure has changed slightly since the initial pilot study. Rather than conducting photo-ID during behavioural survey, only opportunistic photographs are taken if the individuals move towards the vessels. The possible impact from the vessel is reduced during the behavioural survey by conducting Photo ID afterwards. Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependant on group size, activity and environmental conditions. During this expedition Photo-ID was conducted after the behavioural survey so the vessel maintains a distance that should not affect behaviour during the survey. During photo-ID the vessel can then manoeuvre into a better position to obtain the optimum angle for the photographs to be taken; this is when the boat is travelling parallel to, and in line with, the dolphins. The most

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valuable photos for Photo-ID are in-focus, directly perpendicular to the dorsal fin, with the sun behind the photographer and as close a shot of the fin as possible.

During a photo-ID survey the photographer tells the photo-ID scribe the frame numbers of spacer shots, recognizable or distinct individuals and the number of shots taken (Appendix 5). The photographer tries to photograph both the right and left flank of each individual and if this is successful they will note this in the comments section. When the photographer has finished they will take a final shot of the photo ID sheet to separate it from other encounters. This method helps with the assistance of identification in the analysis and also helps separate individuals and encounters for the photo catalogue.

Boat based mega fauna surveys

These surveys are conducted using the same procedures as the dolphin surveys. The Event Log and Sightings Form are completed and then the data for the mega fauna survey form is collected (See Appendix 6). This data includes:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

GPS position and general location Time Depth Beaufort Tide Species Habitat Number present Photos taken, if possible Any additional notes

Land based dolphin and mega-fauna surveys

GVI Kenya conducted a pilot study of a land based survey this expedition to determine dolphin presence, movement and activity throughout the mornings and afternoons and to 25

help determine whether tourist vessels are having any impact on dolphin behaviour. Surveys commenced on 8th May 2006. The site is located at S 04.65860º E 39.40076 º on an elevated cliff at approximately 9.7m height on the North East end of Wasini Island. With the unaided eye survey distances from this viewpoint cover approximately 0.3 nautical miles and with binoculars about 1.0 nautical miles. This location is ideal because it provides coverage of both inshore coastal waters and deeper waters; favoured Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) and Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus/ aduncus) habitats respectively. The land based research platform is ideal for this kind of study because the observers can watch the animals and vessels without having any direct impact on either (reference Bejder and Samuels). In addition to this, the land based location has a higher vantage point than the vessel and can provide additional information in higher sea states (i.e Beaufort 3+).

The land based survey was designed to collect data on the following:

    

Tidal and diel movement Diel activity Dolphin behaviour before, during and after exposure to vessels Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

Surveys are conducted during the daylight hours from 1½ hours after sunrise to 1½ hours before sunset, with a break between 12 pm to 2 pm. There are two primary observers and one scribe present on every survey. The three recorders rotate every 15 minutes to ensure that each person receives a fifteen minute break every half hour. One observer, using 8x25 Bushnell binoculars, scans an area approximately 1.5km to 3km from the land base location (an area including both coastal and pelagic waters). The second observer scans an area approximately 0-1.5km from viewing point using the unaided eye. The third person is the scribe noting environmental changes every fifteen minutes, the number of tourist dhows entering the marine park, dolphin or mega fauna presence. Within this fifteen minute time the scribe does not observe so as to rest their eyes and ensure better concentration levels while they are an observer. The number of people on land base varies from day to day, usually from three to five people, but only three people are involved in the survey at any time. When

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there are extra people it is possible for observers to have longer resting periods for the observers.

Land based forms

Two forms are used to collate data on boat traffic, dolphin presence and the activity of both. The map shows the area which can be seen from the land based viewing platform and observers use it to plot dolphin movements over the observation period. Partway through the pilot study a new form was introduced to provide greater insight into dolphin activity with boat presence. These forms include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Environment and Boat Event Log Sightings form Map Dolphin Behaviour form

Environment and Boat Event Log: During the land based survey the Environment and Boat Event Log (Appendix 7) is completed. On this data sheet environmental change and boat traffic is noted. Every fifteen minutes, or when environmental conditions change, the scribe fills out a line of this form. Observers rotate their duties every fifteen minutes so the person who is the scribe has a break while they are acting as the scribe.

The scribe makes note of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Date Time (24hr clock) Observers Environmental conditions (swell, Beaufort, cloud, precipitation, visibility and tide; See

Appendix 7). 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Number of vessels Vessel type Proximity of tourist dhows to dolphins Swim with dolphin occurences Additional comments

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Land Base Sighting Form: When dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the scribe documents the following information into the sighting form (See Appendix 8)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Time Observers Bearing and distance to sighting Species Group size Dive type Duration of dive Spread Number in correlation to plotted on chart Additional information

This form collects valuable information on the actual behaviour before the presence of any vessels. If the sighting occurred due to the presence of any vessels it is noted. This information is then included in the analysis to take into account any sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye.

Map form: A map is drawn to show dolphin movements within the range identified. The movement of vessels in the presence of the dolphins is also recorded Dolphin behaviour and vessel interaction form: This data sheet was introduced on 6th June 2006 to gain a greater insight into dolphin behaviour before, during and after the vessel presence, conditions allowing. Observations were recorded every 10 minutes from the initial sighting (See Appendix 9). The recorder documents the following on the form:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Time Dive type Dive duration Species Group size Number of vessels present 28

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Vessel type Number of Tourist vessels Number of dhow conducting swim with dolphins If dolphins split into sub groups If their view is obstructed by boat

Results and Discussion A total of 285 hours and 50 minutes (Figure 2) were spent on search effort this expedition, resulting in: 47 dolphin sightings and 37 mega fauna sightings which included 36 turtles and 1 spotted eagle ray. Photo-ID surveys were conducted on 19 occasions.

Figure 2: Vessel and land based survey efforts

Vessel Hours of effort Dolphin sightings Mega fauna sightings 140.15 28 17

Land base 145.35 19 20

Total 285.50 47 37

The total vessel effort time was 140 hours and 15 minutes and the total land based survey time was 145 hours and 35 minutes (Figures 2 and 3). The amount of survey effort by boat is shown in figures 4 and 5 . Stingray was the primary survey vessel this expedition but three other vessels, ET, Ajun and Squirrel were used for research when Stingray was out of service for maintenance work. From these vessel surveys the total number of dolphin sightings was 28, total number of dolphin surveys 20 and the total number of mega fauna surveys was 17. The rainy season started during this expedition so weather was a significant limiting factor in the number of boat hours and sightings. Conditions were not ideal for surveys as much of the time visibility and photography was difficult due to the combination of rain, swell, wind and wave conditions (>BF 3). The total number of photos taken this expedition was 1059; nine photo surveys of bottlenose dolphins, nine of humpback dolphins, and one of a mixed group of bottlenose and humpback dolphin. No photos of mega fauna.

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160.00 140.00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 Vessel Landbase

number of hours/sightings

Hours in effort Dolphin sightings Mega fauna sightings

Figure 3: Comparison of effort and number of sightings by research platform

Sting ray ET Ajun Squirrel Total

Hours spent on effort 117.19 11.50 10.15 1.36 140.20

11.50 10.15

1.36

Sting ray E T Ajun

Figure 5: Survey effort by vessel

Squirrel 117.19

Figure 4: Survey effort by vessel

Of the two species of dolphin surveyed from the boat more bottlenose dolphins were sighted and more dolphin behaviour surveys were completed on this species (Figures 6 and 7). Bottlenose dolphins were sighted 17 times (61% of total sightings) while humpback dolphins were sighted 10 times (36% of sightings). On two occasions groups containing both species were seen, once from the boat (3% of total sightings) and once from the land base (5% of total sightings). Five dolphin sightings from the vessel (18 %) were seen because of the presence of dolphin tourist dhows with the animals.

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Vessel Sightings Surveys

Bottlenose 17 10

Humpback 10 9

Mixed 1 1

Total
18

28 20
Number

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Bottlenose Humpback Mixed Dolphin species Sightings Surveys

Figure 6: Comparison of vessel dolphin sightings and surveys

Figure 7: Comparison of sightings and surveys from vessels

Bottlenose Dolphins There were fewer vessel based bottlenose dolphin surveys (10) this expedition than in the previous (62). The total number of sightings was seventeen and ten of these resulted in behaviour surveys (Figure 6). Behaviour surveys were not possible when conditions such as the weather or the presence of too many tourist vessels made it difficult to complete these surveys. Of all encounters with bottlenose dolphins this expedition 10 of the 17 sightings (59%) resulted in behaviour surveys. Photo-ID surveys were complete for 9 of the sightings (53%) with a total of 487 photos taken (Figure 8). This is only 12% of the total number of photos taken last expedition 4186. Work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable individuals encountered and the re-sighting rate of those individuals, which will indicate population size.

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Number of photos

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Bottlenose Humpback Dolphin species Mixed

Figure 8: Number of dolphin photos taken during Expedition 06-2 by species

The average size of bottlenose dolphin groups from sightings was 8.4 with a minimum group size of 1 and a maximum group size of 42, using best group size. Seventy percent of the behavioural surveys occurred during ebb tides while 30% occurred during flood tides. At present, the sample size is too small to make any conclusions on tidal activity and dolphin presence, movement or behaviour

80 60 percentage 40 of surveys 20 0 Ebb Flood Ebb-flood Tidal m ovem ent

Bottlenose Humpback

Figure 9: Percentage of surveys during tidal states

During behaviour surveys it was noted whether bottlenose dolphins reacted away from, toward or not at all in regards to the presence of the research vessel. A previous study of bottlenose dolphins have found that there was statistically significant behaviour noted towards boat traffic, but in general they displayed neutral response to boat traffic. Neutral 32

response was defined as no apparent change in directional movement, prior to and after vessel arrival (Gregory and Rowden, 2001). During this expedition bottlenose dolphins reacted away from the boat during 10% (1/10) of surveys, toward the boat 60 % (6/10) of surveys and not at all 20 % (2/10) of surveys and no data was collected for one survey (Figure 10). Since the sample size during this expedition is quite small we cannot draw any strong conclusions at this point.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Away Toward None no data Reaction Bottlenose Humpback mixed

Figure 10: Reaction of dolphin species to research vessel

From the land based survey bottlenose dolphin sightings occurred 11 times, 58 % of all dolphin sightings from the land base site. In Figure 11 it can be seen that of these sightings 91% (10/11) were seen in the morning and 9% (1/11) were seen in the afternoon. Vessels were present during 64% (7/11) of the total number of sightings. Vessels varied from canoes to power vessels. Group sizes ranged from 2 to 6 with an average of 3.9 animals.

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10 8 num ber of sightings 6 4 2 0 Bottlenose Humpback species Mixed Morning till 12 Afternoon after 2

Figure 11: Dolphin sightings from land base and time of day

In addition to the above data, one bottlenose dolphin was found stranded on Mkwiro beach on 14th April 2006. Measurements were taken and this data will be added to a database.

Humpback Dolphins The number of Humpback dolphin surveys during this expedition was also reduced due to weather conditions (9 this expedition in comparison to 19 last expedition). As with the Bottlenose dolphins work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable individuals sighted, and their re-sighting rates. Initial impressions suggest a large percentage of encounters are re-sightings of previously seen individuals, suggesting a small population size.

This species was seen during 36% (10 of 28) of sightings and 90% (9/10) of them resulted in behaviour surveys (Figures 6 and 7). As mentioned in the discussion on bottlenose dolphin data, behavioural surveys were not possible when conditions such as the weather or the presence of too many tourist vessels made it difficult to complete these surveys.

The Humpback dolphin groups sighted were an average size of 5.3 with minimum group size of 2 and maximum group size of 8, using best group size as an indicator. Humpback dolphins tend to occur in nearshore habitats in areas of shallow rocky reefs and estuaries. To date we have found that these dolphins travel in nearshore habitats and small group sizes. During this expedition all of the sightings occurred in shallow waters of 61ft or less and usually in areas near the coral platform shelf. Forty four percent (4/9) of the sightings occurred during

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ebb tides and 44% (4/9) occurred during flood tides and one occurred during a changing tide (Ebb to flood) (Figure 5). At present the research sample size is too small to correlate these variables.

The Humpback dolphins reacted away from the boat 11 % (1/9) of surveys, toward the boat 0% (0/9) of surveys and not at all 89 % (8/9) of surveys (Figure 10).

Humpback dolphins were seen during 32 % (6 times) of dolphin sightings from land base. Of these sightings 83% (5/6) were seen in the morning and the rest were seen in the afternoon. Vessels were present during 67% (4/6) of the total number of sightings. Group sizes ranged from 2 to 8 with an average of 4.7 animals (see Figure 11 above).

Marine Mega Fauna The majority of mega fauna sighted during this expedition were unknown turtle species. Short surfacing periods and environmental conditions make it difficult to identify turtles to species level in the field. There were a total of 36 sightings of turtles during this expedition; 44% (16/36) from the vessel and 56% (20/36) from land base (Figure 12). Almost all of these, sightings occurred in the channel between Wasini Island and the mainland. This is most likely due to the fact that most surveys occurred in the channel as a result of weather conditions and that land base is situated such that most of the view is of channel waters. Two (0.5%) of these sightings occurred in the marine park and for another no location data was noted on the mega fauna survey form.

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44% vessel landbase 56%

Figure 12: Proportion of vessel based and land based turtle sightings

This expedition sighted more marine turtles in comparison to last expedition (34/36), however last expedition four individuals were identified to species (Figure 13).

36 35.5 35 num ber of 34.5 sightings 34 33.5 33 Phase 061 phase 062 expedition

number of turtles

Figure 13: Comparison of turtle sightings between first and second expeditions

Conclusions and future work Data collection was limited this expedition due to bad weather conditions, resulting in a smaller sample size.

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For following phases, data will continue to be collected to provide information on the baseline ecology of the dolphin and mega fauna species encountered within the KMMPA and surrounding waters. This information will form the foundations of a long-term cetacean monitoring programme as well as providing valuable information that can be used to better implement a management plan for both cetaceans, and the tourism based around them in the KMMPA.

Currently the study area is not sampled in a systematic way but rather most surveys have been randomly placed where it was best to survey based on weather conditions. To solve this, a grid of transects will be designed and randomly placed over the study area. Transects will then be randomly selected each day and completed, weather permitting. Such transect survey methods will result in even coverage of the study area over subsequent expeditions.

In addition to this, the distance and angle to sightings from transects will be recorded to meet the conditions of line transect distance sampling. This will result in three population size estimates being calculated; from mark-recapture techniques, the photo-ID catalogue and distance sampling methods. As a result, a comparison of results gained from these different methods is possible.

Land based survey during this expedition was successful and we intend to continue collecting data on the presence and behaviour of dolphins. We also hope to obtain more information on vessel presence and type and the response of dolphins to boat traffic.

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TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME Introduction The Eastern arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging but fragmented distributions and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern arc forests for example are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians and reptiles. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests, of which much less is known, but which represent an important and unique yet diminishing forest habitat.

The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, formed on old coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. This in conjunction with salinity levels and the coastal climate influences the plant community that is found and the structure of the forest, for example favouring shallow root systems that reduce stability.

Study sites The research is conducted in Shimoni forest on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village on the western side and the coast on the southern and eastern side (Figure 14, circled in black). The location is situated between the coordinates 04º64.900'S, 39º38.600'E and 04º64.300'S, 39º40.300'E.

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Figure 14: Research site

Shimoni forest represents an area of important indigenous coastal forest, but is currently threatened by resource extraction and clearing of land, a situation that may be exacerbated by the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly for tourism. The area of forest was selected for biodiversity research primarily because at present it still forms a viable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black & White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Discussions with community based organisations in Shimoni highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Conservation Youth Project were keen to seek protection and sustainable management. As a result we have developed our terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level the forest is readily accessible and we are logistically able to support a long-term wide ranging biodiversity survey and monitoring of the area. Aims Aims;  To establish a grid system of east-west transects for access, mappping and long-term monitoring.

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To conduct vegetation and regeneration surveys to assess biodiversity, species composition and regeneration potential under different levels of disturbance.

To conduct disturbance surveys to assess and monitor levels of resource use including extraction of poles and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity.

To conduct primate community surveys to assess population density, distribution, habitat use and demography.

To gather additional biodiversity data on the fauna through recording of casual observations.

To support the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project in their petition for community management of forest resources, building capacity within the community for responsible resource use and monitoring.

To support the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee in the development of their nature trail, building capacity within the community to access tourism revenue from responsible management of natural resources.

Objectives;  To assess the biodiversity of the coastal forest in the Shimoni area in support of long term sustainable management of forest resources and capacity building amongst local communites.  To support national and international conservation of threatened habitats and species.

Methods Line Transect Sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising West-East transects. Parallel transects are spaced 200m apart, facilitating a 100m survey distance on each side of the transect. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol. Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised more accurately and facilitate distribution mapping. A South-North ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and aid accessibility.

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The transect lines need to be straight and relatively easy to walk to enable the surveys to be conducted. Transects are cut following a compass bearing. Disturbance is minimised where practical by utilising ‘off sets’ – where it is not practical to continue the transect line on an Easterly compass bearing, measured sections of the transect were staggered to the North or South of the bearing to bypass obstacles before resuming the original bearing. Transect lines are marked with yellow plastic tags at 5-10m intervals for recognition in the field, and labelled double-tagged 50m section markers and triple-tagged ‘off-sets’ markers are used.

Primate Community Survey The primate community surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team walk behind ensuring that they do not draw attention to any primate groups that the nominated observers have not identified. This maintains consistency in the effort for each survey. For all groups of primates (a solitary individual counted as a ‘group’) the sighting distance is estimated and recorded (the distance from the observer on the transect line to the geometric centre of each group of primates). Distance sampling analysis utilises the perpendicular distance from the transect line to the geometric centre of observed groups and to calculate the perpendicular distance the sighting angle is also recorded from the transect line at the position of the observer to the centre of the observed group using a compass. Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met including random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group with a perpendicular distance of 0m from the transect line has a 100% probability of detection, an assumption that we are satisfied we are able to meet. The behaviour of the primate group when first spotted is recorded along with primate species and group size. Where possible, time is taken to identify individuals in each observed group by sex and age class; 0-3 months (‘infant’), 3-6 months (‘juvenile’) and > 6 months (‘subadult’ / ‘adult’). Age classes were selected on the basis of colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate by relative body size. The duration, time of day and weather conditions are also recorded for each survey to assess comparative effort and environmental conditions between surveys.

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Primate Behavioural Observations Preliminary behavioural observations of Angolan Black and White Colobus are conducted as a precursor to developing a behavioural research protocol. Observations were conducted in pairs with one observer using binoculars and one scribe to record observations. Observations were conducted on focal individuals and for the purpose of this preliminary work, observers were asked simply to record what they observed in detail regarding an individual’s behaviour, posture, social interactions and spatial separation.

Vegetation & Regeneration Survey The vegetation in the forest is important not only for the primate community. The local human community makes use of the natural resources. The vegetation survey is used to gather information about the composition of the forest including species diversity, maturity and canopy profile. This provides data on plant species composition and recruitment. Vegetation and regeneration surveys are conducted in a 2m corridor running parallel to the North of transects. Species identification is done by the assistant of the botanist attached to the National Museums of Kenya Coastal Forest Conservation Unit, a member of SYCP as a result of capacity building with the organisation and terrestrial officers. Specimens are collected in the field where a confident identification can not be made, for later identification. Only woody vegetation is surveyed and identified. Tree size is measured by Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) following UK forestry protocol. Trees <5cm DBH are sampled in a randomly selected 10m sub-section. Random selection is made by rolling dice (1 = 0-10m, 2 = 10-20m subsection etc. A 6 requires re-rolling). Woody vegetation that is 1-5cm DBH has its DBH recorded. Woody vegetation <1cm DBH are identified and categorised as ‘small’ trees and recorded within height categories of the stem as follows; 0-50cm, 51-100cm, >100cm. Trees ≥5cm DBH are surveyed along the entire length of each 50m section. These are identified and recorded with their DBH. Trees that have a DBH of 5-15cm are categorised as ‘poles’ if the trunk has 2m of relative straightness, identifying them as potential resources for construction. Trees >15cm are categorised as ‘timber’, identifying them as potential resources for the local community. For trees in this category the canopy height is measured using a clinometer to measure canopy angle to the top of the canopy above the tree base with the distance from the angle reading to the base of the tree measured and the height from the ground of the angle reading. The canopy radius is measured by calculating the average 42

of the distance from the outer margin of the canopy in the four cardinal directions to the base of the tree. All vegetation is sampled in alternate 50m sections.

Disturbance Survey The local communities use the forest for their livelihood. Women gather firewood, herbs and medicine; men gather timber and poles. The disturbance survey is intended to assess levels of human resource extraction and disturbance and in association with vegetation and regeneration data assess its sustainability. Disturbance is monitored within the 2m corridor to the north of the transect. This was chosen over 1m on each side of the transect to minimize the recording of disturbance inflicted by laying the transects and walking them. Disturbance surveys record all clear evidence of:         Cut Poles (old and new) defined as 5-15cm DBH or at base where cut; Cut Timber (old and new) defined as >15cm DBH or at base were cut; Pit saws; Shelters; Snares; Clearings; Firewood and Fire.

Cut poles and timber were only recorded when 50% or more of the tree base was within the 2m corridor. Definitions of old and new are based on discolouration of the remaining stump. Any other evidence of human disturbance they was noted.

Ground & Canopy Cover Survey A basic measure of ground cover and canopy cover is recorded in order to describe the forest profile and compliment faunal surveys and distribution patterns. At the start of each 50m section a 1m2 quadrat is placed directly to the northeast of the marker. In the quadrat an estimation of the percentage cover at ground level of the following categories is recorded: exposed rock, bare earth, leaf litter, woody vegetation, non woody vegetation and other. Estimations are made to the nearest 1%. Estimations of the canopy cover are recorded for every 10m of each 50m section enabling the five recordings to be averaged for the section. Estimates are made by looking straight up through inverted binoculars.

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Results and Discussion Line Transect Sampling In total 19 days were spent laying out the transects, where two groups cutting transects simultaneously counted as 2 days. This expedition we completed transects 3 and 4, achieved approximately half of transect 5 and initiated transect 6. The rainy season limited the amount of time available to work in the forest resulting in less cut transects than planned. In addition with the rains, re-growth and tree-fall along existing transects meant time had to be spent recutting them. Figure 15 below indicates the total number of sections and lengths of each transect. Transect 1 was initiated 100m North of the southern coastal edge of the forest area, and subsequent transects initiated 200m North of each other. A total of 3.55km of transects were cut during the expedition.

Sections West of North-South spine Transect 3 Transect 4 Transect 5 Transect 6 Total
Figure 15: Transects cut

Length West Sections East (m) of NorthSouth spine 550 500 400 0 1450 0 32-12=20 16 6 42

Length East (m)

20-9=11 11-1=10 8 0 29

0 1000 800 300 2100

Primate Community Survey Primate community surveys were undertaken over 12 days. Each group of observers working simultaneously counts as one day’s work.

We recorded 15 groups of colobus monkeys. The results are summarized in figure 16. The sightings are shown in figure 17.

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Total research area Colobus research area (m²) Colobus groups Individual colobus Mean individuals per group
Figure 16: Colobus distribution research

1 600 000 15 53 3.5

The number of groups sighted is considerably smaller than in the first expedition (15 against 44) although the effort is fairly constant (12 days against 14). One reason for this may be due to the rainy season. The growth of the foliage made the canopy much denser and the primates harder to spot. Additionally primates may be less active in wet weather and therefore more difficult to observe.

Distances are categorized in 10 metre groups. The results are of the two expeditions combined.

Colobus group sightings
1 8 1 6 1 4

# groups

1 2 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 0<1 0 1 0<20 20<30 30<40 40<50 50<60 60<70 70<80 80<90 90<1 00

Exp 062 Exp 061

Distance (in m)

Figure 17: Sighting of Colobus monkeys at different distances from the transect line

We also encountered an additional 3 groups of Sykes monkeys compared to 7 groups sighted last expedition. The Sykes encounters are too low a sample to start analysing.

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Primate Behavioural Observations During this expedition, preliminary behavioural observations were made of Angolan Black & White Colobus to assess the viability of behavioural research. The one troop towards the beginning of transect 3, close to on going human disturbance, proved once more to be particularly valuable for behavioural observations with only limited evidence of disturbance from the presence of observers, confined to the first 10 minutes after arrival. Other troops at the beginning of transect 1 proved to be a stable factor for preliminary behavioural observations as well. Troops encountered further in to the forest tended to flee and maintain a spatial distance from observers that made behavioural observations impractical.

In the course of the observations some interesting anecdotal records were made of feeding behaviour and the use of hands, the soliciting of grooming, and the handling of infants. It is hoped that further observations will be conducted in order to establish definitions for an ethogram and to attempt to habituate further troops before a structured behavioural survey is developed.

Vegetation & Regeneration Survey A total of 5 days was spent undertaking vegetation surveys. In the 5 days of surveying combined with the information from the first expedition we have covered 6 sections on transect 1, the results shown in table 3.

Tree height (in m) if DBH <1cm <0.5 516 0.5-1 64 >1 74

DBH (in cm) Total 1>5 23 5>15 18 >15 2 697

Figure 18: Vegetation survey; the total number of trees measured and their height or diameter at breast height

From the results can be derived that the undergrowth is dominated by Salacia madagascarienses and Uvaria acuminata with an additional 39 other species present. Further east into the forest Mallotus oppositifolia joins the former two as the dominating species. These species are shrubs or lianas reaching up to 6 metres in height. The canopy is dominated by Millettia usaramensis in the sections surveyed thus far.

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With the data gathered from the first two expeditions representation analyses can be presented; the cumulative number of species should reach a plateau that indicates sufficient number of sections have been sampled (red line), as indicated in figure 19. Since this is not the case more vegetation surveys are needed before an accurate characterization of the plant community can be made.

Representation analyses
35 30
Cumulative # species

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Researched area (x 100 m2)

Figure 19: Representation analyses

Disturbance Survey Disturbance surveys were conducted on three transects. The results of the disturbance research are summarized in the three histograms. The greatest level of disturbance is pole extraction. On all three transects the number of old and new poles extracted account for more than ¾ of the disturbance level. Poles are used both in the construction of houses and shelter and also for fish traps.

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Disturbance on minus T3
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -18 -17 -15 -13 -11 -10 -8 -7 -5 -3 -2 -1

shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber new timber old poles new poles

Count

Section #

Figure 20: Disturbance on transect 3 going West from the North-South spine

Disturbance on T4
20 15
Count

shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber new timber

10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Section #

old poles new poles

Figure 21: Disturbance on transect 4

Disturbance on T5
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -8 -7 -6 -5 Section # -4 1 2

shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber new timber old poles new poles

Figure 22: Disturbance on transect 5

Count

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Ground and canopy cover surveys A total 12 days was spent on ground and canopy cover surveys (most of them combined with other surveys). Each group working simultaneously counts as one day’s work.

The dominant category for the ground cover was leaf litter. It generally accounted for almost 80% of the ground cover.

The canopy cover varied from 0 to 96%, the average being 75%. The number of 75% is considerably higher than the average of 55% of expedition 06-1. Possible causes may include the following: increase in foliage due to the rainy season, increased effort per section by taking the average of 5 samples and the samples of this expedition are taken deeper in the forest than in expedition 06-1.

In figure 23 the canopy cover of every section in the three transects is given. The canopy cover of transect 3 (T3) is towards the front, the canopy cover of transect 4 (T4) towards the back. On transect 3 only the western sections were surveyed; on transect 4 only the eastern ones.

100
% coverage

Canopy cover

80 60 40 20 0 -20 -14
T3 T5 T4

-8

-2

4

Section #

10

17

23

29

Figure 23: Overview of the canopy cover on the three transects

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Casual Wildlife Observations The observations of other fauna during the conducted research were also noted to contribute towards biodiversity data. Confident identifications of the following species were recorded during the expedition: suni (Neotragus moschatus), Harvey’s duiker (Cephalophus harveyi), zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi), snouted night adder (Causus defilippi), African rock python (Python sp.), Hinged tortoise (Kinixys sp.), palm nut vulture (Gypohierax angolensis), collared sunbird (Anthreptes collaris), African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) and silvery-cheeked hornbill (Bycanistes brevis). Further sightings of animals occurred but the species couldn’t be confidently identified. In this expedition we have tried to identify the species of the bird community in the forest as a preliminary assessment of the viability of structured bird surveys. We have been able to positively identify 5 species in three attempts in addition to our casual observations (brown headed parrot, Poicephalus cryptoxanthus; African golden oriole, Oriolus auratus notatus; black kite, Milvus migrans parasitus; green wood hoopoe, Phoeniculus purpureus; common drongo, Dicrurus a. adsimilis). Several other birds have been observed but not positively identified. Discussion and further work The laying of transects to sample the forest is developing well and appear to facilitate representative sampling of the different forest habitats, with distinct variations and gradations in forest profile and levels of human disturbance. Primate groups for primate community and behavioural surveys were potentially more difficult to observe this expedition due to increase in foliage and wetter weather. Further vegetation surveys are needed before an accurate characterization of the plant community can be made. Vegetation surveys are the most time intensive aspect of the research programme and the sampling of alternate sections is being used to facilitate representative sampling over wider gradations in forest profile and habitats. The reduction in sampling of small woody vegetation (<1cm DBH) to a 10m subsection in each 50m section enables more rapid sampling of the forest. The volume of specimens in 10m appears to remain a representative sample. Extraction of poles accounts for the highest volume of disturbance in the forest, however it is likely that it has less overall impact than the felling of mature trees for timber. Large scale clearance of forest for farmland is still in evidence close to the village of Shimoni and should be considered a priority area for community management objectives. 50

The canopy cover increased considerably from an average of 55% to an average of 75%, the most likely cause being the increase in foliage due to the rain. However a change in sampling protocol and sampling deeper into the forest may be additional factors.

Future work  Primate behavioural observations will continue with a view to developing an ethogram as the basis for methodical focal behavioural research and time budget data collection. Exposure to observers will also be incorporated as part of the process of habituation for different troops of Angolan Black & White Colobus.  Due to lack of reference material the vegetation survey was dependent on the availability of the botanist. To counter this we aim to develop a field herbarium for reference and tree identification catalogue so that samples can be stored for later identification. Due to lack of availability of the botanist in this expedition we haven’t been able to progress the vegetation surveys as planned. The SYCP member who joined us was a valuable addition to the team for tree identification and represents a positive result of capacity building under taken during the first expedition. Expedition staff have also been able to confidently identify the common species. Vegetation survey efforts in expedition 06-3 should be increased to keep track of our vegetation / regeneration research aims.  Four transects have been cut and a fifth and sixth started. The transect gird will continue to be cut to further facilitate sampling and access of the forest, however as the distance to travel increases, additional transects to the North may become impractical in terms of travel time from the current base in Shimoni.  Preliminary attempts at structured bird surveys in this expedition proved viable and so we will aim to develop bird surveys on in future expeditions.  During this expedition we have encountered a vibrant butterfly community in the forest. With the successful acquisition of ‘Butterflies of Kenya’ we hope to be able to implement a pilot study to survey the butterfly community in the forest.  GVI’s support for the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee Nature Trail had been postponed while the committee has worked alongside another organisation to construct the trail and clean up the area. Following talks with committee members it has been agreed that GVI can fulfil a valuable role in developing a series of workshops designed to develop capacity for nominated guides to deliver information to visitors and develop an interesting and educational visitor experience. As part of this process GVI facilitated two guides from

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SSCC to visit the Kaya Kinondo Community Project and observe another community run nature trail. This proved successful and feedback was positive. Expedition Members also aided SSCC in the development of a leaflet to assist in the marketing and information available to visitors on the nature trail. GVI plan to continue to work with SSCC in future expeditions to develop ideas and information for the nature trail as well deliver additional workshops to train the guides in coastal forest ecology.

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COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Introduction Global Vision International East Africa’s Community Development Programme is focussed on the community of Mkwiro Village, at the specific request of KWS, to assist their objective of capacity building within the community to access tourism revenue bought in by the KMMPA and improve the socio-economic status of the community. Mkwiro village has a population of approximately 1400, with around 200 children attending Mkwiro Primary School, and 26 boys resident at the Al-Hanan Orphanage. The village remains a relatively isolated and very traditional rural Islamic community with a relatively sedentary population. The community of Mkwiro is essentially still reliant on traditional fishing for economic income. This is supplemented by seasonal small scale arable farming, livestock keeping and other small scale activities such as traditional woven crafts and supplying the shell trade. With the creation of the KMMPA, the community lost fishing rights within the area and the perception amongst the community is that they have yet to see the compensatory economic benefit of tourism. Mkwiro village has one tourist operator based there, operating diving, snorkelling and dolphin-watching tours within the KMMPA. Tourists with this operator are bought to Mkwiro for lunch and offered a tour of the village, but very few stay overnight.

During expedition 06-2, GVI has continued to build on community initiatives introduced earlier in the year. The villages of Mkwiro and Shimoni continue to respond very positively to our presence, and together with our partner organisations, we continue to work towards many of the objectives outlined by both GVI and our partners.

For Mkwiro, the priority for almost every community group within the village continues to be the adequate provision of fresh water. During this expedition GVI followed up on funding proposals for restoring water storage facilities, and researched alternative water purification methods. By supporting the local economy, we have continued to contribute to the village community fund established in expedition 06-1, in order to facilitate the community to restore their water facility with their own funding.

GVI has continued to support community based organisations in identifying and developing tourist activities or small scale industries that could provide further revenue for the village.

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These activities include a village tour, apiculture, recycling plastic bottles and flip flops, marketing of crafts and a small scale garment industry. Members of the community and volunteers participated in day trips to research similar ventures in the local area, and will utilise knowledge gained to further develop their own initiatives. A percentage of the revenue gained from these developments will continue to be directed into the community fund, and has once again already contributed to a substantial amount being raised.

GVI has continued to expand on the Shimoni Development Project, working with the National Museums of Kenya on how to improve and enhance the appeal of Shimoni to tourists, whilst increasing its worth both as an educational and historical centre.

Both adult and primary education has continued to be delivered by GVI in the community, and although numbers in the men’s classes dropped this expedition, over 30 adults still received English Language lessons. Over one hundred and thirty primary school students participated in lessons taught by GVI Expedition Members, and exam results indicated an average increase in senior classes of 9%. Teachers at Mkwiro Primary School continue to welcome the opportunity to work with us, and the feeling of goodwill amongst both parents and staff has been maintained. A two week holiday program consisting of sporting, environmental education and craft activities was also implemented and enjoyed by all involved.

Additional activities such as beach cleans during Dive into Earth Day, decorating the nursery school, and participating in the official branding of the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area, have also been incorporated. Timetable of Activities School Programme Timetable As shown in figure 24, EMs received two weeks of training, delivered a 2 week holiday program, and then worked in the school for 6 weeks.

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T = Training, H = Holiday Programme, S = School Open Expedition 06-2 10th April – 19th June Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T H H S S S S S S
Figure 24: Expedition 06-2 school programme

In the next expedition, the EM’s will be in school for the first two weeks, then deliver a four week holiday program, before being in school for another two weeks, as shown in figure 25.

T = Training, H = Holiday Programme, S = School Open Expedition 06-3 10th July – 18th September Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T S S H H H H S S
Figure 25: Proposed expedition 06-3 school programme

Recommendations for Expedition 06-3  As the four week block is a substantial amount of time, it is recommended that activities for the holiday program are planned well in advance, during the expedition break.  The holiday program should also be widely promoted in the village to encourage high numbers of attendance by the students. Weekly analysis of activities Community based activities fall broadly into four categories: Mkwiro Primary School lessons, Adult Education, Orphanage sessions, and Community Group development. All of these are scheduled into the weekly timetable, except for the latter category. With community groups, each with numerous members, the variable nature of working with community groups means it is more beneficial to remain flexible in our approach to setting up meetings each week.

The timetable is scheduled so that each expedition group is able to participate in each of the various categories during the week. Lessons are allocated so that each team teaches the

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same two English classes twice a week, except for the third team who teaches one class twice on Fridays. This ensures continuity for both EMs and students, and allows EMs the opportunity to develop a better rapport with students in their particular classes. Figure 26 outlines the weekly schedule for each of the GVI groups in the community during school time, while Figure 27 outlines weekly activities during the two week holiday break in expedition 06-2. Holiday programs are a mix of sport & coaching sessions, arts and crafts, and are an excellent opportunity to deliver lessons centred around environmental education and community issues.

Day

Monday

Tuesday 1 Mkwiro School (5 & 8) Adult Education (Men)

Wednesday Thursday Friday 2 Mkwiro School (7 & 4) Orphanage 2 Mkwiro School (7 & 4) Adult Education (Men) Community Group Work Community Group Work 3 Mkwiro School (6’s) Orphanage

Saturday 3 Adult Education (Women)

Group 1 AM Mkwiro School (5 & 8) PM Orphanage

Extra

Community Group Work

Figure 26: Expedition 06-2 weekly community timetable (during school)

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Day Group AM

Monday 1 Mkwiro School Environmental Lessons and/or Arts and Crafts

Tuesday 1 Mkwiro School Sports activities

Wednesday 2 Mkwiro School Environmental Lessons and/or Arts and Crafts

Thursday 2 Mkwiro School Sports activities

Friday 3 Mkwiro School Environmental Lessons and/or Arts and Crafts

Saturday 3 Adult Education (Women)

PM

Community Group Work

Adult Education (Men)

Community Group Work

Adult Education (Men)

Community Group Work

Extras Beach cleans (Dive into Earth day), KWS official branding of the KMMPA
Figure 27: Expedition 06-2 weekly community timetable (during holiday)

Figure 28 outlines the actual amount of hours spent on scheduled activities per week during school time. The total amount of lessons delivered each week increased from 10 to 11 as we were able to utilise one double lesson for the Standard 5 class.

Bad weather during weeks 3 and 4 meant that much of the marine and terrestrial research activities were postponed, and EMs from these groups joined with community, or the three groups were redistributed into separate community projects during this time. Also due to the weather, numbers of children attending the holiday program varied according to the how much rain there was. For example, on days where it was raining particularly hard and without relent, class sizes ranged from 4 pupils to about 10 pupils. On days when there was none or little rain, we had between 30 - 40 students attending the various activities.

It is important to remember that Figure 28 does not reflect the true nature of the work effort put in, as it does not show the many hours spent preparing lessons, creating resources, and the numerous small meetings held on a flexible weekly basis with community members and community groups each week.

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Mkwiro School

Orphanage

Adult Education (actual lesson time only, excluding preparation and reflect/review time)

(actual lesson time only, (actual time spent at excluding preparation and reflect/review time) the orphanage only, excluding preparation time) Phase One (1 week of school) Phase Two (5 weeks of school) Total 38.4 hours 27 hours 6.4 hours (35 mins x 11 lessons x 1 week) 32 hours (35 mins x 11 x 5) 4.5 hours (1.5 hrs x 3 sessions x 1 week) 22.5 hours (1.5hrs x 3 x 5)

18 hours (2 hrs x 3 lessons x 3 weeks) 30 hours (2 hrs x 3 lessons x 5weeks) 48 hours

Figure 28: Hours spent in the community weeks 5-10

As previously mentioned, no formal time was allocated to the various community groups. Instead, meetings were held on a flexible basis as and when the need arose, trying to maintain the momentum each activity engendered.

In the expedition 06-1 it was recommended to implement remedial reading with school students in the afternoons. Despite repeated attempts, we never received a list of pupils who would require the extra attention. It is still something we would like to follow up in the afternoons on orphanage days. We would also like to explore the potential of EMs to be utilised as Teacher Aides in the school during the afternoons when there is no planning for Adult Education. These points will be further explored in meetings with Mkwiro Primary School during the expedition break.

Weekly Timetable Recommendations  Liaise with teachers about the possibility of implementing remedial reading with school students at least three times a week on orphanage days, and/or utilising expedition members as teacher aides in different classes.

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Daily Activities Figure 29 below outlines the typical structure of a basic day spent on community. EMs on the community programme are also required to undertake additional activities on base. Time 7.008.50 Activity EM’s revise their lesson plans for the morning, making last minute materials or resources required to implement the lessons smoothly, and ensuring all involved know their roles and responsibilities during the lesson. 8.5012.30 Lessons are delivered at Mkwiro School, and then lessons are planned ahead for the next days or weeks lessons. This includes review and reflection time, assessing what worked and what could have been improved in the lesson. 12.3014.00 14.0015.00 15.0016.00 16.1518.30 15.0018.30
Figure 29: Daily timetable

Lunch

Adult Education lesson planning (2x a week on week days)

Down time/data entry/school sports/remedial work/extra class time*

Adult Education Lessons delivered at Mkwiro School (2x a week)

Orphanage sessions (3x a week).

*Weekday afternoons include optional activities such as sports with the school children, working with community groups, down time etc:

A two hour TEFL session with local women is given between 10 and 12 on a Saturday morning. The group working on a Saturday spend their first hour or two planning and developing these lessons, before implementing them in the Nursery School.

Discussion This timetable seems to work well, and the expedition members usually have very full days in the community. It was recommended in the last report to avoid the first lesson of the day, and

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this was successfully timetabled for most classes, optimising time spent with the pupils and avoiding morning assemblies cutting into class time. As discussed previously, we will be looking into the option of adding either remedial sessions onto orphanage days, or blocking out sessions where the EMs enter the school as teacher aides.

Daily Timetable Recommendations  Continue to run some of the afternoon activities as optional, but look into the possibility of scheduling in remedial lessons with pupils from the school, and/or teacher aide sessions. These sessions would need to be compulsory for EMs, ensuring continuity for the students involved. Teaching English Training The training went well over the initial two week period in phase one, with lots of positive feedback from EMs. Both the official GVI Introduction to TEFL feedback and the ‘Resources for Children’ booklet (recommended in the Expedition 06-1 report) were delivered, and the pre-expedition course information was covered.

Feedback from expedition members about the pre-expedition course assignment indicated that many found it difficult, not relevant to the teaching delivered on this expedition, and hard to follow.

As trainers we found the official GVI Introduction to TEFL booklet could be improved upon in a number of ways, including simplifying the layout, correcting mistakes in missing questions and the incorrect order of numbers, spelling and grammatical mistakes, and a revision of certain activities.

Training Recommendations  Closely review the material covered in the pre-expedition assignment before sending this to EMs.  Improve and correct the mistakes in the official GVI Introduction to TEFL course booklet.

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Continue to use the Lesson Plan format already constructed (we can still teach the more complex ones) as in practice these are easier and just as effective, particularly with the shorter 35 minute lessons.

Mkwiro School Lessons Permission was granted by Kwale District Education Department to work during school hours in Mkwiro Primary School. As part of the agreement it was stipulated that we must follow the Kenyan Primary Schools Syllabus. As such we utilise the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using this as the basis around which our lesson plans are constructed.

Using this method has been effective, in that we are seen by the regular teachers to be following the syllabus, we have a solid framework around which we can plan lessons, and we can also introduce our own activities into the lesson. However, there has been some feedback from the EMs that the syllabus is above the level of the students we teach. We have employed various methods to try and circumvent this problem, while still delivering the national syllabus. We have been pre-teaching a lot of extra vocabulary from the books, simplifying our lesson plans, and focusing on a very small part of each chapter at a time. Chapters have been allocated in consultation with each class’s regular teacher, so that GVI takes responsibility for a whole chapter avoiding over-lap between us and the regular teachers.

The structure of lessons given varies, but basically consists of a GVI staff member leading a quick introduction or warmer activity, before breaking into small groups allocating 4-5 pupils per EM. We originally started splitting EMs into pairs and working in slightly larger groups, but soon found that the EMs worked best, and students responded best, when working with one EM at a time.

At the end of each unit is a vocabulary list which is regularly put up on the walls and tested to encourage new learning. EMs mark, record and analyse the results of these tests. Any marking done by EMs is in a green pencil, and students are encouraged to head up work done by GVI with the words ‘GVI’ and the date, to indicate when and for which teacher the work was done.

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Discussion Figure 30 shows the times we have been teaching in the school. Most groups have taught two classes twice a week, while one group teaches class six twice on Fridays. We are still restricted to the 35 minute lessons which are very short, but where possible have tried to utilise any double lessons and teach two classes in a row.

Day Group

Monday A

Tuesday A Standard 5

Wednesday B Standard 7 8.50 – 9.25

Thursday B Standard 4 8.15-8.50

Friday C Standard 6 9.55-10.35

Lesson 1. Standard 8

8.50 – 9.25 8.50-9.25 9.55-10.30 Lesson 2. Standard 5 1.55-12.30 Standard 8 10.30–11.05

Standard 4 10.30–11.05

Standard7 8.50-9.25

Standard 6 11.20-11.55

Figure 30: Mkwiro School & GVI timetable

We were successfully able to avoid the first lesson of the day and thus the morning assemblies, which sometimes go on for longer then anticipated, often cut into lesson times, and during which disciplinary procedures occur.

The very first lesson delivered in each class was once again quite difficult as the students were relatively reticent and not forthcoming; however within the week they remembered and re-adjusted to our interactive teaching methods and were much more responsive.

Results from the spelling tests are variable, so it would be beneficial to teach younger students learning skills such as ‘look, cover, spell, look’ methods of how to learn new words, and to provide spelling cards for them to take home and learn.

At the end of Expedition 06-1 several library books were donated to the school, with a card system of borrowing in place on the inside back cover of each book. This system has not yet been adopted by the school, and the library is still in a fledgling stage. The school is hoping to purchase a bookshelf to accommodate the new books and to create an open library (at the moment what books there are, are locked in the bottom of a cupboard and are only available

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once a week to the English classes). This may gain momentum once the staff quarters have been relocated to the new building, and the old staff room becomes available as a storeroom.

Additional resources such as Dolphin Fact sheets are being sent out by a UK based Cetacean charity, and these will be implemented into the next holiday program.

Mkwiro School Recommendations  Continue using the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books as a framework to construct lesson plans, but pre-teach extra vocabulary, focusing on small parts of each chapter at a time, and add in extra activities to reinforce the subject matter taught.  Continue to split students into small groups, allocating 4-5 students per individual EM in the body of the lesson.  Teach younger students the skills for learning new vocabulary, and provide them with spelling cards to take home and learn.  Use different coloured pens for marking (e.g green for GVI) so teachers can keep track of GVI marking, utilise stickers brought by the EMs, and encourage students to differentiate their GVI work in their headings.  Continue to support the library by providing books, and encouraging students to read the books by asking questions about them and doing their own book reviews.

Adult Education Adult education lessons are offered in the first week after training, between 4.15 pm and 6.30pm for men at Mkwiro Primary School, and between 10am and 12pm for women at the Nursery School. Students learn conversational English and extend their vocabulary, and range from lower intermediate to advanced learners. Women are free to bring their children and young babies to these lessons, to encourage attendance and so that they are able to breast feed while still accessing the curriculum. The presence of so many young children in the women’s classes makes them quite challenging at times, but the EMs cope admirably and find the lessons to be both rewarding and worthwhile.

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Discussion Average class sizes for the men have dropped from 6 pupils to 3 pupils, and ranged in size from 6 pupils to 1 pupil. Reasons quoted for this have been mixed, and include the fact that as it is the wet season those students who are farmers work on their land. The change in time to a slightly earlier slot has also been quoted as a reason for the drop, however, we still deliver the lessons within the earlier time slot (5pm – 6.30) but have added an extra 45 minutes to compensate for the loss of one day, as lessons are now delivered on Tuesdays and Thursdays, instead of Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays in the previous expedition. This means that the total amount of hours delivered is the same as last expedition, but instead of over 3 days, is delivered over 2 days.

The average class size for the women’s lessons has stayed the same at 12 pupils, with a range from 6 - 16 pupils. The lower number in this range was due to a wedding, as there are usually a consistent number of at least 10 women attending the lessons.

Overall 35 different men and women have attended English lessons at various stages during expedition two. There are core students who regularly attend without fail, and then ‘drop in’ students who may be slightly less motivated, or perhaps have other activities that occupy these times.

The majority of students attending the men’s classes were at an intermediate to advanced level, and benefited from activities such as debating, discussions, formal letter writing, and vocabulary extension.

Although inclusive education is works very well in the co-operative atmosphere of the women’s groups where advanced and beginners work together and are able to progress at their own pace, it may be that for the men we need to introduce separate beginner’s lessons.

Many adult education lessons have been based upon lesson plans and activities found in the book ‘Grammar and Punctuation’ Key Stage 2. Over the previous two expeditions we have almost exhausted the activities found in this book, and so it would be beneficial if we were able to access other educational material.

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Adult Education Recommendations  Continue to deliver varied, interesting and relevant lessons to the men’s classes, integrating more community based themes (such as proposal writing, budgeting etc) that will assist in the development of community initiatives.  Possibly provide an intensive four week evening course for beginners, structured around the syllabus given, but alternate with intermediate-advanced classes so that our current students continue to receive lessons in an inclusive manner.  Acquire further books suggested for GVI TEFL as teaching aides.

Orphanage work Three times a week on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays EMs visit the orphanage to spend time with the boys. This time is unstructured to allow the EMs and the orphans to interact with each other in a more relaxed manner.

Activities include:   reading library books and listening to stories lateral thinking exercises and development of cognitive skills using interactive books brought out by EMs    playing sports like frisbee, football, volleyball, acrobatics and athletics other physical activities like hacky sac, poi dancing and dancing to music creative arts such as colouring in, using crayons, felt tips, and paints to create paper murals for the walls   help with homework and exam study group games and circle time

Sessions with the orphanage boys are so popular that students who are not actually orphans will keep trying to join in, however this becomes problematic as the caregivers for the orphans feel that they are unable to supervise everyone. GVI also believe that these times are valuable and that the attention should be devoted to the orphans only. To assist in making sure we know who is who, we have a list of all the boys with photo’s of all those living at the orphanage for easy identification. Once GVI staff members get to know and recognise

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more individuals in the orphanage, it will be easier to decipher those boys who are actually from families in the village.

Discussion Spending time with the 26 boys living in the orphanage continues to prove to be one of the highlights for many of the EMs. The boys were once again hugely responsive to the attention given to them, and enjoyed participating in activities led by EMs.

Although EMs enjoyed the time spent at the orphanage immensely, there were once again frustrations at the living conditions at the orphanage. The boys still sleep on the floor on old mattresses, there is no furniture, 3 out of the 5 rooms in the orphanage block still have rubble instead of cement for a floor and there is no facility for collecting or storing fresh water.

The Global Vision International Charitable Trust (GVI-CT) has pledged donations focussed on improving the conditions for the orphans. We are now able to develop the buildings, beddings, and other basic requirements for the boys. Mosquito nets have already been provided to each of the boys, and beds are currently being made. Future EMs will be able to paint and decorate the orphanage, once the walls have been plastered.

During the previous expedition there was a serious case of malaria at the orphanage requiring an emergency transfer off the island, and a subsequent slow recovery. Assistance was thus requested to help fund a nurse for the medical dispensary in Mkwiro to avoid situations arising again where medical care is delayed to the detriment of the patient. In response to this request the GVI-CT donation has also funded Monika Ndegwa, a recent nursing graduate to open the medical dispensary. During this expedition there were three separate cases of suspected malaria at the orphanage, all of which were treated early at the dispensary in Mkwiro, avoiding expensive, unsafe and prolonged trips to the mainland. The re-opening of the dispensary has been one of the most positive and beneficial aspects of community development during this expedition, and has alleviated conditions for the boys at the orphanage.

One of the EMs had sourced a kit of football shirts and two footballs which were sent to her during the expedition. This kit and one of the balls were donated to the boys at the orphanage, which was hugely appreciated and saw morale at the orphanage soar. They 66

subsequently organised games against neighbouring villages and although lost both, were very proud to be seen wearing their new football shirts and using their new foot ball.

GVI has also helped the caregivers of the Orphanage formulate and write proposals for further funding from sources such as the GVI-CT, and also additional sources from within Kenya. This involved writing a comprehensive description of the orphanage and its current situation and requirements for the future.

Orphanage Recommendations    Continue providing EM support to the orphans in the evenings Continue to seek funding for sporting equipment such as boots and soccer balls Continue close liaison with Orphanage Caregivers to develop and improve the orphanage, utilising the GVI-CT funds in the most cost effective way, and on a project by project basis

Community groups and initiatives Individual expedition members who have an interest in particular projects in the community form groups which meet regularly to develop each project. Community members are not only invited to be involved and participate in these discussions, but to ultimately make the major decisions concerning their own community ventures. Community projects will be handed over to successive expedition members so that expedition by expedition the aims of the community based organisations should be achieved. A brief summary of each of the community projects is given below. Beehive keeping The donation of bee hives by an NGO to the Mkwiro community has offered the opportunity for alternative income generation through apiculture. However, community members do not appear to have received the knowledge or expertise to utilise the bee hives effectively. Meetings were held with members of the community to assess their knowledge of apiculture and to look at methods of moving forward with bee keeping.

It was found that hives had been placed deep in the forest, in areas that may not be conducive to bee keeping. Insects such as butterflies were more prevalent on the forest

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edges, and thus it has been advised as a first step to relocate the hives to the edge of the forest, where conditions may be more suitable.

The expedition’s National Scholarship Programme (NSP) student on this expedition collected information on bee keeping and led most of the discussions. HIV/Aids Awareness The Mkwiro dispensary nurse, informed us that very few people in Mkwiro know their HIV status, and very few favour the use of condoms. It is valuable that the benefits of testing for HIV/AID’s are related to the villagers, and that the use of condoms is advocated particularly for people having intercourse before marriage.

Our NSP student volunteered to help with the workshop as he had considerable experience acting as a facilitator in HIV/Aids workshops in the past. In order to utilise his skills and knowledge to the best advantage, a group was set up to organise what would be delivered to the community on HIV/AID’s awareness.

Expedition members and staff, with four members of the community also attended a presentation at Fort Jesus on HIV/AID’s awareness. Information gained was used to create several HIV/AID’s awareness posters used in the community workshop.

40 members of the community attended the workshop, the majority of whom were men aged between 19 and 25, with the average being 23 years. This was an encouraging attendance, as we were targeting men aged between 18 and 25, the age/sex cohort which are at the highest at risk of infection.

The workshop was very successful, and an open honest environment was created where community members felt comfortable asking detailed questions and learning new information about HIV/AIDS. One method used to encourage discussion was to ask people to write their questions on a piece of paper anonymously, which worked extremely well and many questions were answered in this manner. Practical demonstrations of the effectiveness of condoms and how to put a condom on correctly were also given.

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By the end of the workshop many of the attendees appeared to be more open to the idea of using condoms and more reassured of their effectiveness. Community members also seemed more resolved and open to the idea of being tested at the Voluntary Counselling and Testing centre in Ukunda in the future.

Certificates were issued to all who attended the workshop, and another workshop is planned for the following expedition. The second workshop will review the causes of transmission, ways of avoiding transmission, the basics of the illness, and how to use a condom, as well as covering new topics such as caring for people with HIV, more information on reducing the stigma of aids, and details on how the illness progresses.

Mwaozi Tumbe Village Tour Several meetings were held between EMs and community members (primarily from Mkwiro Youth Group) to discuss what should be included in a tour of Mkwiro Village. The focus of this tour is a visit to the grave stone of Mwaozi Tumbe. EMs also participated in a research trip to Mombasa Library and Fort Jesus to investigate further the history of the Mkwiro people, and the story behind Mwaozi Tumbe’s grave.

The results of these meetings and of the research trip have been very positive, and much progress has been made. An initial draft of the village tour brochure has been designed, tentative steps to outlining the content of the tour have also been described, and a basic business plan developed.

Villagers are keen to get started on delivering the tour as soon as possible, and have shown a lot of enthusiasm and energy for the project. Although some members of the community would like to start as soon as possible, most have begun to appreciate that they need to have everything in place before delivering their final product, and that these things take careful thought and consideration before implementing so that they are professional.

Members of the community with an aptitude for tree species identification and with a local knowledge of medicinal uses of plants have also been identified and approached for help with the project.

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A visit to Kaya Kinondo was provided for four Mkwiro and two Shimoni community members, as well as several EMs, providing them with an opportunity to see how a similar venture has been run successfully, and to observe the conduct and eloquence required of a guide in interacting with tourists. Members from the Kaya Kinondo community based organisation, Shimnoni Slave Cave Committee and the Mkwiro Youth Group have discussed how they can work together in a co-operative effort to help achieve their respective aims and goals.

Mkwiro Village Compensation Committee Members of the village committee have approached GVI to help them draft several letters to the Minister of Tourism and KWS officials seeking compensation for the loss of their fishing grounds to the KMMPA. A percentage of park fees paid by tourists was promised to the community at the time of its creation.

After the Minister’s visit to Mkwiro, and more promises of compensation, a claim was made by a firm in Mombasa on behalf of the communities of the KMMPA to receive the funding. The people of Mkwiro knew nothing of this claim, have not endorsed it, and believe this to be a case of a previous inhabitant who has lived in Mombasa for over thirty years, acting opportunistically. They have refuted the claim and await the minister’s reply.

Community members would also like park boundaries to be re-adjusted in favour of the marine reserve, and for park boundaries to be clearly demarcated with brightly coloured buoys to prevent inadvertently entering the park in their fishing dhows, and thus receiving fines. They have also written letters to request help in eradicating many of the illegal fishing practises that are carried out in and around the KMMPA, which they believe are depleting their fish stocks.

GVI has assisted the community to draft many of these letters and to interpret some of the complex language in some of their replies. We have remained impartial on some issues (such as redefining the marine park in favour of increasing the marine reserve) while supporting them in others (controlling illegal fishing and recognition as recipients of any compensation given).

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Mkwiro Dispensary The villagers have a range of medical needs, such as malaria, diarrhoea, pregnancies, children under five requiring immunisations and other medical care, and a population of elderly people who also often need assistance. There is also a lot of sharp coral rag substrate on the island, which means there are many accidents, especially with children playing, requiring stitches. It is much easier and safer to give stitches at the dispensary, than it is to try to get to the mainland for assistance. Community members do not always recognise the early signs of malaria, and thus may deteriorate quickly.

The re-opening of the dispensary has been one of the most positive and beneficial aspects of community development during this expedition. Feedback about the new nurse has been very positive, and she has made herself available in the evenings and weekends.

The government and DANIDA provide and sponsor the medical equipment, drugs and first aid to the dispensary. However, in May of this year many of the drugs had run out. GVI has sourced some of the drugs and many of the immunisations from the UK, but we need to find a way to transport these to Kenya.

Regular additional funding for medicines and other medical equipment needs to be sourced to prevent the Mkwiro Dispensary from running out of essential material again. Mkwiro Garment Industry Fisherman pants made of kikoi material continue to sell well, and the fundi’s have grown in confidence experimenting with pockets, skirts, and other designs requested by EMs. These sales have greatly contributed to the community fund.

Problems with creating a label continue to remain. There has been no contact from the EM from last expedition who proposed to manufacture 1000 labels professionally with a company in the UK, and to arrange for them to be brought out to us. In this expedition one of the EMs who has studied textiles and design was also encouraged to create a screen and test the results. Once again the EMs involved in this project were not able to get it off the ground, and the clothing paint bought for this purpose remains unused. In future we may have to abandon the idea of screen printing the labels, as it seems it is too difficult to produce here even for

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those with experience in screen printing. It is recommended that we research methods of printing the labels commercially either here or abroad in the UK.

As with the Tumaini Womens group, in the next expedition we will produce a small information leaflet to be given out with each product sold, outlining the method, time, and materials used to make the crafts. This will also detail how 20% of the profits go to a central community fund, and give a brief history of the men and the groups involved. Hopefully this will mean that not only will the products gain recognition, but Mkwiro itself will gain a reputation for certain products, and attract interest from tourists. Recycling During this expedition ‘Dive into Earth Day’ was held, with the Mkwiro community and GVI collaborating in a clean up of the mangroves along the South coast of the island. Despite bad weather the litter pick up was extremely successful, with over 100 bags of rubbish collected. Bags of plastic bottles were transported to a plastic recycling firm in Mombasa, earning the community 380 Ksh.

Flip Flops collected from the mangroves have been sorted into coloured piles, and await transportation to Nairobi to be made into a promotional whale for WSPA and the anti-whaling campaign. The whale will be transported to Europe and auctioned, the revenue used to help Kenya, through KWS as the governmental representative, regain their voting membership of the International Whaling Commission.

Members of the community have also been invited by a company called UniquEco to take part in the construction of the whale in Nairobi, learning how to utilise flip flops and make marketable items such as key rings, toys and jewellery. UniquEco would then plan to buy products from the community and market them internationally.

Members of the community seem very keen to make the most of this opportunity, with its potential for alternative income generation and associated publicity.

Roles in a committee workshop GVI has been approached by a member of the community to go over the topic of what people should do in a committee. There are a lot of community based organisations within Mkwiro 72

Village, but it was felt that some of the groups are not doing enough to work towards their goals, and are groups in name only.

The ‘roles in a committee’ workshop group was set up to try and facilitate a workshop about what exactly it is that people are meant to do in a committee.

Handouts were produced in both Kiswahili and English, and were given out at the workshop.

Shimoni Development Proposal GVI has been approached by National Museums of Kenya to assist in the development of the Shimoni Visitor Centre as part of the restoration of the former District Commisioner’s residence in Shimoni, a building that dates back to the arrival of the British Imperial East Africa company in Kenya. The Shimoni Development Project was established to investigate the possibilities for such a centre and expanded to explore development options for the Shimoni area more generally. The whole of the seafront area of Shimoni is to be gazetted by National Museums of Kenya (NMK) and there are plans for retrospective town planning to develop the tourism potential of the area.

A sketch-map of the District Commissioner’s house has been produced in expedition 06-1 with dimensions, and ideas for the layout of the visitor’s centre were continued. Expedition members accompanied by GVI staff visited both Fort Jesus and the NMK reference library in Mombasa to research further details about the history of area.

Shimoni Slave Cave Committee A working group of expedition meetings have held meetings with members of the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee to review their current plans for a nature trail tour and develop the visitor experience on offer. Information was gathered and plans for information signage discussed. A draft leaflet was designed by EMs to support the nature trail and GVI facilitated two of the guides to visit the Kaya Kinondo tour to observe a similar community based organisation operating a forest nature trail.

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Tumaini Women’s Group The Tumaini Women’s group continue to sell their hand crafts to the EM’s. An information leaflet has been produced and attached to their products. The next step will be to take the products to Diani and try to market them to stall holders there.

EM’s will also be taking the information leaflets back with them and contacting possible buyers in the UK.

Village Community Fund Twenty percent of all transactions made between GVI and the village goes into a central village fund. Last expedition 8000 KSh was raised, this expedition over 11 000 KSh were raised for the community, from a variety of sources. These include bread sales, clothing sales, home baking, and crafts. This money is to be used by the village committee for the benefit of the whole community.

At present the funding raised has been earmarked to assist in purchasing iron sheeting to mend part of the community water storage facility. Water Storage/Purification In conjunction with members of the youth group, and the adult education group, a joint proposal with GVI was written to Bamburi Cement for a donation in expedition 06-1 (with eight accompanying letters of support discussed, drafted and written in adult education). Unfortunately the proposal was turned down, as Bamburi have delineated an area 25km from the plant to be their main priority for charitable donations. There are other cement companies in Kenya that will be approached in the next expedition.

A Rotary club in New Zealand contacted GVI with the possibility of using Mkwiro in trials of a product called ‘Lifestraw’; a personal water purification system that is able to turn polluted or brackish water into safe drinking water. The Diani Rotary club was contacted to help monitor progress of the system in the village, and initially it looked like it would be of great benefit to the villagers. Unfortunately feedback from Rotary Members in Diani who had come into contact with the product before meant that we decided not to introduce it to the Mkwiro community. Apparently the straws waste a considerable amount of water in the process of purification, and are hard to suck up making them difficult for younger members to use. 74

Alternative water purification methods will be researched over the break, particularly in relation to making water stored over a long time safer to drink, and to try to dispose of mosquito larvae safely in stored water tanks. Other community based activities Expedition 06-2 was once again a very full expedition, and much of our time and energy was spent consolidating and developing community initiatives instigated in the first expedition, as well as starting many new projects, leaving little time for extra activities. However, staff and EMs were able to fit in a small number of extra community based activities, including; attending two weddings in the village and one ‘hens night’, attending a lunch held for GVI at the home of two local villagers, supporting football matches between the ‘Mkwiro All-Stars’ and other teams, taking part in cooking lessons such as Chapatti making, and receiving drumming lessons from members of the community.

GVI continues to have a high profile in the Mkwiro Community, and has strengthened bonds with many members of the community. EMs feel welcomed every time they walk through the village, and have made firm friendships with community members.

Outside of the Mkwiro and Shimoni communities, GVI has also attempted to support Bodo Turtle Conservation Group, based at Bodo, North of the Shimoni peninsula and a gateway to Funzi Island. The group undertake mangrove restoration through replanting and it had been arranged for a group of EMs to join them in this activity during their free time. Unfortunately weather conditions prevented it from going ahead and so it is hoped to offer this during the next expedition.

Recommendations  Continue to support local environmental groups such as the Bodo Turtle Conservation Group, as and when required  Continue to play an active role in the community in promoting physical activity, with regular matches in various sports  Utilise opportunities offered to experience and learn more about cultural events in the community

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Concerns and funding of individuals in the community One of our major initial concerns while working in the community was that we would create a culture of begging, simply by our very proximity to the community and the obvious differences between our material wealth and theirs. During this expedition there were no examples of begging behaviour by children; it appears the firm guidelines given to expedition members on this topic seem to have taken effect with the younger members of the community.

There were several occasions where older members of the community have asked GVI as an organisation and GVI staff for money, these included:       help to acquire a passport funding for a new mobile phone money to go to the hospital funding for a hip replacement operation funding for further education (x2) funding for football boots

We are currently seeking funding from other organisations or groups for the hip replacement operation, further education and football boots. We have offered work around the base as an alternative to giving out donations.

GVI Kenya continues to collect for the EM Scholarship fund to help support local school children from the orphanage or Mkwiro School in attending high school.

Gifts such as pens, pencils, books and items of clothing were given to students at the end of the expedition, with each class from 1-8 receiving a farewell gift box from the EMs.

Recommendations  Continue the policy of remain not giving gifts during the expedition to individuals, as these are to be handed over during formal school assemblies or class time  Continue to support the local community in seeking funding from alternative sources

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NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME GVI offers National Scholarship Programme placements on expeditions to facilitate capacity building within partner organisations and for host country nationals. NSP placements are offered free of charge to individuals, and are funded by GVI. NSP placement students participate fully as an expedition member receiving the same training and experience. With no nominations forthcoming from our principal partner, a placement was offered this expedition to Kenyan national who had made enquiries via the GVI website. William Wachira has studied biochemistry and had experience of working at the Institute for Primate Research and of delivering community based HIV/AIDS awareness workshops. William completed the 10 week expedition and integrated well with staff, EMs and community members bringing a wealth of valuable contributions to many of the community development programme projects and enjoying the opportunity to gain marine and forest biodiversity research experience.

KWS have been approached to nominate individuals to participate in the NSP for next expedition. OVERALL ACHIEVEMENTS GVI East Africa has completed its second 10 week expedition based in Mkwiro, during which the following has been achieved:  140 hours 15 minutes of effort from vessels and 145 hours 35 minutes of effort from land-based survey site on the Marine Research Programme     28 dolphin sightings from vessels and 19 dolphin sightings from land-based survey site 20 dolphin behavioural surveys 9 Photo Identification surveys of dolphins resulting in 487 photos 17 marine mega-fauna surveys from vessels and 20 marine mega-fauna surveys from land-based study site   3.55km of transects laid on the Terrestrial Research Programme 12 primate community surveys conducted with 15 groups of colobus monkeys recorded and 3 groups of Sykes monkeys    5 days of vegetation surveys conducted Disturbance surveys conducted on three transects 10 species identified through casual observation surveys

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      

38.4 hours delivering lessons in Mkwiro Primary School 48 hours delivering adult education lessons 27 hours of activities at Al-Hanan orphanage Delivery of HIV/AIDS awareness workshop in Mkwiro with 40 community attendees Delivery of ‘Roles in a committee’ workshop Apiculture working group established in Mkwiro Facilitation of 4 members of Mkwiro Youth Group and 2 members of Shimoni Slave Cave Committee to attend the Kaya Kinondo community forest tour to build capacity for local community based tourism activities

GVI-CT has provided beds and mosquito nets for the Al-Hanan orphanage boys and enabled the Mkwiro dispensary to employ nursing staff and reopen.

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE AIMS This second expedition for GVI East Africa consolidated much of what was initiated in expedition 06-1. The Marine Research Programme implemented improvements identified from the first expedition and continued the core research. In addition the land-based survey was successfully initiated and compliments the pre-existing vessel-based survey, with comparable numbers of dolphin and marine mega-fauna surveys, offering the benefit of observations unbiased by boat activity. The land based survey also offers the most effective use of expedition personnel time to maximise to data collection for the Marine Research Programme. Unfortunately for this expedition available research time was significantly reduced by persistent rain, a factor which is likely to be repeated on a seasonal basis. Furthermore when vessel based surveys were conducted survey work was regularly limited by weather conditions. GVI’s locally employed boat captain underwent further training on the marine research programme as part of a capacity building initiative with the aim of utilising him to conduct and supervise marine research surveys.

Future aims are to continue the marine research programme activities but to try and increase vessel-based survey times by attempting a second survey in the early afternoons, weather permitting, utilising the vessel ET. This will help to compensate for reduced survey time this expedition. Surveys using transects will also be implemented in future to offer a more structured and random approach to sampling and facilitating the use of distance sampling techniques. 78

The Terrestrial Research Programme also continued and consolidated upon what was initiated during the first expedition. The transect grid system was extended significantly enabling a greater area and diversity of forest to be sampled. Primate surveys continued utilising the same methodology as did vegetation and disturbance research. However, the Terrestrial Research Programme was also compromised by extensive rain, reducing the amount of time available in the field, and requiring the re-cutting of much of the transect system due to re-growth and extensive tree fall. Furthermore the vegetation survey was once again compromised by the in-availability of the assistant botanist from NMK Ukunda office, due to internal affairs. As a result, a member of the SYCP, who had trained with us and the botanist the previous expedition joined us to assist with tree identification and proved to be very competent with the majority of specimens, facilitating vegetation surveys. This represents one of the first clear results of capacity building within the Shimoni community and the Terrestrial Research Programme.

With the problems encountered on pre-existing transects this expedition, future expeditions will begin with transect clearing before conducting the full survey work programme. The area of forest that can be effectively sampled will also soon be limited by the travel time required to access areas of forest further from base and this will be monitored with the expectation that a representative sample of the whole forest can be achieved. Seasonality of foliage cover will have an impact on surveys, a variable that will be taken into account over future expeditions. With the acquisition of suitable reference material it is planned to implement butterfly community surveys once appropriate liaison has been established with national stakeholders. For the next expedition it is hoped to progress vegetation surveys further. However research time available for the forest biodiversity aspect of the Terrestrial Research Programme will reduce as the programme aims to develop activities in support of KWS terrestrial parks and reserves. This will require a scaling down of current research aims for the forest biodiversity programme and more time-efficient sampling measures will be considered.

GVI’s presence in Mkwiro Primary School continues to be well received and the teaching delivered by expedition members effective in improving English language acquisition. The community development programme was able to take advantage of additional personnel and time whilst weather conditions reduced scientific research time, and many smaller projects were initiated or advanced substantially. These will need to be carefully managed over future 79

expeditions as the time available for them is expected to reduce. However many of the initiatives have already resulted in positive achievements and consolidated GVIs ability and reputation for supporting community development initiatives and building capacity within the Mkwiro community. GVI’s standing in the community remains positive and our focus on Mkwiro has enabled widespread and integrated support for many community stakeholders. The primary concern has to be the careful management of time to ensure all projects initiated receive appropriate on-going support from GVI.

Overall, GVI East Africa has continued to successfully implement the broad objectives outlined by KWS in the formation of our partnership and established long-term programmes to support their long-term objectives for sustainable management of resources in the KMMPA and community outreach. As the partnership develops GVI East Africa will review the priorities for research and community development with KWS and implement changes within our current capacity.

REFERENCES Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. 2000. Introduction to distance sampling:estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York. 423 pp.

Mann, J. 2000. Unraveling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods. In: Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. (Ed. Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., and H. Whitehead). 44-64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gregory, P.R., and Rowden A.R. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic mammals, 27.2. 105-113. APPENDIX

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Appendix 1 EVENT LOG
DATE: Time 24hrs VESSEL: South 04° East 039° STAFF: Beari ng SCRIBE: Environmental Conditions WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide Precip Wind Comments

Event

Effort

Trans #

T

I

S

D

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other Boat Speed: (use GPS)

Beaufort 0 – Glass 01- Ripples 02 - small wavelets 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps 05 - Many whitecaps Swell: 0 - no/weak swell 1 – intermediate swell 2 – strong swell

Cloud Cover: Measure in eighths e.g. 0/8 – clear 8/8 - over cast

Precipitation Type Rain Fog Intensity Intermittent Continuous

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10

Initials

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Appendix 2

Sightings Form
Date:
Latitude South 04° Longitude East 039°

Entered onto computer □

Vessel:
Effort type Sighting number Survey number

Skipper:
Distance to sighting Angle to sighting (P or S) Specie s

Recorder:
Group size Min Ma x Best Spotted because Dhows? PhotoID? Yes/No Comments

Time

Effort type: CW - casual watch, DS - dedicated search, LT - line transect PI - photo identification

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Appendix 3

DOLPHIN SURVEY FORM DATE START TIME LOCATION VESSEL SOUTH 04° OBSERVER EAST 039°

ENTERED ONTO COMPUTER RECORDER SPECIES TIDE
Ebb/flood/slack

SURVEY # DS DEPTH WPT#
ASSOC SIGHT/ RESIGHT?

HABITAT NOTES

DOLPHIN INFO – FIRST GROUP ID NOTES

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

M/C PAIRS? WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS):

SUBGROUPS:

ACTIVITY REST/MILLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) FEEDING (FISH SEEN) TRAVELLING SOCIALISING BOWRIDE UNKNOWN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE DOLPHIN INFO – SECOND GROUP (SPECIFY WHETHER THIS SECTION
IS INCLUDING 1ST GROUP OR ONLY SECOND GROUP)

ID NOTES

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

M/C PAIRS? SUBGROUPS: WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS): ACTIVITY REST/MILLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) FEEDING (FISH SEEN) TRAVELLING SOCIALISING BOWRIDE UNKNOWN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

JOINED AT TIME: LAT: LONG: REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE END TIME: LAT: LONG: TOTAL # ANIMALS: _____A _____YOY _____N TOTAL PHOTOGRAPHED: _____A _____YOY _____N

PHOTOGRAPHS ROLL NUMBER: SPACER SHOTS:

Appendix 4
Ethogram This ethogram is the copyright of the long-term dolphin research project at Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, Western Australia. The ethogram is reproduced here with permission and with some adaptations for the Shimoni project. I. GROUPING Ten meter chain rule For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below), individuals in a ‘group’ must be linked by the ten meter chain rule. The rule states that in order for two individuals to be in the same ‘group’ they must be within 10m of each other or within 10m of another dolphin that is within 10m of one or both of them, and so on ad infinitum. Definition of a group We restrict the term group to refer to assemblages of dolphins in which the following requirements are fulfilled: (a) the median interindividual distance is <2m (i.e. a “tight” group); (b) the predominant group activity is Rest, Socialise, and or Travel (note: all assemblages of foraging and feeding are excluded); (c) all individuals are linked by the 10m chain rule); and (d) all, or nearly all, of the individuals in the group have been identified. Individuals in tight assemblages separated by >5m but in the same ‘group’ by the 10m chain rule are said to be in different subgroups of the same group. Individuals in tight groups that are not in the same assemblage according to the 10m chain rule are said to be in different groups. Note that this definition is designed for studies of dolphin social behaviour and is quite restrictive. Group Spacing Very tight Tight Moderate Spread Widespread Wide-disperse

vti tig mod spr wsp wdi

modal distance between group members is:

less than 0.3m 0.3 - 2m 2 - 5m 5 - 10m 10 - 30m 30 - 100m

Important Group Geometries Abreast abr Individuals are side-by-side abreast [staggered at less than ½ a body-length (BLD) between individuals], any distance Staggered Abreast Formation sgg frm Individuals are abreast and staggered between ½ and 1 BLD, any distance The basic Formation is two individuals flanking another on either side and just behind. Variations between three or more individuals occur and should be described.

Group Movement Straight

str

Individuals in parallel orientation moving in one general direction (i.e. not varying more than 45 for a period of at least a minute or through at least two surfacing bouts. Individuals in parallel orientation repeatedly changing direction (varying more than 45 within every minute or in sequential surfacing bouts. Speed is typically slow to very slow. Single individuals engaging in this movement pattern are said to be milling. Individuals changing orientation with respect to each other on every or nearly every surfacing. Individuals in a milling assemblage are typically stationary over an area but assemblages may also progress at any speed.

Meander

mnd

Milling

mill

84

Dive type Dive types are discussed in Section II (Feeding & Foraging). Speed None Very slow Slow Cruise Moderate Fast Blast

vsl slo cru mod fas bla

0 mph <1 mph 1-2 mph 2-3 mph 3-4 mph 4-6 mph >6 mph

II. FEEDING & FORAGING We refer to foraging as those behaviours which indicate that dolphins are seeking prey. Feeding, on the other hand, refers to the active pursuit and processing of captured prey. Foraging is by definition a “continuous” behaviour (i.e. a behavioural state) for which we attempt to record a duration. Thus, we may use the term foraging bout to indicate a discrete period of time in which an individual dolphins engaged in the activity of foraging. We refer to discrete behaviours (e.g. a tail slap) as a behavioural event). This dichotomy is useful because typically we can use observations of behavioural events to diagnose the behavioural state (i.e. activity). Feeding, however, may be continuous or instaneous (note that we still refer to feeding as a behavioural state even in situations where the duration of the activity is emphemeral). Which category a particular kind of feeding falls into is determined by two factors: (a) whether the prey are solitary or schooling and (b) whether the prey are large or small. When feeding on small prey the cycle of puruit-catch-process is essentially instaneous, but some large prey items take considerable time to process and we can record a feeding duration for those items. Examples include bream, large squid or cuttlefish, snake eels, and rays. Note that dolphins cannot masticate (i.e. chew) and thus must “process” prey items that are too large to shallow (e.g. by rubbing on bottom or throwing on surface). Feeding is also considered continuous when dolphins are feeding on small schooling fish, as the cycle of pursuit-capture-process continues essentially uninterrupted. Examples include bouts of ‘leap-and-porpoise’ feeding on concentrations of schooling fish such as anchovies or sardines. Thus: (1) if we can record a feeding duration for large and small schooling fish or a large solitary fish record the activity as Feed; (2) if we record only occasional instantaneous observations of feeding during a continuous foraging bout, record the activity state as Forage/Feed; and (3) if there are no indications of active feeding, but there are indications of foraging, simply record the activity as Forage. As with anything to do dolphins, there are many shades of grey. The key is to develop a transparent diagnosis for what constitutes the activity state of Forage that is consistent across different observers abd over time. A. Foraging Foraging Foraging is generally characterized by single dolphins or slightly spread-out assemblages of dolphins (i.e. >2m between dolphins). A general exception is when one or more dolphins remain close to a foraging dolphin for social reasons (e.g. during herding, mother/calf pairs). Both the dive type and the inter-individual geometry are important in determining foraging independent of observations of feeding. Dive type Tail out dive

td

Flukes are raised above the water surface as the dolphin descends at an angle for a deep dive. The peduncle is humped up out of the water as the dolphin descends for a deep dive. Tail flukes are partially submerged.

Peduncle dive

pd

Geometry Milling

Changing directions with every or nearly every surfacing. In an assemblage of dolphins, individuals are changing directions with respect to each other. An assemblage of dolphins milling in a large area; typically 10m or more between dolphins. There may be smaller, tighter ‘clusters’ of dolphins within the assemblage; often after a lp/pp bout. A frequently occurring type of spread (>5m) movement pattern in which dolphins are in rank formation (i.e. abreast – ‘on-line’).

Dispersed Milling

Lateral Line

85

Behaviours Weed prod

A dolphin prods into a seagrass/seaweed mass at the surface with its rostrum. Maybe followed by a fish chase such as snacking.

B Feeding Pursuit: individual behaviours Rapid surface rs A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface. A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface but in which the dolphin does completely clear the water surface. A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin completely clears the water surface. A normal surface in which the dolphin ‘humps up’ its posterior half to break its forward motion as it descends. Often seen when dolphins are driving or pursuing a fish school in shallow water. A dolphin rapidly accelerates and/or swims fast along or below the water surface. A fast-swim along the surface in which a sheet of water trails off the dorsal fin. A fast-swim belly-up just under the water surface. The fish may often be seen skipping along the surface just in front of the dolphin. A slow or moderate swim, belly-up, after a small fish (typically 2” or less—a ‘snack’). The dolphin is vertical in the water, prodding into seagrass patches with its rostrum. A dolphin stops abruptly at or under the surface and wheels, swinging its flukes sharply. May be indicated by observing fish being knocked into the air. A sudden jerk of the head and snap of the jaws at or just below the surface or underwater. The fish is often seen. A dolphin lifts its flukes and sometimes the posterior portion of its body out of the water and brings the flukes/body down vigorously against the water (sometimes creating a ‘kerplunk’ sound). Not likely to observed in Shimoni but a dolphin chases a fish out of the water onto the beach, momentarily “stranding” itself.

Porpoise

pp

Leap

lp

Humping surface

hs

Fast swim

fsw

Rooster tail

rs

Belly-up chase

bu

Snacking

snk

Bottom-grub

bg

Tail-whack

tw

Snap

snp

Tail-slap

ts

Beach feeding

Pursuit—group behaviours Lp & pp feed An assemblage of spread out, milling dolphins in which the predominate surfacing type is leap or porpoise. The aggregation may progress rapidly in any direction. Bird feed Cluster feed/mill A milling assemblage in actively feeding group of seabirds. Feeding on a relatively stationary school of small fish (2-4”) in a milling group but with individuals surfacing side-by-side with one or two others. Record as cluster mill if fish not seen. A slightly spread to spread assemblage of dolphins snacking.

Snack party

86

Fish catch & process: direct observations Fish catch fc Dolphin observed to catch fish or another prey item. With fish Fish toss Fish-busting wf ft fb Dolphin observed with fish in its mouth. Dolphin observed to toss a fish. Dolphin observed to rub fish against the bottome (=bg+wf over sand substrate).

Fish catch & process: indirect observations Note: The indirect observations are dependent on context as each may indicate a different behaviour in a non-foraging context. Chew Fin jerk cw fj Dolphin seen to make biting motion in a foraging context. A sudden twitch of the fin (indicates sudden movement of the head); again in a foraging context. A dolphin lies still on its side at the surface; again in a foraging context.

On side

osd

Foraging types Note: More than one type may apply—e.g. bird feed may occur with other foraging types. Foraging (non-specific) Group Bird feed Lp & pp feed Foraging that could not easily be classified as any other type.

Dolphins are surfacing within or around actively-feeding seabirds. Dolphins are multi-directional (i.e. milling) and lp/pp continuously within an area. The area may be relatively small or dispersed over as much as a kilometer or more. The activity usually occurs in closely spaced bouts with abrupt starts, stops, and changes of direction. The assemblage as a whole may progress rapidly. An assemblage of foraging dolphins in which 10 or more dolphins are present.

Foraging aggregation Individual Bottom grub

Dolphin sticks its beak to the se floor to ferret something out of the sea floor while in a vertical position. This can only be observed in shallow water. Foraging in which predominant dive type is td/pd. Breath intervals are irregular with no long intervals between dives. Dolphins typically stay submerged for more than a minute after a td or pd dive. Dolphin forages and changes direction (orientation) with virtually every surface or breath. Often hovers over a particular location but maybe progress in any direction. The predominant dive type is during foraging is rt. Only occurs in shallow water. Foraging in which dolphins frequently utilize tail slaps, often with several tail slaps in succession followed by a fish chase. Belly-up chase and capture of fish trapped against the water surface. Dolphin approaches to within 1-2m of stationary or slow-moving boats and exhibits solicitous behaviours such as opening jawing or orientating head-out.

Td/pd

Mill

Rooster tail

Tail slap

Snack party Boat-begging

III. MISCELLANEOUS

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Some behaviours do not fit obviously into either social or feeding/foraging categories. In some cases behaviours may occur in a wide variety of contexts including feeding, socializing, or resting (e.g. snagging) and in some cases they can be clearly excluded from either (e.g. stretching). Snagging sng A dolphin floating at the surface, still or slowly moving, is said to be snagging. When still the dolphin’s flukes will drop to the degree that only the anterior edge of the dorsal fin may show at the surface and the rostrum may be exposed to the top of the mandible. Snagging may last from a few seconds to several minutes. Occurs in a wide variety of contexts: (a) resting: when dolphins are in a tight group, moving slowly with regular, peduncle, or tail-out dives and with no evidence of foraging or socialisng (b) socialising: snagging may occur in several social contexts; dolphins may snag prior to joining other dolphins or while waiting for group members to “catch up” (e.g. when one member has strayed off to catch a fish) Occurs frequently during snags. The dolphin flexes its body one or several times in succession. A typical sequence is to depress the neck region while flexing the head up, then to flex the neck region up while pointing the rostrum down. Stretching may include side-to-side flexing as well. A dolphin approaches a patch of seaweed/seagrass and rubs it while rolling side or belly-up. The dolphin’s pectorals and flukes are often lifted out of the water, draped with weed. May be difficult to distinguish from weed-prodding. Dolphin emits a ‘coughing’ sound. May be voluntary or related to stress and increased respiration.

Stretching

sth

Weed rub

wrb

Chuffing

chf

IV SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR We consider five categories of social behaviours: 1) affiliative; 2) aggressive; 3) sexual and 4) non-contact dispays; and 5) miscellaneous for behaviours that do not fit easily into the first four categories. Bottlenose dolphins are remarkable for the variety of synchronous behaviours they perform. Each category includes a sub-section of synchronous behaviours. A. Affiliative Behaviours Contact Behaviours (prb = Petting and/or Rubbing) Petting pet Gentle contact involving movement between the pectoral fin, dorsal fin, or flukes of one individual with any part of the body of another individual. Petting triplets, with two individuals petting with another positioned between them, are sometimes seen. Observation quality: 1. Observation based on direct observation of pec-body contact:  Note whether pec is: 1) actively moving; 2) knee-jerking; or 3) stiff  Note part of body being contacted: (common parts include: blowhole, dorsal surface between blowhole and dorsal fin dorsal ridge between dorsal fin and flukes; dorsal or ventral aspect of flukes; side below dorsal fin; side peduncle; eye region; “chin” chest (between pecs); genital area).  Note whether receiving pec contact is actively moving against pec: 1) roll; 2) pitch; 3) yaw 2. Observation based on surface observation of underwater roll of one dolphin at distance 0 from another dolphin Frequently observed sub-categories:  keel-rubbing (krb): One dolphin rubs ventral aspect of its flukes and/or keel of peduncle against (typically) the leading edge of another dolphin’s pectoral fin. Female to male but may occur male-male (or female-female). The pec often knee-jerks. One individual may keel-rub to two others simultaneously who are side-by-side at distance 0.  mutual face-genital petting (mfg): simulataneous petting in which one dolphin receives petting around the genital area while the other receives petting around the eye.  rub-pec (rp): One dolphin rubs along stiff pec of another, typically along side from behind the eye to peduncle. Often seen in herding context (female to male), often in

88

response to pops. Also between males in an alternating series. Rubbing rub Gentle to more vigorous body-to-body contact. Individuals are often seen rubbing against each other vigorously in play groups. Frequently observed sub-categories:  chin-rub (chr): A dolphin approaches another and rubs, head first, under the chin of the other dolphin. Often observed female to male. The rubbing dolphin may be right side up or belly up, but is more typically on its side. One dolphin rest its pectoral fin against the flank of another dolphin, behind the other dolphin’s pectoral fin, and below or just posterior to the dorsal fin. The actor is positioned just above and alongside the other at distance about .3-.5m behind the tip of the other’s rostrum. Typically female to female, and often in cases of harassment by males. Infrequently male to male. Observation quality: Note whether the observation is based on: (a) surface position (sbs staggered by .3-.5m at distance 0) or (b) direct observation of the pec resting against the side of the other dolphin. Synchronous Contact Behaviours Synch spt Two dolphins approach from either side and contact the central dolphin’s pectorals petting with the same body part and perform synchronous movements against the pec and/or are petted by both pectorals of the central dolphin synchronously. An example is two dolphins, on side, under the pectorals of the central dolphin, pitching toward and away from each other synchronously.

Bonding

bnd

Non-Contact Behaviours Synch surfs ss Two or more dolphins surface synchronously—they both break the surface and dive in synchrony. If the dolphins are side-by-side but staggered note the relative location as ½ body-length difference (1/2 bld) or 1 bld. Note distance between dolphins as: 0 = <.3m; 1 = .3-2m; 2 = 2-5m; and 3 = 5-10m. Synch up ss-up Two or more dolphins break the surface synchronously but do not dive synchronously. A common example is when one dolphin remains snagging at the surface. Distance and location are as for SS. Two or more dolphins break the surface asynchronously but dive synchronously. Distance and location are as for SS. Two dolphins surface side-by-side but are not quite synchronous during any part of the surfacing cycle. When a dependent calf repeatedly approaches (to within 2m) and leaves from an adult or adolescent animal, or the baby remains remains at <2m from this animal while remaining >5m from the mother. The bay does not tour on its own (then it’s traveling). Touring is a state, and must occur for the majority of a surfacing bout (when surfacing bouts are discrete) to be called. If there are non-discrete surfacing bouts, then touring should be called if it occurs for the predominant interval you are using for measurement (i.e. 5-minute intervals).

Synch down

ss-dn

Almost synch surfs Touring

ss-al trg

B. Aggressive Behaviours Individual-to-individual Head-tohth One or more individuals line up with one or more individuals. head Tiff tf A head-to-head in which at least one individual is bobbing its head up and down. Accompanied by Donald Duck vocalisations. Head jerk hj A sharp lateral or vertical jerk of the rostrum. Often accompanied by a sharp bang sound. An exaggerated opening and closing of the mouth. An indirect indicator of a HJ or JC in social groups. Two individuals fast swimming, one behind the other. The individual in the aft position is the chaser.

Jaw clap Fin jerk Chase

jc fj chs

89

Circle chase Charge

cch chg

Two dolphins ‘chase each other’s tail’ in a tight circle. A dolphin rapidly accelerates and swims fast directly at another dolphin approaching to within two meters or less. A dolphin strikes another violently with its flukes/peduncle. A dolphin swims rapidly past another so that its fin hits the other dolphin. A dolphin ‘karate-chops’ another dolphin with its pectoral fin. A dolphin strikes another dolphin with a sharp lateral strike of its rostrum. Essentially a HJ with contact. A dolphin bites another with a rapid motion of the head and jaws. A charging dolphin slams into another with any part of its body other than its rostrum, peduncle and tail, fins and pectoral fins. A dolphin charges into another dolphin with its rostrum. An intense aggressive interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive behaviours by one individual only (e.g. biting, hitting, etc.). An intense interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive attacks by both participants.

Tail hit Fin hit Pec hit Rostrum hit

tht fht pht rht

Bite Body slam

bte bsl

Ram Attack

rm atk

Fight

fgt

Group-to-Individual Head-to-head: X on 1

hth-2, -3, etc.

Two or more dolphins line up head-to-head against another dolphin, e.g. hth-4 indicates a four-on-one interaction. Two or more dolphins attack a single individual. The single dolphin may or mat not fight back.

Group attack: X on 1

atk-2, -3, etc.

Synchronous Behaviours Synch head jerk shj Synch jaw clap Synch charge sjc scg

Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous head jerks. Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous jaw claps. Two dolphins, side-by-side, charge another synchronously. May veer off synchronously in opposite directions. Two dolphins, side-by-side, blast after another dolphin or group of dolphins. The pursuing dolphins porpoise or leap synchronously abreast.

Synch chase

sch

C. Submissive Behaviours On-side osd In connection with being approached or (more clearly) receiving aggression from one or more dolphins, a dolphin lies on its side at the surface.

D. Sexually-Oriented Behaviours Sexual behaviours are given a separate category because some behaviours may be performed in both aggressive and affiliative contexts. As well as judging the intensity of the behaviour, the observer should look for other behaviours (e.g. biting, petting) which would indicate that the interaction is an affiliative or aggressive interaction.

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Individual-to-individual Erection erc Mount mnt

Obvious. One dolphin approaches another from the side and slides ventrum over the dorsum of the other animal at a 5-30 angle with respect to the anteriorposterior axis of the other dolphin. An erection may be seen if the mounting individual is male. Males have been observed to mount males as well as females and females have been observed to mount males and females. Two dolphins may mount another synchronously or iteratively from either side. A common variation of mounting. The individual being approached rolls belly up at or below the surface, then the approaching dolphin rolls over and mounts ‘upside down.’ The penis is more readily visible in inverted mounts. A dolphin approaches another as though to mount but instead of angling up over the back of the other it presses against its side in parallel orientation. May be simply another variation of mounting. Often occurs with two dolphins ‘sandwiching’ a third between them. Two individuals approach another from either sides though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour. A dolphin moves its rostrum into the genital area of another dolphin. May be performed slowly and gently in affiliative interactions and violently in aggressive interactions. The goosed dolphin often avoids by rolling belly up and tail-slapping at the goosing dolphin. A tail-slap, rub, or belly-present may also precede a goose in affiliative interactions. One or more dolphins push up under another dolphin’s mid-section forcing it out of the water. The dolphin being pushed is typically on its side or belly-up. One dolphin approaches another and inserts the other dolphin’s pec-fin intoits genital slit.

Inverted mount

ivm

Side-press

sdp

Double roll-out

dbr

Goose

goo

Push-up

psh

Pec-mount

pm

Group-to-individual Group-on-one-sex gps

An encounter in which two or more dolphins perform multiple sexual acts on a single individual. An aggressively-maintaind association. Two or more dolphins use vocal (pops, screams) and physical (head jerks, charges) threats to force another dolphin to accompany them. Herding dolphins engage in normal daily activities such as foraging while herding another dolphin as well as in social and sexual behaviours directed at the herded dolphin. Typically seen as an aggressivelymaintained consortship between coalitions of males and a female.

Herding

hrd

Synchronous Behaviours Synch mount smt Synch goose sgs

Two dolphins approach another from either side and synchronously mount it. Two dolphins approach another side-by-side from either side or from behind and synchronously goose it. Two dolphins approach another from behind, swim up on either side, and synchronously perform side press or ‘sandwich’ the dolphin in the centre. Two dolphins approach another from either side as though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour.

Synch side-press

ssp

Double roll-out

dbr

91

E. Displays Dolphins, particularly males, perform a wide variety of displays. Many displays by males are often performed in synchrony with another male or males and these can be quite spectacular. Displays are divided into two categories, those that can only be observed as synchronous displays (by definition) and those which can be performed by a single individual. Individual or Synchronous Tail-slap ts A dolphin raises its tail flukes out of the water and slaps them against the water surface. Chin-slap cns A dolphin raises its head out of the water and slaps its rostrum against the water surface. Maybe light or hard. A dolphin raises itself out of the water to at least its dorsal fin and then slaps its belly on the water surface. Maybe light or hard. A dolphin leap clear of the water and lands on its belly. A dolphin leaps clear of the water, remains orientated normally in the air and reenters head first. Note: this class is the most common form of leap and occurs in many non-social contexts such as very fast Travel (i.e. blasting) and leap feeding. A commonly occurring sequence in which a chin-slap is immediately followed by a tail-slap. A dolphin, on its side, raises its head out of the water and slaps the side of its head on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin, on its side, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its side on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin leaps clear of the water and lands on its side. A dolphin leaps clear of the water side-up, or turns on its side in the air, and reenters the water head-first. A dolphin, belly-up, raises its head out of the water and slaps it on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin, belly-up, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its back against the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphins leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and lands on its back. A dolphin leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and re-enters the water head-first. A dolphin rises partially up out of the water while in the vertical position. Dolphins have been observed rising out past the pectoral fins or son only the rostrum breaks the surface. A vtr in which the dolphin rises up to at least halfway down its peduncle and holds the position with vigorous fluke-thrusting. A dolphin rolls on its side belly toward another dolphin at distance 0-1 as it swims past in front of or alongside the other dolphin. A dolphin tilts its belly toward another dolphin while positioned beside and just behind the other dolphin. Often performed by two dolphins in formation behind another. A dolphin, from tilt-in position, angles its head into the vicinity of the other dolphin’s genital slit. In horizontal position, a dolphin rotates its head in circles (only seen once as a synchronous display by two dolphins). A dolphin pushes its chest down and arches its head up and out of the water, then

Belly-slap

bls

Belly-breach Leap

blb lp

Chin-slaptail-slap Face-slap

csts

fcs

Side-slap

sds

Side-breach Side-leap

sdb sdl

Head-slap

hds

Back-slap

bks

Back-breach Back-leap Vertical rise

bkb bkl vtr

Tail-walk

tlw

Belly-present

bep

Tilt-belly-in

tlb

Tilt-head-in

tlh

Head-circle

hcl

Rooster-strut

rst

92

moves forward, often with a slight bobbing motion of its head. The bobbing motion is typically not as pronounced as in a rst. May be accompanied by tail slaps. Side-sway display Tail-flailing ssd Like the rooster strut except that the dolphin sways its head from side to side instead of up and down. Very rapid, short strokes of the flukes in any orientation. Often used in intense, singleton displays. The most intense single display. Often growing out of the rooster strut, the dolphin arches its head up higher and higher, often until it is arching out to the dorsal fin, while whirling around, often rolling over on its side or back; often with an open mouth. Often accompanied by tail-flailing and sometimes tail-slaps.

tfl

Arching display

acd

93

Appendix 5

Date (Year-Month-Day) Initials (RC/KG) Roll # : Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number: Start time: Photographer: Frame #

End time: Camera: Notes

Scribe:

94

Appendix 6
Megafauna Survey Form (1/06) GENERAL INFORMATION Date South 04 Observer Recorder Species Entered Computer: East 039 Time Vessel: Wpt # Depth Temp Bft NOTES Tide: Ebb Flood Slack Number Present General Location Closest MFS#

Habitat Notes

Roll 1 (date/ID): Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames: Frames:

Spacers(s): Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (1/06) GENERAL INFORMATION Date South 04 East 039 Observer Recorder Species Time

Entered Computer: Wpt # Depth Temp Bft Tide: Ebb Flood Slack Number Present General Location Closest

MFS#

Habitat Notes

NOTES

Roll 1 (date/ID): Roll 2 (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames: Frames:

Spacers(s): Spacers(s):

95

Appendix 7 LAND BASED SIGHTINGS: ENVIRONMENT AND BOAT
DATE: # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Cloud Cover: Measure in eigths e.g. 0/8 - clear 8/8 - over cast Swell: 0 - no/weak swell 1 - intermediate swell 2 - strong swell Beaufort: 0 - Glass 01- Ripples 02 - small wavelets 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps 05 – Many whitecaps Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10 Tide: Ebb – High to low Flood - Low to High Precipitation Type None Rain Fog Intensity Intermittent Continuous Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat Entered on computer Time (24hrs) Observers Cloud Swell Environmental Conditions BFT Wind Direction Vis Tide T Precip I No. of Vessels OBSERVERS: Boat Traffic Vessel Type Comments PAGE __OF___

Checked (Initials)

Appendix 8
DATE:

LAND BASED: SIGHTINGS
OBSERVERS: Dolphins and Megafauna PAGE ______OF______

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Time (24 hrs)

Observers

Bearing Sighting Distance

Species Min

Group size Max Best

Plot # on chart

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) No. of Dolphin dhows passing on way to MPA (Tally count) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common Std - Striped Ptd- pan-tropiccal spotted Unk- unknown sp

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Initials

98

Appendix 9
LANDBASE SURVEY: DOLPHIN BEHAVIOUR PAGE: OF DATE: OBSERVERS: Record every 5 minutes from 1st sighting # Group size Vessel #Tourist Vessels Dive Dive type dhows Time Spp Spread present Type Duration Min Max Best

# dhows swim with dolphins

Split into subgroups (Yes or No)

View Obstructed by boats (Yes or No)

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species

Dive Type Rg - Regular Td - Tail-out Pd - Peduncle Rs - Rapid Surface Rt - Rooster Tail Lp - Leap Pp - Porpoise Snag - Snag

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

Spread Tig - Tight (< 2 m) Mod - Moderate (2 - <5 m) Spr - Spread (5 -10 m) Wsp - Widespread (>10 m)

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

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References Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and L.Thomas. 2000. Introduction to distance sampling:estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York. 423 pp.

Mann, J. 2000. Unraveling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods. In: Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. (Ed. Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., and H. Whitehead)., 44-64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gregory, P.R., and A.R. Rowden. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic mammals, 27.2. 105-113.

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