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The Fibonacci numbers are Nature's numbering system. They appear everywhere in Nature, from the leaf arrangement in plants, to the pattern of the florets of a flower, the bracts of a pinecone, or the scales of a pineapple. The Fibonacci numbers are therefore applicable to the growth of every living thing, including a single cell, a grain of wheat, a hive of bees, and even all of mankind. Stan Grist
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In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio between the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the same as the ratio between the larger one and the smaller.
Expressed algebraically:
The golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter phi (Φ or φ). The figure of a golden section illustrates the geometric relationship that defines this constant. The golden ratio is an irrational mathematical constant, approximately 1.6180339887.
Golden Rectangle
A golden rectangle is a rectangle whose side lengths are in the golden ratio, 1: j (onetophi), that is, 1 : or approximately 1:1.618.
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A golden rectangle can be constructed with only straightedge and compass by this technique:
1. Construct a simple square 2. Draw a line from the midpoint of one side of the square
to an opposite corner
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3. Use that line as the radius to draw an arc that defines
the height of the rectangle
4. Complete the golden rectangle
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Golden Spiral
In geometry, a golden spiral is a logarithmic spiral whose growth factor b is related to j, the golden ratio. Specifically, a golden spiral gets wider (or further from its origin) by a factor of j for every quarter turn it makes.
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Successive points dividing a golden rectangle into squares lie on a logarithmic spiral which is sometimes known as the golden spiral. Image Source: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/GoldenRatio.html
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Golden Ratio in Architecture and Art
Many architects and artists have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. [Source: Wikipedia.org] Here are few examples:
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Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens. This ancient temple fits almost precisely into a golden rectangle.
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Science Mysteries. however that is not the case.com/sci_17. http://www. organic or inorganic. Image Source >> Leonardo's Vetruvian Man is sometimes confused with principles of "golden rectangle".worldmysteries.disted. Source: http://www. as a paramount spiritual ideal. in the human form. forms and proportions. Then. to the proportions of chemical compounds and the geometry of crystals. which finds its fullest realization. and the legs. In these phenomena he saw the golden ratio operating as a universal law. found the golden ratio expressed in the arrangement of branches along the stems of plants and of veins in leaves.html 3 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . the torso. there are three distinct sets of Golden Rectangles: Each one set for the head area. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.. whether cosmic or individual.camosun.bc.ca/goldslide/jbgoldslide. He extended his research to the skeletons of animals and the branchings of their veins and nerves.World Mysteries .xgoldensection. all structures. moving it up so it would touch the base of the square and drawing the final circle between the base of the square and the midpoint between square's center and center of the moved circle: Detailed explanation about geometrical construction of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci >> Golden Ratio in Nature Adolf Zeising. and which permeates.com/xgoldensection. however.htm Source: http://britton. Examples: Click on the picture for animation showing more examples of golden ratio. whose main interests were mathematics and philosophy.htm The Vetruvian Man"The Man in Action)"by Leonardo Da Vinci ( We can draw many lines of the rectangles into this figure. The construction of Vetruvian Man is based on drawing a circle with its diameter equal to diagonal of the square.[38] Zeising wrote in 1854: The Golden Ratio is a universal law in which is contained the groundprinciple of all formative striving for beauty and completeness in the realms of both nature and art. acoustic or optical. even to the use of proportion in artistic endeavors..
so that we have 1/GS = 1 + GS. 8.worldmysteries. 144.uk/Personal/R. 610. in which each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers is known as the Fibonacci series: 1.mcs. 2. .618033989 . 13. . which was his father's name. 4181. 5.Science Mysteries. . His full name was Leonardo of Pisa. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. 2584. fn+1 = fn + fn1. standing for "son of Bonacci". . http://www. The ratio of successive pairs is socalled golden section (GS) .. . He called himself Fibonacci which was short for Filius Bonacci. subtracting. multiplying and dividing numbers altogether with many problems to illustrate the methods in detail. Fibonacci's name is also perpetuated in two streetsthe quayside Lungarno Fibonacci in Pisa and the Via Fibonacci in Florence.goldennumber. So Fibonacci grew up with a North African education under the Moors and later travelled extensively around the Mediterranean coast.618033989 . 1...htm Source: http://www. now called Bougie.surrey. FIBONACCI NUMBERS About Fibonacci Fibonacci was known in his time and is still recognized today as the "greatest European mathematician of the middle ages.. 4 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . and 0 His book on how to do arithmetic in the decimal system. or Leonardo Pisano in Italian since he was born in Pisa.based of ten digits with its decimal point and a symbol for zero: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.ac.htm A slice through a Nautilus shell reveals golden spiral construction principle. . 1597. 377. . He was one of the first people to introduce the HinduArabic number system into Europethe system we now use today. 987. He then met with many merchants and learned of their systems of doing arithmetic. ( http://www. Leonardo's father( Guglielmo Bonacci) was a kind of customs officer in the North African town of Bugia. 233. generated by the rule f1 = f2 = 1 .net/hand.Knott/Fibonacci /fibnat. . The Fibonacci sequence. called Liber abbaci (meaning Book of the Abacus or Book of calculating) completed in 1202 persuaded many of the European mathematicians of his day to use his "new" system. 89. 34. He soon realized the many advantages of the "HinduArabic" system over all the others. .1. The book goes into detail (in Latin) with the rules we all now learn in elementary school for adding.World Mysteries .html#Rabbits ) Fibonacci Numbers The sequence. 3. whose reciprocal is 0. 21. 55." He was born in the 1170's and died in the 1240's and there is now a statue commemorating him located at the Leaning Tower end of the cemetery next to the Cathedral in Pisa. (each number is the sum of the previous two).com/sci_17.
as do daisies and sunflowers. or the average amount of light falling on each one. in fact) and the Persian astronomerpoet Omar Khayyám. The basic idea is that the position of each new growth is about 222. some of the cases may be related to maximizing the space for each leaf. arrangement of leaves on a stem. Some coniferous trees show these numbers in the bumps on their trunks. such as branching in trees. or even 144. Pascal's Triangle and Fibonacci Numbers The triangle was studied by B. although it had been described centuries earlier by Chinese mathematician Yanghui (about 500 years earlier. not to a mathematical rule. Sunflowers can contain the number 89. Why do these arrangements occur? In the case of leaf arrangement.5 degrees away from the previous one. Many other plants. .htm is well known in many different areas of mathematics and science.. The "hallow diagonals"of Pascal's triangle s sum to Fibonacci numbers. an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone. Pascal.they just grow in the most efficient ways. http://www. Fibonacci and Nature Plants do not know about this sequence . to name a few) that this phenomenon appears to be one of the principal "laws of nature". relating to the breeding of rabbits. shells. Even a tiny advantage would come to dominate. In addition. the maximum space for all the shoots. also show the numbers. in two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. In the case of closepacked leaves in cabbages and succulents the correct arrangement may be crucial for availability of space. on average. 0. This angle is called the golden angle.618033989 . because it provides. Fibonacci sequences appear in biological settings.World Mysteries . plants. leaves. and the curve of waves The Fibonacci numbers are also found in the family tree of honeybees. The plant is responding to physical constraints. such as succulents. numerous claims of Fibonacci numbers or golden sections in nature are found in popular sources. over many generations. It is quite amazing that the Fibonacci number patterns occur so frequently in nature ( flowers. e. Many plants show the Fibonacci numbers in the arrangement of the leaves around the stem. the fruitlets of a pineapple.. Pascal's Triangle is described by the following formula: where is a binomial coefficient.Science Mysteries.worldmysteries. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.com/sci_17. This is well described in several books listed here >> So nature isn't trying to use the Fibonacci numbers: they are appearing as a byproduct of a deeper physical process.g. . the flowering of artichoke. That is why the spirals are imperfect. . the spirals of shells. Some pine cones and fir cones also show the numbers. And palm trees show the numbers in the rings on their trunks. 5 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . and it divides the complete 360 degree circle in the golden section. or phyllotaxis.
with the average being a Fibonacci number.e.Science Mysteries. larkspur. columbine (aquilegia) 8 petals: delphiniums 13 petals: ragwort.World Mysteries .com/sci_17. chicory 34 petals: plantain.g. Petals on flow ers* Probably most of us have never taken the time to examine very carefully the number or arrangement of petals on a flower. but others have petals that are very near those above. trillium Five petals . wild rose.. 21 petals: aster. with five petals. iris 5 petals: buttercup. If we were to do so. euphorbia Three petals are more common. 89 petals: michaelmas daisies.. corn marigold. white calla lily Twopetalled flowers are not common. Onepetalled . we would find that the number of petals on a flower.there are hundreds of species. that still has all of its petals intact and has not lost any. pyrethrum 55. cineraria. buttercups. http://www. for many flowers is a Fibonacci number: 3 petals: lily.htm Examples of the Fibonacci sequence in nature. the asteraceae family Some species are very precise about the number of petals they have .worldmysteries.. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. blackeyed susan. both wild and cultivated.. 6 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .
the daisy has often 34 or 55 petals.com/sci_17. the number of spirals not being the same in each sense. Furthermore.worldmysteries. blackeyed susan Twentyone and thirtyfour petals are also quite common. 21.ca/fibslide/jbfibslide. etc. a fact to be taken in consideration when playing "she loves me.camosun. 13. but there are quite a number of wellknown species with eight. buttercups have five of them.disted. or either 5 spirals from one side and 8 from the other? Finally. either 34 and 55.. The outer ring of ray florets in the daisy family illustrate the Fibonacci sequence extremely well. the chicory has 21 of them.World Mysteries .disted.ca/jbfunpatt.bc. bloodroot Thirteen. http://www.htm Related Links: http://britton. why is the number of diagonals of a pineapple also 8 in one direction and 13 in the other? 7 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .. one is generalizing about the species . Why is the number of spirals in general either 21 and 34. . Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.camosun. 8. so that 33 is more common than 35. Daisies with 13.but any individual member of the species may deviate from this general pattern.. the lily has three petals. 21.. There is more likelihood of a possible under development than overdevelopment.Science Mysteries. 5. In saying that daisies have 34 petals. * Read the entire article here: http://britton.htm Flower Patterns and Fibonacci Numbers Why is it that the number of petals in a flower is often one of the following numbers: 3. or 89 and 144? The same for pinecones : why do they have either 8 spirals from one side and 13 from the other. one notices two series of curves. she loves me not". one winding in one sense and one in another. 55 or 89 petals are quite common. 34 or 55? For example.bc.. 34. when one observes the heads of sunflowers.. either 55 and 89.htm Eightpetalled flowers are not so common as fivepetalled. shasta daisy with 21 petals Ordinary field daisies have 34 petals .
For a long time..World Mysteries . © All rights reserved. etc. Let's mention also that in the case of the sunflower. the number is doubled since the petals are arranged on two levels). 55.com/sci_17. f4 = 5 and generally f n+2 = fn+1 + fn . it is only verified on average (and in certain cases. the golden mean. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. the pineapple and of the pinecone. the correspondence with the Fibonacci numbers is very exact. but only relatively recently that one understands why. as we have just seen. 8. 34. 89.worldmysteries. his numbers play really a fundamental role in the context of the growth of plants 8 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . this does not at all correspond to reality! On the contrary.. f2 = 2. 21. itself intimately linked to the spiral form of certain types of shell.Science Mysteries. A more abstract way of putting it is that the Fibonacci numbers fn are given by the formula f1 = 1. (where each number is obtained from the sum of the two preceding). 2. It is a question of efficiency during the growth process of plants. it had been noticed that these numbers were important in nature. f3 = 3. 13. 5. 3.htm Passion Fruit © All rights reserved Image Source >> Are these numbers the product of chance? No! They all belong to the Fibonacci sequence: 1. while in the case of the number of flower petals. Let's underline also that although Fibonacci historically introduced these numbers in 1202 in attempting to model the growth of populations of rabbits. 144. The explanation is linked to another famous number. http://www.
htm THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GOLDEN MEAN The explanation which follows is very succinct. generally the petals of flowers are formed at the extremity of one of the families of spiral. correspond to a Fibonacci number. In order to optimize the filling. 8/13. 13/21. This then is also why the number of petals corresponds on average to a Fibonacci number. if the angle between the appearance of each seed is a portion of a turn which corresponds to a simple fraction. is 137. two families of spirals (one in each direction) are then visible: their numbers correspond to the numerator and denominator of one of the fractions which approximates the golden mean : 2/3. 1/4. 1/3. For a much more detailed explanation. this is not the most efficient way of filling space. Moreover. the angle is 137. one always obtains a series of straight lines. one obtains a series of curved lines (spiral arms) which even then do not fill out the space perfectly (figure 2).6 degrees!) When the angle is exactly the golden mean.5 degrees. S. In many cases. by taking its complement). For example. REFERENCES: 1. If this latter is well approximated by a simple fraction. This number is exactly the golden mean. the same spacing between all the seeds (figure 3). the result after several generations is that represented by figure 1. the golden angle. janvier 1993. that is 1/4 of a turn..worldmysteries.World Mysteries . 5/8. Each new seed appears at a certain angle in relation to the preceeding one. with very interesting animations. An excellent Internet site of Ron Knot's at the University of Surrey on this and related topics. and in the centers of flowers in general. With this angle. 2/5. it is necessary to choose a portion of the circle which is an irrational number (or a nonsimple fraction). This is why the number of spirals in the centers of sunflowers. 26 (In French). Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. and only this one. 3/7. etc. since one obtains an angle greater than 180 degrees. La Recherche. (In fig 2. and then migrate towards the outside to fill eventually all the space (as for the sunflower but on a much smaller level). if the angle is 90 degrees. one obtains the optimal filling. Couder. etc (that is a simple rational number). 9 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . The corresponding angle.com/sci_17. Of course.Science Mysteries. (It is obtained by multiplying the nonwhole part of the golden mean by 360 degrees and. If one wants to avoid this rectilinear pattern. that is. These numbers are precisely those of the Fibonacci sequence (the bigger the numbers. 3/4. it is necessary to choose the most irrational number there is. see the web site in the reference.. the better the approximation) and the choice of the fraction depends on the time laps between the appearance of each of the seeds at the center of the flower. This angle has to be chosen very precisely: variations of 1/10 of a degree destroy completely the optimization. that is to say. In fact. the head of a flower is made up of small seeds which are produced at the centre. p. http://www. La physique des spirales végétales. Douady et Y. the one the least well approximated by a fraction. 3/5. 2.
The Greek followers of the mathematician and mystic Pythagoras even thought of the golden ratio as divine. Brocolli/Cauliflower © All rights reserved Image Source >> *** Human Hand Every human has two hands.. Human Face Knowledge of the golden section.worldmysteries. U.htm Source of the above segment: http://www.Bangor. ratio and rectangle goes back to the Greeks. 1996 .uk/rpamaths/rpampages/sunflower. who based their most famous work of art on them: the Parthenon is full of golden rectangles.Science Mysteries..org.html © Mathematics and Knots.2002 Fibonacci numbers in vegetables and fruit Romanesque Brocolli/Cauliflower (or Romanesco) looks and tastes like a cross between brocolli and cauliflower.C.World Mysteries . However keep in mind.W.N. http://www.. each one of these has five fingers. Each floret is peaked and is an identical but smaller version of the whole thing and this makes the spirals easy to see. 10 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . All of these numbers fit into the sequence.popmath. each finger has three parts which are separated by two knuckles. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. this could simply be coincidence.com/sci_17. To view more examples of Fibonacci numbers in Nature explore our selection of related links>>.
Hungarian composer Bela Bartok and French architect Le Corbusier purposefully incorporated the golden ratio into their work. but notes that several others have provided evidence suggesting such a preference exists. The golden ratio and its relatives also appear in many unexpected contexts in mathematics. particularly the golden rectangle. In more modern times. the golden ratio is in humanmade objects all around us.World Mysteries . discusses several experiments over the years that have shown no measurable preference for the golden rectangle. there is an ongoing debate among psychologists about whether people really do perceive the golden shapes. Even a cross section of the most common form of human DNA fits nicely into a golden decagon.. you need to look no further than the credit cards in your wallet. Regardless of the science. and the ratio of the lengths of the thorax and abdomen in most bees is nearly the golden ratio.com/sci_17. To find a golden rectangle. and some of its relatives to make a mask that he claims is the most beautiful shape a human face can have. partly because excellent approximations of it turn up in many unexpected places in nature. the golden ratio retains a mystique. though there is much debate about whether he was conscious of this. Look at almost any Christian cross. of York University in Toronto. a former plastic surgeon. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. and they continue to spark interest in the mathematical community. http://www. that enigmatic number that has long stood for beauty. Even today. and structured the rest of the painting around similar rectangles. the ratio of the vertical part to the horizontal is the golden ratio. In a 1995 article in the journal Perception. Stephen Marquardt. 11 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . Mozart divided a striking number of his sonatas into two parts whose lengths reflect the golden ratio.htm Later. professor Christopher Green. as more beautiful than other shapes. Dr.worldmysteries.. Leonardo da Vinci painted Mona Lisa's face to fit perfectly into a golden rectangle. has used the golden section. Despite these numerous appearances in works of art throughout the ages. The spiral inside a nautilus shell is remarkably close to the golden section.Science Mysteries.
C.Science Mysteries.. 12 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .) An artist's impression of the face of Jesus based on the Shroud of Turin and corrected to match Dr. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. Stephen Marquardt's mask. Click here for more detailed analysis. http://www..com/sci_17.worldmysteries.World Mysteries .htm The Mask of a perfect human face Egyptian Queen Nefertiti (1400 B.
. or simply to see how much your face conforms to the measurements of the Golden Ratio.org/tech/demos/average http://morph. to aid in evaluating your face for face lift surgery. Related website: http://www.cs.com/sci_17.uk/fof/index.discovery..faceresearch. Source of the above article (with exception of few added photos): http://tlc. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.World Mysteries .Science Mysteries.com/convergence/humanface/articles/mask.org/tech/demos/average You can overlay the Repose Frontal Mask (also called the RF Mask or Repose Expression – Frontal View Mask) over a photograph of your own face to help you apply makeup. Visit Dr.standrews.worldmysteries. Marquardt's Web site for more information on the beauty mask. Marquardt's Web site The Beauty Code CrossCultural Beauty Timeless Beauty Beauty Ranges Related websites http://www.ac. http://www.com/people/thefaceoftomorrow/ 13 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .html Related links: Dr.faceresearch.html http://digitalphotopix.htm "Averaged" (morphed) face of few celebrities.
so now there are 2 pairs of rabbits in the field. 8.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio. 4. 1.surrey.uk/Personal/R. http://www.. they mate. At the end of the third month.worldmysteries.5. the original female has produced yet another new pair. if we start with two small squares of size 1 next to each other. The Fibonacci Rectangles and Shell Spirals We can make another picture showing the Fibonacci numbers 1. making 5 pairs. 5.mcs. "A pair of rabbits. At the end of the fourth month. 2. 14 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .8.Science Mysteries.21. one month old. Suppose that in their second month. etc. At the end of the second month the female produces a new pair. If each new pair of rabbits does the same. 13. is too young to reproduce.3. in the year 1202.13. At the end of the first month...1. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. how many pairs of rabbits will there be at the beginning of each month?" 1. (http://www. the female born two months ago produces her first pair also. 21. the original female produces a second pair. 3.2.htm Fibonacci's Rabbits The original problem that Fibonacci investigated. and none of the rabbits dies.com/sci_17. was about how fast rabbits could breed in ideal circumstances. they produce a new pair. and every month thereafter..World Mysteries . 2. but there is still one only 1 pair.html) The number of pairs of rabbits in the field at the start of each month is 1.ac. 3. On top of both of these draw a square of size 2 (=1+1). making 3 pairs in all in the field.
.touching both a unit square and the latest square of side 2 .618. 15 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .. we will call the Fibonacci Rectangles. A similar curve to this occurs in nature as the shape of a snail shell or some sea shells.a Powerful Tool for Finding Harmony and Beauty We can now draw a new square .618.618. Whereas the Fibonacci Rectangles spiral increases in size by a factor of Phi (1. http://www..htm Phi pendant gold . Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. This set of rectangles whose sides are two successive Fibonacci numbers in length and which are composed of squares with sides which are Fibonacci numbers.worldmysteries.e. the Nautilus spiral curve takes a whole turn before points move a factor of 1.Science Mysteries. from the centre..) in a quarter of a turn (i.. and this applies to all points on the curve). A slice through a Nautilus shell These spiral shapes are called Equiangular or Logarithmic spirals. The links from these terms contain much more information on these curves and pictures of computergenerated shells. times as far from the centre. a point a further quarter of a turn round the curve is 1. and then another touching both the 2square and the 3square (which has sides of 5 units).World Mysteries . This is a spiral (the Fibonacci Spiral). each new square having a side which is as long as the sum of the latest two square's sides.so having sides 3 units long.. one in each new square. The next diagram shows that we can draw a spiral by putting together quarter circles.. We can continue adding squares around the picture.com/sci_17.
htm Here is a curve which crosses the Xaxis at the Fibonacci numbers The spiral part crosses at 1 2 5 13 etc on the positive axis.worldmysteries. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. This is not surprising. http://www. as the curve tends to a logarithmic spiral as it expands. Nautilus shell (cut) © All rights reserved.World Mysteries ... Image source >> 16 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . The oscillatory part crosses at 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 etc on the positive axis. and 0 1 3 8 etc on the negative axis.com/sci_17. The curve is strangely reminiscent of the shells of Nautilus and snails.Science Mysteries.
com/sci_17. This spiral is a motif found frequently throughout nature in shells.worldmysteries. where a picture is divided into three sections vertically and horizontally and lines and points of intersection represent places to position important visual elements. Studies of top fashion models revealed that their faces have an abundance of the 1. 3. Golden Ratio: 1. 1.Golden Ratio and Rule of Thirds © R. Each succeeding number after 1 is equal to the sum of the two preceding numbers.618 ratio. The Golden Mean or Phi occurs frequently in nature and it may be that humans are genetically programmed to recognize the ratio as being pleasing.html Many photographers and artists are aware of the rule of thirds.. 21. Berdan 20/01/2004.. One proportion that is often cited as occurring frequently in design is the Golden mean or Golden ratio. Published with permission of the author Proportion refers the size relationship of visual elements to each other and to the whole picture. tlc.the ratio of bc to ab is the same as ab to ac. 5.A Symbol of Nature’s Beauty Proportion . http://www.discovery.com/convergence/humanface/articles/mask.618 is called the golden mean . Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. One of the reasons proportion is often considered important in composition is that viewers respond to it emotionally.htm Nautilus jewelry pendant gold . 13. horns and flowers (and my Science & Art logo). If you divide each smaller window again with the same ratio and joing their corners you end up with a logarithmic spiral. The Ratio formed 1:1. long before photography was invented.World Mysteries . 2. Proportion in art has been examined for hundreds of years. 8.Science Mysteries. 34 etc. The golden ratio and its 17 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .
Science Mysteries.htm application are similar although the golden ratio is not as well known and its' points of intersection are closer together. In placing visual elements for effective composition. Never be afraid to experiment and try something drastically different. I suspect an analysis of other photographers' images would have similar results. ideas surround yourself with others that share an open mind and enthusiasm and you will improve your compositional skills quickly. There are a few web sites and references to scientific studies that have studied proportion in art and photography but I have not come across any systematic studies that quantified their results. In summary. however many do not. proportion is an element of design you should always be aware of but you must also realize that other design factors along with your own unique sensitivity about the subject dictates where you should place items in the viewfinder. Moving a horizon in a landscape to the position of one third is often more effective than placing it in the middle. dominance.World Mysteries .com/Golden_Mean/).maybe I just need to look harder (see link for more information about the use of the golden ratio: http://photoinf. 18 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . http://www. but it could also be placed near the bottom one quarter or sixth. and learn from both your successes and failures. Often a certain amount of imbalance or tension can make an image more effective.com/sci_17. Rule of thirds grid applied to a landscape Golden mean grid applied a simple composition On analyzing some of my favorite photographs by laying down grids (thirds or golden ratio in Adobe Photoshop) I find that some of my images do indeed seem to correspond to the rule of thirds and to a lesser extent the golden ratio. This is where we come to the artists' intuition and feelings about their subject.worldmysteries. one must assess many factors including color.. Understanding proportion and various elements of design are guidelines only and you should always follow your instincts combined with your knowledge. There is nothing obligatory about applying the rule of thirds. size and balance together with proportion.. new techniques. Each of us is unique and we should strive to preserve those feelings and impressions about our chosen subject that are different. Also try to be open minded about new ways of taking pictures. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.
dcs.net/index.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio.html http://www.wolfram.virginia.html http://mathworld. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.branta.ac.stangrist.htm http://wwwgroups.World Mysteries .mcs.stand.html#Rabbits http://www.uk/fibonacci. Berdan 20/01/2004 Published with permission of the author.goldennumber.aiwaz.ac.mathforum.html http://www.htm http://www.html Beautycheck http://www.surrey.co.ac.golden mean ration of 1.by Christine Sterne *****/***** http://www.org/ Nature's Patterns Photo CD 50 Royalty Free Images Nautilus jewelry pendant gold . Note: The above segment is part of the article COMPOSITION & the ELEMENTS of VISUAL DESIGN by Robert Berdan ( http://www.html http://www.com/fibonacci.uk/Personal/R..net/tools/fibonacciseries.htm 35 mm film has the dimensions 36 mm by 24 mm (3:2 ratio) .lib.br/hs/fib/fibnat.surrey.htm http://www.org/dr..scienceandart.Science Mysteries. The entire article can be found here (PDF): http://www.scienceandart.org/photography/elementsofdesign.com/FibonacciNumber.aegsp. http://www.uk/Personal/R.edu/science/parshall/fibonacc.com/sci_17.connectfree.mcs.math http://www.htm http://www.pdf Subject Related Links and Resources Dance of the Planets BLUEPRINTS OF THE COSMOS .6 to 1 Points of intersection are recommended as places to position important elements in your picture.org/ ) © R.A Symbol of Nature’s Beauty 19 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .com/golden.friesian.html http://www.worldmysteries.scienceandart.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Fibonacci.Knott/Fibonacci/fibnat.
Not by any means a simple book. Sequences A000012/M0003. the elegance of nature is laid out in zebras' stripes. and A114540 in "The OnLine Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. Hofstetter. DVDs The SelfMade Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature by Philip Ball Oxford Press. A036415. Ball seeks to go beyond the theory of natural selection." http://www. N. but for those willing to follow his discussion.html. camouflage). honeycombs. 2003) From rainbows. 2002. W. shape. Again. A036414.edu /FG2002volume2/FG200208index.worldmysteries.fau. A. even the occasional forays into mathematics and the abstractions of hydrodynamics are endurable. 2. Examining such readily observable phenomena. 6566. which explains why we see certain characteristics (height.com/encyclopedias/books/GoldenRatio. Generously illustrated. http://forumgeom. K. Magazines." 18 Aug 1999. E.html http://brantacan.uk/naturemaths. (November 10. and shadows to spider webs. "A 4Step Construction of the Golden Ratio. A001622/M4046." http://www. Reprint edition (August 2001) This deep.aliases Forests. and butterfly wings. "Golden Section and the Art of Painting.org/ Weisstein. "Golden Ratio in Geometry. K. trees and wood Spider webs Surface tension Engineering Curves Interference of waves Sine and exponential Snake curves and locomotion Resistive polyhedra Numerology Relationships in maths and science A Timeline of Mathematicians History topics A History of Pi THE GOD OF ABRAHAM: A Mathematician's View Lore and Order: Learning from the Ancients Astronomic and Cosmographic Data Subject Related Resources: Books. tucked as they are between Ball's bright prose and his hundreds of carefully selected illustrations. Readers will develop an understanding of the symbiosis that exists between basic scientific principles and their mathematical expressions as well as a deeper appreciation for such natural phenomena as cloud 20 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . Adam Princeton Univ Pr. A028259.org/do_you_know/GoldenRatio.org/abs/physics/9908036/. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec.ericweisstein. it is still completely engaging. this book introduces readers to the beauty of nature as revealed by mathematics and the beauty of mathematics as revealed in nature.shtml Hofstetter. 2006. It illustrates how mathematics can be used to formulate and solve puzzles observed in nature and to interpret the solutions. the visible world is full of patterns that can be described mathematically. and the markings on animal coats. "Books about Golden Ratio.. http://www." http://www. Olariu. A001950/M1332.fau. 179180.htm Bogomolny. to find mechanisms that can explain how such characteristics come to be. beautiful exploration of the recurring patterns that we find both in the living and inanimate worlds will change how you think about everything from evolution to earthquakes.cuttheknot.htm From sunflower to suspension bridge Not what it seems . Mathematics in Nature is an excellent and undaunting introduction to the ideas and methods of mathematical modeling.World Mysteries . river meanders. it teaches such topics as the art of estimation and the effects of scale. When speaking of the living world.edu/FG2006volume6/FG200618index. http://forumgeom. Sloane." Forum Geom.co. Mathematics in Nature: Modeling Patterns in the Natural World by John A.Science Mysteries. particularly what happens as things get bigger.. and replete with examples from everyday life. written in an informal style. "A Simple Construction of the Golden Ratio. this is no easy task. In the process. http://arxiv.html. J. ivy leaves.com/sci_17." Forum Geom. A. A. Moving on to find the same patterns at work in the clouds of Jupiter and the cracks in the San Andreas fault give strength to the feeling that there are selfcomposing structures that guide everything in the universe toward a kind of order. 6. A003849. A000201/M2322.mathematicaguidebooks.
New York: Wiley. Les nombres remarquables. Phyllotaxis. F. Huntley. R. D. Le Lionnais. J. this book makes an ideal supplemental text for courses in applied mathematics and mathematical modeling. R. Knott." Scripta Mathematica 19. "Misconceptions About the Golden Ratio. 9 x 6 inches x 300 dpi) suitable for printing. H. Livio. p. J. The Divine Proportion. and is designed so that it can be dipped into at leisure. 56. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi. "Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section. Dixon.uk/Personal/R. 1998. 1953. 135143. halos and glories. New York: Simon and Schuster." Ch. New York: Doubleday.World Mysteries . 512. It will also appeal to mathematics educators and enthusiasts at all levels. Anthony Tromba Gamma: Exploring the Euler's Constant by Julian Havil (Author) Princeton Univ Pr. 219. G. The Elements of Dynamic Stability. the World's Most Astonishing Number. pp. 2003. Edward A. http://www. 8 in The Second Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles & Diversions. tree heights and leaf patterns. Gardner. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. New York: Dover. multimedia and the web. 1991. England: Cambridge University Press. 243247. "Notes on a FringeWatcher: The Cult of the Golden Ratio. S. M. S. "Phi: The Golden Ratio. 40. M. New York: Dover. History of Mathematics." http://www. and Wythoff's Game. Brown. 2002. 1967.Knott/Fibonacci/.com/sci_17. 1983. 1968. M. p..mcs. and even puddles and mud cracks. Hambridge. M. New York: Broadway Books." Skeptical Inquirer 18. pp. E.Science Mysteries. Developed out of a university course. Dover books On Growth and Form (1992) by D'Arcy Thompson Life's Other Secret: The New Mathematics of the Living World (1999) by Ian Stewart The Parsimonious Universe: Shape and Form in the Natural World by Stefan Hildebrandt. Coxeter. 2003. 1961. 89103. the World's Most Astonishing Number (2002) by Mario Livio Math in Science and Nature: Finding Patterns in the World Around Us (1999) by Robert Gardner. A Mathematical History of the Golden Number. Gardner. butterfly and moth wings.htm formations. Finch. C. 1970. Mathographics. The Da Vinci Code. Cambridge. H." §1..Royalty Free Each image on the CD is 14 MB in size (approx. 21 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . HerzFischler. Shore The Curves of Life (1979) Theodore A Cook. R. multimedia and the web. R. "The Golden Mean. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi. 1994. B. "The Golden Section.surrey. New York: Dover. Boyer. (March 17.worldmysteries. 1992. Paris: Hermann.ac. 2003) N/A Patterns in Nature (1974/79) by Peter S Stevens Nature's Patterns Photo CD 50 Royalty Free* Images Each image on the CD is 14 MB in size (approx." College Math. New York: Dover. 23. A New Selection. pp. Science Photo CD 50 science related images .2 in Mathematical Constants. 9 x 6 inches x 300 dpi) suitable for printing. Markowsky. 3031 and 50.
148. P. and Kainen." §27 in The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. as well as changes that impact life on Earth. It is typically packed with stories that cover a wide range of science from archeology to space travel. D. 3rd ed. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. 1989. 2004. A. 1999. Wells.. 122134. computers. Wells. Trott. Steinhaus. 1835. The Universe . Germany: Teubner. It's about how the latest advances in science and technology will impact your home." Nieuw Arch. pp. and Mathematics. New York: Dover. even your health.answers for curious minds. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers.com/sci_17. M. science and technology. geography. 17. 175. pp. p. C./Tetra. http://www.htm Ogilvy. 1991. Saaty. H. R. New York: SpringerVerlag. The FourColor Problem: Assaults and Conquest. chronicles exploration and adventure. Berlin: Jonas VeilagsBuchhandlung. van Zanten. J. 1999. Williams. consumer electronics. Ohm.The Complete Season One (History Channel) (2007) Discover Discover attracts intelligent and curious readers . 8788. 5253. R. 1986. London: Penguin. C. D. "Anatomy & the Golden Section. carry a strong voice concerning political issues and are very active in environmental groups. Stuttgart. T. 3233. pp. The Mathematica GuideBook for Programming. New York: Dover. Middlesex. England: Penguin Books. 1990. pp. M. Popular Mechanics . New York: Dover. 1986. L. Editorial coverage encompasses people and places of the world. Pappas. Excursions in Geometry. 45. p.World Mysteries . New York: Dover. DVD Scientific American This magazine is designed for technically educated professionals and managers interested in a broad range of the physical and social sciences. National Geographic NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. Major topics include culture.worldmysteries. S. Wisk. the flagship magazine of the National Geographic Society. "The Golden Proportion. 3649. Science Illustrated It present science in a very exciting and approachable way. nature. with an emphasis on human involvement in a changing universe. Der Goldene Schnitt. die Reine ElementarMathematik.Science Mysteries. pp. Its articles and features anticipate what the breakthroughs and the news will be in a society increasingly dependent upon scientific and technological advances." The Joy of Mathematics. your car. CA: Wide World Publ. "The Golden Ratio in the Arts of Painting. T. 1993. Walser. ecology. San Carlos. Building. Mathematical Snapshots.forward thinkers and public advocates engaging in a dialogue of action that influences opinion leaders and encourages innovation.. 1979. p. They are active in their communities. 229245. 22 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM . Stories are typically accompanied with many large photos or illustrations. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Geometry. Popular Mechanics Popular Mechanics is for people who have a passion to know how things work.
relevant ideas. Each month.worldmysteries. online culture. Includes extensive resources 23 of 23 11/6/2011 6:27 AM .htm Wired Wired readers want to know how technology is changing the world.Science Mysteries. adventure. even if those ideas challenge their assumptions—or blow their minds.World Mysteries .. philosophy … and bright shiny beautiful gadgets. It is edited for modern. This bimonthly magazine contains science articles written by scientists for the scientifically literate reader (primarily other scientists). world travel opportunities through Smithsonian study tours and information on all Smithsonian events in any area. Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sec. savvy readers come to Wired for clean. American Scientist Articles cover all areas of science and endeavor to provide explanations of research. Introduction to Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio in nature. sciences and popular culture of the times.. wellrounded individuals with diverse.com/sci_17. Wired is a magazine about science. art. Recommended: 1920x1200+ display. WorldMysteries. http://www. architecture and art.com. more than 2 million smart. All Rights Reserved. environment. Each subscription includes a membership to the Smithsonian Institution which provides special discounts at Smithsonian gift shops. clear writing with a wry twist Smithsonian This magazine chronicles the arts. and they’re interested in big. CSS and Java Script support : : : Hosted by Lunarpages © 20022011. business. general interests.
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