Global Vision International East Africa

Expedition Report 06-3 10th July – 18th September 2006

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The achievements of the Global Vision International East Africa expedition over the previous three months would not have been possible without the support, hard work and dedication of the following people. We extend our sincerest appreciation and gratitude.

GVI East Africa Local Partners: Kenya Wildlife Service Mohamed Omar Said Omar, Tom Amisi Amulavu and all the wardens and staff at the KWS Kisite-Mpunguti Headquarters in Shimoni and KWS Coast Headquarters in Mombasa. Kwale District Education Department J.W Chiuri Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute Edward Kimani and all the research staff at Mombasa Headquarters One Earth Safaris Ranjit Sondhi, and the staff at Shimoni Reef Lodge and Mombasa Reef Hotel. National Museums of Kenya Jimbi Katana and the staff at the Mombasa and Ukunda offices.

The committee members, staff and students of Mkwiro Primary School, the committee members, staff and children of Al-Hanan Orphanage, the committee and members of; Mkwiro Village Committee, Mkwiro Youth Group, Tumaini Women’s Group, Shimoni Village Council, Shimoni Slave Cave Committee, Shimoni Youth Conservation Project, Shimoni Conservation Committee. The community members of Mkwiro and Shimoni, for their friendship, enthusiasm and support.

Global Vision International head office staff Richard Walton, Sophie Greatwood, Steve Gwenin, Tabitha Cooper, Rowana Walton, Paul Jones, Amy Collins, Andy Woods-Ballard, Alexis Bleasdale, Deborah Reeves, Ian Redgewell, and all the other staff that support the expedition behind the scenes. Global Vision International East Africa expedition staff Graham Corti, Rachel Crouthers, Sara Trafford, Piet Oudejans, Kyla Graham, Hugo Félix, Lisa Pepperell and Warren Young.

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Expedition Members Tessa Baker, Marissa Barrera, Alysse Bezahler, Nigel Brookes, Natasha Constant, Jo Coulson, Mauricio Estrada Hernandez, Maria Alejandra Estrada Saenz, David Forbes, Joseph Grinnell, Jonathon Gurney, Emily Jack-Scott, Angela Halliwell, Stuart Hague, Joseph Henry, Jennifer Hutton, Meghan Lockwood, Ellie Maddox, Roisin Manning, Nicola Meldrum, Daphne Patterson, Mariusz Pawlowski, Felicity Pointer, Wendy Powell, Hilary Sayer, Susan Sparks, Kirsty Spaven and Nico Strang.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION
Global Vision International Global Vision International East Africa

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BACKGROUND EXPEDITION TRAINING MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMME
Introduction Aims Methods Vessel based dolphin survey methods Vessel based dolphin survey forms Boat based mega fauna surveys Land based dolphin and mega-fauna surveys Land based forms Results and Discussion Bottlenose Dolphins Humpback Dolphins Marine Mega Fauna Conclusions and future work

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16 17 18 18 22 26 27 28 30 33 35 36 37

TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME
Introduction Aims Methods Line Transect Sampling Primate Community Survey Primate Behavioural Observations Vegetation & Regeneration Survey Disturbance Survey Habitat Survey Casual Observations of Other Fauna Results and Discussion Line Transect Sampling Primate Community Survey Primate Behavioural Observations

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39 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 46 47

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Vegetation & Regeneration Survey Disturbance Survey Ground and canopy cover surveys Casual Wildlife Observations Discussion and further work

48 49 53 55 56

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
Introduction Timetable of Activities School Program Timetable Weekly analysis of activities Daily Activities Teaching English Mkwiro School Lessons and Mkwiro Primary School Development Adult Education Orphanage work Community groups and initiatives: Introduction Fishing Trips Drumming Mwaozi Tumbe Village Tour Cooking lessons Beehive keeping HIV/Aids Awareness Mkwiro Dispensary Mkwiro Garment Industry Recycling Roles in a committee workshop Shimoni Slave Cave Committee Tumaini Women’s Group Water Storage/Purification Village Community Fund Fundraising Other community based activities Concerns and funding of individuals in the community

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58 58 58 59 62 64 64 66 69 71 73 73 74 75 75 76 77 78 79 80 80 80 81 82 82 83 84

NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME OVERALL ACHIEVEMENTS CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE AIMS REFERENCES APPENDIX

85 85 86 88 89

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Table of Figures
FIGURE 1: DOLPHIN SPECIES IN KENYAN COAST (PEDDEMONNS V.M, 1999) 24 FIGURE 2: VESSEL AND LAND BASED SURVEY EFFORTS 31 FIGURE 3: COMPARISON OF EFFORT AND NUMBER OF SIGHTINGS BY RESEARCH PLATFORM 31 FIGURE 4: SURVEY EFFORT BY VESSEL 31 FIGURE 7: COMPARISON OF SIGHTINGS AND SURVEYS FROM VESSELS 32 FIGURE 8: NUMBER OF DOLPHIN PHOTOS TAKEN DURING EXPEDITION 06-3 33 FIGURE 9: PERCENTAGE OF SURVEYS DURING TIDAL STATES 34 FIGURE 10: REACTION OF DOLPHIN SPECIES TO RESEARCH VESSEL 34 FIGURE 11: DOLPHIN SIGHTINGS FORM LAND BASE AND TIME OF DAY 35 FIGURE 12: PROPORTION OF VESSEL BASED AND LAND BASED TURTLE SIGHTINGS 37 FIGURE 13: COMPARISON OF TURTLE SIGHTINGS BETWEEN EXPEDITIONS 37 FIGURE 14: RESEARCH SITE 40 FIGURE 15: TRANSECTS CUT 46 FIGURE 16: COLOBUS DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH 46 FIGURE 17: SIGHTING OF COLOBUS MONKEYS AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM THE TRANSECT LINE 47 FIGURE 18: REPRESENTATION ANALYSIS OF PLANT SPECIES IDENTIFIED 49 FIGURE 19: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 1 50 FIGURE 20: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 2 50 FIGURE 21: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 3 51 FIGURE 22: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 4 51 FIGURE 23: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 5 52 FIGURE 24: DISTURBANCE ON TRANSECT 7 52 FIGURE 25: OVERVIEW OF THE CANOPY COVER ON THE SIX TRANSECTS 54 FIGURE 26: POLYNOMIAL FIT OF THE SECOND ORDER (PARABOLA) THROUGH THE CANOPY COVER ON ALL SIX TRANSECTS 55 FIGURE 29: EXPEDITION 06-3 WEEKLY TIMETABLE DURING SCHOOL TERM TIME (CLASS IN BRACKETS; STANDARDS 4-8) 60 FIGURE 30: EXPEDITION 06-3 WEEKLY COMMUNITY TIMETABLE DURING HOLIDAY 60 FIGURE 31: HOURS SPENT IN THE COMMUNITY WEEKS 5 - 10 62 FIGURE 32: DAILY ORGANISATION OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES 63 FIGURE 33: MKWIRO SCHOOL TIMETABLE FOR GVI 65 FIGURE 34: POTENTIAL TOURISM ACTIVITIES IDENTIFIED FOR THE MKWIRO COMMUNITY 73

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INTRODUCTION

Global Vision International

Global Vision International (GVI) aims to build local capacity to support conservation through long-term, sustainable community development. GVI was formed in 1998 to provide support and services to international charities, non-governmental, non-profit and governmental organisations. Through our international network of 50 professional personnel and 50 projects in over 20 countries GVI continues to support many of the most critical and humanitarian projects around the world.

GVI is a non-political, non-religious organisation, which through its alliance with local organisations throughout the world provides opportunities to Expedition Members to fill a critical void in the fields of environmental research, conservation, education and community development. To date, over 2000 volunteers have joined projects resulting in significant direct financial and practical support.

GVI sources and supplies long-term experienced staff (1 to every 4 Expedition Members), trained people, equipment and funds directly to local organisations, government organisations, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and universities. This immediately increases the short-term capacity of the local groups to monitor their local environment and trains local people and researchers to assist in this vital work.

Through the work of GVI programmes, and its in country training, GVI increases the long term capacity of the local organisations and communities, assisting them to both utilise their resources and monitor the effect of this use. Thus, it helps the local populations to acquire the capacity to monitor the effects of development, and enables them to decide between short-term profit and long-term, sustainable revenue.

GVI’s local partners select the projects they feel are of the highest priorities, work they either want to initiate but have not had the resources to previously, or ongoing programmes that they wish to expand through GVI’s additional resources. The partners choose the methodologies that they feel are most useful locally and that can be compared on a regional

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level. The Expedition Members’ contributions fund the programmes, and, through training with the experienced GVI staff, it is the Expedition Members that undertake the work.

It has been shown in several instances that with suitable and rigorous training programmes, non-specialised volunteers can provide useful and reliable baseline data for use in conservation management strategies. All Expedition Members undergo a rigorous training programme, learning prior to arrival and through the entire expedition. All Expedition Members must pass both theoretical and practical in field examinations (95% and 100% respectively), on species recognition and research techniques prior to joining the survey teams with retesting during the expedition. All survey teams and data are checked by the experienced staff prior to being accepted. Thus the standard of knowledge of the surveyors, and the baseline standard of the data collected, is quantified.

GVI employs both international and local national staff to organise the Expedition Members and co-ordinate the programme, and the Expedition Member’s work alongside local people, researchers and teachers. This is an essential part of all GVI programmes. Each year, GVI invites 30 to 35 local researchers, students, environmentalists and teachers to join the expeditions for free, training and working alongside the GVI Expedition Members. Thus GVI recruits and funds 1 to 2 full time nationals per expedition.

All expeditions focus upon the promotion of their individual partners’ area, and each project complies with one or more of the criteria summarised below: 1. Increase scientific knowledge and interest in the area 2. Increase conservation value for the area 3. Local community cultural and environmental awareness 4. Local community training 5. Tourist cultural and environmental awareness and training 6. Increased sustainable revenue to the local communities

Thus, GVI facilitates local groups to record and document their local area and the effects local development is having upon it. GVI aims to draw in international partners to help conserve the area, brings in funding for the local groups and draws in other international researchers, whom all spend monies in the local communities. GVI discusses the effects observed with the local communities, businessmen, governmental groups, and allow them to 8

draw their own conclusions. GVI aids local communities directly through assisting with funding, direct manpower where needed, helping them with their own initiatives, and through English Language lessons, this allowing them greater access to the tourism revenues. Within some of the areas that GVI operates, this is as an alternative to other kinds of resource use, such as poaching and petroleum. Additionally, the programme is aimed to allow local people to access the tourism, rather than immigrants to the area from richer areas or countries, whom utilise the resources of the local communities, develop the area and take the benefits. GVI aims to present cultural and environmental presentations to tourists and local community members, providing information on the history of the area, the people and the impact of the varied uses of the area’s resources. This leads to the overall aim of assisting local communities to utilise their resources in a sustainable way. GVI assists in accessing sustainable sources of income, through promotion of the area and in direct recruitment of responsible tourists. In addition, the science and community training programmes enable them to monitor their environment to judge if the use of their resources is sustainable. Thus, through successful, sustainable use of resources, the conservation of the area is assured as it is this resource that the sustainable revenue relies upon. Global Vision International East Africa The Global Vision International (GVI) East Africa expedition was initiated in January 2006 and is based on Wasini Island on the Southern Coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centred around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA), which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The marine programme research activities are undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel and Funzi Bay. The terrestrial research programme is focussed on an area of coastal forest in the South-East corner of Shimoni peninsula, next to Shimoni village. The majority of activities under the community programme are focussed on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. The GVI East Africa expedition is a partnership primarily with KWS supporting their research and management objectives in respect of the KMMPA. Additional partners in the area include Kwale District Education Department, National Museums of Kenya and Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute as well as a number of community

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based organisations in Mkwiro and Shimoni. Expedition members are trained by GVI’s international expedition staff to conduct research and community development activities on behalf of our national and local partners. This report summarises the marine and terrestrial programmes’ research activities and the community programme’s community development and capacity building activities over the 10 week period of the 06-3 expedition, between 10th July and 18th September 2006.

BACKGROUND GVI’s scientific research and community development activities in Kenya are carried out on behalf of our local partners, at their request, addressing areas that they have identified as priorities in terms of research and capacity building. Methodologies and activities have been implemented in response to their needs. GVI merely facilitates the achievement of their objectives through the provision of experienced staff, trained personnel, equipment and resources. GVI East Africa currently operates in support of 14 partner organisations, 4 of which are governmental, 1 is non-governmental and 9 of which are community based organisations, as follows:

The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS); a governmental organisation responsible for the management of Kenya’s National Parks, National Reserves and wildlife. The marine research programme is undertaken in direct support of their objectives for the management of the KMMPA. The community programme is also undertaken at their request to build capacity within the Mkwiro community which so far does not receive the economic benefit from tourism that is evident in both neighbouring Wasini and Shimoni villages. The terrestrial programme and community development activities in Shimoni also support the organisation’s objectives for community outreach.

Kwale District Education Department; a local government department responsible for school education in the district. GVI East Africa is supporting the national curriculum for primary schools in English language learning at Mkwiro Primary School. Expedition Members under the supervision of GVI teaching staff take English classes for standards 4 to 8 during term time with additional environmental education activities outside of term time. All activities in the school are undertaken in liaison with the teaching staff and Mkwiro Primary School Committee, a community based organisation.

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National Museums of Kenya (NMK); a governmental organisation with responsibility for the management of Kenya’s national historic and cultural monuments and, through their Coastal Forest Conservation Unit, the protection of forest biodiversity. The terrestrial research programme supports coastal forest biodiversity research, whilst Expedition Member involvement with the Shimoni Slave Cave nature trail, an area that falls under the protection and management of National Museums of Kenya, directly supports the organisation’s management aims. Further to this, Expedition Members have conducted work on the historic monuments in Shimoni in support of National Museums of Kenya’s Shimoni Development Proposal.

Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI); a governmental research organisation responsible or marine research and conservation in support of national objectives and international collaborations. As GVI’s marine research programme develops it is expected that we will be able to support a number of the organisation’s research objectives including baseline cetacean research and marine habitat monitoring. World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA); an international non-governmental organisation concerned with animal welfare. The organisation is planning to work in collaboration with KWS on anti-whaling awareness in Kenya and restore Kenya as a voting representative on the International Whaling Commission. Expedition Members supported the organisation’s awareness campaign through a community initiative that will build capacity for income generation through the recycling of rubbish washed up on Kenya’s coast. GVI East Africa has also provided volunteers to assist in the organisation’s environmental awareness activities at the Zanzibar International Film Festival. Al-Hanan Orphanage Committee; a community based organisation that runs the orphanage in Mkwiro, accepting children throughout Kwale District who can not be supported by their relatives. The orphanage is entirely reliant upon donations, primarily coming from Islamic organisations throughout the South coast. The organisation also receives donations from the Global Vision International Charitable Trust to improve the conditions and facilities. Expedition Members have visited the orphanage to undertake activities with the children and provide more practical assistance in the development and maintenance of their dormitories.

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Mkwiro Village Committee; a community based organisation that oversees the interests of the Mkwiro community. Expedition Members have delivered adult education classes to support English language acquisition in the community, participated in a variety of workshops and GVI East Africa is helping set up a community fund so that proceeds from tourism and other community initiatives can be administered for the benefit of the whole community. Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group; a community based organisation with the objective of furthering health and environmental education in the community and developing alternative sources of income generation including accessing tourism. Expedition Members have worked closely alongside members of this organisation to develop workshops and the Mkwiro Village Tour with its associated tourism activities.

Tumaini Womens Group; a community based women’s group in Mkwiro that make traditional hand crafts for sale primarily to tourists. Expedition members have been working with the organisation to help develop products for the tourist market and to aid the marketing of their products. Shimoni Slave Cave Committee; a community based organisation that has been delegated responsibility by National Museums of Kenya to manage and operate the tourism at Shimoni Slave Cave, a gazetted national monument. The committee operates a guided walk in to the cave and are looking to develop the tour further by incorporating a nature trail through the forest above the cave which by default is also under protection from National Museums of Kenya. The guided tour targets tourists visiting KMMPA and also attracts school parties from across Kenya, Shimoni’s history featuring in the national curriculum. Proceeds from the Slave Cave tour go towards a Shimoni community fund which pays for teachers in the local primary schools, scholarships for students to attend secondary school, pharmaceuticals for the local dispensary and other community projects. Expedition members have been assisting the committee in developing their nature trail. Shimoni Youth Conservation Project (SYCP); a community based organisation that aims to promote environmental awareness, responsible management of natural resources and development of sustainable sources of income generation. Members of SYCP have joined expedition members during their forest biodiversity training and research activities as part of a capacity building programme to enable them to manage and monitor their natural 12

resources. Under the stewardship of GVI, SYCP committee members created the Shimoni Conservation Committee (SCC) with representatives including two elders and one woman from each of the six villages within Shimoni sub-location that are stakeholders in the forest areas. Following the awareness and sensitisation activities, the SCC with GVI support has petitioned community members and submitted a proposal to relevant government authorities requesting that they be designated authority to manage their forest resources on behalf of and for the benefit of local communities. Through community management they aim to designate conservation areas, manage sustainable resource use, reduce illegal timber extraction and develop ecotourism initiatives. Shimoni Mkwiro Dhow Tours; a community based organisation which has been recently formed as a co-operative of tourist dhow operators, taking tourists in to the KMMPA on dolphin watching and snorkelling trips. This co-operative aims to redress the balance of tourism on Wasini Island, planning to take their clients to Mkwiro village for lunches instead of Wasini village. By working alongside this organisation it is hoped that Mkwiro community groups can gain access to tourism revenue, and that these local operators will be the first beneficiaries of education and training, encouraging responsible dolphin watching activities. EXPEDITION TRAINING Expedition members are put through a two week intensive training programme upon arrival on the expedition prior to participation in programme activities. Theoretical and practical tests are conducted at the end of their training period. Training consists of:  Marine Research Programme: Expedition members receive classroom training on cetacean species identification and marine megafauna identification. Expedition Members learn field identification of nine species of cetaceans. Eight of these are dolphin species and include: Indian Ocean Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.

Truncatus and aduncus), Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleaoalba), Pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuate), Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), and Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus). In addition to the learning the dolphin species the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeanglia) is known to occur in the Kisite-Mpunguti area.Reference material is available for self study. Five species of marine turtles are known to occur in Kenyan waters and during training EMs

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are also taught and examined on the identification of these species. These include: Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), and Loggerhead (Caretta caretta). This is followed by testing utilising slides, requiring a 95% pass mark. Expedition members receive classroom-based presentations and practical field training in cetacean and megafauna survey techniques and theories, the collection of environmental data, accurate completion of data forms, distance estimation and GPS training. This is also subject to testing with a pass mark of 95% prior to participation in research activities.  Terrestrial Research Programme: Expedition Members receive classroom-based presentations and practical field training on primate identification and behavioural ecology, transect laying, vegetation, disturbance and casual observation of fauna surveys. Training is followed by a theoretical test requiring a 95% pass mark. Practical training and in field testing is also undertaken on the use of the panga, compass and GPS. Expedition Members receive distance estimation training and in field testing for which participation in sighting distance estimation during primate community surveys is contingent on expedition members achieving an average error within 10m.  Community Development Programme: Expedition Members receive the GVI Introduction to TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) training and an additional Introduction to TEFL for Children course designed to prepare them for teaching in Mkwiro Primary School and activities at the Al-Hanan Orphanage. Their training incorporates practical activities and guidance in classroom management. Following training Expedition Members receive practical testing in the form of lesson planning. Expedition Members receive individual assessment and feedback.  Health & Safety: Expedition Members are all subject to comprehensive health & safety awareness training in the form of risk assessments, a specific hazardous marine life presentation, forest field safety talk, dangerous game and wildlife viewing protocol, a boat safety orientation, radio protocol training, emergency oxygen use training and fire extinguisher & fire safety orientation. Further to this all expedition members are put through the Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care training courses. Assessment for certification is optional. Expedition Members are also asked to complete a 200m swim test, if unsuccessful then wearing of life jackets in the boats is compulsory.

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In addition, Expedition Members are also offered additional training, presentations and talks during the expedition on oceanography, marine environment, primate evolution and ecology, African wildlife natural history, bio-geography of Africa, Kenyan history, Muslim culture and Kiswahili.

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MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMME Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and covers an area of 39 square kilometres. The KMMPA includes the Marine National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine National Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands. The KMMPA and the marine wildlife it contains are an important tourist attraction and an important resource for Shimoni and surrounding communities. The KMMPA is the highest incoming generating marine protected area in Kenya and one of the highest income generating areas under KWS management. The islands within the KMMPA are surrounded by coral reefs attracting divers and snorkellers to the area. Almost every day swim-withdolphin and dolphin watching companies operating from Shimoni travel through Wasini Channel to the KMMPA (Emerson and Tessema, 2001). These tourist dhows most frequently encounter bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis. Currently, there is no code of conduct followed when manoeuvring around the dolphins nor are levels of interaction monitored or regulated in any way. The impact these activities may be having on the dolphins is unknown. In particular, it’s not known whether increased, or even current, levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable for local dolphin populations. Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of East Africa and little information is available even on the baseline ecology of these species. Baseline data is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed (Stensland et al,1998). The main objectives of the marine research program are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on the dolphin species that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. The study area encompasses a wide range of habitats from mangrove forests, coral reefs, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds, and offshore areas.

GVI East Africa’s main working partner is the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The research conducted by GVI will be shaped to satisfy the objectives of KWS, as to assist them towards better management of the area. All data collected thus far is available to them to aid in management plans of the study area.

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The Marine Programme is supporting KWS to collate data by conducting vessel and landbased surveys. The marine program will primarily focus on two research areas: (1) the ecology of humpback and bottlenose dolphins and (2) the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins and megafauna (large marine vertebrates such as turtles, whale sharks, dugongs, and seabirds) within the area and improve the scientific basis and baseline data for management strategies. This information can help lead towards long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area. During the initial phase of the marine program research will focus on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and diel movement patterns will be analysed.

Megafauna species attract tourists thus are a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity at a number of levels. A further objective of this marine research project is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine megafauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly. Aims GVI East Africa conducted a pilot study in the first and second expeditions (061 and 062 respectively) to determine species distribution within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. During this pilot study research questions were set to ensure that all the research methodologies collated the relevant information to satisfy the objectives set by KWS.

The marine programme would like to collect the following data on dolphins and megafauna in the KMMPA and surrounding areas.

From vessel based surveys:     Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition Residency Habitat-activity relationships

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   

Diel movement & activity Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

From land-based surveys:      Tidal and diel movement Diel activity Dolphin behaviour before, during, and after exposure to vessels Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

Methods Upon successful completion of training and examination, Expedition Members (EMs) participate in the boat and land-based surveys for the rest of the expedition. Some of the EMs only participate for the first five weeks or the last five weeks of the expedition; these EMs receive the same training and participate in 3 weeks of post-training research. Vessel based dolphin survey methods

During Expedition 06-3 GVI East Africa primarily used two research vessels to conduct surveys within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Stingray, a 5.83 m catamaran style power vessel with two 85 horsepower motors, was used during morning surveys from approximately 0730 to 1200. In addition to Stingray, ET, a 6.19 m power vessel was used for shorter afternoon surveys from approximately 14:00 -16:00, The areas covered by this vessel were smaller scale but provided extra data on dolphin movements in the afternoon. These afternoon surveys were only carried out during the first 5 weeks, due to a smaller number of EMs in the second five weeks. Photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens).

To obtain information on population size, demographics and other biological parameters photo-identification (Photo ID) and mark-recapture methods are used for data collection and 18

analysis. GVI will be adding a third survey technique, distance sampling, which will provide an additional method to assess population size.

Photo-identification: Photo-ID refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be re-sighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs.

The primary aim of photo-ID will be to try to determine population size. Photographers attempt to photograph all the individuals within the group during a photo-ID survey so as not to bias the data by focusing on individuals with distinctive markings or certain behaviours. Results can vary due to conditions, surfacing bouts and animal behaviour.

Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependant on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting and clear shot of dorsal fins. During a photo ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The primary aim during a photo ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with later analysis of photographs (See the Forms section for further explanation of this procedure).

Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved into the photo-ID database. This database is divided into various users so that they are analysed individually. Each user quality grades the photos into categories including: deleted, tail flukes, spacer shots, and quality categories which range from 0 (poor quality, distant, out of focus, partial images) to 3 (perfect photo-ID shots). Users then identify individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photoID catalogue will be created in which individuals are given unique ID numbers and/or names. 19

This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long term basis. Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals.

Mark-Recapture: Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met.

A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption; only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.

Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.

‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured.

Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.

The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Initially, a sample of individuals is photographically ‘captured’ (n1), and on a subsequent occasion, a second sample of individuals is ‘captured’ (n 2) of which a number were already identified in the first sample (m2). The proportion of individuals that are marked in the second sample can be equated with the proportion in the overall population (N). The mark-recapture formulas are as follows (Evans and Hammond, 2004):

Equation 1 (m2) = n1 n2 N

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The number of individuals captured and marked is known which allows the population size to be estimated (Ň): Equation 2 Ň = n1 n2 m2 Distance Sampling: GVI is planning to use this methodology in the marine program; which is based on the estimation of population density. This methodology involves sampling

distances and angles along a line transect during a survey.

During a line transect survey four or five EMs act as observers as the vessel travels along a designated path of travel or line transect. Once there is a sighting the observer who made the initial sighting will tell the scribe the distance and angle to all individuals detected. The initial number of individuals sighted in three categories: minimum, maximum and best. Only the observation data made by distance sampling observers will be used for distance sampling calculations. All EMs are trained in distance estimation from the vessel using a GPS. Distances are taken from a buoy, which is a marked as a way point and then expedition members estimate the distance from the vessel to the buoy.

This methodology allows that some animals within a certain distance of the vessel will not be detected. Only those animals that are detected within 180 degree angle from the centre of the bow are recorded. By noting the distance and angle from the boat the perpendicular distance of the sighting from the line transect can be calculated. The methodology accounts for the fact that objects are more likely to be detected if they are closer and recorded at a smaller angle from the point of observation along the line transect (Buckland et al, 2005).

Central to the concept of sampling is the detection function:

g(y)= the probability of detecting an object given that it is at distance y from the line

• •

Usually assume that g(0)= 1, that is, objects on the line are detected with certainty Accurate estimates of abundance can be obtained if certain conditions are met

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Three main conditions for line transect sampling are:

1. 2.

Objects directly on the line are always detected Objects are detected at their initial location, prior to any movement in response to the observer – responsive movement of animals can create real problems!

3.

Distances and angles are measured accurately.

GVI East Africa plans to implement this methodology in the near future. Vessel based dolphin survey forms Four forms were used to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size, demographics and behaviour. These forms include the Event Log, Sightings form, Dolphin Survey form and the Photo ID form. Event Log: Throughout the survey day an Event Log (Appendix 1) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with the number of surveys completed and environmental and condition changes. Every fifteen minutes one person (the scribe) records the current environmental conditions and any environmental or effort changes. Every half hour the observers rotate roles and view points and every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break as the scribe. If a dolphin is spotted then all observers maintain the same position while filling out one specific survey form. This allows for consistency in data notation making it possible for questions regarding data collection, i.e. reading illegible handwriting, to be easily answered.

At the beginning of the day and at every interval of data collection the recorder notes the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Date Vessel Time (24hr clock) GPS Co-ordinates (using WGS84 datum) Event (See Appendix 1 to see categories) Dolphin Survey number, each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02 Speed of vessel 22

8.

Environmental conditions (swell, beaufort, cloud, precipitation, visibility and tide; All categories are listed in Appendix 1)

9.

Additional comments

Sightings Form: The Sightings form is used to record all sightings of dolphins and megafauna. This form collates the relevant information to conduct distance sampling. It also produces valuable information if a behaviour survey can not be conducted, for example, due to weather conditions, when there are too many vessels present, or the dolphins are only sighted once. The recorder notes if the sighting occurred due to the presence of a vessel or whether the land based platform informed us of the presence of dolphins. This information is then included in the analysis to note any sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye or if the vessel was simply not in the same area as the sighting.

Once dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the recorder documents the following data into the sighting form (see Appendix 2).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

GPS Co-ordinates of the vessel Effort type Sighting number and survey number (either a megafauna or dolphin survey) Distance and angle to sighting Species Group size on initial sighting Reason for sighting Whether a Photo ID survey was conducted or not Comments Number of boats present

Dolphin Behaviour Survey Form: The photo-ID survey protocol provides a systematic approach for sampling the behaviour of free-ranging dolphins. As part of this protocol a Dolphin Behaviour Survey is used to record basic behaviour data when conditions allow a dolphin survey to be conducted (Appendix 3).

This survey is used in conjunction with the Ethogram (see Appendix 4) which provides a guide for dolphin behaviours. GVI East Africa has simplified this methodology to ensure that 23

accurate information is gathered. All EMs receive training on dolphin behaviours to ensure that each individual will be able to recognise behaviours in the field. As well, there is always at least one marine officer assisting with data collection to ensure that behavioural observations are consistent across observers.

Survey encounters differ in many ways—e.g. the number of animals encountered; the degree to which to individuals can be directly observed and identified. As such, the depth and quality of data that are collected during surveys may vary widely. While detailed and individualspecific observations are desirable, at times it is only possible to collect basic data such as the time and location of encounter.
Figure 1: Dolphin species in Kenyan coast (Peddemonns V.M, 1999) Common Name Bottlenose Dolphin Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Scientific name Tursiops truncatus/aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grumpus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuate

Highlighted in bold are the 3 species which have been identified to date.

Dolphin surveys commence once the sighting form has been completed and the species is identifiable (See species list above, figure 1). Dive durations are measured from the time of the first positive identification until the time of departure from the group. A scan sample of behaviour and group composition is conducted over a 10 minute period. Observers note how many animals are present as early as possible once a group is sighted—group size indicates how many individuals that must be identified visually or through photo-id. This sample is intended to provide an unbiased ‘sample’ of the behaviours and the identity of the individuals present for the calculation of association coefficients and other analyses.

During Expedition 06-3 the observation time was kept at a ten minute sample. From the previous expedition it was found this sample period represents a suitable amount of time. It is: (a) is short enough to approximate a true scan sample (more below) and (b) long enough to cover (on average) two to three surfacing bouts during which identifications can be made

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and group activity, direction, and group composition can be assessed. This time frame is kept short to reduce the effect the vessel may have on the original activity of the dolphins when first sighted.

For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below) two individuals must be within 100 m of each other or within 100 m of the initial group to be in the same ‘group’. If fifty percent or more animals are within 100 m of another group they are classed as a sub-group and a sub-group behavioral survey completed. If a group is seen outside of this 100 m radius a new survey form is completed.

Cetacean behaviours can be distinguished as either events (short duration behaviours) that include, spy hops, tail slaps, leaps or porpoises or states (long-duration behaviours) such as resting, travelling, foraging and socialising (Mann, 2000). The predominant group activity or state is defined as the activity that fifty percent or more of the group members are simultaneously engaged in (See Appendix 4 Ethogram). Observers scan the group to determine the group’s behaviour state and then record it on the form. Any secondary behaviour states, i.e. when most of the group is foraging but a couple of animals are resting during the survey, are also noted. Events that occur during the survey period are noted in the ‘activity notes’ section.

To help aid the process of identification and number of individuals present any distinctive fin shapes, obvious scars or speckling of individuals is noted. Data is collected on the presence of mother-calf pairs and whether they include neonates or young of the year. Neonates are defined as calves which are up to three months old. These calves will have curled flukes and dorsal fins, fetal folds and usually swim in a position parallel to and forward of the mother’s midline. Young of year are older than three months and are more independent than neonates. They still will travel next to the mother but in the infant position which is behind the mother’s midline near the mammary slits (Mann, 2000). The notation of this data combined with information from Photo-ID should allow for the determination of female animals and the identification of their calves.

Vessel interaction is also recorded during this survey to assess the impact that the research vessel may have on dolphin behaviour. This is recorded by noting whether the dolphins react away from, toward or not at all to the survey vessel. This data was initially recorded on a 25

scale of 1-3; however this was modified because the definition of this scale was subjective and not clearly defined in an objective, quantitative scale.

Once the ten minute scan sample is over the scribe completing the Event Log continues recording every fifteen minutes while the vessel continues to follow the dolphin group for the collection of Photo-ID data. When both surveys are complete the forms are reviewed by all observers to ensure that the information recorded is accurate and all observers agree with what is written. The ten minute scan sample may be reduced due to environmental conditions or when there are too many vessels present. Should this happen it will be recorded on the form.

Photo ID Form: The procedures for this form have changed slightly since the initial pilot study. Rather than conducting photo-ID during behavioural surveys only opportunistic photographs are taken if the individuals move towards the vessel. Photo-ID is then conducted after the behaviour survey so the vessel can maintain a further distance so as not to change dolphin behaviour. Photo-ID survey times vary and depend on group size, activity and environmental conditions. During photo-ID the vessel can manoeuvre into a better position to obtain the optimum distance and angle for photographs to be taken; this is when the boat is travelling parallel to, and in line with, the dolphins. The most valuable photos for Photo-ID are in-focus, directly perpendicular to the dorsal fin, with the sun behind the photographer and as close a shot of the fin as possible.

During a photo-ID survey the photographer tells the photo-ID scribe the frame numbers of spacer shots, recognisable or distinct individuals and the number of shots taken (Appendix 5). The photographer tries to photograph both the right and left flank of each individual and if this is successful they will note this in the comments section. When the photographer has finished they will take a final shot of the photo ID sheet to separate it from other encounters. This method helps with the assistance of identification in the analysis and also helps separate individuals and encounters for the photo catalogue. Boat based mega fauna surveys These surveys are conducted using the same procedures as the dolphin surveys. The Event Log and Sightings Form are completed and then the data is collected on the mega fauna survey form (See Appendix 6). This data includes: 26

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Vessel GPS position and general location Time Depth Beaufort Tide Species Habitat Number of individuals present Photos taken, if possible Any additional notes

Land based dolphin and mega-fauna surveys

GVI conducted a pilot study of a land based survey during 06-2 to determine dolphin presence, movement and activity throughout the mornings and afternoons and to help determine whether the tourist dolphin watching vessels are having any impact on dolphin behaviour. Surveys commenced on 8th May 2006. The site is located at S 04.65860º E 39.40076 º on an elevated cliff at approximately 9.7m height on the North East end of Wasini Island. Surveys conducted with the unaided eye cover approximately 0.3 nautical miles and data collected using binoculars cover 1.0 nautical miles. This location is ideal because it provides coverage of both inshore coastal waters and deeper waters; favoured Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) and Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus/ aduncus) habitats respectively. The land based research platform is ideal for this kind of study because the observers can observe the animals and vessels without having any direct impact (Bejder and Samuels). In addition to this, the land based location has a higher vantage point than the vessel and can provide additional information in higher sea states (i.e. Beaufort 3+).

The land based survey was designed to collect data on the following:

 

Tidal and diel movement Diel activity

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  

Dolphin behaviour before, during and after exposure to vessels Boat traffic within the area Megafauna presence and behaviour

Surveys are conducted during the daylight hours from approximately 1½ hours after sunrise to 1½ hours before sunset, with a break between 12 pm to 2 pm. There are two primary observers and one scribe present on every survey. The three recorders rotate every 15 minutes to ensure that each person receives a fifteen minute break every half hour. Using 7x50 Summit marine binoculars with reticules and a compass, one observer scans an area approximately 1.5 km to 3 km from the land base location (an area including both coastal and pelagic waters). The second observer scans an area approximately 0 -1.5 km from viewing point using the unaided eye. The third person is the scribe noting environmental changes every fifteen minutes, the number of tourist dhows entering the marine park, dolphin or mega fauna presence. Within this fifteen minute time the scribe does not act as an observer so as to rest their eyes and ensure better concentration levels during survey. The number of people on land base varies from day to day, usually from three to five people, but only three people are involved in the survey at any time. When extra people are present it allows for observers to have longer resting periods for the observers.

Land based forms

Three forms are used to collate data on boat traffic, dolphin presence and the activity of both dolphin and megafauna sightings. The map shows the area which can be seen from the land based viewing platform and observers use it to plot dolphin movements over the observation period. These forms include:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Environment and Boat Event Log Sightings Form Map Dolphin Behaviour Form

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Environment and Boat Form: During the land based survey the Environment and Boat form (Appendix 7) is completed. On this data sheet effort, environmental conditions and boat traffic are noted. Data is recorded every fifteen minutes, or when environmental conditions change. Observers rotate their duties every fifteen minutes so the person who is the scribe has a break while they are acting as the scribe.

The scribe makes note of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Date Time (24hr clock) Observers Environmental conditions (swell, Beaufort, cloud, precipitation, visibility and tide; See Appendix 7). 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Number of vessels Vessel type (See Appendix 7) Proximity of tourist dhows to dolphins Swim with dolphin events Additional comments

Land Base Sighting Form: When dolphins or mega fauna are sighted the scribe documents the following information into the sighting form (See Appendix 8):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Time Observers Bearing and distance to sighting using the compass and reticules in the binoculars Species Initial group size Dive type Duration of dive Spread Number in correlation to plotted on chart Additional information

This form collects valuable information on the actual behaviour before the presence of any vessels. If the sighting occurred due to the presence of any vessels it is noted. This 29

information is then included in the analysis to take into account any sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye.

Map form: A map is drawn to show dolphin movements within the range identified. The movement of vessels in the presence of the dolphins is also recorded Dolphin behaviour and vessel interaction form: This data sheet was introduced on 6th June, 2006 to gain a greater insight into dolphin behaviour before, during and after the vessel presence, conditions allowing. Observations were recorded every five minutes from the initial sighting and/or every surfacing (See Appendix 9).

The recorder documents the following on the form:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Time Dive type Dive duration Species Spread Group size Number of vessels present Vessel type Number of Tourist vessels Number of tourist vessels conducting swim with dolphins If dolphins split into sub groups If their view is obstructed by boat Comments

Results and Discussion Marine surveys were conducted during eight of the ten weeks of this expedition. There were two weeks of no surveys due to a week of training and a week focused on other expedition activities. A total of 330 hours and 23 minutes (figure 2) were spent on search effort this

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expedition, resulting in: 89 dolphin sightings and 82 megafauna (all turtle) sightings. Photo-ID surveys were conducted 38 occasions. Vessel Hours of effort Dolphin sightings Turtle sightings 195:03 59 15 Land base 135:20 30 67 Total 330:23 89 82

Figure 2: Vessel and land based survey efforts

The total vessel effort time was 195 hours and 3 minutes and the total land based survey time was 135 hours and 20 minutes (Figures 2 and 3). The amount of survey effort by boat is shown in figures 4 and 5. Stingray was the primary survey vessel during the entire expedition while during the first five weeks ET was used for afternoon surveys. From these vessel surveys the total number of dolphin sightings was sixty, total number of dolphin surveys fifty and the total number of mega fauna surveys was fifteen. The total number of photos taken this expedition was 1227; 28 photo surveys of bottlenose dolphins and nine of humpback dolphins.
Hours of effort and number of sightings by research platform
200 150 100 50 0 Hours of effort Dolphin sightings Turtle sightings Vessel Land base

Figure 3: Comparison of effort and number of sightings by research platform

Stingray ET Total

Hours spent on effort 161:20 33:43 195:3

Figure 4: Survey effort by vessel

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Hours spent on boat effort

33.43 17% Sting ray ET 161.2 83%

Figure 5: Comparison of effort between survey vessels as a percentage

Of the two species of dolphin surveyed from the boat more bottlenose dolphins were sighted and more dolphin behaviour surveys were completed on this species (Figures 6 & 7). Bottlenose dolphins were sighted 46 times (77% of total sightings), humpback dolphins were sighted 11 times (18% of sightings) and unidentified species of dolphin were sighted three times (5% of sightings). Nineteen dolphin sightings from the vessel (32%) were seen due to the presence of dolphin tourist dhows with the animals.
Vessel Sightings Surveys Bottlenose 46 40 Humpback 11 10 Unknown 3 0 Total 60 50

Figure 6: Comparison of dolphin sightings and surveys

Dolphin surveys and sightings in 06-3
50 40 Number of 30 sightings/surveys 20 10 0 Bottlenose Humpback Species Unknown Sightings Surveys

Figure 7: Comparison of sightings and surveys from vessels

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Bottlenose Dolphins This expedition there were more vessel based bottlenose dolphin surveys (40) than in the previous (10), but fewer than the first expedition (62). The total number of sightings of bottlenose dolphins was 46; the majority of these (40, 87%) resulted in behaviour surveys (Figure 7). Behaviour surveys were not possible when conditions such as the weather or the presence of too many tourist vessels made it difficult to complete these surveys. During one of the sightings the dolphins were not sighted again so no dolphin survey was possible. Photo-ID surveys were completed for 29 of the sightings (63%) with a total of 1014 photos taken (Figure 8). Work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable

individuals encountered and the re-sighting rate of those individuals, which will indicate population size.

Photos taken during 06-3

1200 1000 Number of 800 600 photos 400 200 0

Bottlenose Humpback Species

Figure 8: Number of dolphin photos taken during expedition 06-3

The average size of bottlenose dolphin groups, using best group size, from sightings was 5.1 with a range of 1 to 25. For behavioural surveys 47.5% (19/40) occurred during ebb tides while 52.5% (21/40) occurred during flood tides (Figure 9). At present, the sample size is too small to make any conclusions on tidal activity and dolphin presence, movement or behaviour.

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Dolphin surveys conducted during different tides 25 20 Number of 15 surveys 10 5 0

Ebb Flood Humpback Bottlenose Species

Figure 9: Percentage of surveys during tidal states

During behaviour surveys it was noted whether bottlenose dolphins reacted away from, toward or not at all in regards to the presence of the research vessel. A previous study of bottlenose dolphins have found that there was statistically significant behaviour noted towards boat traffic, but in general they displayed neutral response to boat traffic. Neutral response was defined as no apparent change in directional movement, prior to and after vessel arrival (Gregory and Rowden, 2001). During this expedition bottlenose dolphins reacted toward the boat 32.5 % (13/40) of surveys and not at all 65 % (26/40) of surveys and no data was collected for one survey (2.5%) (Figure 10).

Dolphin species reaction to survey vessel 100 80 60 Percentage 40 20 0 90 65 32.5 0 Bottlenose 10 0 Away Towards None

Humpback Species

Figure 10: Reaction of dolphin species to research vessel

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From the land based survey nineteen sightings (63%) of bottlenose dolphins were recorded out of a total of thirty dolphin sightings. During the first five weeks 93% of bottlenose (bnd) sightings (13/14) were seen in the morning and 7% (1/14) were seen in the afternoon (see Figure 11). Unfortunately, during the second five weeks of this expedition land based surveys were only conducted in the afternoons because there were fewer EMs.

Vessels were present during 58% (11/19) of the total number of sightings. Vessels varied from canoes to power vessels. Group sizes ranged from 1 to 6 with an average of 1.5 animals.

Dolphin sightings from land base in the first five weeks Bnd 15 Number of 10 sightings 5 0 Unk Hbd Hbd Bnd Unk Bnd Hbd Unk

am pm Time of day

Figure 11: Dolphin sightings form land base and time of day

Humpback Dolphins

As with the Bottlenose dolphins work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable individuals sighted, and their re-sighting rates. Humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) tend to occur in coastal water habitats, areas of shallow rocky reefs and estuaries of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific (Ross et al. 1994).

Initial findings from data collected in the Shimoni area suggest that a large percentage of encounters are re-sightings of previously seen individuals. This could indicate a small population size of this species in the area. As mentioned in the discussion on bottlenose dolphin data, behavioural surveys were not possible when conditions, such as the weather or the presence of too many tourist vessels made it difficult to conduct these surveys.

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Humpbacks were sighted eleven times during this expedition and surveyed ten out of those eleven vessel sightings (Figures 6 & 7). Out of those ten surveys the Humpback dolphins reacted away from the survey vessel on one occasion and the other nine times there was no reaction.

Using best group size as an indicator the Humpback dolphin groups sighted had an average size of three individuals, with a minimum group size of one and a maximum of five. To date we have encountered these dolphins in near shore habitats and in small group sizes. All sightings were recorded in depths ranging from 7 to 21 meters; usually in areas near the coral platform. Five sightings (45%) occurred during ebb tides while six (55%) of these occurred during flood tides (Figure 9).

Humpback dolphins were sighted from land base five times out of the thirty dolphin sightings. Both morning and afternoon surveys were conducted in the first five weeks of the expedition but this survey effort was reduced to afternoons in the second five weeks due to a lower number of EMs. Three of these five sighting (60%) were seen in the morning while two (40%) were seen in the afternoon. Vessels were present during two (40%) of the sightings.

Marine Mega Fauna

The majority of mega fauna sighted during this expedition were unknown turtle species. Short surfacing periods and environmental conditions make it difficult to identify turtles to species level in the field. There were a total of 82 sightings of turtles during this expedition; 18% (15/82) from the vessel and 82% (67/82) from land base (Figure 12).

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Turtle sightings from research platform

18%

Landbase Vessel

82%

Figure 12: Proportion of vessel based and land based turtle sightings

This expedition there were more marine turtles (82) in comparison to expedition 061 (34) and 062 (36) (figure 13). During the first expedition four individuals were identified to species but due to the reasons above no individuals were identified in 06-2 and 06-3.

Number of turtle sightings per expedition
100 80 Number of sightings 60 40 20 0 61 62 Expedition Number 63 Turtle sightings

Figure 13: Comparison of turtle sightings between expeditions

Conclusions and future work For following phases, data will continue to be collected to provide information on the baseline ecology of the dolphin and megafauna species encountered within the KMMPA and surrounding waters. This information will form the foundations of a long-term cetacean monitoring programme as well as providing valuable information that can be used to better

37

implement a management plan for both cetaceans, and the tourism based around them in the KMMPA.

Currently the study area is not sampled in a systematic way but rather most surveys have been randomly placed where it was best to survey based on weather conditions. To solve this, a grid of transects will be designed and randomly placed over the study area. Transects will then be randomly selected each day and completed, weather permitting. Such transect survey methods will result in even coverage of the study area over subsequent expeditions. In addition to this, the distance and angle to sightings from transects will be recorded to meet the conditions of line transect distance sampling. This will result in three population size estimates being calculated; from mark-recapture techniques, the photo-ID catalogue and distance sampling methods. As a result, a comparison of results gained from these different methods is possible.

The land based survey during this expedition was successful and we intend to continue collecting data on the presence and behaviour of dolphins. We also hope to obtain more information on vessel presence and type and the response of dolphins to boat traffic.

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TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME Introduction The Eastern arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging but fragmented distributions and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern Arc mountains for example are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians and reptiles. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests, of which much less is known, but which represent an important and unique yet diminishing forest habitat.

The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, formed on old coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. This in conjunction with salinity levels and the coastal climate influences the plant community that is found and the structure of the forest, for example favouring shallow root systems that reduce stability.

Study sites: The research is conducted in Shimoni forest on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village on the western side and the coast on the southern and eastern side (Figure 14, circled in black). The location is situated between the coordinates 04º64.900'S, 39º38.600'E and 04º64.300'S, 39º40.300'E.

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Figure 14: Research site

Shimoni forest represents an area of important indigenous coastal forest, but is currently threatened by resource extraction and clearing of land, a situation that may be exacerbated by the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly for tourism. The area of forest was selected for biodiversity research primarily because at present it still forms a viable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black & White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Discussions with community based organisations in Shimoni highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Conservation Youth Project were keen to seek protection and sustainable management. As a result we have developed our terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level the forest is readily accessible and we are logistically able to support a long-term wide ranging biodiversity survey and monitoring of the area. Aims The aims of the terrestrial research programme are as follows;  To establish a grid system of 6 east-west transects for access, mapping and long-term monitoring.

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To conduct vegetation and regeneration surveys to assess biodiversity, species composition and regeneration potential under different levels of disturbance.

To conduct disturbance surveys to assess and monitor levels of resource use including extraction of poles and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity.

To conduct primate community surveys to assess population density, distribution, habitat use and demography.

To gather additional biodiversity data on the fauna through recording of casual observations.

To support the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project in their petition for community management of forest resources, building capacity within the community for responsible resource use and monitoring.

To support the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee in the development of their nature trail, building capacity within the community to access tourism revenue from responsible management of natural resources.

These aims will contribute towards our objectives of assessing the biodiversity of the coastal forest in the Shimoni area in support of long term sustainable management of forest resources and capacity building amongst local communities, supporting national and international conservation of threatened habitats and species. Methods Line Transect Sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising West-East transects. Parallel transects are spaced 200 m apart, facilitating a 100 m survey distance on each side of the transect. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol. Transects are divided into 50 m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised more accurately and facilitate distribution mapping. A South-North ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and aid accessibility.

The transect lines need to be straight and relatively easy to walk to enable the surveys to be conducted. Transects are laid following a compass bearing as it has been found that use of 41

GPS equipment is unreliable. Disturbance is minimised where practical by utilising ‘off sets’ – where it is not practical to continue the transect line on an Easterly compass bearing, measured sections of the transect are staggered to the North or South of the bearing to bypass obstacles before resuming the original bearing. Transect lines are marked with yellow plastic tags at 5-10 m intervals for recognition in the field, and labelled double-tagged 50 m section markers and triple-tagged ‘off-sets’ markers are used.

Primate Community Survey The primate community surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team walk behind ensuring that they do not draw attention to any primate groups that the nominated observers have not identified. This maintains consistency in the effort for each survey. For all groups of primates (a solitary individual counted as a ‘group’) the sighting distance is estimated and recorded (the distance from the observer on the transect line to the geometric centre of each group of primates). Distance sampling analysis utilises the perpendicular distance from the transect line to the geometric centre of observed groups. To calculate the perpendicular distance the sighting angle is also recorded from the transect line at the position of the observer to the centre of the observed group using a compass. Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met including random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group with a perpendicular distance of 0m from the transect line has a 100% probability of detection, an assumption that we are satisfied we are able to meet.

The behaviour of the primate group when first observed is recorded along with primate species and group size. Where possible, time is taken to identify individuals in each observed group by sex and age class; 0-3 months (‘infant’), 3-6 months (‘juvenile’) and > 6 months (‘sub-adult’ / ‘adult’). Age classes were selected on the basis of colouration enabling

confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate by relative body size. The duration, time of day and weather conditions are also recorded for each survey to assess comparative effort and environmental conditions between surveys.

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Primate Behavioural Observations Preliminary behavioural observations of Angolan Black and White Colobus are conducted as a precursor to developing a behavioural research protocol. Observations were conducted in pairs with one observer using binoculars and one scribe to record observations. Observations were conducted on focal individuals and for the purpose of this preliminary work, observers were asked simply to record what they observed in detail regarding an individual’s behaviour, posture, social interactions and spatial separation.

Vegetation & Regeneration Survey The vegetation in the forest is important not only for the primate community; the local human community makes use of the natural resources. The vegetation survey is used to gather information about the composition of the forest including species diversity, maturity and canopy profile. This provides data on plant species composition and recruitment. Vegetation and regeneration surveys are conducted in a 2m corridor running parallel to the North of transects.

Species identification is done by the assistant of the botanist attached to the National Museums of Kenya Coastal Forest Conservation Unit, a member of SYCP as a result of capacity building with the organisation and terrestrial officers. Labelled specimens are collected in the field where a confident identification can not be made, for later identification. Only woody vegetation is surveyed and identified. Tree size is measured by Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) following UK forestry protocol.

Trees <5 cm DBH are sampled in a randomly selected 10 m sub-section. Random selection is made by rolling dice (1 = 0-10 m, 2 = 10-20 m subsection etc. A 6 requires re-rolling). Woody vegetation that is 1-5 cm DBH has its DBH recorded. Woody vegetation <1 cm DBH are identified and categorised as ‘small’ trees and recorded within height categories of the stem as follows; 0-50 cm, 51-100 cm, >100 cm. Trees ≥5 cm DBH are surveyed along the entire length of each 50 m section. These are identified and recorded with their DBH. Trees that have a DBH of 5-15 cm are categorised as ‘poles’ if the trunk has 2 m of relative straightness, identifying them as potential resources for construction. Trees >15 cm DBH are categorised as ‘timber’, identifying them as potential resources for the local community. For trees in this category the canopy height is measured using a clinometer to measure canopy angle to the top of the canopy above the tree base 43

with the distance from the angle reading to the base of the tree measured and the height from the ground to the angle reading. The canopy radius is measured by calculating the average of the distance from the outer margin of the canopy in the four cardinal directions (North, South, East and West) to the base of the tree. All vegetation is sampled in alternate 50 m sections. Disturbance Survey The local communities use the forest for their livelihood. Women gather firewood, herbs and medicine; men gather timber and poles. The disturbance survey is intended to assess levels of human resource extraction and disturbance and in association with vegetation and regeneration data assess its sustainability. Disturbance is monitored within the 2 m corridor to the north of the transect. This was chosen over 1 m on each side of the transect to minimize the recording of disturbance inflicted by laying the transects and walking them.

Disturbance surveys record all clear evidence of:         Cut Poles (old and new) defined as 5-15 cm DBH or at base where cut; Cut Timber (old and new) defined as >15 cm DBH or at base were cut; Pit saws; Shelters; Snares; Clearings; Firewood and Fire.

Cut poles and timber are only recorded when 50% or more of the tree base is within the 2m corridor. Definitions of old and new are based on discolouration of the remaining stump. Any other evidence of human disturbance present is noted.

Habitat Survey A basic measure of ground cover and canopy cover, and additionally canopy height as a trial this expedition, was recorded in order to describe the forest profile and compliment faunal surveys and distribution patterns.

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At the start of each 50 m section a 1 m2 quadrat is placed directly to the northeast of the marker. In the quadrat an estimation of the percentage cover (to the nearest 1%) at ground level of the following categories is recorded:       exposed rock; bare earth; leaf litter; woody vegetation; non woody vegetation and other.

Estimations of the canopy cover and canopy height are recorded for every 10 m of each 50 m section enabling the five recordings to be averaged for the section. Estimates are made by looking straight up through inverted binoculars. Measurements of canopy height are taken at the point where the canopy cover is taken. Canopy height is measured using a clinometer to measure canopy angle to the top of the canopy. The horizontal distance over which the canopy angle is recorded, is measured and the height of the canopy from the ground is calculated taking into account the eye height of the observer. Casual Observations of Other Fauna During all other surveys, records are also made on dedicated data sheets of other Fauna observed and identified in the field, noting species with confidence of identification, location, habitat, group size and other applicable notes. Indirect observations of animals such as tracks or dung are also recorded as indicators of presence.

Results and Discussion

Line Transect Sampling In total 22 days were spent laying the transects, where two groups cutting transects simultaneously counted as 2 days. This expedition we achieved our aims of completing transects 5 and 6.

Figure 15 shows the total number of sections and lengths of each transect. Transect 1 was initiated 100 m North of the southern coastal edge of the forest area, and subsequent

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transects initiated 200 m North of each other. A total of 2.7 km of new transect was cut during the expedition.

Sections West of North-South spine Transect 5 Transect 6 Total
Figure 15: Transects cut

Length West

Sections East of

Length East (m) 800 1550 2350

(m) North-South spine 16

7 7

350 350

31 47

Primate Community Survey Primate community surveys were undertaken over 15 days. Each group of observers working simultaneously counts as one day’s work. With two observers this total of 24 hours 52 minutes of man hours on primate community surveys.

We recorded 12 groups of Angolan Black and White Colobus. The results are summarized in figure 16. The sightings are shown in figure 17.

Total research area Colobus research area (m²) Colobus groups Individual colobus Mean individuals per group
Figure 16: Colobus distribution research

2.2 km² 12 31 2.6

The number of groups sighted is considerably lower than in the expedition 06-1 (15 against 44) and consistent expedition 06-2 (15 against 15). The effort is relatively consistent with 15 days this expedition compared to 14 and 12 in expeditions 06-1 and 06-2 respectively. This may be due to the rainy season, with new foliage growth resulting in a denser canopy, rendering the primarily arboreal primates more difficult to observe. This may be supported by the fact that all observed groups this expedition were within 40 m of the transect line. Additionally primates may be less active in wet weather and therefore more difficult to observe. 46

The data set on observations at different distances, necessary for distance sampling analysis can be added to from this expedition. Distance categories are in 10 m groups, figure 17 shows distance categories of observed groups for this expedition combined with previous expeditions.

Colobus group sightings
20 18 16 14

# groups

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0<1 0 1 0<20 20<30 30<40 40<50 50<60 60<70 70<80 80<90 90<1 00

Exp 063 Exp 061+062

Distance (in m)

Figure 17: Sighting of Colobus monkeys at different distances from the transect line

We also encountered an additional 5 groups of Sykes monkeys to the 10 groups sighted on the previous two expeditions. The Sykes encounters remain too small a sample to start analysing.

Primate Behavioural Observations During this expedition 6 man hours of behavioural observations were made of Angolan Black & White Colobus as anecdotal evidence for habitat use. The one troop towards the beginning of transect 3 on which much of the observations were based in previous expeditions were absent for much of this one. This may be because of ongoing deforestation in the area with much of the undergrowth removed. Additionally maize crops in the vicinity were seen to attract Yellow Baboons creating localised wildlife – community conflict, which may have caused disturbance to the resident Colobus troop.

An alternative troop on transect 3, on the Westerly sections close to Shimoni village, proved to be particularly valuable for behavioural observations with only limited evidence of

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disturbance from the presence of observers, confined to the first 10 minutes after arrival. Other troops at the beginning of transect 1 proved to be a consistent presence for preliminary behavioural observations as well. Troops encountered further in to the forest tended to flee and maintain a spatial distance from observers that made behavioural observations impractical.

In the course of the observations further anecdotal records were made of feeding behaviour and the use of hands, the soliciting of grooming, and the handling of infants. Vegetation & Regeneration Survey During this expedition the assistant of the botanist, attached to the National Museums of Kenya Coastal Forest Conservation Unit was not available for identification of specimens and so vegetation and regeneration surveys were postponed.

With the data gathered from the previous two expeditions representation analysis can be presented; the cumulative number of species should reach a plateau that indicates a sufficient number of sections have been sampled (red line), as indicated in figure 18. Since this is not the case more vegetation surveys are needed before an accurate characterization of the plant community can be made.

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Representation analyses
35 30
Cumulative # species

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Researched area (x 100 m2)

Figure 18: Representation analysis of plant species identified

Disturbance Survey Disturbance surveys were conducted on all transects. The results of the disturbance research are summarized in figures 19 - 24. The greatest level of disturbance is pole extraction. On all transects the number of old and new poles extracted account for more than three quarters of the disturbance level. Poles are used both in the construction of houses and shelter, and also for fish traps.

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Disturbance on Transect 1
25 20

shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber
0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Amount

15 10 5 0

new timber old poles new poles

Section

Figure 19: Disturbance on transect 1

Disturbance on transect 2
40
Amount

shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 19 21 23 25 Section new timber old poles new poles

30 20 10 0

Figure 20: Disturbance on transect 2

50

30 25
Amount

Disturbance on transect 3
shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber new timber old poles new poles

20 15 10 5 0 -14 -10 -6 -3 2 6 10 13 17 21 25 29 Section

Figure 21: Disturbance on transect 3

Disturbance on transect 4 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -11 -7 -3 0 4 8 11 15 19 23 27 31 Section
Figure 22: Disturbance on transect 4

shelter clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber new timber old poles new poles

Amount

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Disturbance on transect 5
12
shelter

10

clearing snares firewood fire pit saws old timber new timber old poles new poles

Amount

8 6 4 2 0 -8 -5 -2 1 4 7 10 13 14 16 17 18 20 23 26 29 32

Section
Figure 23: Disturbance on transect 5

Disturbanc on transect 6
14 12

other shelter clearing snares firew ood fire pit saw s old timber new timber old poles

Amount

10 8 6 4 2 0 -7 -4 -1 2 5 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31

new poles

Section
Figure 24: Disturbance on transect 7

Disturbance on all transects is most intense in the western part of the forest, from the SouthNorth spine westwards. This corresponds with the data of the canopy cover survey suggesting that the higher levels of disturbance are found close to settlements.

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Ground and canopy cover surveys A total 33 days was spent on ground and canopy cover surveys in combination with other surveys. Each group working simultaneously counts as one day’s work.

The dominant category for the ground cover was leaf litter, accounting on average for 73%, indicating that this microhabitat dominates at ground level in the forest. Exposed rock varied with extensive patches of this ground substrate distributed throughout the survey area. Bare earth appears to be mostly prevalent in disturbed areas as might be expected.

The canopy cover varied from 0 to 95%, the average being 74%. The number of 74% is considerably higher than the average of 55% of expedition 06-1 and comparable to the 75% in expedition 06-2. This may be a consequence of the following three factors:   The increase in foliage due to the rainy season; The increased effort per section from the beginning of expedition 06-2 by taking the average of 5 samples  The sampling during expeditions 06-2 and 06-3 have been taken deeper in the forest than in expedition 06-1

In figure 25 the canopy cover of every section in the six transects is given as a point. In figure 26 a polynomial trend line of the second order (parabola) is fitted through the points showing the trend of the canopy cover following the transects. The flatter the line of the parabola the more even the canopy cover along the transect. The lines indicate reduced canopy cover closer settlements and that the densest canopy is in the centre of the forest corresponding with the theory of influence of human settlement closer to the forest and the influence of environmental conditions along the coast line. Transects 1 and 6 show steep slopes, explained on transect one by the shorter range of data (sections 0 to 17 only), and on transect 6 by a limited number of Westerly sections (7). Transect 3 has been subject to the highest degree of recent disturbance on the Westerly sections (clear-felling for agriculture) and shows correspondingly low percentages of canopy cover.

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Canopy cover of Shimoni forest
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 Section # 20 30 40 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Figure 25: Overview of the canopy cover on the six transects

% coverage

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Canopy cover of Shimoni forest
120 100 80 Poly. (T3)
% coverage

60 40 20 0 -30 -20 -10 -20 -40 Section # 0 10 20 30

Poly. (T2) Poly. (T5) Poly. (T6) Poly. (T1) Poly. (T4) 40

Figure 26: Polynomial fit of the second order (parabola) through the canopy cover on all six transects

This expedition a new protocol for estimating average canopy height for each section was trialled. 49 sections were surveyed in total, and will be analysed when further sections are completed.

Casual Wildlife Observations The observations of other fauna during the conducted research were also noted to contribute towards biodiversity data. Confident identifications of the following species were recorded during the expedition: suni (Neotragus moschatus), Harvey’s duiker (Cephalophus harveyi), zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi), red-bellied coast squirrel (Paraxerus palliatus), snouted night adder (Causus defilippi), speckled green snake (Philothamnus punctatus), Bearded pygmy-chameleon/short-tailed pygmy-chameleon (Rhampholeon brevicaudatus), palm nut vulture (Gypohierax angolensis) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer). Further sightings of animals occurred but the species couldn’t be confidently identified. At the edge of the forest into the mangroves we found a midden of smashed shells, crushed using a stone

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tool, with scratches and chips in the underlying rock substrate which could be indicative of the presence of the African clawless otter.

In this expedition we have tried to identify the species of the bird community in the forest as a preliminary assessment of the viability of structured bird surveys. We have been able to positively identify three species in two attempts in addition to our casual observations; redcapped robin chat (Cossypha natalensis), African pygmy kingfisher (Ispidina picta) and silvery-cheeked hornbill (Bycanistes brevis)). Several other birds have been observed but not positively identified. Discussion and further work The laying of transects to sample the forest has been completed for areas accessible from our Shimoni base and appear to facilitate representative sampling of the different forest habitats, with distinct variations and gradations in forest profile and levels of human disturbance. An increase in the study area of the Shimoni forest would require the laying of further transects to the North which is currently impractical from our Shimoni base in terms of travel time. The current research area is 2.15 km2.

Primate groups for primate community and behavioural surveys were again potentially more difficult to observe this expedition due to increase in foliage and wetter weather. Further vegetation surveys are needed before an accurate characterisation of the plant community can be made.

Extraction of poles accounts for the highest volume of disturbance recorded however it is likely that it has less overall impact than the felling of mature trees for timber. Large scale clearance of forest for farmland is still in evidence close to the village of Shimoni and should be considered a priority area for community management objectives. The canopy cover increased considerably from an average of 55% to an average of 75% from expedition 06-1 to 06-2. This expedition the canopy cover remained at a comparable level (74%). On going monitoring of the canopy cover will indicate whether this variation is seasonal.

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Future work is summarized as follows:  Primate behavioural observations will continue with protocols set up based on preliminary work achieved so far. Exposure to observers will also be incorporated as part of the process of habituation for different troops of Angolan Black & White Colobus supporting Shimoni Youth Conservation Group in establishing a Colobus trail in Shimoni forest.  To counter the absence of a botanical expert, a field herbarium will be developed for reference and tree identification catalogue so that samples can be stored for later identification. Vegetation survey efforts in expedition 06-4 should be increased to keep track of our vegetation and regeneration research aims, and will hopefully be supported by access to a botanist through our partner KWS.  Preliminary attempts at structured bird surveys proved interesting but only viable as a means to develop a comprehensive list with much research effort and time allocation. W e will continue bird surveys on future expeditions to supplement data on forest wildlife.  During this expedition we have encountered a vibrant butterfly community in the forest. With the successful acquisition of reference material it is intended to liaise with the African Butterfly Research Institute in developing a pilot study to survey the butterfly community in the forest.  For next expedition we will start investigating potential study sites for additional terrestrial research in other parts of Kenya in the neighbourhood of Kwale district. For the duration of two weeks, one in the first halve of the expedition and another in the second halve, will be utilised to undertake pilot studies on large mammal distribution and habitat use in a private reserve. The potential study site we have in mind for next expedition is a site on the Mombasa – Nairobi road. On this site there is the potential of research on wildlife introduction and consequences of the changes on conservation, vegetation, wildlife and man.  In future expeditions it is envisaged that there will be less research time allocated to Shimoni forest. This will be countered by the fact that much of the baseline data and work has been completed (transects, disturbance survey, habitat survey), with research activities focussing on primate community monitoring, behavioural surveys and vegetation & regeneration surveys. A programme of capacity building and handover will be entered in to with Shimoni Youth Conservation Project with whom we have collaborated previously so that much of the monitoring work can be undertaken by them as community management stakeholders.

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COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Introduction At the specific request of KWS, Global Vision International East Africa’s Community Development Programme is focused on the community of Mkwiro Village. We aim to assist KWS in their objective of capacity building within the community, to access tourism revenue bought in by the KMMPA and improve the over-all socio-economic status of the villagers. Mkwiro has a population of approximately 1400, with around 200 children attending Mkwiro Primary School, and 26 resident boys in the Al-Hanan Orphanage. The village remains a relatively isolated and very traditional rural Islamic community, with a mainly sedentary population. Traditional fishing is essentially still the main form of economic income, but is supplemented by seasonal small scale arable farming, livestock keeping and other small scale activities such as traditional woven crafts and supplying the shell trade. With the creation of the KMMPA, the community lost many of its fishing rights within the area, and the perception amongst the community is that they have yet to see the compensatory economic benefit from tourism. There is one tourist operator based in Mkwiro, operating diving, snorkelling and dolphin-watching tours within the KMMPA. Tourists with this operator are brought to Mkwiro for lunch at private facilities, offered a short tour of the village, but very few stay overnight.

Timetable of Activities School Program Timetable As shown in figure 27, EMs received two weeks of training, delivered two weeks of lessons, then constructed a two week holiday program in the first and last weeks of the four week August school holiday break, before teaching in the school for another two weeks.

T = Training, H = Holiday Programme, S = In School lessons, TR = Terrestrial Research Trip Expedition 06-3
Figure 27: School programme

10th July – 18th September Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T S S H TR T H S S

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In the next expedition, the EMs will have the opportunity to be working in the school for five weeks, before delivering a three week educational holiday program (figure 28).

T = Training, H = Holiday Programme, S = School Open Expedition 06-4 9th October – 18th December Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T S S S S S H H H

Figure 28: Proposed expedition 06-4 school programme

Recommendations for Expedition 06-4  As the three week holiday block is a substantial amount of time, it is recommended that activities for the holiday program are brainstormed and planned in advance.  In Expedition 06-3 the holiday program was widely promoted in the village and advertised on the school notice board encouraging high numbers of attendance by students, this should be replicated in expedition 06-4. Weekly analysis of activities Community based activities fall broadly into four categories: Mkwiro Primary School lessons, Adult Education lessons, Orphanage sessions, and Community Group development. The weekly timetable is scheduled so that each group within the expedition is able to participate in each of the various categories during the week, except for the latter category. With community groups, each with numerous members, it was beneficial in previous expeditions to remain flexible in our approach to setting up meetings each week. However, time constraints during expedition 0-63 meant that a limited amount of hours were spent on these projects, and mainly condensed into the last few weeks, so the time flexible approach should be reviewed for expedition 06-4. Lessons are allocated so that each team teaches the same two English classes twice a week, except for the third team who teaches one class twice on Fridays. This ensures continuity for both EMs and students, and allows EMs the opportunity to develop a better rapport with students in their particular classes. Adult Education and Orphanage sessions are balanced so that each group gets to experience each of these on

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alternate days during their two days in the community each week. Figure 29 outlines the weekly schedule for each of the GVI groups in the community during school time, while figure 30 outlines weekly activities during the two weeks of holiday lessons in expedition 06-4. The Holiday program in expedition 06-3 was mix of HIV/AIDS awareness sessions, arts and crafts, letter writing, environmental lessons and beach cleans.
Day Group Monday 1 Mkwiro AM School (5 & 8) PM Orphanage Tuesday 1 Mkwiro School (5 & 8) Adult Education Men Extra Community Group Work Community Group Work Orphanage Wednesday 2 Mkwiro School (7 & 4) Thursday 2 Mkwiro School (7 & 4) Adult Education Men Community Group Work Orphanage Friday 3 Mkwiro School (6 & 6) Saturday 3 Adult Education Women

Figure 29: Expedition 06-3 weekly timetable during school term time (Class in brackets; standards 4-8) Day Time AM Monday PM Week One of School Holidays Std 5 – Dolphin lesson (theory and activities) + Beach Clean Std 8 – HIV/AIDS awareness (theory + questions and answers) Std 5 – Dolphin lesson (plasticene models) Std 8 – HIV/AIDS awareness Week Two of School Holidays Std 5 & 6 - Letter writing with craft cards

Std 8 – Letter writing with craft cards

AM Tuesday PM AM Wednesday PM

Std 5&6 – Mobile crafts

(posters) Std 7 – HIV/AIDS awareness (theory + questions and answers) Std 4 – Dolphin lesson (theory and activities) + Beach Clean Std 7 – HIV/AIDS awareness (posters) Std 4 – Dolphin lesson (plasticene models) Std 6 – Dolphin lesson (theory and activities) + Beach Clean Std 6 – Dolphin lesson (plasticene models)

Standard 8 – Mobile Crafts Standard 7 – Letter writing with craft cards

Standard 4 - Letter writing with craft cards Std 7 – Flip flop packaging and forest diarama’s ALL Standards invited – Film Day off

AM Thursday PM AM Friday PM

Day off

Figure 30: Expedition 06-3 weekly community timetable during holiday

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The Holiday program in expedition 06-3 was well advertised resulting in high numbers being recorded in some classes. Although the schedule was timetabled to target different levels on different days, in reality the classes were often a mix of levels, as some younger and older students wanted to participate each day, and we did not turn away students eager to learn during their school holiday break. It was noted that during the holiday session students were not as punctual as normal, as we would often start with a class of 3 or 4 students, but end up with a full class by the end of the session. Lessons lasted approximately two hours in the morning and two hours in the afternoon, to maximise the amount of time we could spend with the children.

Figure 31 outlines the actual amount of hours spent on scheduled activities per week during expedition 06-3. It is important to remember that this figure does not reflect the true nature of the work effort put in, as it does not show the large number of hours spent preparing lessons, creating resources, and also the meetings held on a flexible weekly basis with community members/community groups. Despite additional time off base during terrestrial research trips and a week long mid-phase break, the time spent in primary education actually increased by over 10 hours due to longer lessons being delivered during the school holidays. Orphanage hours decreased slightly as the orphans were not present for the four week August holidays, and the time spent in adult education remained exactly the same as GVI continues to provide this regardless of when EM availability, as staff are able to deliver the lessons and ensure continuity for community members. During expeditions EMs have the opportunity to take some Saturday mornings off to maximise their weekend leisure time, meaning they are unable to participate in the regular Saturday morning time slot for Women’s adult education. As a result of this, it is recommended that the community timetable be reviewed and if possible amended for expedition 06-4.

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Primary Education (actual lesson time only, excluding preparation and reflect/review time) 26 hours Phase One (2 weeks of school, 1 week of hoildays) (School: 35 mins x 10 lessons x 2 weeks + Holidays: 120mins X 10 Lessons x 1 week) 26 hours Phase Two (2 weeks of school, 1 week of holidays) (School: 35 mins x 10 lessons x 2 weeks + Holidays: 120mins X 10 Lessons x 1 week) Total 52 hours

Orphanage (actual time spent at the orphanage only, excluding preparation time) 12 hours (1.5 hrs x 3 sessions x 2 weeks + 2 extra sessions during training week)

Adult Education (actual lesson time only, excluding preparation and reflect/review time)

18 hours (2 hrs x 3 lessons x 3 weeks)

9 hours (1.5 hrs x 3 sessions x 2 weeks)

30 hours (2 hrs x 3 lessons x 5weeks)

21 hours

48 hours

Figure 31: Hours spent in the community weeks 5 - 10

Weekly Timetable Recommendations  If amenable to the women involved, change the women’s education session from Saturday to a Friday from 2-4, ensuring the third community group are still able to participate in adult education lessons.  Use every second Saturday morning to regularly liaise with community groups to work on community based projects. Daily Activities Figure 32 outlines the typical structure of a day spent on community activities. EMs on the community programme are also required to undertake additional activities while on base to help camp duty. On Saturday mornings the group spend their first hour or two planning and developing women’s education lessons, before implementing them.

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Time 7.008.50 8.5012.30 12.3014.00 14.0015.00 15.0016.00 16.1518.30 15.0018.30

Activity EM’s revise their lesson plans for the morning, making last minute materials or resources required to implement the lessons smoothly, and ensuring all involved know their roles and responsibilities during the lesson. Lessons are delivered at Mkwiro School. After each lesson there is review and reflection time, assessing what worked and what could have been improved in the lesson. Lessons are then planned ahead for the next day or next week’s lessons. Lunch

Adult Education lesson planning (2x a week on week days) Down time/data entry/school sports/remedial work/extra class time*

Adult Education Lessons delivered at Mkwiro School (2x a week)

Orphanage sessions (3x a week).

Figure 32: Daily organisation of community activities

The current timetable works relatively well. In previous expeditions it was recommended to implement remedial reading with school students in the afternoons, and to explore the potential of EMs being utilised as Teacher Aides in school during the afternoons. Teachers at Mkwiro Primary school who were approached about the idea of teacher aides seemed very open to the idea, and have promised to organise a list of students who we would focus our inclass attention on. We are still waiting for the list of students who would be targeted to receive remedial reading attention. However, we need to be very careful about initiating these early afternoon programs in light of EM commitments and activities during the rest of the day. It may be that any early afternoon activities such as extra tuition in class or remedial reading, will have to remain optional. This will undoubtedly result in variable numbers of EMs being available in the school in the early afternoons, so should be discussed very carefully and thoroughly with Mkwiro Primary school teachers before being initiated.

The community timetable should be reviewed for expo 06-4 focusing on the early afternoon period, how Saturday mornings can be best be utilised and trying to timetable in community based projects.

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Daily Timetable Recommendations  Investigate EM response to additional early afternoon activities and Mkwiro teacher response to these activities if they were to be optional, resulting in variable numbers in the classes each day.

Teaching English Mkwiro School Lessons and Mkwiro Primary School Development Permission was granted by Kwale District Education Department to work during school hours in Mkwiro Primary School. As part of the agreement it was stipulated that we must follow the Kenyan Primary Schools Syllabus. As such we utilise the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using this as the basis around which our lesson plans are constructed.

Using this method has been effective, in that we are seen by the regular teachers to be following the syllabus, we have a solid framework around which we can plan lessons, and we can also introduce our own activities into the lesson. In expedition 06-2 feedback from the EMs reconfirmed that the syllabus is above the level of the students we teach. We employed various methods to try and circumvent this problem, while still delivering the national syllabus and have hopefully made the lessons less challenging for the EMs to deliver. We continue to pre-teach a lot of extra vocabulary from the books, simplifying our lesson plans, and focusing on a very small part of each chapter at a time. Chapters have been allocated in consultation with each class’s regular teacher, so that GVI takes responsibility for a whole chapter avoiding over-lap between us and the regular teachers.

The structure of lessons given varies, but basically consists of a GVI staff member leading a quick introduction or warmer activity, before breaking into small groups allocating 4-5 pupils per EM.

At the end of each unit a vocabulary list is regularly put up on the walls and tested to encourage new learning. EMs mark, record and analyse the results of these tests. Any marking done by EMs is in a green pen, and students are encouraged to head up work done by GVI with the words ‘GVI’ and the date, to indicate when and for which teacher the work was done. At the end of Expedition 06-3 Standard Eight finished their New Progressive

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Primary Schools English syllabus book, so for the last two weeks we taught revision activities in consultation with their English teacher.

Figure 33 shows the times we have been teaching in the school. Most groups have taught two classes twice a week, while one group teaches class six twice on Fridays. We are still restricted to the 35 minute lessons which are very short, but where possible have tried to utilise any double lessons and teach two classes in a row.
Day Group Lesson 1. Monday A Standard 8 8.50 – 9.25 Lesson 2. Standard 5 11.55-12.30 Tuesday A Standard 5 8.50-9.25 9.55-10.30 Standard 8 10.30–11.05 Standard 4 10.30–11.05 Standard7 8.50-9.25 Standard 6 11.20-11.55 Wednesday B Standard 7 8.50 – 9.25 Thursday B Standard 4 8.15-8.50 Friday C Standard 6 9.55-10.35

Figure 33: Mkwiro School timetable for GVI

We were once again successfully able to avoid the first lesson of the day and thus the morning assemblies, which can go on for longer then anticipated cutting into lesson times, and during which physical disciplinary procedures occur.

Results from the spelling tests were once again variable, and it is recommended to teach younger students learning skills such as ‘look, cover, spell, look’ methods of how to learn new words, and to provide spelling cards or notebooks for them to take home and learn.

Additional resources such as Dolphin Fact sheets were sent out by a UK based Cetacean charity. These were implemented into the holiday program and will be used again in the future. Mkwiro Primary School Development At the end of Expedition 06-1 several library books were donated to the school, with a card system of borrowing in place on the inside back cover of each book. This system has not yet been adopted by the school, and at the beginning of expedition 06-3 the library consisted of several books stored in a cardboard box. This has now been rectified due to the generous donations of two EMs from expedition 06-3, one of which had collected funds from her 65

community church group and another who decided to match that with funds she and her friends raised. This money was spent on 3 bookshelves plus over 200 fiction and non-fiction reference books. A new building in the school has meant the old 7 and 8 classes are empty, so these have been set aside to utilise as the school library. The card system is yet to be implemented, but teachers at Mkwiro Primary School have informed us they will take over the role of librarians and keep track of books going home in the future.

In expedition 06-3 GVI sponsored a trophy for the first annual inter-class football tournament – named ‘The GVI Cup’. This involved each standard playing several other standards in a series of football matches after school. Standard 7 were the eventual winners.

Two concrete constructions in the Mkwiro Primary School Playground were re-painted by EMs to represent the continent of Africa with countries and capitals, and another of Kenya showing regions, major landmarks and cities.

Mkwiro School Recommendations  Continue using the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books as a framework to construct lesson plans, pre-teaching extra vocabulary, focusing on small parts of each chapter at a time, and add in extra activities to reinforce the subject matter taught.  Continue to split students into small groups, allocating 4-5 students per individual EM in the body of the lesson.  Teach younger students the skills for learning new vocabulary, and provide them with spelling cards/note books to take home and learn.  Use different coloured pens for marking (e.g green for GVI) so teachers can keep track of GVI marking, utilise stickers brought by the EMs, and encourage students to differentiate their GVI work in their headings.  Support the implementation of a library by providing books, and encouraging students to read the books by asking questions about them and doing their own book reviews. Adult Education Adult education lessons are offered in the first week after training, between 4.15 pm and 6.30pm at Mkwiro Primary School for men, and between 10am and 12pm for women at the

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Nursery School. Students normally learn conversational English and extend their vocabulary, and range from lower intermediate to advanced learners. In expedition 06-3 however, basic computer literacy lessons were delivered, utilising the GVI lap tops.

Women are free to bring their children and young babies to these lessons, to encourage attendance and so that they are able to breast feed while still accessing the curriculum. The presence of so many young children in the women’s classes often makes them quite challenging, but both rewarding and worthwhile.

Both adult and primary education lessons have continued to be delivered by GVI in the community, with the focus in Expedition 06-3 being on computer literacy for adult education. Villagers were very keen to learn these new practical skills, and numbers increased as result of offering computer lessons, over 45 different adults attending lessons at one stage or another. Over one hundred and fifty primary school students participated in lessons taught by GVI Expedition Members, mostly from Std 4-8, but during the holidays Std’s 1-3 were also welcomed into class. Teachers at Mkwiro Primary School continue to welcome the opportunity to work with us, and the feeling of goodwill amongst both parents and staff has been maintained. A two week holiday program consisting of environmental education and craft activities was also implemented and enjoyed by all involved.

Discussion The number of different men attending lessons increased slightly to 13 pupils, class sizes ranged from 1 pupil to 6 pupils with an average of 3-4 per lesson. These latter figures were very similar to the previous expedition. The average class size for the women’s lessons also stayed the same at 12-13 pupils, with a maximum attendance of 17 pupils. Again the number of different women attending classes increased, this time significantly to 32 different women.

Overall 45 men and women attended adult education classes during expedition 06-3, this is an increase of almost a third. Once again there were core students who regularly attended without fail, and then ‘drop in’ students who may have been slightly less motivated, or perhaps had other activities occupying these times.

The increase in attendance can be attributed to the implementation of computer literacy lessons, and the attraction of learning how to use a computer, a program which has been 67

thoroughly welcomed by the community. Various community members have picked up the concepts so quickly that they are now almost computer literate, and have already starting exploiting their new skills for community benefit writing proposals and letters for the community. We expect that by the end of the next expedition there will be at least one or two community members who will be completely literate in Microsoft word and basic computing skills.

There have been many requests from community members for individual computer tuition, but due to time constraints and limited availability of computers, we are unable to offer this. Both lessons for men and women on the computers are now also beginning to become difficult to manage, with new students turning up at each lesson, requiring the students currently sharing the computer to go back over the basics. These issues could be alleviated if there were more computers available to use, and this will be passed onto the fundraising committee to try and address in expedition 06-4. In the mean time, we may instigate shorter sessions for various ability levels, e.g more advanced for the first hour, and then more introductory for the second or vice versa,

During normal Adult education lessons the majority of students attending the men’s classes were at an intermediate to advanced level, and benefited from activities such as debating, discussions, formal letter writing, and vocabulary extension. However, there is a cohort of the community that we are yet to access – the true beginners in English. It was recommended in expedition 06-2 to deliver a four week intensive beginners class, however due to the broken up nature of activities in expedition 06-3, a continuous four week time period was unavailable. To access these in the current timetable we would have to run con-current English lessons. This means having two lead teachers at one time and breaking the EM group in half, which is possible if additional staff are available during the afternoons. EMs have also been offered the opportunity to lead the lessons themselves, but so far very few feel confident enough or eager to take on this role. It is recommended that in the review of the community timetable for expedition 06-4, this issue is investigated and if possible a beginner course initiated.

Many adult education lessons have been based upon lesson plans and activities found in the book ‘Grammar and Punctuation’ Key Stage 2. In expedition 06-3 we exhausted the activities found in this book, which was mitigated by the instigation of computer literacy lessons. Although it is possible to construct lesson plans from scratch, it is far more time efficient and 68

the quality of the lessons delivered much higher if there is some structured format to base them upon, which lesson plans in resource books can provide.

Aside from providing English lessons, Spanish, German and French lessons were also given to interested community members, utilising the knowledge of EMs and staff.

Adult Education Recommendations  Continue to deliver computer literacy lessons, if necessary splitting the lessons to allow for the different ability levels.  Deliver varied, interesting and relevant lessons to the classes, integrating more community based themes (such as proposal writing, budgeting etc) that will assist in the development of community initiatives.  Possibly provide an intensive four week evening course for beginners, structured around the syllabus provided in the official GVI TEFL teaching syllabus, delivered concurrently to the men’s advanced group.  Acquire books on the resource list suggested in association with the GVI Introduction to TEFL course.   Look into the fundraising or donation possibilities for computers for the community. Continue to utilise the knowledge and skills of EMs, teaching other languages or skills such as budgeting to community members. Orphanage work Three times a week on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays EMs visit the orphanage to spend time with the boys. This time is unstructured to allow the EMs and the orphans to interact with each other in a more relaxed manner.

Activities include:   reading library books and listening to stories lateral thinking exercises and development of cognitive skills using interactive books brought out by Ems   playing sports like frisbee, football, volleyball, acrobatics and athletics other physical activities like hacky sac, poi dancing and dancing to music

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creative arts such as colouring in, using crayons, felt tips, and paints to create paper murals for the walls

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help with homework and exam study group games and circle time

Sessions with the orphanage boys are so popular that students who are not actually orphans keep trying to join in, however this has become problematic as the caregivers for the orphans feel that they are unable to supervise everyone. GVI also believe that these times are special and that the attention should be devoted to the orphans only. To assist in making sure we know who is who, we have a list of all the boys with photo’s of all those living at the orphanage for easy identification. Once GVI staff members get to know and recognise more individuals in the orphanage, it will be easier to decipher those boys who are actually from families in the village.

Discussion Although the amount of time spent with the boys in the orphanage in expedition 06-3 was limited due to the school holiday break, it still proved to be one of the highlights for many of the EMs. The boys were once again hugely responsive to the attention given to them, and enjoyed participating in activities led by EMs.

During the break the EMs were able to spend time decorating the orphanage, and it is now looking spectacular with swirls of soothing colour, proverbs and wise words and a map of the KMMPA. These paintings were constructed under the approval of the Al-Hanan Orphanage caregivers, as pictures of subject matter with heart-beats or shadows were not permitted for religious reasons. The majority of the wooden beds have been constructed. Each of the beds has a pillow, sheets, mosquito nets, and a basket underneath it for storage. Until the last beds are made, the smaller boys will share beds so that they can start to utilise their new room.

The Global Vision International Charitable Trust (GVI-CT) pledged 1000 pounds to the orphanage in expedition 06-3, from which much of the above materials were purchased. However, there is still much to be developed, three out of the five rooms in the dormitory block still have rubble instead of cement for a floor, and the facility for collecting and storing

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fresh water has only partially been built. Continued donations from the GVI-CT will be allocated in liaison with the Al Hanan orphanage caregivers to prioritise projects they deem most important. In expedition 06-4 this is likely to be finishing the water tank to provide free fresh water for the orphans, plastering a second room, and possibly the provision of desks for the boys to use for study after school.

The GVI-CT also continues to fund the nurse at the dispensary, and this remains one of the most positive and beneficial aspects of community development this year. It has not only alleviated conditions for the boys at the orphanage, but has provided essential medical care to the whole Mkwiro community.

GVI has also helped the caregivers of the Orphanage formulate and write proposals for further funding from additional sources from within Kenya.

Orphanage Recommendations    Continue providing EM support to the orphans in the evenings Continue to seek funding for sporting equipment such as boots and soccer balls Continue close liaison with Orphanage Caregivers to develop and improve the orphanage, utilising the GVI-CT funds in the most cost effective way, and on a project by project basis Community groups and initiatives: Introduction Individual expedition members who have an interest in particular projects in the community form groups which in theory meet regularly to develop each project. Community members are not only invited to be involved and participate in these discussions, but to ultimately make the major decisions concerning their own community ventures. Community projects are handed over to successive expedition members so that the work being done towards the objectives of each of the community based organisations is perpetuated. Community members and EMs constructed a list of activities that could attract tourists, these are listed in Figure 34. A summary of the work achieved on these and other community projects is also given.

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Name of activity Fishing Trips ( with local fishermen and women) Village Tours Guided nature Walks -

Details traditional line fishing in a small dug-out canoe checking traps octopus hunting catching squid (calamari) in a small dug-out tour the village with local guide eat a traditional lunch in Kaya Bogoa, a forest with cultural significance to the local community Beach and Mangrove Forests on the south side of the island hunt for (catch and release) the large and rare Coconut Crab

Cultural activities

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visit the grave of Mwauze Tumbe to hear the story of her life and death

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visit Jiwe jahazi, or ‘dhow rock’, and hear the story of how it changed from a dhow into an island

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visit the sacred cycad trees, where offerings are still made

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visit cultural cave sites where the villagers’ ancestors went to pray

Drumming Lessons

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Msondo Kipumbwi Msapata cook in the home of a local women, learning the secrets of her trade

Cooking Lessons

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take the fish you caught earlier in the day, and cook on an open fire while listening to village stories around the flames

Community Centre

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one of the women’s groups have a co-operative building that is currently being used as a restaurant. If this could be developed, it could

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become a focal point for the community. This is where they could advertise the tourist activities provided in the village, and where they could sell some of their goods.
Figure 34: Potential tourism activities identified for the Mkwiro community

Fishing Trips Expedition members and staff have both participated in the first fishing trips out in dug out canoes. These trips have been a big success, not only in the fish that have been caught, but also in the enjoyment of both fishermen and GVI member. By using expedition members as ‘guinea pig tourists’ the fisherman were able to see some of the ideas they need to work on to offer these trips to the larger tourist community. An initial brochure and flyer has been designed to advertise the trips, but these have yet to be finalised with community members.

Recommendations:  Finalise the brochures and flyers with community members, then photocopy and distribute in local areas like Diani, Shimoni and Wasini. Perhaps also look at advertising in budget accommodation or hotels in Mombasa.  Finalise prices for the different activities with community members

Drumming Mkwiro Villagers are descended from the Shirazi tribe, a group historically known for their drumming and drum making. Unfortunately these drums are no longer constructed locally and instead villagers perform at weddings and in the evenings on plastic barrels.

The drums mentioned in the story of Mwauzi Tumbe are actually located in Fort Jesus, Mombasa, in storage. Several expedition members received permission from the curators to see the drums, and informally discussed the possibility of the drums being displayed more locally in Shimoni once the Shimoni Museum and visitor centre has been built.

Some expedition members have taken up the opportunity to have drumming lessons, and have enjoyed these with community members. These have been on an informal basis, and no marketing has been developed on this activity.

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Recommendations:  Source funding for replica’s of the Fort Jesus drums to be made, and use these as one of the focal points of the village tour.  Write a formal proposal to include the original Mkwiro/Shirazi drums in a display at the proposed Shimoni Tourist centre.  Work with community members to start actively marketing drum lessons on the island by designing leaflets and brochures to be distributed in local tourist areas. Mwaozi Tumbe Village Tour Several meetings have been held between EMs and community members (primarily from the Mkwiro Youth Group) to discuss the development of a tour of Mkwiro Village, incorporating both natural and cultural aspects. The focus of this tour is to be a visit to the grave stone of Mwaozi Tumbe, with a local lunch offered and a short nature walk in Kaya Bogoa. In previous expeditions EMs have participated in research trips to Mombasa Library and Fort Jesus to investigate the history of the Mkwiro people, and the story behind Mwaozi Tumbe’s grave. A visit to Kaya Kinondo was also provided for several community members and Ems, providing them with an opportunity to see a similar venture that has been successful, and to observe the conduct and eloquence required of a guide in interacting with tourists.

Villagers are keen to get started on delivering the tour as soon as possible, and have shown much enthusiasm and energy for the project. Although some members of the community would like to start as soon as possible, most have begun to appreciate that they need to have everything in place before delivering their final product, and that these things take careful thought and consideration before implementing, so that they are professional.

During expedition 06-3 a second draft of the village tour brochure was designed, and EMs worked with community members to create a folder outlining the content of the tour. Members of the community with an aptitude for tree species identification and with a local knowledge of medicinal uses of plants were identified and approached for help with the project. Meetings were held to report back on the progress made on a list of requirements that need to be fulfilled before the tour can go ahead. Movement on some of the tasks has been quite slow, as community members appear to prefer the approach of getting one thing done completely

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before starting on another task, rather then spreading the load and distributing the tasks to be achieved evenly between them.

Recommendations  Continue meetings to report back on progress made on the list of tasks to be done before the community is ready for the tour. These meetings should try to help drive the group forward, by providing an impetus for task development by the Mkwiro Youth Group and with the additional help of EMs.  Finalise the script for the tour by continued liaison with community members about the content and facts involved, and by practising the script with potential guides. Cooking lessons In all expeditions cooking lessons have been offered to the EMs, who leave the women a tip as thanks. Chapattis, samosas and mandazi’s have been the focus of the lessons, but other dishes such as pilau, local bean dishes and local tomato based dishes could also be offered. No formal marketing or community development has been done to try and develop these activities for the wider community and at present they are only given on an ad hoc basis.

Recommendations:  Formalise an agreement between members of the community and GVI to offer cooking lessons every phase of each expedition.  Liase with community members to develop cooking lessons as an activity available to the wider tourist community.

Beehive keeping The donation of bee hives by an NGO to the Mkwiro community has offered the opportunity for alternative income generation through apiculture. However, community members do not appear to have received the knowledge or expertise to utilise the bee hives effectively. Meetings have been held with members of the community to assess their knowledge of apiculture and to look at methods of moving forward with bee keeping.

It was found that hives had been placed deep in the forest, in areas that may not be conducive to bee keeping. Insects such as butterflies were more prevalent on the forest

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edges, and thus it was advised as a first step to relocate the hives to the edge of the forest, where conditions may be more suitable.

In expedition 06-2 the National Scholarship Programme (NSP) student collected information on bee keeping and led most of the discussions. In expedition 06-3 community members and staff went on an investigative trip to some working beehives in the local area to gain insight and advice on how to run the project successfully in Mkwiro.

Recommendations  Source some expertise on aviculture and either invite them to Mkwiro for a presentation, or invite community members on a trip to investigate apiculture at an established project.  Apply for apiculture funding on behalf of the Mkwiro Community.

HIV/Aids Awareness The Mkwiro dispensary nurse has informed us that very few people in Mkwiro know their HIV status, and very few favour the use of condoms. It is valuable that the benefits of testing for HIV/AID’s are related to the villagers, and that the use of condoms is advocated particularly for people having intercourse before marriage.

In expedition 06-2 the NSP student volunteered to help present a workshop in Mkwiro as he had considerable experience acting as a facilitator in HIV/Aids awareness. EMs and staff also made a series of posters from information gleaned during a tip to an HIV/AIDS awareness presentation in Fort Jesus. Utilising the skills and knowledge of all involved, a format for a basic workshop was established.

In expedition 06-2 the workshop was delivered to 40 members of the Mkwiro community. In expedition 06-3 it was delivered to 40 members of the Shimoni Community, and the whole of the senior school in Wasini Primary School.

The workshops were all very successful, with open honest environments created in all, community members feeling comfortable about asking detailed questions and learning new information about HIV/AIDS. One method used to encourage discussion in the workshops is

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to ask people to write their questions on a piece of paper anonymously. This works extremely well and many questions were answered in this manner. Practical demonstrations of the effectiveness of condoms and how to put a condom on correctly were also given.

By the end of each of the workshops many of the attendees appeared to be more open to the idea of using condoms and more reassured of their effectiveness. Community members also seemed more resolved and open to the idea of being tested at the Voluntary Counselling and Testing centre in Ukunda in the future. Certificates were issued to all who attended the workshop.

A second workshop may be planned for the following expedition in each of the three villages of Mkwiro, Shimoni and Wasini. This may cover new topics such as caring for people with HIV, more information on reducing the stigma of aids, and details on how the illness progresses. However, before initiating these workshops contact should be made with HIV/AIDS awareness groups such the Marie Stopes organisation in Mombasa for advice about how to best progress. This may mean inviting certain organisations to give presentations in this area.

Recommendations  Source expertise on HIV/AIDS awareness in Mombasa and initiate discussions about what can be done further in the Shimoni sub-location.

Mkwiro Dispensary The villagers have a range of medical needs, such as malaria, diarrhoea, pregnancies, children under five requiring immunisations and other medical care, and a population of elderly people who also often need assistance. There is also a lot of sharp coral rag substrate on the island, which means there are many accidents, especially with children playing and requiring stitches. It is much easier and safer to give stitches at the dispensary, than it is to try to get to the mainland for assistance. Community members do not always recognise the early signs of malaria, and thus may deteriorate quickly.

The re-opening of the dispensary has been one of the most positive and beneficial aspects of community development this year. Feedback about the new nurse continues to be very positive, as she has made herself available in the evenings and weekends. 77

The government and DANIDA provide and sponsor the medical equipment, drugs and first aid to the dispensary. However, in May 2006 many of the drugs had run out. A previous expedition member was able to source some of these drugs and invaluable medical equipment from the UK. These have been put to good use in the dispensary, and have been greatly appreciated by the whole community.

Recommendations  Regular additional funding for medicines and other medical equipment should be sourced to prevent the Mkwiro Dispensary from running out of essential material again. Mkwiro Garment Industry Fisherman pants made of Kikoi material continue to sell well, and the fundis have grown in confidence experimenting with pockets, skirts, and other designs requested by EMs. These sales have greatly contributed to the community fund.

An EM in expedition 06-3 has proposed getting labels manufactured in the United States and air freighted over. She worked diligently on the marketing of this project, coining a name for the pants as ‘Mkwiro Mvuvi Pants’, which translated means Mkwiro Fisherman Pants, tying in nicely with the fact that they are of Thai Fisherman design, and also that Mkwiro’s primary income is from fishing. She also designed a small information tag to be attached to each pair of pants, explaining a bit about the village, the history of the Kikoi material and the community fund.

On a trip to Shimoni, Diani and Wasini the same EM approached several shops to sell the pants, emphasising that they are locally hand made and that a percentage of the profit will be going to a local community. Initial contact with commercial vendors was very positive, and interest in selling the pants was expressed by several shop managers or hotel operators.

Recommendations  Research methods of printing the labels commercially either here or abroad in the UK.

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Encourage the community sewing fundis to start buying their own material and manufacturing the pants for EMs to choose, rather then simply sewing the material provided.

Follow up on leads to sell the pants in Diani, Wasini and Shimoni, or from within Mkwiro itself.

Recycling During this and previous expeditions several beach cleans of the mangroves along the South coast of the island have been held. These have been conducted with community members and commemorated such special events as ‘Dive into Earth Day’ and ‘International Clean Up Day’, but also simply as part of the general community program.

To date 800 shillings have been earned for the community from the recycling of plastic bottles into pillows, and added to the community fund. An outlet for hard plastics has been found temporarily in the form of encasing for the life size flip flop whale, and a more permanent outlet may have been sourced in the form or fencing rods and roof tiles.

Flip Flops collected from the mangroves were sorted into coloured piles, and then transported to Nairobi in expedition 06-3 to be made into a promotional whale for WSPA and the antiwhaling campaign. The whale will be transported to Europe and auctioned, and the revenue used to help Kenya, through KWS as the governmental representative, regain their voting membership in the International Whaling Commission. Members of the community have been invited to take part in the construction of the whale in Nairobi, learning how to utilise flip flops and make marketable items such as key rings, toys and jewellery. Meetings will be held with a company, UniquEco, to purchase these products from the community and market them internationally.

This venture has great potential for alternative income generation and associated publicity for Mkwiro, and has already resulted in one film crew visiting the island and filming. Through WSPA the BBC have commissioned a short news item about recycling in Kenya, the waste being washed up on Kenyan beaches and the construction of the flip flop whale. Mkwiro community will feature in this news item, as will parts of an interview of conducted with

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community members. The viewing capacity of the news item, which will probably be shown several times during the day it is featured in the news, could be as many as 60million people.

Roles in a committee workshop GVI was approached by a member of the community to go over the topic of what people should do in a committee. There are a lot of community based organisations within Mkwiro Village and Shimoni, but it was felt that some of the groups were not doing enough to work towards their goals, and were groups in name only.

The ‘roles in a committee’ workshop group was set up to try and facilitate a workshop about what exactly it is that people are meant to do in a committee. It was presented in expo 062 and handouts produced in both Kiswahili and English were given out.

Developments observed from this workshop, that continue to have an effect in expedition 063, are the motivation of several individuals in moving their groups forward or creating new groups, with a sense of direction and purpose. It is hard to quantify exactly how much of an effect the workshop had, but some of these community members have commented that it was integral in helping them to formulate and structure some of the ideas that they wanted to initiate.

Shimoni Slave Cave Committee A working group of expedition meetings have held meetings with members of the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee to review their current plans for a nature trail tour and develop the visitor experience on offer. Information was gathered and plans for information signage discussed. A draft leaflet was designed to support the nature trail and GVI facilitated two further guides this expedition to visit the Kaya Kinondo tour to observe a similar community based organisation operating a forest nature trail.

Tumaini Women’s Group Fishing is the main source of income for Mkwiro village, restricting the amount of jobs available to women. The Tumaini Women’s group was set up to help the women earn money to support their families by selling their crafts to tourists. They now also sell their hand crafts to GVI expedition participants.

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An information leaflet was produced in expedition 06-2 and attached to their products. EMs in expedition 06-3 approached vendors in Shimoni to sell the products, but unfortunately the vendor concerned had just taken an order of very similar crafts from Diani. Despite this the Shimoni vendor seemed very interested in the Mkwiro product, and may be inclined to buy from Mkwiro in the future.

Recommendations   Take the products to Diani and try to market them to stall holders there. Encourage EMs to take the information leaflets and examples of crafts back with them and contacting possible buyers in the UK.  Contact major buyers of small scale crafts such as ‘Trade Aid’ and ‘1000 villagers’ to see if they are interested in the products. Water Storage/Purification In conjunction with members of the youth group, and the adult education group, a joint proposal with GVI was written to Bamburi Cement for a donation in expedition 06-1 (with eight accompanying letters of support discussed, drafted and written in adult education). Unfortunately the proposal was turned down, as Bamburi have delineated an area 25km from their plant in Mombasa to be their main priority for charitable donations.

A Rotary club in New Zealand contacted GVI with the possibility of using Mkwiro in trials of a product called ‘Lifestraw’; a personal water purification system that is able to turn polluted or brackish water into safe drinking water. The Diani Rotary club was contacted to help monitor progress of the system in the village, and initially it looked like it would be of great benefit to the villagers. Unfortunately feedback from Rotary Members in Diani who had come into contact with the product before meant that we decided not to introduce it to the Mkwiro community. Apparently the straws waste a considerable amount of water in the process of purification, and are hard to suck up making them difficult for younger members to use.

Use the fundraising interest group to contact other cement companies in Kenya for funding.

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Research alternative water purification methods, particularly in relation to making water stored over a long time safer to drink, and to try to dispose of mosquito larvae safely in stored water tanks

Village Community Fund Ten to twenty percent of all transactions made between GVI and Mkwiro village goes into a central village fund. This has amounted to almost 19000 KSh from the last two expeditions, in Expedition 06-3 over 10,000 KSh was raised for the community, from a variety of sources. These include bread and samosa sales, clothing sales, laundry, home baking, and crafts. This money will be used by the village committee for the benefit of the whole community.

At present the funding raised has been earmarked to assist in purchasing iron sheeting to mend part of the community water storage facility. Five thousand shillings were spent on salaries for Madras teachers in the school holidays, and money raised from the laundry ladies is directed towards the mosque.

In expedition 06-3 GVI staff initiated a meeting with Village elders to determine the correct means of money transfer to the village fund, and to identify who would be the co-signers of any transactions, as the correct channels were still unclear. The results of the meeting were that Mshamanga Neema was designated as Secretary, and Hamisi Mohamed as Treasurer. From here forth these two community members will given any monies and co-sign any receipts together, ensuring open and honest transactions, and keeping their own record of transactions for the community.

Recommendations  Channel any money to the community fund through the designated secretary and treasurer, ensuring they co-sign all receipts.   Keep a GVI record of all transactions, and monitor what the fund is spent on. Encourage the elders to establish a bank account for the village fund.

Fundraising In expedition 06-3 a fundraising group was formed in response to the requests of various community villagers for assistance with a number of issues. These include:

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      

concrete for the water storage facility ongoing medical supplies, equipment and support for the medical dispensary scholarship funds for students graduating from primary school to high school medical operations for village members tertiary education for primary school teachers and nursery school teachers primary education for disabled community members (such as a blind girl) sponsorship for sporting teams such as volleyball, netball and football or simply the provision of sporting equipment

library books for a school library

In expedition 06-3 the fundraising group constructed templates for letters under for each of the requirements, simply requiring the name of the company or organization being approached for funding to be inserted.

A newsletter to be sent to previous EMs was also designed, and explains what smaller things can be done for the community, as well as giving a general update on the project and new developments. It is hoped that this newsletter will be perpetuated by consecutive projects, becoming a quarterly edition for all previous EMs interested.

Other community based activities Expedition 06-3 was once again a very full expedition, however, staff and EM’s were able to fit in a small number of extra community based activities, including a wedding in the village, football matches, cooking lessons such as chapatti and samosa making, receiving drumming lessons from members of the community and going on fishing trips with locals.

Outside of the Mkwiro and Shimoni communities, GVI has also attempted to support Bodo Turtle Conservation Group, based at Bodo, North of the Shimoni peninsula and a gateway to Funzi Island. This group undertakes mangrove restoration through replanting, and have an open invitation to staff and EMs to participate in planting the mangroves with them.

Recommendations  Continue to support local environmental groups such as the Bodo Turtle Conservation Group, as and when required

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Continue to play an active role in the community in promoting physical activity, with regular matches in various sports

Utilise opportunities offered to experience and learn more about cultural events in the community

Concerns and funding of individuals in the community One of our major initial concerns while working in the community was that we would create a culture of begging, simply by our very proximity to the. Once again during this expedition there were no examples of begging behaviour by children; it appears the firm guidelines given to expedition members on this topic seem to have taken effect with the younger members of the community.

In the past there have been several occasions where older members of the community have asked GVI as an organisation and GVI staff for money, these included:       help to acquire a passport funding for a new mobile phone money to go to the hospital funding for a hip replacement operation funding for further education funding for football boots

These and other issues have been placed into the hands of the newly formed GVI fundraising group, and will be passed onto subsequent EMs in future expeditions.

GVI continues to collect for the EM Scholarship fund to help support local school children from the orphanage or Mkwiro School in attending high school. Gifts such as pens, pencils, books and items of clothing were given to students at the end of the expedition, with each class from 1-8 receiving a farewell gift box from the EMs.

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NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME GVI offers National Scholarship Programme placements on expeditions to facilitate capacity building within partner organisations and for host country nationals. NSP placements are offered free of charge to individuals, and are funded by GVI. NSP placement students participate fully as an expedition member receiving the same training and experience. Unfortunately there were no nominations forthcoming from our principal partners, and enquiries with previous interested parties did not result in an opportunity to fill a placement this expedition. Both KWS and KMFRI have been approached to nominate individuals to participate in the NSP for next expedition. OVERALL ACHIEVEMENTS GVI East Africa has completed its third 10 week expedition based in Mkwiro, during which the following has been achieved:  195 hours 3 minutes of effort from vessels and 135 hours 20 minutes of effort from land-based survey site on the Marine Research Programme     59 dolphin sightings from vessels and 30 dolphin sightings from land-based survey site 50 dolphin behavioural surveys 29 Photo Identification surveys of dolphins resulting in 1014 photos 15 marine mega-fauna surveys from vessels and 67 marine mega-fauna surveys from land-based study site   2.7 km of transects laid on the Terrestrial Research Programme 15 primate community surveys conducted with 12 groups of colobus monkeys recorded and 5 groups of Sykes monkeys    2.45 km of transects had habitat surveys undertaken Disturbance surveys conducted on all transects (10.8 km) 9 species identified through casual observation surveys and 3 additional species on specific bird surveys    52 hours delivering lessons in Mkwiro Primary School 48 hours delivering adult education lessons 21 hours of activities at Al-Hanan orphanage

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Delivery of 2 HIV/AIDS awareness workshop in Shimoni and Wasini with 40 and 130 participants respectively

Facilitation of Mkwiro apiculture working group to visit successful community bee keeping project

Facilitation of 2 members of Shimoni Slave Cave Committee to attend the Kaya Kinondo community forest tour to build capacity for local community based tourism activities

Over 10,000 KSh raised or the Mkwiro community fund through GVI economic activities

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Donations through GVI have raised US $740 to establish a community library facility GVI-CT has funded the completion of dormitory at the Al Hanan orphanage and initiation of water storage tank. Continues to fund the staffing of Mkwiro dispensary.

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE AIMS This third expedition for GVI East Africa continued to build upon was was initiated in the previous two expeditions. The Marine Research Programme continued the core research, utilising both vessel based and land based survey techniques. Once again the land based surveys proved comparable to the vessel based in terms of dolphin sightings for the effort, and yielded significantly higher megafauna sightings, which in this expedition were all turtles. Weather conditions this expedition did not interrupt survey effort in any significant way as there was little heavy rain, however wind resulted in high swells for a period which limited access to the KMMPA and high Beaufort conditions limited the ability to effectively conduct behavioural and photo identification surveys. GVI’s locally employed boat captain underwent further training on the marine research programme as part of a capacity building initiative with the aim of utilising him to conduct and supervise marine research surveys.

Future aims are to continue the marine research programme activities attempting to continue to run both vessel based and land based surveys concurrently during the mornings. Surveys using transects will also be implemented in future to offer a more structured and random approach to sampling and facilitating the use of distance sampling techniques. Appropriate survey designs are being investigated in respect of this.

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The Terrestrial Research Programme also continued and consolidated upon what has been initiated. The transect grid system was extended significantly enabling a greater area and diversity of forest to be sampled. This now covers the total study site for which it is feasible to survey from our current base. Primate surveys continued utilising the same methodology as did disturbance research, and an amendment to the methodology to gain a more accurate sample of canopy cover and height proved successful. However, the Terrestrial Research Programme was compromised again by the inability to access appropriate botanical expertise to continue the vegetation research.

With implied access to botanical expertise through our main working partner, KWS, next expedition it is envisaged that the focus or the terrestrial forest biodiversity research programme next expedition will be on vegetation surveys. In addition, monitoring of the primate community will continue and a protocol for primate behavioural observations trialled. With the acquisition of suitable reference material it is planned to implement butterfly community surveys once appropriate liaison has been established with national stakeholders.

GVI’s presence in Mkwiro Primary School continues to be well received and the teaching delivered by expedition members effective in improving English language acquisition. Adult education focussing on computer literacy this expedition, in response to the request o community members was well received and brought an increase in attendance. The skills learnt are of value to members of the community who despite not having ready access to computers have been able to utilise GVI’s computers to produce formal letters and proposals in support of community activities. The community development programme continued although with a lot less time available to be allocated to it, and significant progress was made with the marketing of local crafts and garments and the apiculture working group. GVI’s standing in the community remains positive and our focus on Mkwiro has enabled widespread and integrated support for many community stakeholders. The primary concern has to be the careful management of time to ensure all projects initiated receive appropriate on-going support from GVI.

Overall, GVI East Africa has continued to successfully implement the broad objectives outlined by KWS in the formation of our partnership and established long-term programmes to support their long-term objectives for sustainable management of resources in the KMMPA and community outreach. As the partnership develops GVI East Africa will review the 87

priorities for research and community development with KWS and implement changes within our current capacity.

REFERENCES Bejder L. and A. Samuels. 2003. Evaluating effects of nature-based tourism on cetaceans. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell, R. Kirkwood (eds.) Marine Mammals and Humans: Towards a sustainable balance. CSIRO Publishing. 480 pp.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. 2000. Introduction to distance sampling:estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York. 423 pp.

Emerton, L. and Tessema, Y. 2001. Economic constraints to the management of marine protected areas: the case of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti National Reserve, Kenya. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.

Evans, P.G.H and Hammond, P.S. 2004. Monitoring cetaceans in European waters. Mammal Review. 34,1. 131-156.

Gregory, P.R., and Rowden, A.R. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic mammals, 27.2. 105-113.

Mann, J. 2000. Unravelling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods. In: Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. (Ed. Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., and H. Whitehead). 44-64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Peddemors, V. M. 1991. Delphinids of Southern Africa: A review of their distribution status and life history. In: Journal of Cetaceans Research Management. 157-165.

Parson, K.M., 2005. Procedural guideline No. 4-5 Using photo-ID for assessing bottlenose dolphin abundance and behaviour. In: Marine JNCC Marine Monitoring Handbook. 1-21.

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Reeves, R.R. and S. Leatherwood. 1994. Dolphins, porpoises and whales: 1994-1998 Action plan for the conservation of cetaceans IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Ross, G.J.B., Heinsohn, G.E and V.G. Cockcroft, 1994. Humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765), Sousa plumbea (G. Cuvier, 1829), Sousa teuszii (Kukenthal, 1892). Pages 23-42 in S.H. Ridgeway and R. Harrison, eds. Handbook of marine mammals. Volume 5. The first book of dolphins. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Stensland, E., Berggren, P. and R, Johnstone. 1998. Marine Mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment. Ambio. 27,8. 771-774.

APPENDIX

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Appendix 1 EVENT LOG
DATE: Time 24hrs VESSEL: South 04° East 039° STAFF: Beari ng SCRIBE: Environmental Conditions WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide Precip Wind Comments

Event

Effort

Trans #

T

I

S

D

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other Boat Speed: (use GPS)

Beaufort 0 – Glass 01- Ripples 02 - small wavelets 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps 05 - Many whitecaps Swell: 0 - no/weak swell 1 – intermediate swell 2 – strong swell

Cloud Cover: Measure in eighths e.g. 0/8 – clear 8/8 - over cast

Precipitation Type Rain Fog Intensity Intermittent Continuous

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10

Initials

90

Appendix 2

Sightings Form
Date:
Latitude South 04° Longitude East 039°

Entered onto computer □

Vessel:
Effort type Sighting number Survey number

Skipper:
Distance to sighting Angle to sighting (P or S) Specie s

Recorder:
Group size Min Ma x Best Spotted because Dhows? PhotoID? Yes/No Comments

Time

Effort type: CW - casual watch, DS - dedicated search, LT - line transect PI - photo identification

91

Appendix 3

DOLPHIN SURVEY FORM DATE START TIME LOCATION VESSEL SOUTH 04° OBSERVER EAST 039°

ENTERED ONTO COMPUTER RECORDER SPECIES TIDE
Ebb/flood/slack

SURVEY # DS DEPTH WPT#
ASSOC SIGHT/ RESIGHT?

HABITAT NOTES

DOLPHIN INFO – FIRST GROUP ID NOTES

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

M/C PAIRS? WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS):

SUBGROUPS:

ACTIVITY REST/MILLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) FEEDING (FISH SEEN) TRAVELLING SOCIALISING BOWRIDE UNKNOWN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE DOLPHIN INFO – SECOND GROUP (SPECIFY WHETHER THIS SECTION
IS INCLUDING 1ST GROUP OR ONLY SECOND GROUP)

ID NOTES

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

M/C PAIRS? SUBGROUPS: WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS): ACTIVITY REST/MILLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) FEEDING (FISH SEEN) TRAVELLING SOCIALISING BOWRIDE UNKNOWN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

JOINED AT TIME: LAT: LONG: REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE END TIME: LAT: LONG: TOTAL # ANIMALS: _____A _____YOY _____N TOTAL PHOTOGRAPHED: _____A _____YOY _____N

PHOTOGRAPHS ROLL NUMBER: SPACER SHOTS:

Appendix 4
Ethogram This ethogram is the copyright of the long-term dolphin research project at Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, Western Australia. The ethogram is reproduced here with permission and with some adaptations for the Shimoni project. I. GROUPING Ten meter chain rule For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below), individuals in a ‘group’ must be linked by the ten meter chain rule. The rule states that in order for two individuals to be in the same ‘group’ they must be within 10m of each other or within 10m of another dolphin that is within 10m of one or both of them, and so on ad infinitum. Definition of a group We restrict the term group to refer to assemblages of dolphins in which the following requirements are fulfilled: (a) the median interindividual distance is <2m (i.e. a “tight” group); (b) the predominant group activity is Rest, Socialise, and or Travel (note: all assemblages of foraging and feeding are excluded); (c) all individuals are linked by the 10m chain rule); and (d) all, or nearly all, of the individuals in the group have been identified. Individuals in tight assemblages separated by >5m but in the same ‘group’ by the 10m chain rule are said to be in different subgroups of the same group. Individuals in tight groups that are not in the same assemblage according to the 10m chain rule are said to be in different groups. Note that this definition is designed for studies of dolphin social behaviour and is quite restrictive. Group Spacing Very tight Tight Moderate Spread Widespread Wide-disperse

vti tig mod spr wsp wdi

modal distance between group members is:

less than 0.3m 0.3 - 2m 2 - 5m 5 - 10m 10 - 30m 30 - 100m

Important Group Geometries Abreast abr Individuals are side-by-side abreast [staggered at less than ½ a body-length (BLD) between individuals], any distance Staggered Abreast Formation sgg frm Individuals are abreast and staggered between ½ and 1 BLD, any distance The basic Formation is two individuals flanking another on either side and just behind. Variations between three or more individuals occur and should be described.

Group Movement Straight

str

Individuals in parallel orientation moving in one general direction (i.e. not varying more than 45 for a period of at least a minute or through at least two surfacing bouts. Individuals in parallel orientation repeatedly changing direction (varying more than 45 within every minute or in sequential surfacing bouts. Speed is typically slow to very slow. Single individuals engaging in this movement pattern are said to be milling. Individuals changing orientation with respect to each other on every or nearly every surfacing. Individuals in a milling assemblage are typically stationary over an area but assemblages may also progress at any speed.

Meander

mnd

Milling

mill

93

Dive type Dive types are discussed in Section II (Feeding & Foraging). Speed None Very slow Slow Cruise Moderate Fast Blast

vsl slo cru mod fas bla

0 mph <1 mph 1-2 mph 2-3 mph 3-4 mph 4-6 mph >6 mph

II. FEEDING & FORAGING We refer to foraging as those behaviours which indicate that dolphins are seeking prey. Feeding, on the other hand, refers to the active pursuit and processing of captured prey. Foraging is by definition a “continuous” behaviour (i.e. a behavioural state) for which we attempt to record a duration. Thus, we may use the term foraging bout to indicate a discrete period of time in which an individual dolphins engaged in the activity of foraging. We refer to discrete behaviours (e.g. a tail slap) as a behavioural event). This dichotomy is useful because typically we can use observations of behavioural events to diagnose the behavioural state (i.e. activity). Feeding, however, may be continuous or instaneous (note that we still refer to feeding as a behavioural state even in situations where the duration of the activity is emphemeral). Which category a particular kind of feeding falls into is determined by two factors: (a) whether the prey are solitary or schooling and (b) whether the prey are large or small. When feeding on small prey the cycle of puruit-catch-process is essentially instaneous, but some large prey items take considerable time to process and we can record a feeding duration for those items. Examples include bream, large squid or cuttlefish, snake eels, and rays. Note that dolphins cannot masticate (i.e. chew) and thus must “process” prey items that are too large to shallow (e.g. by rubbing on bottom or throwing on surface). Feeding is also considered continuous when dolphins are feeding on small schooling fish, as the cycle of pursuit-capture-process continues essentially uninterrupted. Examples include bouts of ‘leap-and-porpoise’ feeding on concentrations of schooling fish such as anchovies or sardines. Thus: (1) if we can record a feeding duration for large and small schooling fish or a large solitary fish record the activity as Feed; (2) if we record only occasional instantaneous observations of feeding during a continuous foraging bout, record the activity state as Forage/Feed; and (3) if there are no indications of active feeding, but there are indications of foraging, simply record the activity as Forage. As with anything to do dolphins, there are many shades of grey. The key is to develop a transparent diagnosis for what constitutes the activity state of Forage that is consistent across different observers abd over time. A. Foraging Foraging Foraging is generally characterized by single dolphins or slightly spread-out assemblages of dolphins (i.e. >2m between dolphins). A general exception is when one or more dolphins remain close to a foraging dolphin for social reasons (e.g. during herding, mother/calf pairs). Both the dive type and the inter-individual geometry are important in determining foraging independent of observations of feeding. Dive type Tail out dive

td

Flukes are raised above the water surface as the dolphin descends at an angle for a deep dive. The peduncle is humped up out of the water as the dolphin descends for a deep dive. Tail flukes are partially submerged.

Peduncle dive

pd

Geometry Milling

Changing directions with every or nearly every surfacing. In an assemblage of dolphins, individuals are changing directions with respect to each other. An assemblage of dolphins milling in a large area; typically 10m or more between dolphins. There may be smaller, tighter ‘clusters’ of dolphins within the assemblage; often after a lp/pp bout. A frequently occurring type of spread (>5m) movement pattern in which dolphins are in rank formation (i.e. abreast – ‘on-line’).

Dispersed Milling

Lateral Line

94

Behaviours Weed prod

A dolphin prods into a seagrass/seaweed mass at the surface with its rostrum. Maybe followed by a fish chase such as snacking.

B Feeding Pursuit: individual behaviours Rapid surface rs A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface. A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface but in which the dolphin does completely clear the water surface. A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin completely clears the water surface. A normal surface in which the dolphin ‘humps up’ its posterior half to break its forward motion as it descends. Often seen when dolphins are driving or pursuing a fish school in shallow water. A dolphin rapidly accelerates and/or swims fast along or below the water surface. A fast-swim along the surface in which a sheet of water trails off the dorsal fin. A fast-swim belly-up just under the water surface. The fish may often be seen skipping along the surface just in front of the dolphin. A slow or moderate swim, belly-up, after a small fish (typically 2” or less—a ‘snack’). The dolphin is vertical in the water, prodding into seagrass patches with its rostrum. A dolphin stops abruptly at or under the surface and wheels, swinging its flukes sharply. May be indicated by observing fish being knocked into the air. A sudden jerk of the head and snap of the jaws at or just below the surface or underwater. The fish is often seen. A dolphin lifts its flukes and sometimes the posterior portion of its body out of the water and brings the flukes/body down vigorously against the water (sometimes creating a ‘kerplunk’ sound). Not likely to observed in Shimoni but a dolphin chases a fish out of the water onto the beach, momentarily “stranding” itself.

Porpoise

pp

Leap

lp

Humping surface

hs

Fast swim

fsw

Rooster tail

rs

Belly-up chase

bu

Snacking

snk

Bottom-grub

bg

Tail-whack

tw

Snap

snp

Tail-slap

ts

Beach feeding

Pursuit—group behaviours Lp & pp feed An assemblage of spread out, milling dolphins in which the predominate surfacing type is leap or porpoise. The aggregation may progress rapidly in any direction. Bird feed Cluster feed/mill A milling assemblage in actively feeding group of seabirds. Feeding on a relatively stationary school of small fish (2-4”) in a milling group but with individuals surfacing side-by-side with one or two others. Record as cluster mill if fish not seen. A slightly spread to spread assemblage of dolphins snacking.

Snack party

95

Fish catch & process: direct observations Fish catch fc Dolphin observed to catch fish or another prey item. With fish Fish toss Fish-busting wf ft fb Dolphin observed with fish in its mouth. Dolphin observed to toss a fish. Dolphin observed to rub fish against the bottome (=bg+wf over sand substrate).

Fish catch & process: indirect observations Note: The indirect observations are dependent on context as each may indicate a different behaviour in a non-foraging context. Chew Fin jerk cw fj Dolphin seen to make biting motion in a foraging context. A sudden twitch of the fin (indicates sudden movement of the head); again in a foraging context. A dolphin lies still on its side at the surface; again in a foraging context.

On side

osd

Foraging types Note: More than one type may apply—e.g. bird feed may occur with other foraging types. Foraging (non-specific) Group Bird feed Lp & pp feed Foraging that could not easily be classified as any other type.

Dolphins are surfacing within or around actively-feeding seabirds. Dolphins are multi-directional (i.e. milling) and lp/pp continuously within an area. The area may be relatively small or dispersed over as much as a kilometer or more. The activity usually occurs in closely spaced bouts with abrupt starts, stops, and changes of direction. The assemblage as a whole may progress rapidly. An assemblage of foraging dolphins in which 10 or more dolphins are present.

Foraging aggregation Individual Bottom grub

Dolphin sticks its beak to the se floor to ferret something out of the sea floor while in a vertical position. This can only be observed in shallow water. Foraging in which predominant dive type is td/pd. Breath intervals are irregular with no long intervals between dives. Dolphins typically stay submerged for more than a minute after a td or pd dive. Dolphin forages and changes direction (orientation) with virtually every surface or breath. Often hovers over a particular location but maybe progress in any direction. The predominant dive type is during foraging is rt. Only occurs in shallow water. Foraging in which dolphins frequently utilize tail slaps, often with several tail slaps in succession followed by a fish chase. Belly-up chase and capture of fish trapped against the water surface. Dolphin approaches to within 1-2m of stationary or slow-moving boats and exhibits solicitous behaviours such as opening jawing or orientating head-out.

Td/pd

Mill

Rooster tail

Tail slap

Snack party Boat-begging

III. MISCELLANEOUS

96

Some behaviours do not fit obviously into either social or feeding/foraging categories. In some cases behaviours may occur in a wide variety of contexts including feeding, socializing, or resting (e.g. snagging) and in some cases they can be clearly excluded from either (e.g. stretching). Snagging sng A dolphin floating at the surface, still or slowly moving, is said to be snagging. When still the dolphin’s flukes will drop to the degree that only the anterior edge of the dorsal fin may show at the surface and the rostrum may be exposed to the top of the mandible. Snagging may last from a few seconds to several minutes. Occurs in a wide variety of contexts: (a) resting: when dolphins are in a tight group, moving slowly with regular, peduncle, or tail-out dives and with no evidence of foraging or socialisng (b) socialising: snagging may occur in several social contexts; dolphins may snag prior to joining other dolphins or while waiting for group members to “catch up” (e.g. when one member has strayed off to catch a fish) Occurs frequently during snags. The dolphin flexes its body one or several times in succession. A typical sequence is to depress the neck region while flexing the head up, then to flex the neck region up while pointing the rostrum down. Stretching may include side-to-side flexing as well. A dolphin approaches a patch of seaweed/seagrass and rubs it while rolling side or belly-up. The dolphin’s pectorals and flukes are often lifted out of the water, draped with weed. May be difficult to distinguish from weed-prodding. Dolphin emits a ‘coughing’ sound. May be voluntary or related to stress and increased respiration.

Stretching

sth

Weed rub

wrb

Chuffing

chf

IV SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR We consider five categories of social behaviours: 1) affiliative; 2) aggressive; 3) sexual and 4) non-contact dispays; and 5) miscellaneous for behaviours that do not fit easily into the first four categories. Bottlenose dolphins are remarkable for the variety of synchronous behaviours they perform. Each category includes a sub-section of synchronous behaviours. A. Affiliative Behaviours Contact Behaviours (prb = Petting and/or Rubbing) Petting pet Gentle contact involving movement between the pectoral fin, dorsal fin, or flukes of one individual with any part of the body of another individual. Petting triplets, with two individuals petting with another positioned between them, are sometimes seen. Observation quality: 1. Observation based on direct observation of pec-body contact:  Note whether pec is: 1) actively moving; 2) knee-jerking; or 3) stiff  Note part of body being contacted: (common parts include: blowhole, dorsal surface between blowhole and dorsal fin dorsal ridge between dorsal fin and flukes; dorsal or ventral aspect of flukes; side below dorsal fin; side peduncle; eye region; “chin” chest (between pecs); genital area).  Note whether receiving pec contact is actively moving against pec: 1) roll; 2) pitch; 3) yaw 2. Observation based on surface observation of underwater roll of one dolphin at distance 0 from another dolphin Frequently observed sub-categories:  keel-rubbing (krb): One dolphin rubs ventral aspect of its flukes and/or keel of peduncle against (typically) the leading edge of another dolphin’s pectoral fin. Female to male but may occur male-male (or female-female). The pec often knee-jerks. One individual may keel-rub to two others simultaneously who are side-by-side at distance 0.  mutual face-genital petting (mfg): simulataneous petting in which one dolphin receives petting around the genital area while the other receives petting around the eye.  rub-pec (rp): One dolphin rubs along stiff pec of another, typically along side from behind the eye to peduncle. Often seen in herding context (female to male), often in

97

response to pops. Also between males in an alternating series. Rubbing rub Gentle to more vigorous body-to-body contact. Individuals are often seen rubbing against each other vigorously in play groups. Frequently observed sub-categories:  chin-rub (chr): A dolphin approaches another and rubs, head first, under the chin of the other dolphin. Often observed female to male. The rubbing dolphin may be right side up or belly up, but is more typically on its side. One dolphin rest its pectoral fin against the flank of another dolphin, behind the other dolphin’s pectoral fin, and below or just posterior to the dorsal fin. The actor is positioned just above and alongside the other at distance about .3-.5m behind the tip of the other’s rostrum. Typically female to female, and often in cases of harassment by males. Infrequently male to male. Observation quality: Note whether the observation is based on: (a) surface position (sbs staggered by .3-.5m at distance 0) or (b) direct observation of the pec resting against the side of the other dolphin. Synchronous Contact Behaviours Synch spt Two dolphins approach from either side and contact the central dolphin’s pectorals petting with the same body part and perform synchronous movements against the pec and/or are petted by both pectorals of the central dolphin synchronously. An example is two dolphins, on side, under the pectorals of the central dolphin, pitching toward and away from each other synchronously.

Bonding

bnd

Non-Contact Behaviours Synch surfs ss Two or more dolphins surface synchronously—they both break the surface and dive in synchrony. If the dolphins are side-by-side but staggered note the relative location as ½ body-length difference (1/2 bld) or 1 bld. Note distance between dolphins as: 0 = <.3m; 1 = .3-2m; 2 = 2-5m; and 3 = 5-10m. Synch up ss-up Two or more dolphins break the surface synchronously but do not dive synchronously. A common example is when one dolphin remains snagging at the surface. Distance and location are as for SS. Two or more dolphins break the surface asynchronously but dive synchronously. Distance and location are as for SS. Two dolphins surface side-by-side but are not quite synchronous during any part of the surfacing cycle. When a dependent calf repeatedly approaches (to within 2m) and leaves from an adult or adolescent animal, or the baby remains remains at <2m from this animal while remaining >5m from the mother. The bay does not tour on its own (then it’s traveling). Touring is a state, and must occur for the majority of a surfacing bout (when surfacing bouts are discrete) to be called. If there are non-discrete surfacing bouts, then touring should be called if it occurs for the predominant interval you are using for measurement (i.e. 5-minute intervals).

Synch down

ss-dn

Almost synch surfs Touring

ss-al trg

B. Aggressive Behaviours Individual-to-individual Head-tohth One or more individuals line up with one or more individuals. head Tiff tf A head-to-head in which at least one individual is bobbing its head up and down. Accompanied by Donald Duck vocalisations. Head jerk hj A sharp lateral or vertical jerk of the rostrum. Often accompanied by a sharp bang sound. An exaggerated opening and closing of the mouth. An indirect indicator of a HJ or JC in social groups. Two individuals fast swimming, one behind the other. The individual in the aft position is the chaser.

Jaw clap Fin jerk Chase

jc fj chs

98

Circle chase Charge

cch chg

Two dolphins ‘chase each other’s tail’ in a tight circle. A dolphin rapidly accelerates and swims fast directly at another dolphin approaching to within two meters or less. A dolphin strikes another violently with its flukes/peduncle. A dolphin swims rapidly past another so that its fin hits the other dolphin. A dolphin ‘karate-chops’ another dolphin with its pectoral fin. A dolphin strikes another dolphin with a sharp lateral strike of its rostrum. Essentially a HJ with contact. A dolphin bites another with a rapid motion of the head and jaws. A charging dolphin slams into another with any part of its body other than its rostrum, peduncle and tail, fins and pectoral fins. A dolphin charges into another dolphin with its rostrum. An intense aggressive interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive behaviours by one individual only (e.g. biting, hitting, etc.). An intense interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive attacks by both participants.

Tail hit Fin hit Pec hit Rostrum hit

tht fht pht rht

Bite Body slam

bte bsl

Ram Attack

rm atk

Fight

fgt

Group-to-Individual Head-to-head: X on 1

hth-2, -3, etc.

Two or more dolphins line up head-to-head against another dolphin, e.g. hth-4 indicates a four-on-one interaction. Two or more dolphins attack a single individual. The single dolphin may or mat not fight back.

Group attack: X on 1

atk-2, -3, etc.

Synchronous Behaviours Synch head jerk shj Synch jaw clap Synch charge sjc scg

Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous head jerks. Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous jaw claps. Two dolphins, side-by-side, charge another synchronously. May veer off synchronously in opposite directions. Two dolphins, side-by-side, blast after another dolphin or group of dolphins. The pursuing dolphins porpoise or leap synchronously abreast.

Synch chase

sch

C. Submissive Behaviours On-side osd In connection with being approached or (more clearly) receiving aggression from one or more dolphins, a dolphin lies on its side at the surface.

D. Sexually-Oriented Behaviours Sexual behaviours are given a separate category because some behaviours may be performed in both aggressive and affiliative contexts. As well as judging the intensity of the behaviour, the observer should look for other behaviours (e.g. biting, petting) which would indicate that the interaction is an affiliative or aggressive interaction.

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Individual-to-individual Erection erc Mount mnt

Obvious. One dolphin approaches another from the side and slides ventrum over the dorsum of the other animal at a 5-30 angle with respect to the anteriorposterior axis of the other dolphin. An erection may be seen if the mounting individual is male. Males have been observed to mount males as well as females and females have been observed to mount males and females. Two dolphins may mount another synchronously or iteratively from either side. A common variation of mounting. The individual being approached rolls belly up at or below the surface, then the approaching dolphin rolls over and mounts ‘upside down.’ The penis is more readily visible in inverted mounts. A dolphin approaches another as though to mount but instead of angling up over the back of the other it presses against its side in parallel orientation. May be simply another variation of mounting. Often occurs with two dolphins ‘sandwiching’ a third between them. Two individuals approach another from either sides though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour. A dolphin moves its rostrum into the genital area of another dolphin. May be performed slowly and gently in affiliative interactions and violently in aggressive interactions. The goosed dolphin often avoids by rolling belly up and tail-slapping at the goosing dolphin. A tail-slap, rub, or belly-present may also precede a goose in affiliative interactions. One or more dolphins push up under another dolphin’s mid-section forcing it out of the water. The dolphin being pushed is typically on its side or belly-up. One dolphin approaches another and inserts the other dolphin’s pec-fin intoits genital slit.

Inverted mount

ivm

Side-press

sdp

Double roll-out

dbr

Goose

goo

Push-up

psh

Pec-mount

pm

Group-to-individual Group-on-one-sex gps

An encounter in which two or more dolphins perform multiple sexual acts on a single individual. An aggressively-maintaind association. Two or more dolphins use vocal (pops, screams) and physical (head jerks, charges) threats to force another dolphin to accompany them. Herding dolphins engage in normal daily activities such as foraging while herding another dolphin as well as in social and sexual behaviours directed at the herded dolphin. Typically seen as an aggressivelymaintained consortship between coalitions of males and a female.

Herding

hrd

Synchronous Behaviours Synch mount smt Synch goose sgs

Two dolphins approach another from either side and synchronously mount it. Two dolphins approach another side-by-side from either side or from behind and synchronously goose it. Two dolphins approach another from behind, swim up on either side, and synchronously perform side press or ‘sandwich’ the dolphin in the centre. Two dolphins approach another from either side as though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour.

Synch side-press

ssp

Double roll-out

dbr

100

E. Displays Dolphins, particularly males, perform a wide variety of displays. Many displays by males are often performed in synchrony with another male or males and these can be quite spectacular. Displays are divided into two categories, those that can only be observed as synchronous displays (by definition) and those which can be performed by a single individual. Individual or Synchronous Tail-slap ts A dolphin raises its tail flukes out of the water and slaps them against the water surface. Chin-slap cns A dolphin raises its head out of the water and slaps its rostrum against the water surface. Maybe light or hard. A dolphin raises itself out of the water to at least its dorsal fin and then slaps its belly on the water surface. Maybe light or hard. A dolphin leap clear of the water and lands on its belly. A dolphin leaps clear of the water, remains orientated normally in the air and reenters head first. Note: this class is the most common form of leap and occurs in many non-social contexts such as very fast Travel (i.e. blasting) and leap feeding. A commonly occurring sequence in which a chin-slap is immediately followed by a tail-slap. A dolphin, on its side, raises its head out of the water and slaps the side of its head on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin, on its side, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its side on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin leaps clear of the water and lands on its side. A dolphin leaps clear of the water side-up, or turns on its side in the air, and reenters the water head-first. A dolphin, belly-up, raises its head out of the water and slaps it on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin, belly-up, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its back against the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphins leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and lands on its back. A dolphin leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and re-enters the water head-first. A dolphin rises partially up out of the water while in the vertical position. Dolphins have been observed rising out past the pectoral fins or son only the rostrum breaks the surface. A vtr in which the dolphin rises up to at least halfway down its peduncle and holds the position with vigorous fluke-thrusting. A dolphin rolls on its side belly toward another dolphin at distance 0-1 as it swims past in front of or alongside the other dolphin. A dolphin tilts its belly toward another dolphin while positioned beside and just behind the other dolphin. Often performed by two dolphins in formation behind another. A dolphin, from tilt-in position, angles its head into the vicinity of the other dolphin’s genital slit. In horizontal position, a dolphin rotates its head in circles (only seen once as a synchronous display by two dolphins). A dolphin pushes its chest down and arches its head up and out of the water, then

Belly-slap

bls

Belly-breach Leap

blb lp

Chin-slaptail-slap Face-slap

csts

fcs

Side-slap

sds

Side-breach Side-leap

sdb sdl

Head-slap

hds

Back-slap

bks

Back-breach Back-leap Vertical rise

bkb bkl vtr

Tail-walk

tlw

Belly-present

bep

Tilt-belly-in

tlb

Tilt-head-in

tlh

Head-circle

hcl

Rooster-strut

rst

101

moves forward, often with a slight bobbing motion of its head. The bobbing motion is typically not as pronounced as in a rst. May be accompanied by tail slaps. Side-sway display Tail-flailing ssd Like the rooster strut except that the dolphin sways its head from side to side instead of up and down. Very rapid, short strokes of the flukes in any orientation. Often used in intense, singleton displays. The most intense single display. Often growing out of the rooster strut, the dolphin arches its head up higher and higher, often until it is arching out to the dorsal fin, while whirling around, often rolling over on its side or back; often with an open mouth. Often accompanied by tail-flailing and sometimes tail-slaps.

tfl

Arching display

acd

102

Appendix 5

Date (Year-Month-Day) Initials (RC/KG) Roll # : Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number: Start time: Photographer: Frame #

End time: Camera: Notes

Scribe:

103

Appendix 6
Megafauna Survey Form (1/06) GENERAL INFORMATION Date South 04 Observer Recorder Species Entered Computer: East 039 Time Vessel: Wpt # Depth Temp Bft NOTES Tide: Ebb Flood Slack Number Present General Location Closest MFS#

Habitat Notes

Roll 1 (date/ID): Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames: Frames:

Spacers(s): Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (1/06) GENERAL INFORMATION Date South 04 East 039 Observer Recorder Species Time

Entered Computer: Wpt # Depth Temp Bft Tide: Ebb Flood Slack Number Present General Location Closest

MFS#

Habitat Notes

NOTES

Roll 1 (date/ID): Roll 2 (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames: Frames:

Spacers(s): Spacers(s):

104

Appendix 7 LAND BASED SIGHTINGS: ENVIRONMENT AND BOAT
DATE: # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Cloud Cover: Measure in eigths e.g. 0/8 - clear 8/8 - over cast Swell: 0 - no/weak swell 1 - intermediate swell 2 - strong swell Beaufort: 0 - Glass 01- Ripples 02 - small wavelets 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps 05 – Many whitecaps Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10 Tide: Ebb – High to low Flood - Low to High Precipitation Type None Rain Fog Intensity Intermittent Continuous Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat Entered on computer Time (24hrs) Observers Cloud Swell Environmental Conditions BFT Wind Direction Vis Tide T Precip I No. of Vessels OBSERVERS: Boat Traffic Vessel Type Comments PAGE __OF___

Checked (Initials)

Appendix 8
DATE:

LAND BASED: SIGHTINGS
OBSERVERS: Dolphins and Megafauna PAGE ______OF______

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Time (24 hrs)

Observers

Bearing Sighting Distance

Species Min

Group size Max Best

Plot # on chart

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) No. of Dolphin dhows passing on way to MPA (Tally count) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common Std - Striped Ptd- pan-tropiccal spotted Unk- unknown sp

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Initials

107

Appendix 9
LANDBASE SURVEY: DOLPHIN BEHAVIOUR PAGE: OF DATE: OBSERVERS: Record every 5 minutes from 1st sighting # Group size Vessel #Tourist Vessels Dive Dive type dhows Time Spp Spread present Type Duration Min Max Best

# dhows swim with dolphins

Split into subgroups (Yes or No)

View Obstructed by boats (Yes or No)

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species

Dive Type Rg - Regular Td - Tail-out Pd - Peduncle Rs - Rapid Surface Rt - Rooster Tail Lp - Leap Pp - Porpoise Snag - Snag

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

Spread Tig - Tight (< 2 m) Mod - Moderate (2 - <5 m) Spr - Spread (5 -10 m) Wsp - Widespread (>10 m)

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

108

References Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and L.Thomas. 2000. Introduction to distance sampling:estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York. 423 pp.

Mann, J. 2000. Unraveling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods. In: Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. (Ed. Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., and H. Whitehead)., 44-64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gregory, P.R., and A.R. Rowden. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic mammals, 27.2. 105-113.

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