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Copywriting BMM-Semester-V By: M H Lakdawala

By: M H Lakdawala

Chapter 1. Copy INTRODUCTION


What is Copywriting? Copywriting is essentially selling with words. Copywriting is using words to convince readers they will benefit (come out ahead) by using a certain product or service and then motivating them to take action (buy). Copywriting is the words used in advertisements, TV commercials, and brochures. Whenever a business promotes itself (through a press release, a leaflet or a newsletter), it needs a copywriter. Thats why copywriting is everywhere - on big posters, local newspaper ads, and every clever slogan. And when you put a postcard in a newsagent's window, to sell your old hi-fi, you're using copywriting again. Copywriting is probably the most creative and demanding branch of writing. You start with a blank sheet of paper. You may have only a couple of days to meet the clients deadline. And your work could be read by millions of people. Who needs copywriters? The market is vast. Every business, small and large, has to promote itself. Every company needs leaflets or direct mail letters. And every new product needs a pack that will entice us to buy it. These days all organizations need to communicate. That includes hospitals, local authorities and charities. So the opportunities for the copywriter are infinite. Because organizations constantly alter, their literature and ads need regularly changing, too. That keeps copywriters busy!

I. Attributes of a good copywriter


1. A good copy writer has an excellent and well-rounded portfolio - Take a look at a copywriter's past work. Is it professional? Do you see some good concepts? Are the projects high-caliber? You don't necessarily have to see work that is specific to your particular industry. A broad spectrum of work demonstrates a copywriter's talent and skill as well as the ability to adapt her knowledge to just about any market. A good portfolio will also show experience in a range of formats, such as print, web, outdoor, direct mail, press releases and corporate By: M H Lakdawala 2

communications. 2. has plenty of marketing and public relations savvy - Pretty words are, well, pretty. But they don't necessarily do what you want them to do for you. Look for a copywriter who has a rich background in marketing and public relations. That person will have a quicker and deeper grasp of what the copy needs to do and how to make it do it. 3. Listens to clients - When a copywriter listens to a client, wheels are turning. He's making observations about the "who, what, when, where and why" of your company, product or service. Questions come to his mind. He will have things he wants to discuss and find out more about. But first, he listens carefully to what you have to say. 4. Asks the right questions - You don't want an order taker; you want a copywriter who knows how to find out what she needs to in order to do the best job. What is your goal? Who do you need to sell to? Why should people care about your product or service? What sets you apart from your competition? What does your product or service does and how does it do it? How are you already reaching out to your audience with marketing and public relations? 5. Doesn't always take your word for it - Sure, it's important for a copywriter to understand the client's take on the situation. But a thorough copywriter will do a little digging on his own to find out things like how the competition brands itself, what's being said about your company, product or service and what is generally important to your customers' buying decision. 6. Brings ideas to the table - You tell your copywriter you want content for your web site, just your basic About Us, Products & Services and How to Contact Us. A good copywriter will make suggestions, like "Have you thought about featuring some case studies?", "Have you had a key word analysis yet?" or "How about doing a newsletter that will let you capture email information?" 7. Can develop concepts - The copywriter's approach to a project is often determined by the client's process. Sometimes a graphic designer has already created a look and feel, determined what the tone should be. Other times, the copywriter is called upon to help shape the message from the beginning. Find a copywriter who has experience developing concepts and you'll have someone who can make a broader contribution to the project. 8. A good copy writer is empathetic - Read something written by a good writer and you can tell that she truly becomes the customer, brings that person right into her head. When she writes about a new home, she imagines walking through her dream house. When the reader will be a business person who has been thinking seriously about going back to school for that MBA, the copywriter feels that person's restlessness and desire to move up.

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9. Offers flexibility - You need someone who will meet your time constraints and deadlines. Or maybe the copywriter will need to be proactive and persistent about getting information from some very busy, hard to reach people. Whether it's patience or persistence you require in your copywriter, she should be someone who can deliver. 10. Is someone you enjoy working with - In the end, when you've determined that a copywriter has what it takes--talent, skill, experience, savvy--it comes down to whether or not she is someone you respect and enjoy working with. The work will thrive if you're a good team.

PRINCIPLES OF COPYWRITING
1. Use Attention Getting Headlines For example print ad for DHL uses only one word as its headline URGENT, which is underlined in red, and is enough to attract anyones attention. Star TV print ad for The Big Fight does not use words, but uses a pair of boxing gloves as headline. 2. Expand Headline with Lead Paragraph Follow up the headline immediately with the first paragraph. If you ask a question, answer it. If you propose a thought, explain it. Don't leave them hanging too long; you may end up hanging yourself. The ad for Maruti N2N fleet solutions uses the headline Who says managing a huge fleet of company cars is hard work? This is followed by the lead paragraph which explains how Maruti N2N works 3. Draw the Reader In Avoid page and advertising layouts that are confusing or hard to read. Reading your message should be a pleasure to read. Keep your copy simple, clear and concise. Talk to your reader as you would a friend or family member. Be straight and sincere with them. Spell it out and explain points that need explaining. Don't leave your reader second-guessing your copy. 4. Focus on the Reader, not the Product By: M H Lakdawala 4

Of course your copy must contain information and facts about your product or service, but that is not your focal point. You must focus the reader. Use their needs, wants, desires, fears, weaknesses, concerns, and even fantasies to sell your product or service. The ad for Lakme Deep Pore Cleansing begins with the headline There's a lot that shows on your face. The body copy includes - Now, one-and-a-half minutes is all it takes to uncover the real you. Presenting the complete Deep Pore Cleansing Regimen from Lakme. Simply because your face says it all. Thus, not only does the ad talk about the product, it also focuses equally on the reader. Using words like you would make the reader feel good, rather than an ad that boasts about the product but says nothing about how to use it, how it could make your life better, etc. 5. Use the "That's Right!" Principle Get your prospect to agree with you. Tell them something they know already. Get them to say to themselves, "That's Right!" The print ad for JW Marriott starts with the headline -: Your mom knows exactly how you like your bed, your toast, and your coffee. This headline will indeed make the target exclaim thats right! 6. Ask Provocative Questions: Leading into your copy or headline with thought provoking questions will grab the reader's interest and move them to read more for the answer. The ad for Deccan Chronicle uses an attractive female model asking a provocative question like Want to play the number Game?. The ad actually talks about the impressive figures of circulation of the Deccan Chronicle. 7. Move Quickly from Intro to the Pitch: Don't waste your reader's time trying to "warm them up". If they got that far, there's blood flowing already. People are busy creatures. If you lose their interest, you neither sell nor profit. Get on with it! 8. Be Sincere: What's the number one fallback for sales on the web? Fear! Fear of being scammed or ripped-off. The more sincere you are the better your chance of building a "selling" relationship. The sincerity and genuineness of Air Sahara comes across in its ad where the body copy says as hard as we may try at this time of the year (winter), there

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are chances of flight delays due to weather conditions. Every step is taken to help passengers get to their destinations on time. To make this process easier, we need your help too. 9. Don't Contradict Yourself: Double-check your copy. You would be surprised to know that many copywriters unknowingly contradict themselves leaving the reader suspicious, thus destroying your credibility with them. 10. Keep Your Focus Aligned The more focused your target group, the better your chance of meeting their needs. Don't try to sell everyone! 11. Make Your Product Irresistible Dress it up. Your product should sound like the cream of the crop. Focus on your selling point (price, quality, etc) and make it impossible for the reader to imagine another in comparison.

12. Use Fear as Motivation: Fear is both a weakness and strength, but also a powerful selling tool. Fear of injury, death or missed opportunity. If you sell a safety product you would use this fear to your advantage. If you're offering an opportunity, the fear of missing their chance is a strong seller. Many ads for financial services use fear to motivate their target. For example in the ad for New India Assurance Shop Owners Policy, a shop owner imagines a riot occurring near his shop, which causes damage to his shop I.e. the physical property. Thus fear is used to motivate shop owners to get their shops insured under the policy offered by NIA. 13. Flattery will get you everywhere Yes, everyone likes to hear a little flattery. Keyword here is "little". Don't overdo it! 14. Be Personable Let them know that there is a kind, honest and real person behind the page. People would rather deal with people, not companies, corporations or conglomerates. Add the "Human Touch" to your copy. Ex: the institutional ad for Eureka Forbes which shows model Aditi Gowatrikar with her child has a human touch to it, what with the body copy saying times have changed. Yet your dreams remain the same. So open up. Say yes to life 15. Its Guaranteed

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A guarantee reassures the reader that you are reputable and will live up to your promises. For example, in the Vim Bar TVC, the anchor promises that if your detergent is better than Vim Bar, you will get a years supply of your detergent free. This guarantee lends credibility to the offering and induces the viewer to act. 16. Use "Power"ful Words: "Power" words are words that move a buyer by enhancing and reinforcing your presented idea. Certain words have proven to be movers and shakers in the advertising world. Examples of persuasive and attention-grabbing words Easy Genuine Immediate More Convenient Advantages Instant Biggest Exclusive Comfortable WANTED Oldest Indulge Dependable WARNING Original

17. Share a Secret People want to get the inside track. If you can convince your prospect that you have an exclusive message for them, you're one step closer to a sale. 18. Keep It Lively: There are many ways to keep your copy lively. Telling a (brief) story is a strong technique for getting your message across. Separating and highlighting key information or facts is another. Using personal pronouns like "you", we and us will add a sense of warmth to your copy. 19. Go with the Flow Writing copy requires the ability to make a smooth transition from one point to another. Rather than laying them out like a list, learn to use transitional words. Transitional words are used to go from one point to another. 20. Check Your Spelling Take the time and spell-check your work. Finding misspelled words in copy leaves the reader wondering how competent your product or service could be, if you cannot take the time to be sure you spelled the words in your web copy correctly. 21. Use Photo's to Demonstrate: Use photos to demonstrate your product or service. If used correctly a picture really is worth a thousand words.

By: M H Lakdawala

Ads for cosmetics generally use photographs to demonstrate the benefits of using the product smooth skin, fairness, etc. 22. Use Graphics to get Attention: Using buttons, icons and arrows can help direct the reader's attention to important details. If organized correctly they can also help sort facts or messages into categories. The ad for Toyota Qualis uses arrows to draw the readers attention to the unique features of the vehicle such as integrated bumper; wood finishes paneling, captain seats, etc. 23. Offer Testimonials Offer short, reputable testimonials. People want to hear what others have to say about your product or service. Diana Hayden Miss World 1996 offers testimonial for Loreal Hair color. 24 Create a Memorable Logo Create a simple, but memorable logo or custom graphic that your visitor can easily relate to your product or service Examples: Nike swoosh Tata Mercedes McDonald Golden Arches 25. Create an Unforgettable Slogan Use a short, easy to remember slogan that a reader will walk away with on his or her lips. Nike Just Do It. Visa Go get it Pepsi Yeh Dil Maange More Asian Paints Merawalla. 26. Get a response There are many techniques for getting a prospect to respond. Spell it out for them. Tell them to respond. Tell them why they should respond. Give them a reason they should respond now. Offer a bonus or freebie if they respond.

By: M H Lakdawala

This can be done by using words like order now, order today, for a short time only, last chance, etc. Ex: Service ICICI Bank Two Wheeler Loans Take Home Passion (Hero Honda Passion) by just paying Rs. 3999 only

By: M H Lakdawala

STAGES IN COPYWRITING/ THE APPROVAL PROCESS

Product Manager of Client

Legal

Client Service (Agency)

Creative Director

Account Management Team

Legal

Art Director

Senior Writer

Acct. Supervisor

Account Manager

Staff Writer

The client company representative (product manager) gives the brief to the client-servicing department of the ad agency. This brief is then broken down into creative and media brief. The creative brief is given to the creative director who passes it on to the art director and the copywriter. These two work in conjunction to create the ad. The (rough) ad is then shown to the account management team consisting of the supervisor and manager. They look into legalities that might affect the ad and whether the ad meets the clients brief and budget. Changes, if any, are communicated to the creative department The (rough) ad is then shown to the client servicing dept. The dept. might also suggest changes. The ad is finally shown to the client for his approval. Once the approval is received, the creative department goes ahead with the actual production of the ad.

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Chapter 2. Creative Strategy: Planning and Development


I. Developing an Advertising Plan: An advertising plan is a document created with the goal of matching the most effective message to your audience Definition: An outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve, how to accomplish those goals, and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals.

Advertising Plan in Context


Marketing Plan

Ad Plan
Specifies thinking and tasks needed to conceive and implement an effective advertising effort

Developing an Advertising Plan


An advertising plan is a document created with the goal of matching the most effective message to your audience. An Advertising Plan Matches the Right Audience to the Right Message and Presents It in the Right Medium to Reach That Audience Advertising Plan Definition: An outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve, how to accomplish those goals, and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals.

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Typical Advertising or Campaign Plan Outline (Tab.1)


I.

Introduction
Executive Summary or Overview is provided.

II.

Situation Analysis
Advertising Problems Advertising Opportunities

III.

Key Strategy Decisions


Advertising Objectives Target Audience Competitive Product Advantage Product Image and Personality Product Position

IV. The Creative Plan V. The Media Plan VI. The Comm unication Plan
Sales prom otion Public relations Direct m arketing Personal selling Sponsorships, m erchandising, packaging, etc.

VII. Im plem entation and Evaluation VIII.Budget

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II. Advertising Creativity: The five stages of creativity, Creative Thought Process,
What Is Creativity? Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts More than 60 different definitions of creativity can be found in the psychological literature Definitions of creativity are typically descriptive of activity that results: 1. In producing or bringing about something partly or wholly new 2. In investing an existing object with new properties or characteristics 3. In imagining new possibilities that were not conceived of before 4. In seeing or performing something in a manner different from what was thought possible or normal previously. Distinguishing between creativity and innovation Creativity is typically used to refer to the act of producing new ideas, approaches or actions, while innovation is the process of both generating and applying such creative ideas in some specific context. Advertising Creativity involves two processes: 1. Thinking, 2. producing.

Young's Creative Process


Immersion Immersion Digestion Digestion Incubation Incubation Illumination Illumination Verification Verification
Getting Raw Material, Data, Getting Raw Material, Data, Immersing One's Self in the Problem Immersing One's Self in the Problem to Get the Background. to Get the Background. Ruminating on the Data Acquired, Ruminating on the Data Acquired, Turning It This Way and That in the Turning It This Way and That in the Mind. Mind. Ceasing Analysis and Putting the Ceasing Analysis and Putting the Problem Out of Conscious Mind for Problem Out of Conscious Mind for a Time. a Time. A Sudden Inspiration or Intuitive A Sudden Inspiration or Intuitive Revelation About a Potential Solution. Revelation About a Potential Solution. Studying the Idea, Evaluating It, and Studying the Idea, Evaluating It, and Developing It for Practical Usefulness. Developing It for Practical Usefulness.

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III. Components of the Creative Strategy: There are four components of the Creative Strategy:
1. 2. 3. 4. Advertising Campaign Themes Major Selling Ideas Appeals and Execution Style Writing Creative brief

1. Advertising Campaign Themes


The central message that will be The central message that will be communicated communicated in all of the various IMC activities in all of the various IMC activities Miller Miller AMUL AMUL Lite Lite Taste of Taste of India India BMW BMW Chevy Chevy Trucks Trucks Like a Rock Like a Rock

The Ultimate The Ultimate Driving Driving Machine Machine

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Successful Long-Running Campaigns


Company or Brand
Nike Thumps up Hallmark cards Fevicol Intel Airtel LUX soap DOVE

Campaign Theme
Just do it Taste the thunder When you care enough to send the very best Yeh Fevicol ka jod hain tutega nahin Intel inside
Express yourself

Beauty soap for film star? 1/4th Moisturizing cream Vicks ki Goli lo Khich Kickh door karo

Vicks

2. Major Selling Ideas


Use a Unique Positioning the Use a Unique Positioning the Brand Selling Position Brand Selling Position Create Unique Use a Unique Create a Brand Use a a Brand Selling Position Image Selling Position Image

Seeking the Seeking the Major Idea Major Idea

Positioning Positioning

Find thethe Brand Create the Brand Find the Inherent Create Inherent Drama Image Drama Image

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Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: USP


Unique Selling Unique Selling Proposition Proposition Benefit Benefit Unique Unique Potent Potent

Buy this Buy this produce and produce and you'll benefit you'll benefit this way or this way or enjoy this enjoy this reward reward

Must be unique Must be unique to this brand or to this brand or claim; something claim; something rivals can't or rivals can't or don't offer don't offer

The promise The promise must be strong must be strong enough or enough or attractive attractive enough to move enough to move people people

Perspectives of Great Ad Men on the Major Selling Idea


David Ogilvy David Ogilvy
Brand image or Brand image or personality is particularly personality is particularly important when brands important when brands are similar are similar

Leo Burnett Leo Burnett


Find the inherent drama or Find the inherent drama or characteristic of the characteristic of the product that makes product that makes consumers buy it consumers buy it

Every ad must contribute Every ad must contribute to the complex symbol to the complex symbol that is the brand image. that is the brand image.

(Inherent drama) is often (Inherent drama) is often hard to find but it is always hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is there, and once found it is the most interesting and the most interesting and believable of all believable of all advertising appeals. advertising appeals.

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Creating a Brand Image


Used when competing brands are so Used when competing brands are so similar it is difficult to find or create a similar it is difficult to find or create a unique attribute unique attribute The creativity sales strategy is based on a The creativity sales strategy is based on a strong, memorable brand identity through strong, memorable brand identity through image advertising image advertising

Often used for products such as soft Often used for products such as soft drinks, perfume, liquor, clothing, airlines drinks, perfume, liquor, clothing, airlines

Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: Inherent Drama


Messages generally presented Messages generally presented in a warm, emotional way in a warm, emotional way Hallmark, Maytag, Kellog Hallmark, Maytag, Kellog

Inherent Inherent Drama Drama

Focus on consumer benefits Focus on consumer benefits with an emphasis on the with an emphasis on the dramatic element in dramatic element in expressing them expressing them

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3. Appeals and Execution Style

3. Appeals and Execution Style


A. i. Advertising appeal: The approach use to attract the attention of the target group To influence consumers feelings towards a product or service or cause. Execution style: The way an appeal is turned into an advertising message The way message is presented to the target group.

ii.

B. i.

ii.

3. A. Advertising appeals
Appeals are broadly classified as rational, emotional and moral appeals:

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Rational appeals are those directed at the thinking process of the audience. They involve some sort of a deliberate reasoning process, which a person believes would be acceptable to other members of his social group. They attempt to show that the product would yield the expected functional benefit. Rationality has come to be equated with substance. Rational appeals: A rational ad becomes believable and effective. Although there may be some disagreement regarding which motives are rational and which are emotional, the following are some buying motives, which are normally, considered rational under ordinary circumstances: (i) High Quality: People buy television, stereophonic music systems, furniture, refrigerators, electric gadgets; kitchenware and a host of consumer durables for their high quality. Many consumer goods, too, are bought for their quality, such as clothing, beverages, food items, etc., and not merely because of their taste or fashion, or style. (ii) Low Price: Many people buy low-priced locally made air conditioners for their homes because they believe that these products will show a product performance similar to, or slightly inferior to, that of nationally reputed brands at higher price. Whether this is true or not, a person, as long he believes this to be true, thinks his reason will be accepted as a "good" one by his social group. In this case, he is exhibiting a rational motive. (iii) Long Life, as of a car tyre that will give 30,000 kms, before its utility has been exhausted. (iv) Performance, as of a ballpoint pen that won't release excessive ink or skip under any circumstances. (v) Ease of use, as of a screwdriver with a magnetized tip which clings to the metal head of the screw, or a timer in the kitchen mixer which switches off automatically after a pre-determined time period. (vi) Re-sale Value, as of a two-wheeler scooter. "Bajaj" has a better re-sale value than any other make. (vii) Economy, in the operating expenses of some brands of refrigerator is greater because they consume less electricity. Many two-wheeler vehicles claim a better mileage per litre consumption of fuel than similar other vehicles. We should, however, point out that some of the best ads are totally irrational. Porsche car ads listed such irrational benefits. Volkswagen built itself on the proposition it's ugly but it works. Nine per cent of the human psyche is irrational. But, what is irrational can be made to seem rational. Gary Goldsmith is not content with just a rational benefit but expects the benefit offered to be such, which a rational person can understand. Industrial buyers are most responsive to rational appeals. They make purchase decisions in line with the technical specification of the product, product quality, etc. Most industrial buyers are knowledgeable about the product class, trained to

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recognize value and are responsible to others about their choice. Often, industrial buying decisions are made after a thorough comparison of various offers and after evaluating the various benefits of different makes. Consumer durables of high value 'are also often bought on the basis of rational appeals. People are ready and willing to give rational motives if asked why they have made a particular [purchase. Those who buy Playboy or Debonair are likely to say they buy them for the articles. Even when decisions are made on emotional grounds, people like to rationalize their decision~ to show that they are based on sound rational grounds. Strong emotional propositions need rational underpinnings. Most of us want others to regard us as rational human beings. That is why we like to give socially acceptable reasons for our buying decisions. We feel that rational motives will raise our status in the eyes of our associates and colleagues. Emotional appeals: Emotional appeals are those appeals, which are not preceded by careful analysis of the pros and cons of making a buying. Emotions are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to make a purchase. Emotional motives may be below the level of consciousness, and may not be recognized by a person; or even if he is fully aware that such a motive is operating, he is unwilling to admit it to others because he feels that it would be unacceptable as a "proper" reason for buying among his associates and colleagues. Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate product interest or purchase. Different emotional appeals, which are particularly important from the advertising point of view, are listed below. Following several motivation research studies, it has been found that negative emotional appeals are more effective than positive ones. We shall also, therefore, name the negative appeals first. All brands have rational and emotional credentials. Levi's is youthful, rebellious and sexy. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl, an emotional icon. But it also emphasizes in-flight service that other airlines talk about, which is a rational proposition. Negative Emotional Appeals: An advertiser may try to induce a particular behavioral change by emphasizing either positive or negative appeals, or a combination of both. For example, an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect -low cost relative to other investment, the services the insurance company provides, early settlement of claims, and so on; or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance - the danger of losing one's possessions or the ravages of fire. Positive appeals use the strategy of "reducing" a person's anxiety about "buying and using" a

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product, while negative appeals use the strategy of "increasing" a person's anxiety about "not using" a product or service. In general, a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with the persuasive message; the negative appeal stresses his loss if he fails to comply. Emotions are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to make a purchase. Emotional motives may be below the level of consciousness, and may not be recognized by a person; or even if he is fully aware that such a motive is operating, he is unwilling to admit it to others because he feels that it would be unacceptable as a "proper" reason for buying among his associates and colleagues. Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate product interest or purchase. Different emotional appeals, which are particularly important from the advertising point of view, are listed below. Following several motivation research studies, it has been found that negative emotional appeals are more effective than positive ones. We shall also, therefore, name the negative appeals first. All brands have rational and emotional credentials. Levi's is youthful, rebellious and sexy. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl, an emotional icon. But it also emphasizes in-flight service that other airlines talk about, which is a rational proposition. Negative Emotional Appeals: An advertiser may try to induce a particular behavioral change by emphasizing either positive or negative appeals, or a combination of both. For example, an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect -low cost relative to other investment, the services the insurance company provides, early settlement of claims, and so on; or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance - the danger of losing one's possessions or the ravages of fire. Positive appeals use the strategy of "reducing" a person's anxiety about "buying and using" a product, while negative appeals use the strategy of "increasing" a person's anxiety about "not using" a product or service. In general, a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with the persuasive message; the negative appeal stresses his loss if he fails to comply. Precautions while using the Emotional Route: 1. The advertising should have relevance. If the product needs attribute-based rational advertising, emotional appeals should be avoided. 2. There should be a natural flow of feelings. 3. Execution should not be exaggerated. The level of emotionality should not exceed that experienced by the consumer.

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4. There is a difference between a consumer's emotions associated with the product / brand and a consumer's emotional reaction to the ad copy itself. Preferably, these two should be compatible.

Fear Appeals:
Fear Appeal: The fear appeal in advertising seeks to modify behavior by associating dire consequences with action contrary to the message. Psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertisers goals by emphasizing negative consequences that can result unless a consumer takes the recommended action. dwells upon the negative consequences that can result unless a consumer takes the recommended action. A recent advertising campaign for the Volkswagen Jetta took this approach; spots depict graphic car crashes from the perspective of the passengers who chatter away as they drive down the street. Without warning, another vehicle comes out of nowhere and brutally smashes into their car. In one spot, viewers can see a passengers head hitting an airbag. The spots end with shots of stunned passengers, the damaged Jetta, and the slogan Safe happens. The ads look so realistic that consumers have called the company asking if any of the actors were hurt. Advertisers often resort to fear appeals when they want to bring about a radical behavior change, such as driving responsibly, eating healthily, or quitting smoking. Other fear appeals use ostracism by othersdue to body odor or bad breath or limp hair or yellowed teeth or using outdated productsto create feelings of insecurity that the consumer can overcome by doingguess what? How well fear appeals work depends on how easy it is to comply with the ads message. A switch to a stronger, longer-lasting deodorant to avoid embarrassing stains is quite doable, and it is easy to see a benefit (if indeed the deodorant works). In contrast, fear appeals that discuss the negative consequences of smoking have to climb a higher hill because the behavior is extremely hard to change (despite good intentions) and its harder to detect the (long-term) health benefits. Sometimes the fear appeal is too strong and makes consumers tune it out, especially if the ad does not present a solution. Scare tactics may also backfire as people cope with the negative feelings or guilt the ad inspires by deciding the threat does not apply to them. One famous TV commercial that relied on a heavy dose of fear was an ad for presidential candidate Lyndon Baines Johnson in 1964. The campaign showed a little girl counting daisy petals in a field, 1, 2, 3. Then, a voice-over started a countdown, 10, 9, 8 leading to the image of a telltale mushroom cloud as an atomic bomb exploded. These are the stakes, the voice-over said, concluding with the stakes are too high for you to stay

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home while the screen displayed the words Vote for President Johnson on November 3. This classic spot stirred up voters fears about the heavy trigger finger of Johnsons opponent, the conservative politician Barry Goldwater, and (analysts say) contributed to his huge defeat in the election. Fear appeals are at times used in ad messages in connection with getting people to stop doing the things they shouldn't do. The advertisements relating to prohibition, prevention of losses and conservation of energy fall in this category. The warning on the cigarette packet that smoking is injurious to health is a typical example, even though this is a statutory warning and advertisers themselves would not like to include it is the ad on their own. Then there are many products that are, directly or indirectly, involved in the avoidance of a fearful situation. A large number of advertisements employ the fear appeal in their ad messages of products, which relate to more subtle social and psychological motivations, such as loss of status, friendship, job, position, and so forth. Personal-care products (soaps, cosmetics, deodorants, shave lotions, mouthwash, etc.) fall in this category. Fear is the higher level of tension; but anxiety has been used to promote the sale of a large number of instant foods, other food products and home appliances. Think of ads wherein the housewife's anxieties are fully exploited to get the message across to the target audience. The more carefully fear is built, the greater is the tension resulting in a greater drive from within to reduce the tension. Research studies have proved that extremely great fear appeals ate less effective than moderate ones in motivating people to adopt the product and eliminate fear. However, very weak fear appeals are not effective either in evoking the desired response. Therefore, a selection of the appropriate fear level is important; it should be strong enough to heighten the drive of the people to buy a particular product. But if an excessively strong fear is pictured, it is possible that people would exhibit a defensive behavior, and tries to avoid the ad, and may not be prepared to accept the threat. They may even take the view that the solution recommended in the ad may be inadequate to deal with so great a fear. However, some researchers have found cases where strong fear appeals have worked beautifully. They feel that buyers have different tolerances for fear and that therefore, different levels of the fear message should be set for the various segments of the audience. However, the underlying concept that every message should promise to relieve, in a believable way, the fear it arouses should be the ultimate guide in the selection of the levels of fear appeals. A general principle of "not too much and not too little" is most relevant in the selection of appropriate fear appeals.

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CARE (an American conducted a methodical study in rural north India (mainly UP) ad agency) to discover which of the two appeals - positive or negative-would work better in getting a nutritive food accepted. The positive appeal was love of children and the negative one was fear of the consequences of malnutrition. The "love" campaign featured a proud mother rearing her thriving child on the prescribed food. The "fear" approach created a frightening devil (rakshas), symbolizing the disease and misfortune arising from wrong food habits. These campaigns were run for a full year in two different areas. The evaluation of these campaigns clearly showed that the fear appeal created a great deal more awareness of the value of the nutritive food. The negative proposition aroused immediate reaction because of the fact that an unpleasant bang is more likely to make one sit up than the melodious strains of soothing music. Some authors and experts in the field of advertising, however, may disagree with this view. But fear appeals are seldom composed entirely of negatives. The warnings generally pave the way for positive advice and exhortation, and in this form the negative appeals appear to be just as effective on the average as positive appeals. Take, for example, the recent advertisement of Khaitan Kitchen fans employing a negative appeal. The headline states: "Are you cooking or being cooked?" It goes on: "Every housewife knows how miserable she feels when she cooks. It makes her irritable and saps her energy. Khaitan presents a simple, efficient and inexpensive answer. The Khaitan Fresh Air Fan. It drives out smoke, smells and heat, and brings in fresh air. Not only that; thanks to the continuous inflow of fresh air, the chances of dampness are eliminated. And this prevents cockroaches and other insects from breeding in your kitchen." The headline and the initial part of the body of the copy effectively create fear; but the latter part of the copy presents the solution and the positive appeal of the product. Such is the most common form of the advertising message - first building up fear and then offering a solution with other positive appeals of the product advertised. On the level of fear, Aaker and Myer, in their book, Advertising Management, rightly state that fear or anxiety has two kinds of possible effects on message reception and yielding. As a stimulus, its effect tends to be negative; and as a drive, it tends to be positive. Furthermore, too little anxiety tends to provide an insufficient drive, and too much anxiety tends to make the stimulus aspect predominant. The net result of these two factors is to make the relationship between anxiety level and message effectiveness non-monotonic, with maximum effectiveness occurring at the intermediate levels of anxiety. And, lastly, so far as appeals to fear are concerned, this approach is useful for products that are of little interest to consumers when rational appeals are employed. Even in cases where the product fulfils a generally recognized need,

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fear appeals are effective. Take the case of life insurance. Fear appeals are still required to sell policies. However, fear appeals fail in the case of the cancer hazard of cigarette smoking, which is often rejected by most smokers. Fear Appeal and Market Segmentation: We have just now stated that, in some cases, big doses of fear are recommended, whereas, in others, the use of low levels of fear is the logical strategy. We have also given examples of an ad about dental health, where the degree of associated fear is high, and an ad about smoking and cancer, where the level of fear is low. Furthermore, apart from the differences in product categories, the age and personality differences in the target audience vary the effectiveness of each level of fear appeal. That is why it has been recommended that both the market segment and product category groupings should be taken into consideration before designing appropriate fear appeals. Let us take an in-depth look at the use of fear appeals and their relationship with the market segment, for this will provide a valuable insight to advertisers. It is important to note that although people generally prefer positive arguments, a fear appeal can make an advertisement stand out from others. For individuals whose aroused fear or anxiety about the product is low, and those who would not normally search for information about the product, the fear appeal can be particularly effective if these individuals have been previously exposed to positive arguments. It has been found that it is better to put fear first in the order of presentation, to threaten someone close to the prospect rather than the prospect himself. While advertising a helmet for scooter-riders, the fear of injury to the head is the most appealing to the wife and to someone close to the rider. The rider himself may not accept the idea promptly because of self-esteem and of ego consciousness. The appeal of intense fear might be best for people who tend to be of low-anxiety and high self-esteem people, who exhibit a copying behavior, and who find the product to be of low relevance. There are many who have a low vulnerability to fear and anxiety. For example, life insurance companies find that fear appeals work beautifully with those who feel that they do not need coverage for their lives. Fear appeals are appropriate for breaking into new market segments. In fact, the susceptibility to fear appeals is one more approach to the market segmentation process. A careful analysis of those potential fear appeals, designed to arouse emotion in a group or audience, should be made a part of advertising strategy, wherein all ads addressed to this audience will incorporate such fear appeals. Thus, if appropriate fear appeals are defined, they become a useful tool in market segmentation.

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Positive Emotional Appeals: Positive appeals highlight product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behavior. They are love, humor, pride, prestige and joy. Most baby food products have a mother's love appeal. Love for family is perfectly employed in an ad of Dettol soap that has been called "The Love & Care Soap." In the closing sentence, the ad appeals by saying: "Give your family the Loving Care of Dettol Soap." Mother's love for the baby has been appealed to in ad of Johnson's baby soap. It says: "Gentle as a kiss on your baby's tender skin." It further, goes on to say: ''Johnson's Baby Soap. Because Johnson & Johnson care for your baby almost as I much as you do." Is this positive appeal not effective, when the advertiser shows as much care for a child as its mother does? Advertisers have also successfully used messages communicating the joy and thrill (all, those soft drink, ads) associated with using the product. A humorous message attracts more attention and creates more liking and belief in the source, though it reduces comprehension. David Ogilvy, a well-known personality in the advertising profession, believes that humour has been over-used: "People are amused by clowns - they don't buy from themSo many people in advertising are compulsive entertainers who seek applause rather than sales." Other positive emotional appeals involving price, prestige or exclusiveness are often used in ads of suitings. Advertisements of suitings by Raymonds, Digjam, Dinesh etc., employ emotional motives, "Suitings for the Connoisseur," a Digjam ad campaign, is an example of appealing to those individuals who are experts in matters of taste and choice of clothing. Other emotional motives are illustrated in the following list: (i) Desire to be different, as illustrated by people who build an ultra modem home in an area of traditional homes. (ii) Desire to confirm, as in the case of teenage boy and girls who want to be "in jeans" because all their friends wear jeans. (iii) Desire to attract the opposite sex, as shown by a teenage girl who buys a new cosmetic in order to make her skin more beautiful. (iv) Desire for prestige, as shown by a person who buys the most expensive automobile (Mercedes, Toyota, etc.) he can afford in order to impress his friends. In making purchases, many combine both rational and emotional motives. In fact, a blend of buying motives usually is the basis of a purchase: An engineer may take up a management course at any of the prestigious schools because he feels it will make him look important in the eyes of his associates and help him in securing a better job in the industry and business. A woman may want to buy a new home in posh locality because it will improve her family's social status and because it is within walking distance of a good school for her children. Moral appeals are those appeals to the audience that appeal to their sense of right and wrong. These are often used in messages to arouse a favorable response to social causes, such as prohibition, adult literacy, social forestry, anti-

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smuggling and hoarding, consumer protection, equal rights for women, social responsibility projects of corporations, rural development, siding weaker sections of society, employment generation, and so on. There are messages that appeal for generous donations for flood victims and for famine relief operations - these are often based on moral appeal. Many commercial advertisements are criticized on moral grounds. The most controversial ad campaigns are by multinational companies marketing baby food products. Many WHO experts are critical of these corporations that promote bottle-feeding against breast- feeding.

Sex Appeals in Advertising:


Sex Appeal: A psychological basis that motivates the viewer toward the advertisers goals by titillating the viewer with actual or suggested nudity or sexual behavior. can be vaguely suggestive and subtle, or it can hit you over the headlike the Carls Jr. ad that shows a soapy Paris Hilton washing a car (as if she would ever wash her own car!). Its important to consider cultural differences in gauging sex appeal, as some countries allow more exposure of skin or sexual situations than others. In the United States, a passionate kiss between man and woman is perfectly fine, whereas in India such a display in public could be punishable by a fine, three months of jail time, or both. Theres no doubt that sex gets our attentionand companies often deliberately push the envelope. Yves Saint Laurent promoted its mens fragrance M7 with a full frontal nude photo of former martial arts champion Samuel de Cubber in fashion magazines like the French edition of Vogue. Perfume is worn on the skin, so why hide the body? said the ads designer, Tom Ford. Some mainstream publishers, however, featured a cropped version of the ad.[ Given the potentially negative reaction, do sexual appeals work? Products for which sex appeals work best are those aimed at teen or college-age buyers or for products like wine, perfume, beauty products, and lingerie. Advertisers need to tread lightly and avoid the temptation to go all-out: although erotic content does appear to draw attention to an ad, a sex appeal runs the risk of alienating the audience. And ironically, titillating the viewer may actually hinder recall of the advertised product. In one survey, an overwhelming 61 percent of the respondents said that sexual imagery in a products ad makes them less likely to buy it.[ Michael S. LaTour, in Female Nudity in Print Advertising: An Analysis of Gender Differences in Arousal and Ad Response opines that female nudity in print ads generates negative feelings and tension among female consumers, whereas mens reactions are more positive.[337] In a case of turnabout being fair play, another study found that males dislike nude males in ads, whereas females responded well to undressed malesbut not totally nude ones.

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In some cases, the purpose of the nudity is simply to create buzz. In autumn 2007, actress Alicia Silverstone posed nude (though strategically covered) in a print and a thirty-second TV ad for activist group PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), saying that she attributes her slim figure to not eating meat. Comcast Cable pulled the ad, however, saying that it was too racy. Using sex in ads is popular, but it can also be dangerous if it is considered too offensive, or if the audience is multi-cultural and will offend large segments of your target customer base so in most cases, companies combine Humour and Sex so they can get the sexy part of the message across, but use humour to cover up any offensive parts so people will laugh at it instead of getting "uptight" because it may have been offensive to some. Sex appeal is being increasingly used in Indian advertising to overcome the culture in the print as well as broadcast media and to grab attention. Sex appeals in contraceptive ads have become explicit, and are more visual than verbal. Does sex really sell? Or is it a negative influence on consumer? The answer is not either affirmative or negative for these questions, and depends upon a number of factors. The following summarizes the research studies in this context. Research shows that non-sexual illustrations are more effective than sexual ones while undergoing brand recall. Men remember the sexy illustration and neglect the brand. Favorably disposed people to the use of sex had a higher brand recall of brand names that used sex appeals in their ads. Negatively inclined people to sex had a lower brand recall. . Research also shows that nude illustrations of female are least appealing, are associated with lowest quality product and least reputable company. Recently Seven's research shows that explicit sex appeals do not interfere with the ability to recall brand names. It has also been observed that visual which is highly sexual interferes with the cognitive processing of the message since readers tend to spend more time on the ad as a whole. Information transmission is definitely adversely affected by sex appeal. Functional sex appeals have highest recall and so also symbolism. Inappropriate sex appeals have lowest recall. Fantasies are also used as sex appeals. Appeal that are consistent with the product, lead to a higher recall. There might be gender-related responses to sex appeal. Females may find the sexual ad offensive and so its use for a female-targeted product runs a risk. A lipstick ad showing a female model that is seductive may grab the attention of the male-audience rather than the targeted female audience. Connotative sexual appeals like symbolism are more acceptable than explicit appeals.

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The sexual appeals are justified in case of products like personal products, panties, bras, undergarments, and swimsuits. They may not go well with industrial products. The relevance of the appeal to the product is very important. The manner of sex portrayal, the sex of the models and the target segment also affect the effectiveness of the ad. Blatant references to sex are suddenly the inthing in American advertising. Marketers promoting perfumes, jeans, alcohols, gloves, watches and cars are resorting to this route. Media clutter may be one reason that leads to the explosion of sexual imagery in advertising. Ads of perfumes have traditionally focused on the sensuous. For Calvin Klein, sex has always been a favorite selling point. The late Justice Hidayatullah had ruled "where obscenity and art are mixed, art must be so prepondering as to throw the obscenity into the shadow." We tend to agree with him. There is a thin line between nudity and crudity. Even an act of kissing has both sexual and non-sexual content. "Of no use to one, yet it is absolute bliss to two. The small boy gets it for nothing, the young man has to steal it and the old man has to buy it. The baby's right, the lover's privilege, the hypocrite's mask. To a young girl, faith; to a married woman, hope and to an old maid; charity." Sex appeals are interpreted differently from time to time, region to region, person to person, country to country, and society to society. Even the same person reacts to them differently at different stages of his life cycle.

Humour

Humor appeal A humor appeal makes us laugh and feel good. But its often difficult to execute well, because people have to understand the humor and they have to get the link to the brand. Like sex appeals, sometimes the very humor that gets our attention distracts us from remembering the ad or from influencing our behavior. It also helps when viewers dont get offended; this can be an iffy proposition especially when ethnic or national stereotypes are involved. One advantage of humor is that it reduces counter arguing reaction to an ad message in which a consumer thinks of reasons not to agree with the message. This occurs when a consumer thinks of reasons not to agree with the message. Because the comedy distracts us from our tendency to come up with reasons why we shouldnt change our opinions, we are

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more likely to accept the message a humorous ad presents, as long as it does not insult or make fun of us (somehow laughing at the other guy is OK). However, what one person considers funny may offend the next. Humour is very subjective. Any advertising needs to make sure is does not offend its audience nor is open to misinterpretation. Careful research will help to ensure that the use of humour does not create a negative impact. You must take time to know your potential customers! A failure to do this was shown in the Australian Tourism Board's expensive call to the rest of the world, asking "Where The Bloody Hell Are Ya?'. Whilst this is a term of endearment to some in Australia, it was taken as insulting in other countries who didn't quite get it! If you know who your target audience is, you are better able to appeal to their sense of humour and not offend! However, a variety of benefits have been suggested for humorous appeals including: 1) Humor attracts attention. 2) Humor can increase retention of the advertising message. 3) Credibility of the source can be enhanced with humor. 4) Attitude toward the ad can be enhanced with the use of humor. 5) Counter arguments may be minimized with the use of humor because it acts to distract the audience from making cognitive responses. Despite these proposed benefits, research evidence has not consistently and systematically shown humor to have a superior effect on consumers when compared to non humorous appeals. For example humorous messages may attract greater attention, but they may also have a detrimental effect on message comprehension and recall. In an advertising context, one can sometimes counter this potential problem by focusing the humor on product attributes expected to be instrumental in influencing attitudes. In addition, a number of studies have actually not found humor to increase viewers attention to message content. Certainly universal agreement does not yet exist on the exact benefits of humorous appeals. However, it has been suggested that for humor to be successful the advertised product should be appropriate for the use of humorous appeals, humor should contribute to the main point of the message and the humor should be tasteful n addition, recent evidence suggest that humor is more effective in changing consumers attitudes and choices when the audience already holds positive evaluations of the advertised product.

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Pros and Cons of Using Humor


Advantages
Aids attention and awareness May aid retention of the message Creates a positive mood and enhances persuasion May aid name and simple copy registration May serve as a distracter and reduce the level of counterarguing

Disadvantages
Does not aid persuasion in general May harm recall and comprehension May harm complex copy registration Does not aid source credibility Is not effective in bringing about sales May wear out faster

Use of Humor
FAVORABLE TOWARD HUMOR Creative personnel Radio and television Consumer non-durables Business services Products related to the humorous ploy Audiences that are:
Younger Better educated Up-scale Male Professional

UNFAVORABLE TOWARD HUMOR Research directors Direct mail, newspapers Corporate advertising Industrial products Goods or services of a sensitive nature Audiences that are:
Older Less educated Down-scale Female Semi- or Unskilled

All brands have rational and emotional credentials. Levi's is youthful, rebellious and sexy. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl, an emotional icon. But it also emphasizes inflight service that other airlines talk about, which is a rational proposition.

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Emotional versus rational appeals Should, marketers use emotional or rational appeals in promoting their products? As the reader might guess neither approach has been shown to be generally superior to the other. This seems understandable because the effectiveness of appeals is likely to be a function of the underlying motives consumers have for considering the product as well as other factors such as involvement and the type of processing (central vs. peripheral) being used by the consumer. When emotional appeals appear to be appropriate, the following points have been offered as guidance for constructing the appeal: 1) Use emotionally charged language especially words that have a high personal meaning to the target consumers. 2) If the brand or message is unfamiliar to the audience associate it with well known ideas. 3) Associate the brand or message with visual or non verbal stimuli that arouse emotions. 4) The communications should be accompanied by nonverbal cues, such as hand motions which support the verbal message.

3. B. Advertising Execution Techniques


Execution style the way the particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to the consumer

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Ad Execution Techniques
1. Straight sell Straight sell 1. Straight sell Straight sell 2.Scientific Scientific 2.Scientific Scientific 3. Demonstration Demonstration 3. Demonstration Demonstration 4.Comparison Comparison 4.Comparison Comparison 5.Testimonial Testimonial 5.Testimonial Testimonial 6.Slice ofof life Slice of life 6.Slice of life Slice life 7.Animation Animation 7.Animation Animation 8. Personality 8. Personality Personality Symbol Personality Symbol Symbol Symbol 9. Imagery or 9. Imagery or Imagery Imagery Light Fantasy Light Fantasy 10.Dramatization Dramatization 10.Dramatization Dramatization 11. Reason why 11. Reason why Humor Humor copy: copy: 12. Combinations 12. Combinations

1. Straight-Sell Copy: A type of body copy in which the text immediately explains or develops the headline and visual in a straightforward attempt to sell the product. The technique consists of a straightforward and clear presentation of the product and its benefits. The advertisement clearly explains the features of the product such as its USP and features, differentiating it from other products. 1. Scientific / technical: the presentation focus on the scientific and technological aspect of the product. Example while promoting digital cameras the focus is on picture quality and the mega pixel. 2. Demonstration: Demonstration advertising is designed to illustrate the key advantages of the product/ service by showing it in actual use or in some staged situation. Demonstration executions can be very effective in convincing consumers of a products utility or quality and of the benefits of owning or using the brand. TV is particularly well suited for demonstration executions, since the benefits a little less dramatic than TV demonstration ads can also work in print. 3. Comparative copy: Comparative advertising, as a special form of advertising, is a sales promotion device that compares the products or services of one undertaking with those of another, or with those of other competitors. All comparative advertising is designed to highlight the advantages of the goods or services offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor. In order to achieve this objective, the message of the advertisement must necessarily underline the differences between the goods or services compared by describing their main

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characteristics. The comparison made by the advertiser will necessarily flow from such a description. Function of comparative advertising Comparative advertising should enable advertisers to objectively demonstrate the merits of their products. Comparative advertising improves the quality of information available to consumers enabling them to make well-founded and more informed decisions relating to the choice between competing products/services by demonstrating the merits of various comparable products. Based on this information, consumers may make informed and therefore efficient choices. (These statements are true only if the comparative advertising is objective.) Comparative advertising which aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer promotes the transparency of the market. Market transparency is also deemed to benefit the public interest as the functioning of competition is improved resulting in keeping down prices and improving products. Comparative advertising can stimulate competition between suppliers of goods and services to the consumer's advantage. 4. Testimonials: Many advertisers prefer to have their messages presented by ways of testimonials, where a person praises the product or service on the basis of his or her personal experience with it. Testimonial executions can have ordinary satisfied customers discuss their own experiences with the brand and the benefits of using it. This approach can be very effective where the person delivering the testimonial is someone with whom the target audience can identify or who has an interesting story to tell. The testimonial must be based on actual use of the product or service to avoid legal problems and the spokesperson must be credible.Apple Computer made effective use of testimonials as part of its Switch campaign, which features computer users from various walks of life discusing why they switch from Windows-based machines to Macintoshes. The people giving the testimonials in the ads are from various walks of life.Switch was an advertising campaign launched by Apple Computer on June 10, 2002. It featured what the company referred to as "real people" who had "switched" from the Microsoft Windows platform to the Mac. An international television and print ad campaign directed users to a website where various myths about the Mac platform were dispelled. The television commercials were directed by Errol Morris. 5. Slice of Life: Advertising-copy technique where a real-life problem is presented in a dramatic situation and the item being advertised becomes the solution to the problem.

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Detergent manufacturers rely upon this advertising format heavily. These types of advertisements connect with consumers on a personal level. The ads usually portray a family scene occurring (a "slice of life") during a typical day. These advertisements create a positive feeling about specific products in the minds of consumers because they can relate to these everyday situations which they too face. Widely used in print advertising formats, this execution shows a real life problem and what the person in the ad does to overcome it. This execution is a combination of the demonstration and the testimonial executions. Ads for consumer products use this method effectively. An example is a housewife who is having trouble cleaning her kitchen floor, with a product offered which can solve this problem. 6. Animation: This technique used animated characters or scenes drawn by artists or on computer. Animation is extremely effective when marketing a product aimed at children. They relate well to cartoon-like imagery therefore commercials that utilise animation grab their attention easily. A good example is the Kelloggs Coco Pops adverts. They depict an imaginary island inhabited by eccentric animals. Generations of children have found this to be extremely appealing. Animation is an inherently creative medium. The human mind goes through a thought process of depicting meaning from an animated aesthetic. It instigates thought in the way that advertisers can use to their advantage by inspiring thoughts of desire. When harnessed well, animation is one of the most multipurpose tools for increasing sales of any product or business or simply getting a message across. When dealing with concepts that can not be expressed in words or with illustrations can be extremely frustrating for advertisers and marketers - This is where animation steps in. The fact that these concepts can be portrayed successfully and can make it easy for the consumer to grasp your idea or concept without any kind of explanations is unparallel tool in the advertising industry. 7. Personality symbolthis type of execution involves the use of a central character or personality symbol to deliver the advertising message and with which the product or service can be identified. The personality symbol can take the form of a person who is used as a spokesperson, animated characters or even animals. 8. Imagery / Fantasythis type of appeal is often used for image advertising by showing an imaginary situation or illusion involving a consumer and the product or service. Cosmetic companies often use

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fantasy executions although the technique has also been used in advertising for other products such as automobiles and beer. 9. Dramatizationthis execution technique creates a suspenseful situation or scenario in the form of a short story. Dramatizations often use the problem/solution approach as they show how the advertised brand can help resolve a problem. 10. "Reason Why" was the answer of Kennedy to what makes people purchase a particular good. "True 'Reason-Why' copy is logic plus persuasion plus conviction, all woven into a certain simplicity of thoughtpre-digested for the average mind, so that it is easier to understand than to misunderstand it.In addition, the growing importance of national advertising of branded products produced a perfect condition for growth of "reason-why" adverting. The need to stimulate interest and desire seemed to be fully satisfied by "Reason-Why" ads, which aimed to present the consumer with convincing arguments to purchase the advertised brand. Ads had the task of pointing out the distinctive characteristics of a brand and explaining its superiority. In this sense, "reason-why" advertising was the appropriate method of implementing a strategy of product differentiation. 11. Combinationsmany of these execution techniques can be combined in presenting an advertising message. For example, slice-of-life ads are often used to demonstrate a product or make brand comparisons. 12. Feel good Ads: "Feel good" ads are those ads which do not have a specific call for a response: to buy something, to do something, to take action, or to vote. As this term is used here, "feel good ads" can describe the many different ads and sponsorships which generate good will, or create a feeling of warmth and pleasantness, so that we know and like the product or the company.In advertising, any individual "feel good" ad must be put into a wider context, as a small part of a larger ad campaign. For example, most ads targeted at kids not only seek an immediate response (kids or their parents buy something, now), but also to build long-term good will for "later" because kids will grow up to be adults. Note how often kids will say "When I grow up, I'm going to get a ...."People buy from people they know, and like. 13. Fund raising copy:The fund raising copy is all about inspiring potential donors to believe in a cause. The copy says unexpected things in elegant ways, which moves readers and stirred thier emotions, which angered them or made them proud, a copy which they want to read from beginning to end. But fine words alone dont make for good fundraising copy, as Smith knows. Its how you use them that count. Remember the old Roman aphorism, When Cauis spoke in the Senate the people said, That was a

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remarkably fine speech, but when Marcellus spoke they shouted, Let us now march on Byzantium!. For Marcellus powerfully put words had moved his listeners not to sympathy but to action. You need to know to write more clearly, more convincingly and more accessibly with clarity and precision.

IV CREATIVE PROCESS
Writing the Creative brief or Copy platform In developing the message strategy, the copywriter needs to create a copy platform, a document that serves as the creative teams guide for writing and producing the ad. The copy platform is the written strategy statement of the most important issues to be considered in the ad or campaign the who, why, what, where, when and how of the ad: 1. Who is the most likely prospect for the product? The copy platform must define the prospect in terms of geographic, demographic, psychographic, and/or behavioristic qualities. 2. Why? Does the consumer have specific wants or needs that the ad should appeal to? Advertisers use two broad categories of appeals. Rational appeals are directed at the consumers practical, functional need for the product or service; emotional appeals are directed at the consumers psychological, social, or symbolic needs. 3. What product features satisfy the consumers needs? What factors support the product claim? What is the products position? What personality or image of the product or the company can be or has been created? What perceived strengths or weaknesses need to be dealt with? 4. When and where will the messages be communicated? What medium? What time of the year? What area of the country? 5. How should this be communicated? By: M H Lakdawala 37

What style, approach or tone will the campaign use? And generally what will the copy say? The answers to these questions help make up the copy platform. After writing the first ad, the copywriter should review the copy platform to see if the ad measures up. If it doesnt, the writer must start again.

Who is a creative person? Creative Strategy: Components of the Creative Strategy, Putting the Strategy in writing: CREATIVE BRIEF (Copy Platform) FORMAT

Building a Copy Platform Outline


6. Supporting Information and Requirements 6. Supporting Information and Requirements 5. Creative Strategy Statement 5. Creative Strategy Statement 4. Selling Idea or Key Benefits to Communicate 4. Selling Idea or Key Benefits to Communicate 3. Specify Target Audience 3. Specify Target Audience 2. Advertising and Communications Objectives 2. Advertising and Communications Objectives 1. Basic Problem Advertising Must Address 1. Basic Problem Advertising Must Address

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Combining Creativity and Strategy:


In advertising, different creative strategies are used in order to obtain consumer attention and provoke shoppers to purchase or use a specific product. Advertisers use different ways of thinking to create catchy slogans that capture consumer attention. Creative strategies promote publicity, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. These ways of thinking are divided into three basic descriptions: Weak strategies, mid-strength strategies and strong strategies. The strategies labeled "strong, mid-strength, and weak are generic phrases used in the text books referenced below to help students understand the intensity of each different type of advertising strategy. Advertisements, weak, mid-strength, and strong can be found in television, radio, and magazines/print. Since the beginning of advertising, strategies have been created, starting with the simplest (weak) strategies in the 1940s.

Organizing the Creative Task


Strategy and Creativity? Strategy: What is an advertising strategy? Basically, it is the formulation of a message that communicates to the market the benefits or problem solution characteristics of the product or service. What you are trying to convey through your advertising and state in your strategy is what your product offers to meet the consumer's need; how your product has more beneficial characteristics than the competition's; and what the beneficial characteristics are. The advertising strategy is a direct result of the market strategy. The market strategy focuses on the improvement of operations and the positioning of the storefront, while the advertising strategy concentrates on reaching out to the marketplace and conveying what the market strategy has accomplished internally. The first step in formulating an advertising strategy is to determine the product or service you have to offer to the marketplace and the objective of the campaign.

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Creativity: Creativity is simply the ability of a person to create. To understand creativity one can simply refer to a person with unique ideas and willing to bring new things into the life. Usually creativity is considered as the natural ability of a person. However, the creativity can also be developed in a person. Weak strategies Generic and Pre-emptive strategies describe the two weakest forms of advertising that were most popular through the 1940s.

A generic strategy gives a product attribution. An example of this would be how the Milk industry chose to advertise their product. With their slogan, Milk, it's good for health, have it with dinner, consumers aren't learning anything new about the product. The Milk slogan simply states milk as a dinner item. It enhances the product in no other way.

A pre-emptive strategy is a form of advertising that makes a generic claim stronger. An example of a pre-emptive strategy can be found in Folgers Coffee. As many of us know, most all coffee is grown in the mountains. Folgers took that fact and claimed it as their own with their slogan, Folgers: Mountain Grown Coffee. Middle-strength strategies Secondly, are the mid-strength strategies: 1. 1. Unique positioning strategy 2. Brand image and 3. Positioning? 1. A unique positioning strategy is proving that something about your product is truly unique. This is commonly found when producers take an average product and add a new, unique element to it. An example of Unique Positioning Strategy would be in Dove soap. Dove added the unique feature of moisturizing cream in their product to differentiate it from other brands of soaps. A downfall in Unique positioning strategy advertising is that if a unique feature increases sales on one product, many other brands are likely to adopt the unique feature, making the end product not so unique. 2. Brand Image is another very common way companies choose to advertise. In brand image, an advertiser is not trying to create rational thinking. This type of advertising strives to create emotion and give a brand a personality. A common way of doing this is by using a celebrity as a spokesperson.

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A great example of brand image is found in Proactive Acne Solutions. In each of their commercials they have celebrities sharing their Proactive experiences, giving the brand a face people want to be. 3. Positioning is one of the most common forms of advertising. It was developed in the 1970s and is still widely used today. In positioning one brand will take its product and position it against a competing product. An example of positioning can be found in the rental car company Avis' store slogan. With Hertz car company being the leader in rental car services, Avis took their number two position and used it to their advantage by creating the slogan, When you're number two, you try harder. Positioning Positioning is another basic concept in strategy design. Position is defined as the perception that the targeted consumers have of a firm's products or services relative to competitive products or services. Positioning is based on product or service attributes or characteristics that are potentially relevant to the audience. One methodology suggests that positioning strategy may be approached via one of six positioning trait sets, shown in Table 2. We'll look briefly at each of these.

Positioning Trait Sets 1. By Attributes 2. By Price and Quality 3. By Use or Application 4. By Product User 5. By Product Class 6. By Competitor

Positioning by Attribute Positioning by attribute is probably the most often used positioning approach. An attribute is a characteristic feature or benefit of the product or service. To use this method, you begin by defining a relevant set of attributes, usually in pairs. These attributes can be anything as long as the consumer of the products or services perceives the attribute as an important characteristic of the product or service.

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Positioning by Price/Quality This may be thought of as a set of attributes, but they are of such importance to all consumers that they probably should be considered their own category for positioning purposes. The price/quality set reflects a perception in consumers' minds that brands which offer more features, and/or better service performance, are often priced higher. Higher prices tend to signal a higher quality of product or service. The relationship of the price/quality judgment made by consumers about products creates the positioning on these specialized attributes.

Positioning by Application In this process, positioning is established by attributes or characteristics of the product's use. For example, Gatorade, a fruit-based drink, positioned itself as "for use during strenuous workouts" when it was introduced. It became established in the market for this use and is still primarily seen as a workout thirst quencher and bodily fluid replenisher. The downside to this application-specific type of positioning is that later attempts to reposition the product or service to another application may fail because of deeply entrenched consumer positioning. For example, Seven-up, a soft drink product, was positioned at its introduction as a mixer for alcoholic cocktails. Attempts to position it as a soft drink were not successful. It was only with its repositioning as an alternative to cola drinks that Seven-up was able to shake its position as a mixer. Positioning by Product User This is product positioning by a specific type of user or class of users. Some kinds of cosmetics for women associate themselves with well-known models and are positioned in the minds of consumers as appropriate for women who want to be associated with that type of beauty. Or, what about the Thai potato chip company who depicted Hitler eating their chips, then becoming transformed into a good person? Some ideas are just bad. Positioning by Product Class This is a rare and potentially dangerous product positioning technique. Here the product is positioned against competing products in other associated classes. For example, a brand of margarine called "I can't believe it's not butter" positions itself against butter, rather than against other brands of margarines. Positioning by Competitor

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An established image of a competitor can serve as the basis for positioning. As an example, Avis Rent-A-Car was made famous for its advertising campaign based on the positioning against a well-established competitor, Hertz. The nowfamous "We're number two so we try harder" advertising slogan established Avis in the minds of consumers as second largest firm, but one from whom the consumer could expect better service. The some notion is now used in the "not exactly..." commercials by Hertz.

Strong strategies The third and strongest form of creative strategy includes affective advertising and resonance advertising. Making people feel really good about a product is called affective advertising. This is difficult to do, but often humor and an honest character can make affective advertising possible. A great example of affective advertising is found in the Vodaphone commercials. By creating a friendly, honest, funny Zoozoo as a spokesperson, consumers tend to trust what the Zoozoo is saying and find humor in his actions. This creates a good feeling about the actual service Vodaphone offers. Lastly, resonance advertising is a way of identifying with consumers. If an advertiser can create a campaign that certain target markets identify with, then resonance advertising has been achieved. An example of resonance advertising is in Tide detergent ads. Many times mothers are busy doing laundry in between sports practices and driving their children around in mini vans. Their recognition with soccer moms makes Tide a favorite pick among women with children who are very involved in activities.

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Chapter: 3 Phases of campaign creation:


Understanding Campaigns

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Three Phases of Campaign Creation There are three phases involved in the creation of any campaign. (i) Strategy Development Phase, (ii) The Briefing Phase and (iii) The Creative (i) Strategy Development Phase This phase decides the objectives and contents of communication. It analyses the research data and decides positioning of a brand. The strategy formulation is in modern day's agencies a team effort. The creative persons form a part of this team not as creative persons but as a mind. There are brain- storming sessions. The team throws up the ideas. These ideas ultimately make up the strategy. The brilliant in the team pick up one or two ideas from the total ideas generated and develop them. Our strategy should give us a competitive edge. AI Ries and Jack Trout started focusing on the strategy side of advertising business in the late 60s when they first started writing about positioning. Everybody else was talking about creativity, whereas they decided to talk about strategy. They found that clients did not want to buy strategy from an ad agency. It is essential that advertising professional should appreciate the importance of strategy development phase. If the strategy is wrong, no amount of creativity will help. If the strategy is right, despite the poor creative work, one can sell due to right strategy. However, right strategy and creative campaign is a winning combination. By: M H Lakdawala 45

Mere creativity and no strategy never work. To agency should tell what they are trying to achieve in their communication. The strategist is the left-brain oriented, very linear in thinking, very logical in deduction. The strategy formulation leads to an advertising brief. If you want to catch fish, you have to think like a fish. If you want to catch a consumer, you have to think like a consumer. That's the first principle. What most companies do is they think like themselves. They spend all their time with themselves' (AI Ries and Jack Trout). Bob Isherwood, creative director, Saatchi & Saatchi, Australia emphasizes that a good effective ad has to be married to the right strategy, if it has to sell. He is also a strong believer of the theory that a creative director is as important a member of the strategizing team as the account director is especially if it involves a product launch. II. Advertising Brief to the Creative As a matter of fact, the client has to brief the agency about the strategy. However, most of the time this does not happen. The agency is supposed to brief itself. The strategy formulated is communicated to the creative people. They are briefed about how to create the advertising the product needs. The strategy should be communicated with clarity. The strategist should be a good motivator for the creative team. Proper briefing is going halfway as far as creativity is concerned. Bad brief to the creative team results into bad work. Good brief ensures good work. Within the creative team, the copywriter and visualiser work together and it is difficult to attribute the final product to either of them. Yes, when they are working, there are sparks of creativity. Please appreciate that briefing completes half the job. Creative campaigns are creative due to a good brief. It is critically very important to question the brief. Very often, a brief is a set of clichs. We have to get the real situation. Creative brief of strategy contains a key consumer insight. If the brief acquaints you with the consumer, and how his mind works, it has the seeds of creativity in it. It gives stimulus to creative team. Success or failure of the advertisement is largely dictated by the brief. It is the job of a client to tell the agency what he wants to say and it is the agency's job to decide how to say it. Great briefs inspire great work. Briefs should have clarity and single-minded objective. They should aim at a target person. The idea is to have the desired response. All briefs must suggest a benefit or a product plus. III. The Creative Phase

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Here the lateral thinkers come on the scene. They leap from a single unidirectional idea of the strategist to an advertising idea that will add value to the product/brand. The creative persons are supposed to be right-brained - lateral thinkers, irrational thinkers as against the accounts director who is left brained, i.e., logical. They make connections that had not existed before. They rearrange the order of things. They create abruptions in the consumer mind. There should be a beautiful marriage between the strategy and the lateral thinking by the creative people. The creative director's post has become a more responsible one. He does not remain content with a clever copy or stimulating visuals. He is required to understand the product and its market completely. He is now an overall ad man, an all-rounder. He participates in research and has active role in positioning. He does not follow a policy of art for the sake of art any more. He sits at briefings alongside the client servicing people. Creative are involved in the whole campaign - right from the concept to the commissioning stage. Spink of the Lowe group says "Strong creatives are probably the cheapest competitive advantage that a company can have." The best creatives are derived from a complete understanding of the product and the benefits it offers. But a thorough understanding of the target audience provides an edge. Norman Berry of O & M says, "It is the sensitive understanding of the audience that takes one's creative from logic to magic."

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I. Understanding the psychographics of target audience


Psychographics are a way to measure consumers beliefs, opinions, and buying habits. Rather than demographics which use age, income, gender and other quantitative data, psychographics provide a way to understand more qualitative data. Psychographics can be extremely helpful to predict differences in buying patterns and stimulating ideas for communicating with the target group.

Psychographics of various audiences and writing Copy for them 1. Copy for Youth Youth Marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities to communicate with young people, typically in the age range of 12 to 34. More specifically, there is the Tween Marketing, targeting people in the 8 to 12 year-old range, Teen Marketing, targeting people age 13 to 19, College Marketing, targeting college-age consumers, typically ages 18 to 21, Young Adult Marketing, targeting young professionals, typically ages 22 and above. The youth market is critical because of the demographic's buying power and its members' influence on the spending of family members. In addition, teens and young adults often set trends that are adopted by other demographic groups. The youth market is viewed as a difficult group to connect with and sell to, based on the fragmented media landscape and young people's keen ability to identify and reject marketing messages that lack credibility. Nonetheless, many brands market to youth by offering relevant products and services while communicating a brand message in an appropriate voice and tone. Successful brands marketing to youth have a foundation in or association with key interests and drivers among youth: music, sports, fashion, video gaming and technology, among others. Youth marketing strategies commonly include television advertising, magazine advertising and online marketing. Today young people expect to be able to learn By: M H Lakdawala 48

about, interact and be entertained by with brands or services targeting them online. Other common youth marketing tactics include entertainment marketing, music marketing, sports marketing, event marketing, viral marketing, school and college programs, product sampling and influencer marketing. Essentials for writing copy for youth: 1. The key to tapping into this coveted market is to understand why young consumers choose one product over another in the first place. 2. the most important factor is the never-ending desire to be accepted, to belong. For many members of Generation Y (now aged around 1220 years), this is by far one of the most pressing issues confronting them in daily life. 3. In essence, it is a fear of not belonging that drives the youth market to adopt the consumer patterns that are unique to their demographic group. Marketers should be aware of the impact these desires have on this demographics decision to purchase a product or service. The flow-on effects of having a sense of belonging and control are the feelings of empowerment, confidence and independenceemotions highly sought by young people. 4. Marketers must emphasize the elements within their product that evoke these emotions when communicating to this market. 5. So how can one use these factors to drive sales? Take mobile phones as an example. Among the youth market, mobile phones are an absolute necessity. They are tools that give the user control, independence and important information. Those companies that understand this inherent desire for acceptance have in their back pocket one of the keys to success within the youth market. As well as promoting the emotional aspect of a product or brand that gives the user the desired feelings, it is also important for marketers to analyze their product placement when pitching to this demographic. 6. In the youth marketplace more so than any other, being seen on the cutting edge has a major impact on the attention that a brand, product or service receives. The use of SMS and the Internet as media of cutting edge communication are avenues that the youth market is very comfortable with. 7. Marketing to the younger members of the consumer world is based around the age-old concepts of wants and needs. Empower your market, give them the confidence to take control, provide them with a sense of belonging and dont forget to stand on the cutting edge.

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2. Copy for women- Homemakers, modern women It's no secret that men and women have different communication and decision making styles as well as different priorities and preferences. Your communications need to be sensitive to them. Your services need to reassure a woman that you will be around in a predictable way when she needs help. If she needs her washing machine repaired, assure her that the mechanic would not just be courteous, but that he would come home at her convenience with tools and cleaning cloth. Assure her that he would leave only after he clears the mess. This is a basic expectation. Women simply care more for these things than men do. If she tries your spices and the dish doesnt taste quite the way she expected, she will be relieved if she can talk to someone. She might forgive you for some mistakes, if only she can speak what is on her mind and be understood. Women have different needs as compared to men. They take extra-ordinary efforts to satisfy their needs. A woman will travel to another end of town to buy something like rice, dry fruits, or vegetables if they believe that they are getting something special. Few men will take such efforts on their own. What do women need? At a fundamental level a woman yearns to be understood. The way a woman narrates happenings in a day with the finest of details to anyone close to her holds a significant lesson to those connected with marketing. A woman needs attention. She needs to be listened to. She will be happy to be waited on, to be fussed over. Small things matter to women. These could be matching of colors, coordination of accessories, a texture, or a pretty hairclip. Take care of those small things, and they will shower you with their favors. A woman has an uncanny ability to spot what she wants amidst clutter and chaos. Look at the way women go through the hustle and bustle of shopping areas. A woman will take whatever it takes to get such small things. She does all this to feel herself. Women have very strong need to enter into relationships; even if they are of -I love you, I hate you -kind. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for women 1. Brand Lite isnt the answer: Many companies make the mistake of thinking they need to create a separate brand to reach women, one that is softer and more accessible. And lets be honest, theyre also afraid that feminizing the core brand will alienate the guys. The reality is that marketing to women is just smarter marketing strategy,

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grounded in meeting and exceeding high standards and consistently delivering on your brand promise. One of the best examples of a great company that gets it right with women is Apple. Terrific design, easy-to-use technology, and a passionate lifestyle brand message hold strong appeal for women and for consumers overall. No need to invest money in making and marketing her Pod when iPod is pretty damn great the way it is. 2. Communicate product value instead of listing features: Sounds simple, but many organizations develop and market products without ever asking their female customers what features they think are most important and why. Volvo has made gaining womens input a key part of its development process since the late 1980s, leading to such improvements as color coding of fluid lids under the hood, easier-to-fold-away rear seats and easier-to-load trunks. But rather than make its marketing message an endless list of look at all our cool stuff, the Volvo for Life slogan conveys the two umbrella messages that are especially important to women: safety and dependability. Online research and a visit to the dealership reveal all the terrific features Volvo has developed to back their message up. 3. Understand that shes always watching: Women are great at detecting inconsistencies. If your marketing message doesnt match up with your product performance and your retail experience, youve lost her trust and shell go somewhere else. 4. Respect her In Fara Warners new book, The Power of the Purse, she chronicles the substantial shift McDonalds began making following a 2002 sales slump, when the company was forced to realize that it was still talking to women as if it was 1955. Up until that point, the company had viewed women mainly as a conduit to kids. This mom marketing no longer fit with modern women and they were taking their kids and their dollars elsewhere. McDonalds quest to find the woman inside the mom led them to the highly successful launch of Premium Salads, healthier Happy Meal options and a revamping of Play Places to include comfortable seating and wireless internet access. A willingness to solicit and listen to womens input and understand that women didnt see themselves only through the mom lens allowed McDonalds to redefine its relationship with its most important consumer, ultimately winning her business back. 5. Embrace high standards Women are suckers for quality and, more importantly, when they find it theyre willing to pay for it. Consider Whole Foods, which has enjoyed a 1,552 percent increase in its stock price over the last decade. Affectionately nicknamed Whole Paycheck by some, Whole Foods is able to charge higher prices in a notoriously low margin industry because they have created a lifestyle brand that delivers on

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its promise. With high quality, hard-to-find products, a pleasant atmosphere, knowledgeable, courteous sales people, and even chair massage in some locations, Whole Foods has transformed something uninspiring and mundane into a premium experience. 6. Be willing to commit There it is, the dreaded c word. The reason? It goes both ways. This isnt a market you can just dip your toes into. Wyndham Hotels recently celebrated the ten-year anniversary of its award-winning Women On Their Way initiative, launched in 1995 to better serve the needs of women business travelers with improved services and amenities, such as healthier menu options and a courtesy call announcing room service. When the program began women accounted for 19 percent of Wyndhams business travelers. Today that number has increased to over 35 percent. When you consider that, according to the Center for Womens Business Research, 86 percent of women entrepreneurs say they use the same products and services at home as they do in their business its clearly no accident that women also now make up 50 percent of Wyndhams customer base overall. 7. They wish to be themselves: Women crave to look good. They wish to be independent and mobile. They wish they could do without help from men. They wish to be themselves. Few manufacturers care. A Kinetic Honda came around with electric start and gearless driving. It looked feminine. Kinetic Honda was a huge success. An Activa rode in with nicer looks, good power, better brakes, and decent fuel efficiency. Activa became a runaway success without so much of bragging and boasting by Honda. These were mere happy coincidences on a long road littered with products born to insensitive design and brought to customers by arrogant marketing. There are many more examples a ketchup bottle with a crown cap which needs a man to open, a tin with tough metal seal that requires a hacksaw for cutting, a sachet of shampoo that requires a pair of scissors, a coconut oil bottle that drips with oil despite all the fancy packaging, a cell phone requiring complex menu navigating abilities and that comes with complicated telephone bills, cars with too low roofs requiring crawling to get inside, and movie theaters where women can not walk between two rows without feeling embarrassed. Women no doubt can manage all above creations by men. They do it with minimum fuss. But you would earn their gratitude and loyalty if you free them from such men-made mess. They will enthusiastically recommend your products to many other equally enthusiastic women. Women constitute about half of the market. If their influence in buying decisions is considered women control much more than half the market.

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8. Needs of women bonding, sharing, looking and feeling beautiful, and dreaming about all this

3. Writing copy for children


Marketers pay special attention to children, who are considered as the most vulnerable audiences because they enjoy advertisement to the maximum extent. Children initially take advertisement as entertainment and having soft heart; force their parents for product purchase. This is called as a Nag Factor. Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade. Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size, dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income. As well, guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. Children represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power, they influence their parents' buying decisions and they're the adult consumers of the future. Marketer tries to draw childrens attention through various means like TV, Magazines, Stickers, etc. Young children, in particular, have difficulty in distinguishing between advertising and reality in ads, and ads can distort their view of the world. Why Marketers target Children? Children represent three different markets. In addition to the direct money that children spend and the money they influence, children also represent a third major market and perhaps the most significant and that is the future market. Advertisers recognize that brand loyalties and consumer habits formed when children are young and vulnerable will be carried through to adulthood. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for children 1. "Pester power: Today's kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations, so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. "Pester power" refers to children's ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power, because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be. 2. Child like Approach:

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There are two approaches a writer can adopt when writing for children. One way is to write about the thoughts, actions and feelings of a child. While this works sometimes, it often does not appeal to children as it sounds unrealistic, overly sentimental and nostalgic. The second approach tougher, yet more effective would be to write from the point of view of a child and allow the reader to share this view. For this to work, a writer ought to be able to recollect and relive - childhood experiences of all kinds, from exhilarating to hurtful or scary. Spending time with children and listening closely to them can also be of great help in understanding their view of the world. 3. Themes for different age groups A six or eight-year-olds concerns are different from say, a ten-year-old. For a younger age group, stories with simple, positive themes, happy experiences with lifes lessons woven into them unobtrusively, work well. Older children are ready to explore more complex themes and darker experiences relationships, fear of failure, death, competing for success, popularity and sexual identity. It must be said however, that precisely segmenting age groups is not always necessary. Children who like reading will happily grab any book and begin to read it, as long as they can identify with its theme and find the writing enjoyable. 4. Essentials Children are by nature, happy beings funny situations and characters are instant attentiongetters and will have them asking for more. Also, the desire to solve puzzles is an innate feature of the human mind and children will keenly follow themes that invoke curiosity and wonder. 5. The story is the key element in any childrens copy. A quick pace and a clear-cut course of action are essential elements of good writing. Lengthy descriptions of scenery, though couched in the most beautiful language, will not cut much ice, as this slows down the movement of the story. Neither will excessive gloom nor moralising work well. Children by and large, have an optimistic outlook on life and can be rewarding readers, eagerly accepting new ideas and thoughts. 6. Where and who Be it a haunted castle, a suburban school, outer space or a tribal village, the setting of a story creates the mood for whats to come. Done well, it also serves to hook the readers interest at the start. A word of caution, though. Children dislike long descriptions, so its necessary to swiftly sketch in your background before your reader gets bored. The characters who inhabit the story are one of its most important elements, more so than the physical background. Heroic, conflicted, adventurous, or plain nasty, the main characters need to be sketched in with strong personality traits people who make things happen in the story. The characters could be children themselves or adults.

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7. Don't preach Preachy themes dont work effectively, at any age. A good story will have its message built in, allowing the children to discover it on his own. 8. Language Every generation adds its bit to language, tweaks old rules and has its favourite expressions. This is especially true for teenagers. The writer aspiring to reach out to this group of readers must strike a balance between the essential rules of good grammar and contemporary expression.

4. Copy writing for the mature market


Three groups of senior citizens. People who are 55 and older "mature adults,"; those 68 to 74 are the "young elderly"; and those older than 75 are the "older elderly." Growing old is a physical as well as an emotional condition. Research shows that some attitudinal or psychographic segments in the mature market are more brand loyal than others and their loyalties are to specific classes of products, not to all products across the board The mature market is extremely varied and will only reward marketers who are willing to deal with its complexities and pursue a targeted strategy. The characteristic of senior citizens are: 1. Special needs 2. High discretionary incomes 3. Spare time But how can copy effectively target senior market? 1. "The key elements are to keep message direct: The over-50s are experienced consumers, so they don't want to read flowery language. 2. You also need to give them a lot of information. Seniors have a lot of time on their hands and so you must be prepared for answering many more detailed questions than you would for 20-year-olds. 3. Copy writers must avoid depicting older consumers in negative ways Even Matures who are not as active and healthy as they would like to be dislike advertising assaults that remind them of their problems. 4. Copy writers commonly err by emphasizing the biological age of their consumers. Marketers can reach this practical, hard-working generation as they enjoy their retirement but not by selling products for "old people.

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Older customers do not appreciate being reminded of their ages. They have to be smarter than that. 5. Focus instead on themes that leverage the way Matures are motivated to buy. 6. Play to the notion that this generation overcame daunting odds to achieve their successes.Don't be loud or brash; they already get the point.After working hard and sacrificing for so many years, they have reached a level of financial comfort and a time in their lives where they can feel freer to spend money on themselves . . . because they've earned it. 7. Their style of spending, however, reflected the more cautious, disciplined values of their savings-focused outlook. Even as Matures spent, they actually saved a lot of money. And much of this spending was for others anyway, especially their children. 8. As they age, satisfied and secure, Matures will begin to spend more money on themselves. But they won't turn into recklessly wasteful spendthrifts in the mold of their Boomer children. 9. Nevertheless, [Matures'] interest in pleasurable or exciting experiences for their own sake is low. They want to enjoy life, but they don't want to go overboard. The overriding attitude here is that they have enough money to enjoy their retirement, and they plan to do so - wisely and responsibly. 10. Seniors typically see themselves as 10 to 15 years younger than their age." one of the challenges copy writers faces in marketing to senior citizens is to treat them equally in advertising, almost to the point of not calling attention to them at all. This is a group that wants to be made to feel that they are part of the mainstream. In general, copy for seniors should be extra clear, simple steps, preferably with lots of labeled illustrations and a minimum of jargon

5. Writing copy for Executives


1. Be prepared. This is the most important strategy if you want to successfully sell to an executive. Research the company before your meeting. Gain as much information as you can before writing copy for executives. 2. Avoid details. The majority of executives are not interested in the details. Executives are big picture thinkers so be prepared to discuss your product/service on a macro level. 3. Respect their time. The most precious commodity to an executive is time. The average senior-level businessperson has at least 52 hours of uncompleted work on their desk at any given time. Plus, they usually have only one or two of unscheduled time in a typical week.

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Most executives get to the point very quickly and expect others to do the same. Be direct, concise, and to the point. 4. Have A Relevant Message. Deliver a Real Solution that Solves a Critical Challenge. Business people are often so tied to their businesses or products that they get tunnel vision and fail to look at their copy from their organisations' perspective. 5. Be benefit-rich, of course. But more important, be ego-driven when describing those benefits. 6. Appeals to Their Ego 7. Copy using complicated, complex, pretentious language doesn't sell product to executives. When executives can visualize the process of doing what you want them to do, including the enjoyment of the benefits of your offer, you drive their actions almost instinctively. 8. Follow the "3 C's" Rule: Express your offer as Clearly, as convincingly and as compellingly as possible. 9. Be enthusiastic. Be energetic. Be excited about your offering, because your job is to transfer that excitement into the minds of your buyers. 10. Use words, phrases and imagery that help paint vivid mental pictures. 11. You need to make them feel important. Write as if you were speaking with your prospect, right in front of them, in a comfortable, conversational manner

II. Purchase Logic: The Foundation of Marketing Strategy


The foundation of a successful marketing strategy is an understanding of what product/service should be offered, how it should be presented, and to whom. Determining these three things is the essence of the marketing function. Purchase Logic is marketings primary tool for coming up with the answers. What is Purchase Logic? Definition: Purchase Logic is the description of how and why someone buys a particular product or service. Purchase Logic is an understanding of customer motivation that goes far beyond industry or demographic classifications.

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Purchase Logic defines what an individual customer wants and how he or she sorts among different alternatives. What Determines Purchase Logic: The more factors involved in a purchase decision, the more complicated Purchase Logic becomes. Small, routine purchases have simple Purchase Logics. The complexity of Purchase Logic increases as any of the following variables Increase: The number of needs and wants to be satisfied Length of commitment to or longevity of the product/service Number of people involved in the decision Number of alternatives Price Two examples illustrate how Purchase Logic becomes complex. First, think about buying a meal for lunch at work. You are hungry, have half an hour to spend and have no plans to meet anyone. The decision is simple. You run downstairs to the cafeteria and pick up a sandwich for four dollars. This choice was easy because you had few options and a very simple need to satisfy your hunger and perhaps also take a little break. The price was also insignificant. Now think about buying a meal on Saturday night. Because you are going out with your family, you sort through many more factors to arrive at a decision about where to go. Hunger is only one need to satisfy. You also seek some kind of entertainment or atmosphere. You have four peoples tastes to blend and will spend a significant amount of money. Further, you have many more options. Even if you are not aware of it, you use a fairly complicated Purchase Logic in selecting the restaurant. This latter scenario is still quite straightforward compared with most purchase decisions. Thus, in order to succeed in selling a product or service, it is important to take a systematic and formal approach to looking at Purchase Logic. COMPONENTS OF PURCHASE LOGIC A systematic approach to examining Purchase Logic will look at each of its four components: Benefits, Barriers, Trade-offs and Price. PURCHASE LOGIC IS A PROCESS Every purchase decision involves a number of steps. These steps may not be clearly discrete or particularly conscious, but they do exist. They represent the order in which alternatives are sorted and decisions are made. The more factors involved in a purchase decision, the more complicated Purchase Logic becomes. Sellers need to understand each step of Purchase Logic in order to make sure they are talking about the right thing at the right time. Clearly, a seller will benefit by understanding what is on the buyers mind and how he or she is approaching

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the purchase decision. Purchase Logic reveals how a prospect will react to what is offered. Purchase Logic also defines the sequence in which issues must be confronted. Benefits must be addressed first. After the benefit ts have been established, it is time to address barriers to purchase. Next come trade-offs and price. After an individual weighs all these factors, a purchase decision is made.

BENEFITS We all buy benefits. Even if we have a specific idea of what features will deliver them, benefits are what we seek. Benefits fulfill needs and wants. Purchase Logic defines all relevant needs and wants. Purchase Logic allows us to understand how important each benefit is to an individual buyer and why it is so important. Wants can be particularly tricky to identify. Often they are emotional and may appear irrational. Buyers are often reluctant to share their wants with a seller; frequently they are not even conscious of some of them. Nevertheless, wants are usually most influential in a buying decision. Think about purchasing a watch. The desire for prestige or some other very emotional need or want justifies the choice of a Rolex over some much lower priced alternative. Both do an equally good job of satisfying the basic needto tell time reliably.

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BARRIERS Barriers to purchase are those factors that may prevent a customer from purchasing. We need to design our products or services so that they overcome these barriers. They can be at least as important as the desired benefits. Overcoming barriers can become the most important benefit. Barriers to purchase can be hard to discover. Because people want to avoid conflict, they usually do not offer objections and criticism freely. Sometimes barriers may seem irrational or unfair; thus, the buyer will not mention them. However, barriers must be dealt with. The seller needs to know what they are in order to address them. One highly motivating barrier in business-to-business situations is the fear of criticism. This fear causes buyers to select the safest choice, the one that can not be criticized. Usually that is the brand leader. In this situation, demonstrating product superiority is not enough. In order to win, the seller must also provide evidence that the buyer can use to defend his choice.

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TRADE-OFFS Trade-off analysis is the process of assessing the relative value of different offerings. Customers do not buy individual features, functions or benefits. They choose among services or products that offer bundles of benefits. The trade-off is a comparison of these different bundles. What a customer concludes from the trade-off evaluation directly determines how that customer will react to different prices.

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Price is the mechanism by which sellers capture some of the economic value of the product or service being offered. Price is a function of the benefits provided. The value of those benefit is to a specific customer determines the maximum price that a customer will pay. Cost does not determine price unless you are selling a commodity. However, what a customer will pay is very much influenced by the relative value of alternative products or services. Cheaper acceptable alternatives put limits on how high a price a customer will pay.

PURCHASE DECISION As the customer completes the Purchase Logic process, the answers to three questions determine the final purchase decision: 1. What is the relative value of the options I am still considering? 2. Is the value of one choice enough to justify a higher price? 3. Since nothing is perfect, which minuses am I willing to live with?

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Part 2. Why Should You Care About Purchase Logic? There are four specific areas in which a seller can apply an understanding of a Purchase Logic to enhance the likelihood of success: 1. Analyzing the Market, 2. Communicating, 3. Identifying Qualified Prospects and 4. Altering Offerings for Stronger Appeal. ANALYZING THE MARKET You will gain a clearer picture of the kinds of people who are likely to be interested in what you have to offer. In addition, you will have a deeper understanding of what your current customers seek. This gives you power to change your offering or approach, and thereby strengthen or defend your position. COMMUNICATING No matter what communication vehicle is used, knowing your prospects Purchase Logic will help you talk about the right topic at the right time. You will know what benefits to stress in order to motivate purchase. Also, you will know how to position your product for greater appeal versus others in its market. IDENTIFYING QUALIFIED PROSPECTS From Purchase Logic you can pull out some salient questions or characteristics that will help you identify good prospects. In some cases you may even be able to construct selling messages that will prompt buyers to self select and identify themselves to you. ALTERING OFFERINGS FOR STRONGER APPEAL

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As we have already suggested, Purchase Logic can also help you revise or improve your products and services to give them stronger appeal. Clear understanding of your markets needs and wants and their relative importance will give you the guidance you require to make effective changes. Part 3. How Is Purchase Logic Turned Into Positive Action? Understanding precisely what your customers want and why they want it is a powerful tool for managing the marketing of your product or service. Specifically, your understanding of Purchase Logic enables you to choose the most compelling features, marketing programs and sales message. These choices become clear because Purchase Logic defines what products and services to offer and how to talk about these offerings. Once you have identified the Purchase Logic(s) in your marketplace, the direction in which you need to move will be evident. We close with two brief examples of how an understanding of Purchase Logic can make a difference. The first focuses on how Purchase Logic may be used to redefine product offerings. The second illustrates how understanding Purchase Logic can increase the power of your communications. Understand the barriers to purchase Unless brands owners know what is preventing people from buying their brand in store, then they have no hope in being able to change their ways in the last few feet. Some of the barriers may not be brand related, they can be environmental, such as not being able to find or locate the product. Maybe the packaging and product design does not reflect the premium image the brand claims, or makes it standout against the others around it. Or has the brand failed to deliver its benefits sufficiently to the shopper thereby not arming them with the reasons why it should be chosen over competitors. Marketers used to rely on advertising to do this work for them, but increasingly it will be the last 3 feet that delivers the reasons to buy. Barriers to purchase, as the name suggests are the various barriers that the consumers have to overcome in order to buy a service or a product. The barriers can be physical, psychological or financial. It always makes sense to list down the various barriers that your clients may have to overcome in order to reach you. Once you know the barriers, you can dismantle them one by one and make it easy for the clients. How the to overcome the Barriers to purchase: Influencing barriers to purchase is not always a case of running a brand or price promotion. If the barrier is I dont believe in this brand then some sort of brand in store campaign that talks about brand benefits might be a good idea, but if the

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barrier is I dont know what its for or dont see the point, then delivering an in store campaign that helps the shopper to understand why they should buy is the way forward. In short, brands need to align their assets to overcoming these barriers in way that best leverages what they know about how the shopper is shopping. 1. Why should I buy it? 2. So whats different? 3. It sound too good to be true 4. Its not worth the price 5. wheres the buzz

III. Developing an ear for human insights


What is a brand? We live in a brand world, but its not just what it does to you, but how it makes you feel. A brand is a set of memories; however these memories dont even need to be your own memory for you to be able to identify a brand as associations can be thought. Even when you have never been in Paris, you still could recognize it by just seeing the words romantic, elegant and fashionable. To understand brands, its important to know that strong brands have unique personalities, are consistent in spirit and have anchored themselves on powerful universal human emotions or insights, e.g. Apple, Marlboro & Harley Davidson. Its almost impossible to copy strong brands, as they go beyond the product like the Marlboro man or the Singapore girl. The ultimate feeling one could have with a brand is a feeling of unification: I am Harley Davidson. According to experts no. 1 brands have (on average) 3 times higher gross margins than no.2 brands and 6 times higher than no. 3 brands. As in every successful marketing campaign, actionable human insights are critical to its success. Understanding the passions, expectations, needs and desires of the people you want to talk to -- or inspire to talk about you -- is vital. Marketers (and those of us who serve them) need to take a close look at what's going on in the consumer's world. We need to listen. Sweet spot In marketing, there is also a sweet spot like in sports, and this is what makes a consumer relate to a brand. A sweet spot is met when the relevant benefit fuses with the right consumer insight. The insight can be slightly below the surface, its a personal truth about a consumer, in order to have effect. It is a revelation about human behavior or human emotions that can be leveraged to build a brand. An insight makes advertising meaningful, relevant and helps connect with the target. Important to bare in mind is that it springs from an understanding of people, not products.

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Take for example the powerful insight on chocolate: women who are depressed like chocolate, it puts a smile back on her day. Understanding Indian Living in India everybody knows that it is very diverse, with many different cultures, languages, geography and races. India is extremely complex and paradoxical, and what you see is not what you get. To understand India the single biggest problem is that the many professional people who create Indian advertisements have not been exposed to the diverse Indian culture, and dont know a thing about how or where their target group lives. They have difficulty to relate and fall regularly into clichs. Golden rule is that one cannot write creative, if you dont know whom you write it for. Much research is done by people whom have a different value system from the target group. So what makes India different? Is there a common set of values for the whole of India? And very important, can we appeal to all Indian through one communication? There are two solutions to communicate with Asians: 1. Leverage universal human insights but localize them to fit each region; 2. Forget globalization and take a completely localized approach. Brands like McDonalds and Pepsi approach Asian countries with universal human insights, but with a local flavour. McDonalds brings out the child in you and focused on the knowledge between parents and children. They talk to the parent through the child. On the other hand, the localised commercials had a sense of humour and value to them that was very different for each country. Understanding Malays Rustic simplicity Unhurried approach to life Family orientation Sensitive sophistication Gentleness Focus on play rather than work Graciousness rather than frantic pace Understanding Indians Spirituality over materialism Sentimentality and drama Respect for elders Intellectual orientation Family honor before personal honor Spontaneity, joy and passion Mythology over history Fatalism

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Stronger individuality compared to the rest Understanding Chinese Materialism over spirituality Pragmatism over sentimentality or abstractions Action orientation over intellectual orientation Premium on face value Ambition / success orientation Hard work ethic Even though the Asian people are very different, there are some common Asian values that would make it possible to create an Asian localised commercial or advertisement: Harmony and order Institution above individual Respect for elders Strong family and community ties Fear of losing face / honour Team above self Consensus based approach Strong traditional anchors Premium on relationships rather than objectivity One should not be misled by appearances. Do look beyond the surface; what you see is not what you get! People may look westernized with miniskirts etc, but their values can still be conservative. Never underestimate the sophistication of Indian culture. And last, but not least you cant talk to Indian if you dont master the nuance. An insight makes advertising meaningful, relevant and helps connect with the target. ... Universal human insights, but with a local flavour. ..

IV. How to get an idea


What does Idea Generation really mean? The term idea generation is a blanket description referring to any means of creating or developing ideas. There are various different techniques for

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generating ideas; from free association to mind mapping, with brainstorming arguably being the best known and most often utilized. 1. Brainstorming is a group creativity technique for generating ideas to solve a problem. The results of a brainstorming session can be a complete solution to the problem or a list of ideas resulting in a plan, but more often than not is a list of potential ideas. Brainstorming originated in 1957 with advertising executive, Alex Osborns book, Applied Imagination. Today the term brainstorming is often generically applied to the many differing forms of advertising creativity processes based upon this original concept. 2. Free Association, another type of idea generation process, depends largely on a mental stream of consciousness of which there are two major varieties- serial and centered. Serial Association starts with a trigger, recording the flow of ideas that come to mind, each idea triggering the next until ultimately reaching a potentially useful one. Centered Association, which is closest to classic brainstorming, is meant to generate multiple associations of the one original trigger so it can be more fully explored. 3. Mind or Thought Mapping are the various processes based upon a mind map; a hand-drawn diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. This graphic version of the classic brainstorming method is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas. It is a visual aid in organization, problem solving, and decision-making processes. Many software companies are now selling versions of Mind or Thought Mapping tools which supposedly aid in facilitating and recording this process. 4. Six Thinking Hats was a method developed in the 1980s by Dr. Edward de Bono. The method is meant to promote fuller input from more people. In de Bono's words it "separates ego from performance". The key point is a hat represents a direction to think rather than a label for thinking. There are six metaphorical hats and the thinker can put on or take off one of these hats to indicate the type of thinking being used. The criticism of Six Thinking Hats is it has to be learned and practiced, and the process supplies and training materials can only be written and authorized by Dr. de Bono. 5. Convergent thinking: Problem solving technique in which ideas from different fields or participants are brought together (synthesized) to find a single optimum solution to a clearly defined problem. 6. Divergent thinking: In contrast to convergent thinking, (which aims at solving a specific problem) divergent thinking is creative, open-ended

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thinking aimed at generating fresh views and novel solutions. Divergent thinking uses exploration to search for all possible alternatives 7. Analogies and metaphor: Used to see new patterns or relationships. An analogy means Similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar. A comparison based on such similarity. Thus its a form of logical inference or an instance of it, based on the assumption that if two things are known to be alike in some respects, then they must be alike in other respects. Metaphor means something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else; emblem; symbol. The problem with any of these idea generation processes is the lack of understanding, time or focus of participants. The knowledge and problemsolving expertise required make idea generation successful are often simply not available within the organization. Choosing the idea that effectively communicates the emotional/rational benefit

Chapter 4: Brief
A brief is one of the most important aspects of Client servicing executive. Critical to the creative process is developing a clear understanding of our clients' needs and expectations. At the important initial meetings we listen and ask a lot of questions to help us establish the full scope of the project, budget parameters and timelines. So what should we ask for? More often than not we are not given a written brief from the client instead we need to extract a brief. This can be painful and pointless if we are not asking the correct questions and more importantly the correct person. Before you get into asking the usual questions of how big, how much and where, try starting at the beginning. It helps to find out about your customer. This can be done before the appointment via the web where you might find out what they do, how big they are, and how many people work for the company and how many offices they have. If they are a foreign owned company it is quite possible that the decision By: M H Lakdawala 69

will be made abroad. You can pick up product ranges, departments and divisions. You might even be able to see a picture of a previous stand. Its information like this that the smart client servicing executive gathers without thinking. If they dont have a web site ask them to send you a brochure before your meeting. Initial Proposal Inspiration is what our clients expect so we spend time refining the initial brief and make sure our proposals will deliver it. This is our opportunity to shape a vision for the project and to set out the means for achieving it, as well as realistic deadlines for every stage. Strategy and Research If appropriate and practical, we like to include careful market analysis through customer and competitor research. This helps us to fully understand where our clients are coming from and where we can help them go Creative Concepts This is the stage when all the groundwork produces the first buds of creativity and culminates in our first major presentation. Together we discuss and agree which of our ideas are worth developing. Development and Application Even the greatest ideas require careful implementation to achieve their full potential. Following client feedback, we develop and polish our ideas into carefully crafted final Creative strategy. Whatever the required deliverable, Its essential that highest quality work is delivered.

Product Brief: The product brief (initial information provided by the contracting company that dictates what they require from me). A product brief is a document designed to focus on specific benefits and attributes of clients products.

Marketing brief: The purpose of marketing brief is to help assess clients current situation, both internally and relative to its competition. Its the starting point for any work agency do for their customers. The details elicited in marketing brief provide the foundation for refining clients marketing message and revising and updating their marketing and advertising program.

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A marketing brief is the best way for the marketer to clearly lay out a framework for the creative team. The process can be driven by either side - creative or marketing - but both sides need to agree on the brief before the work can commence. Marketing brief is a document outlining the expectations by a company's marketing team regarding a finished project. The marketing team can clearly define what they want the creative team to create. Follow these tips to create a marketing brief so all parties involved will know what work is expected of them. a) Where are we? (situational analysis - the market, trends, competitive analysis, etc.) b) Where are we going? (opportunities, objectives & strategy) c) How are we going to get there? (actions, plans & controls)

Instructions for Marketing brief: Step 1 Write a summary of the project including any background information. Include all areas and all players who will be involved in the project. Know the prices of each part of the project and the total cost. Step 2 Outline the expectations of each party involved. Know the individual jobs of each player and include these job expectations in your creative marketing brief. You want everyone to be clear about the job at hand. Step 3 Include the dates of each part of the project. Know who is completing what and when it should be completed. Have a date for the final project. Step 4 State your goals and objectives. so that everyone knows the purpose of your project. You have a better chance of succeeding if everyone is clear on this point. Step 5 Know your target group. The more you know about the target, the more successful your project will be. Once you know the target group, you can tailor the project to that group. Step 6

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Write your brief in project format with clear headings and sections for each part of the project. Include plenty of white space between sections so readers can scan for information. 10 Point Marketing Brief (Brief) 1. Background you have to supply enough detailed information, regarding your needs. We will have little or no knowledge of your market and will have to understand the key elements that need to be focused on by the marketing campaign. Remember, you are the expert in your field. 2. Research Include any and all relevant research that could support the marketing campaign. 3. Previous Marketing Material If you have tried marketing and advertising previously, provide full details of the targeted markets, details of your previous campaigns and the results. 4. Aims What are the required results of your marketing campaign? Confirm your expectations and aims. 5. Objectives Will your objective be: o Raising awareness of your products or service? o Changing preconceived attitudes Your objectives must be comprehensible, specific and quantifiable. They should be conceived in simple detail, as they will present the principal concept for your campaign. 6. Target Market Know exactly who you want your message aimed at. The target audience can be portrayed in terms of current market behaviour, degree of awareness, product/service knowledge, favoured method of receiving info and clients/customers enthusiasm /obstruction to take notice of and accept the information. The more comprehensively you recognise your target audience, the greater the prospect of a successful campaign. 7. Key Message Be clear and concise concerning the purpose of your marketing campaign. An unclear message may result in an ineffectual strategy and an unsuccessful campaign. 8. Budget Define your marketing budget. If you do not specify a budget in your brief

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then a marketing strategy may be proposed that exceeds what you had in mind. 9. Timescale Provide an approximate schedule for the campaign. Results will take time and we need to know the timescales we are working to. 10. Evaluation If you do not build in a stratagem to appraise the campaign, you will not know if it was successful and if your money was well spent. Equally, if the campaign doesnt produce the required results, evaluation will help identify where things went wrong Agency brief This comprehensive guide provides, in outline form, essential questions and topics of discussion necessary for informing outside agency about clients marketing communication needs, both short and long term. This document will serve as a broad-based reference tool for both focus and direction of your marketing efforts. Whats fascinating is that this is true. The agency brief document purpose is to involve advertisement agency within clients marketing strategies from the beginning until the end. The oft-used word, partnership, is a good benchmark for defining the relationship between agency and client. It is fundamental to a healthy client-agency relationship that the agency be seen as a fully engaged partner with client. By partnership we mean complete and thorough disclosure, prompt response to requests, and the commitment by both client and agency to see the creative process as one of collaboration, not driven by ego and private agenda. At the end of the day, if the campaign is highly successful, who cares where the idea emanated from? If the campaign is less than successful, then both sides must take mutual accountability A good advertisement agency will ask client for a briefing. A briefing is crucial for good advertisement. The agency must really understand clients issues, its product and the vision clients want to communicate. Since agency brief is very detailed and goes into great depth, its recommend that a team complete this briefing. A single person would provide the agency with just one view that may be skewed by his or her specific discipline.

Converting into creative brief

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Once an effective appeal is found, the advertiser should prepare a creative brief, typically covering one or two pages, it is an elaboration of the positioning statement, and it should include: a. Key message b. Target audience c. Communication objectives d. Benefits to promise e. Supports for the promise f. Media to be used. Note boxes will expand to accommodate verbiage. Try to keep Creative Brief as concise as possible.. (Client Name) Creative Brief Format Agency/Graphic Designer: ____________________________________

Agency Phone:______________ Fax: _____________ Email: ______________________ AgencyAddress: ______________________________________________________________ Street City State Pin Code Project Summary: Clear, concise description of project keep brief.

Target Audience: Whom are you trying to attract? Be specific.

Key Messages: One or two key thrusts those most important to the projects success.

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Key Benefits: Whats in it for the audience?

Background/Competitive Positioning: Briefly discuss the competition, market realities, obstacles, etc.

Communication Strategy: Indicate any specific elements to be included (logos, key visual images,key words and phrases, key contact information, specific internet links etc.)

Desired Message Tone: How do you want the message perceived -- creative, fun, warm, active?

Project Timeline: Indicate major milestones.

Anticipated Budget:

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Other: Add any key information not covered under the above items.

Prepared by : _________________________________________Date:___________________ _____ Accepted by: Agency/Graphic Designer Signature: ______________________________ Title: ______________________________ Date: ______________________________

Chapter: 5 The BIG IDEA


A BIG IDEA can be used to provide a basis for the campaign. e.g. a hook that you can use for multiple executions. Does the ad position the product simply? and with unmistakable clarity? Does this ad bolt the brand to a benefit? Does this ad contain a power idea? Does this ad have brand personality? Is how the Advertising meets its promotional objectives given its audience and constraints? Translates the ads purpose into its Creative Strategy (how it will do what it is supposed to). The Creative Strategy is built around a theme that contains an appeal. The theme is the ads context, or setting. The appeal taps into the audiences motives to initiate and guide behavior / learning. Big ideaThe flash of insight that synthesizes the purpose of the strategy, joins the product benefit with consumer desire in a fresh, involving way, brings the subject to life, and makes the reader or audience stop, look, and listen.

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David Ogilvys Quotes 1 It takes a big idea to attract the attention of consumers and get them to buy your product. Unless your advertising contains a big idea, it will pass like a ship in the night. I admire people with gentle manners who treat other people as human beings. I abhor quarrelsome people. I abhor people who wage paper-warfare. David Ogilvys Quotes 2 The consumer is not a moron. She is your wife. Never insult her intelligence You will never win fame and fortune unless you invent big ideas Creative Strategy The search for the BIG IDEA. The concept or central theme that will bind the campaign together. Tone of Voice Tone of Voice often communicates so much more than even the expression on your face. You are constantly engaged in changing your tone of your voice as you speak. You admonish a naughty child in on tone, and use another if the child is frightened and needs comforting. You can use Tone of Voice to give orders, raise an alarm, and evoke pity; In short, use Tone of Voice to generate a mood, or to impel action. So when you communicate through an ad, first decide when Tone of Voice you wish to use when talking to your target audience. What sort of feelings do you wish to inspire in the housewifes heart? Should you inspire confidence, or evoke fear? What sort of voice will make the reader of your ad eventually respond as you want him or her to respond? Tone of Voice is a crucial element in designing communication message.

Chapter: 6 Writing for Print Media- Parts of a press ad- the headline, subhead, body copy
WRITING THE COPY The elements of the copy, from headline to closing should follow the 4 steps in the selling process A-I-D-A in a logical progression. By: M H Lakdawala 77

THE HEADLINE PROVIDES THE A AND I In copywriting, the attention and interest of the potential customer must be caught by the headline, or the page will be turned and the possible sale lost. The headline has 3 functions: 1. To capture attention. Ex: Axe effect red lips creating a sensuous appeal are a very attention seeking ad and the visual acts as the headline. 2. To awaken the interest of the reader in learning more about the product. The ad for Intelligent Investor, which uses the headline Why being a regular reader of Intelligent Investor is such a healthy habit, would awaken the interest of the readers. 3. To select the special readers who might have a specific interest in what you are selling. Eanadu Pradesh ad targets media planners, hence the headline Perhaps the first ad written with the belief that a media planner is human, and not a counting machine. Once the dominant selling point and copy appeal have been determined, there are several grammatical forms the headline can take. It may be determined as: A statement or part of a statement The Business Standard ad uses a statement the headline: Its tough being a Business Standard reporter. A question Onida TV ad- Headline should the new Onida TV be banned? Surf excel sample laaney ki kya zaroorat hai A command. get it! Visa Ad for Star News that has a headline, which just says Stop Onida TV headline - Dont! Sub-headline dont just envy the Ondia TV, buy it What a headline contains is more important than the form in which it does it.

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Headlines may be classified by performance as follows: Headline Types Benefit News and Information Command Provocative Question Reason why Caution headline How-to-type Selective headline Solution to problem Advice headline Gimmick headline 1) Promise of a Major Benefit This is the safest, most widely used type of headline. And for it to be as effective as possible, it must display the #1 benefit your prospect will receive buy purchasing your product or service. The most effective way to determine this benefit is to survey your customers - by phone, email, or postal mail. Ask them the top 3 reasons for purchasing your product or service, and have them rank them in order. It's a good idea to offer your customers an incentive for providing you with this information. 2. News or Information: Conveys real news or important information about a product.. If your product or service offers something newsworthy, announce it in your headline. Newsworthy is usually the introduction of a new product or the improvement of an existing product. Here are some words you can use in your News Headline: New... Announcing... Introducing... Finally... Just Released... Now... Now Available... At Last... Examples: Eg. The Times of India ad that boasts of the circulation of TOI as compared to that of Deccan Herald. The Times of India: 301927 copies. Deccan Herald : 147538 copies

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3. The Command Headline. The Command Headline tells your customer what to do. Your command should encourage action by offering your prospect a benefit that will help them. Effective Command Headlines start out with action verbs. Examples: Trade In Your Old Motor cycle for-Bye to Maintenance Headaches! 4. Provocative 5. The Question Headline. Here again, to use this headline, you must really know your market. You need to know what your prospect is thinking, what their anxieties are, and what theyre hoping to accomplish. If you know your target audience this well, then the Question Headline is an effective headline to use. The Question Headline should focus on your prospects self interest and ask a question they want to know the answer to. The best type of questions to ask are questions that get your prospect involved. Examples: What Does the Space Shuttle Have To Do With LaZer Runners 7 Year Premium Protection Warranty? Can Half of All Laser Tag Owners in America Be Wrong? What Do The Giant Entertainment Companies Know That You Dont?

6. The Reason Why Headline. With the Reason Why headline, you give our prospect specific reasons why they should read your ad. Reason Why headlines are effective because they contain facts and specific numbers. Reasons why headlines dont need to include the words reason why. Examples: 7 Reasons Why IBM Provides You With a More Reliable System 7. The How-To Headline. These two words -- how to, are very powerful words. You can never go wrong using a How To Headline. (Over 7,000 book titles start out with How To.) How To Headlines promise your prospect a source for information, advice, and solutions to their problems. If you ever get stumped for a headline, use the How To Headline -- it works! Examples: How To Expand Your Customer Base and Increase Your Profits 8. Selective Select a specific audience with specific language and words.

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The Malaya Manorama ad, which addresses advertisers. The print ad starts with the headline which says A few commandments to advertisers this Xmas. Media planer ad of Eenadu Pradesh. 9) Solution to a problem This type of headline is a slight variation of the #1 benefit headline. The problem solved by your product or service is the #1 benefit - it's just presented in a problem/ solution format. Example: "Now You Can Melt at Least 3 Inches of Fat from Your Waist in 30 Days or Less - Guaranteed!" This headline presents the benefit of reducing fat in the waist as the #1 solution to the problem of having excess fat in the waist area. 10) The Flag Headline A flag is a phrase calling for the attention of a particular person or group. Use a flag headline to attract your target audience - those most likely to buy your product or service. For example Attention: New Mothers! New Exercise Safely Burns the Fat You Gained During Your Pregnancy in Less than 60 Days - Guaranteed! You can also use the flag headline to increase response by catering your offer to readers of the publication you're advertising in. Example Attention: Newborn Journal Readers! New, Exercise Safely Burns the Fat You Gained During Your Pregnancy in Less than 60 Days - Guaranteed!

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your message before making a purchase. Or you can use the warning to flag a specific audience. The following example uses both of these techniques. * Warning: Dieters * Don't eat another reduced calorie meal until you read this startling message Why Your Current Eating Habits May be Doing More Damage to Your Body Than Good! 12) The Testimonial Headline This is simply a satisfied customer testimonial used as a headline. Here's an example: "Big Boulder Protein Powder helped me pack on 11 pounds of muscle and reduce my body fat by 6.4% in only 37 days, without changing my exercise routine, and I'm convinced it can do the same for you too." The quotes around the headline signify that it's an actual quote from a customer, giving it added validity. When using this method, it's important that the testimonial has a strong impact. It must make a significant claim related to a major benefit of your product or service. Don't just use an "average" testimonial, or it won't have the desired effect. 13. Claim: Insist that this product has an outstanding record or performs in a certain way. It should not be overly blatant and boastful, if so then it is called Horn-Blowing. DHL: when sending shipments to the US, more of Indias companies choose us. Horn blowing the Asian Paints yamaraj ad this ad just exaggerates the durability aspect of the paints which kind of sounds boastful. 14. Advice or Promise: Promise a real benefit if the product is used. Ex: Dont get a credit card from us and you may end up with the wrong one in your hands - timesofmoney.com ad. 15. Logo Or Slogan:

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Stress the reputation of the company behind it. Toyota, Tata both use their logos for most of the ads for their automobiles Camry and Indica respectively. 16. Mood-Setting: Set a mood to create receptivity in the reader. Eg. The JW Marriott ad, which uses the headline The earth is mostly water. So is the view from our hotel. A picturesque scene of girl relaxing supports this 17. Provocative: It must provoke the reader into probing further. It means startling or interrupting in order to capture attention. If a provocative headline is used it must be pertinent to the product. If it presents a question, the answer must lie in the subheadline or body copy and in the products characteristics, features, and performance. Sometimes it presents a contradiction or an apparent paradox to the reader, with the explanation provided in the body copy. There are exceptions: Those messages where a headline and very descriptive visuals are able to tell the whole story. The advertisement for HLL looking for baby models Headline Nude models wanted Ad for Amitasha Foundation Her parents cursed the day she was born 18. Visuals are as much a part of headlines as are verbal concepts. Eg. The bad night Goodknight ad with Lisa Ray .her face tells the whole story and theres no body copy! Sub-headlines: Sub-headlines are sectional headlines. There are over lines and underlines. An over line is a sub-head that leads into headline. An underline is a sub-headline that follows the main headline and leads the reader into the copy test. Generally the purpose of the sub-headline is to support the main headline and complete the meaning of the headline. It may also be used to bring out related but additional or different appeals. It can also be used to break up a lengthy copy.

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Functions of Sub-headline: Include important information not communicated in the headline Communicate key selling points or information quickly Stimulate more complete reading of the ad BODY COPY Body copy carries the selling message. Once the headline and visual have attracted attention and aroused interest, the body copy attempts further to develop the interest of the potential customer, to awaken the desire to own the product, and to close with a call to action. Body copy can be extremely important to the success of an ad. It allows you to fully convince the target audience of the benefits of the product. But unless you can get them to read it, it's a huge waste of your time and your client's money. And most people wont read body copy--in fact, 80% of readers won't read it. So what do you do? You can leave it out of the ad and hope that the ad will compel readers to seek more product information elsewhere (at the Web site, at the showroom, etc.) But sometimes advertising is the most efficient way of communicating all the product information so you have to write good body copy. In that case, you must try to entice readers into the body copy. And the best way to do that is with a great "lead." This is the first sentence of the body copy. No matter what style of copy you're writing, it should draw the reader from the headline and into the text. The copy approach is the way the copy and its appeal are presented. Copy approaches, various as they seem, can be grouped into three categories: 1. Factual, direct or rational approach LIC The LIC ad states the benefits of the Komal Jeevan policy, the eligibility, minimum sum assured, etc. Several ways to work out this approach a. Direct selling information Ads that offer information on products like music cassettes, books, CDs, etc, which are sold by the newspaper/magazine in which the ads feature, provide direct selling information. For example The Economic Times Entertainment 2001-2002 report. b. Implied suggestion (soft sell)

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Amway the ad does not urge you to buy today or hurry, instead, it lays down the benefits of using Amway products in a subtle way. Besides, since Amway products are made available through personal selling, the body copy does not state any contact address or number. Rather, it states someday soon, someone will suggest that you find out for yourself how exquisite our personal care products are. c. Testimonial copy 1. When Sachin Tendulkar says Boost is the secret of my energy, he is offering testimony to the benefit offered by Boost, i.e. energy.

2. Ratan Tata lends credibility to the plea made by Dept of Electronics Govt. of India by ratifying the seriousness of the Y2K Bug. Body copy developed for the factual approach: 1. Amplification of headline in the lead (1st sentence (s) of body copy)

2. Proof or evidence 3. Additional details 4. Closing The ad by Infosys seeking recruits starts with the Headline We need Though Leaders who can assert our Domain Competence. 1. Amplification of headline As a global IT consulting and services organization, Infosys is at the cutting edge of IT development and a thought leader in business and technology domains 2. Proof or evidence: a seal is shown in the ad which states Best employer to work for in India Business today Hewitt Associates survey Jan 2001 Softwares Best Employer Dataquest NFO MBL Study May 2001 3. Additional details: details about Domain Competency, the focus areas of the project, eligibility criteria are given. 4. 5. Closing: So, if you are a though leader who wants to fly high, act now! Mail your resume

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2. Narrative approach story board Ex: om kotak mahindra A man joins a party and is bewildered by what he sees. He moves forward in a daze and recognizes his own image as an old man. "Ek din, main apne aap se mila. Aur apna bhavishya dekha." He dances together with his vision, and enjoys the carefree moment. "Aatmanirbhar, surakshith. Azaad." They become the life of the party as... ...the MVO adds, "Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance. Jeene ki azaadi." The ad uses the narrative approach to emphasize the USP of Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance, i.e. Independence.

Several ways to work out this approach: a. Descriptive or human interest story Most NGOs use this approach to elicit a favorable response from the readers. For example, ad for the Amitasha foundation - Nurturing the girl child, show the photograph of a girl in rags, with the headline Her parents cursed the day she was born. So does she. b. Slice of life slice of life ads depict situations that one can relate to, situations that could have occurred in anyones life. McDonald, Cadburys dairy milk, etc use this approach c. Fictional testimony In the ad for Dove, women who have used Dove narrate the positive effects of using Dove in their lives. d. Monologue or dialogue Hindustan Times e. Humor Most of the Fevicol ads have used humor to make the ads noticeable, interesting as well as memorable. Even the feviqwick ad where two men are shown fishing, has the same effect. By: M H Lakdawala 86

The ad - a suave gentleman is shown fishing in a lake for hours, but could not catch a single fish. Then comes a rustic local, who applies Feviqwick at a few places on his fishing rod, dips it in the water and out comes with five fish stuck to his rod. Thus, humor gave high noticibility as well as recall to the ad. Body copy developed for the narrative approach: Predicament Most fair and lovely ads start with a predicament the girl faces problem/s because of her complexion. like the ad in which the father wishes that he had a son and not a daughter. The daufghter comes across an offer for the job of an airhostess, but a after look at her dark complexion in the mirror, only ends up cursing herself. Transition to the product. But things change when she uses Fair and Lovely Happy ending Not only does she become beautiful (fair) and confident, she even becomes an airhostess. The ad ends with the female taking her father out for coffee to a five star hotel, and the father proudly calling her beta (son). Closing (suggestion to the reader) Ads, which end with words, like jaldi kijiye, hurry now, etc. Example Safal ad jaldi kijiye - mahurat nikal na jaye 3. Projective or emotional approach This approach puts the reader realistically into the situation, involving him emotionally through a projected factual story or through fictional story about fictional characters. This approach relies on the customers association with the characters in the story as if it were happening to him. Eg. The emotional impact of this type is often felt in copy written about perfume, cosmetics, lingerie, cars and travel. McDonalds ad.

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A little boy takes a last look around his old home. Everything is being packed up and stashed away to be moved Saying good-bye to his best friend he gets into the car and they drive out. On the way, he spots a McDonalds restaurant and....he recalls all the fun they had here. The occasions celebrated and the good times come flashing back to him. Cut to the new house. His sister drags him to the window to show him something. The father draws a Mac logo in the air. As they look out, the kid sees a McDonald's restaurant opposite and his gloom disappears. The ad ends with the jingle - McDonald's mein hai kuch baat.

BOXES AND PANELS Boxes and panels are great tools for the copywriter. In the information age, writers can access huge amounts of information to support their products utility and demonstrate why customers need it. To avoid having the ads text become a glut of testimonials, data, and off-the-issue discussions, copywriters segregate information of a secondary and supportive nature into boxes and panels next to the main body copy. This allows readers to first focus on the main issues and later study the detailed facts. A box is copy with a line around all four sides. A panel is an elongated box that runs the whole length or width of an ad. Boxes are useful for framing information that the prospect must read e.g. coupons, special offers, contest rules, and the order blanks. Quick tips for Body copy; 1. A writer must put conviction into their own copy. 2. Never oversell in your body copy 3. Get quickly to the crux of your body copy message. 4. Keep your line of thought on track. Address arguments before they arise. 6.Write for your audience-not yourself. 7. Keep your copy user friendly 8. Present your body copy in a logical sequence that relates to the rest of the text. 9. Use one of the twelve slogans for constructive persuasion. SLOGANS

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A slogan is a small attractive phrase used in the ad to sum up the advertising message in a few words. Ideally the slogan should be short, preferably 5 to 7 words or even less than 5 words. The words must be simple, clear and easy to remember. It should be so designed that it can be repeated , perhaps a year or years together. The slogan should be such that it can be used in any media, whether on TV, radio, press and outdoor. Slogans are not easy to create. Sometimes, they just come along but most often slogans are the result of hard work of days together put in by the creative marketing people/advertising people. Great slogans are like great ideas, they don't come overnight.

Basis for writing a slogan: Techniques/factors 1. Slogans can be based on the Quality of the product. Example: The best tobacco money can buy-Rothmans. 2. Slogan can be based on the Life of the company. Example: A trusted household name for over fifty years-Philips. 3.Slogans can be used to build Trust and confidence. Example: The name you can trust- Mafatlal. 4.slogans to guard against substitutes. Example: when its Philips, you can be sure. 5. Slogans emphasizing sales of the product. Example: Indias largest selling soft drink concentrate. Rasna. 6. Slogans emphasizing International reputation of the product. Example: The worlds favorite airline- British Airways. 7. Slogans can place emphasis on Advanced technology of the company. Example: In tune with tomorrow.- Bush. Example: Dunlop is Dunlop, always ahead. 8. Slogans emphasizing the use of the product. Example: A pocket doctor for aches and pains-Amrutanjan pain balm. Example: Real relief, real fast-Moov. 9. Slogans expressing Love and Affection

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Example: A gift for someone you love-Amul chocolates. 10. Slogans expressing Joy and happiness. Example: Happy days are here again.-Thumps up 11. Slogans emphasizing the choice of specific class. Example: The choice of new generation- Lehar Pepsi. 12. Slogans emphasizing the comfort and convenience. Example: Arrive in better shape-Cathay Pacific. 13.Slogans based on pride and possession. Example: Neighbours envy, Owners pride. 14.Slogans emphasizing name of the brand company. Example: Only Vimal 15. Slogan based on the headline of the ad. Example: Filter and tobacco perfectly matched-Wills. (headline: Made for each other), The twelve slogans of constructive persuasion: 1. Slogan are about you: Successful slogans tend to use the word you some where in the copy. 2. Slogan make promises 3. Slogans call for action 4. Slogans create ideals: Zindagi ke saath bhi Zindagi ke baad bhi. 5. Slogans are it: Go for it, Its here, you cant beat it. 6. Slogans are in a world of their own. Enter a new world of writing. 7. Slogan may rhyme: Top for shops, meals that appeals. 8.Slogans can be full of alliterations Supremely Scottish Salmon Buy better. Buy bigger, by far. 9. In order to sell, slogans dont have to be clever. The writers choice The best pen you can buy. 10. Slogans conveniently package everything in one sentence. Affordable reliability in your pocket. 11. Slogans repeat key word patterns. The right price. The best quality. 12. The slogan is king The best; The one;the Answer, The shape. Functions of Slogan: 1. Aid memory recall: It should be easy and pleasant to remember. I love you Rasna.

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2. To describe the use of a product. The weekly update on the hospitality industry- Express Hotelier & caterer Magazine. 3. To suggest the products special advantage or unique benefit. " On time, every time. DHL. 4. To suggest increased use or frequency of use. 5. To stress the quality of the product Greater Reliability through Better Technology. Rane ( Madras Limited). 6.To build name and goodwill of the company. The worlds favorite airline. British Airways. 7. To stress market leadership Indias No.1 Radial. JK Tyre. 8. To emphasize international standards. World Champion Lubricants. Castrol. Many slogans also called theme lines or tag lines begin as successful headlines. Through continuous use, they become standard statements, not just in advertising but also for salespeople and company employees. Slogans become a battle cry for the company. Slogans have two basic purposes: to provide continuity to a series of ads in a campaign and to reduce an advertising message strategy to a brief, repeatable and memorable positioning statement. De Beers ads still use the slogan Diamonds Are Forever/Heera Hai Sada Ke Liye Because of their use in positioning a company or product, many slogans are developed at the same time the product or company is conceived. Slogans should be like old friends- recognized instantly year after year. Effective slogans are short, simple, memorable and easy to repeat, and most important, help differentiate the product or the company from its competitors. Rhyme, rhythm, and reason not to mention alliteration are valuable tricks of the trade for slogan writing. SEALS, LOGOTYPES AND SIGNATURES The concise Oxford Dictionary describes the word Logo simply as logo type. In turn, logotype is describe as:

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Word, or more letters than one, cast in one piece. Non-heraldic device chosen as company symbols or badge of organization and used in advertisements, on note paper, etc. The companys logo is the corporate signature. It reposes in itself the collective pride of the company and is designed with great care to represent the personality of the company and its product. In other words, the corporate logo embodies the company with a personality, a human quality and character. Apart from lending personality to the Companys public image, logo styles also incorporate nuances about the company. Movement related corporations like Air India, Indian Airlines, and a host of other airline and travel agencies prefer their logotypes to move from left to right and underline the sense of motion through Italicised typefaces. A seal is awarded only when a product meets standards established by a particular institution or organization. Sunsilk claimed that it had passed the rigid tests and had received the approval of Elida Hair Institute of Paris . Companies claiming to be ISO approved Since these organizations have credibility as recognized authorities, their seals provide an independent, valued endorsement for the advertisers product. The term Seal is sometimes interpreted to mean the company seal or trademark. They are actually called logotypes. Logotypes and signature are special designs of the advertisers company name or product name. They appear in all company ads and, like trademarks, give the product individuality and provide quick recognition at the point of purchase. Captions: Captions do form part of copy text. Captions are small sentences that seem to come out the mouth of the people shown in the ads. Comic strip type of copy make use of captions. For example, you must have come across such captions in the print ads of Tortoise Mosquito Coil. Essentials/ Characteristics/ Attributes of a Good copy: 1. Be Concise 2. Be Simple 3. Be specific

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4. Be Personal 5. Make it believable 6. Be clear 7.Make it interesting 8.Make it persuasive 9.Keep a surprise in the copy 10. Follow the headline and illustration. Creative Tactics: Print Ad Layout 3. Jingles These are catchy little tunes, which we pick up and hum quite unconsciously most of the times, like a refrain registered in our brain, which refuses to go away. Jingles make possible the association of memorable phrases with the product or with the company. As David Ogilvy once said, If you have nothing to say, sing it. A jingle with its repeat phrases has a far higher recall value than the visuals do. The signature tunes immediately conjure up their products. The music catches the attention of children and teenagers. It is important to know the target audience when composing a jingle. It is important to know the target audience when composing a jingle. The mood briefs are generally given to the jingle singer by the Agency. They tell whether a tune should be peppy or romantic, or joyous. They also give a profile of the target audience. Sometimes a story-board is given by the Agency to make the singer aware of the characters expected to be mouthing the jingle. Jingle composing, singing and making it work is highly creative art. Jingle composing involves co-ordination with client, composer, musician, recording studio, singer, voice over person and host of others.

Chapter: 7 I. Writing for Television:


Stages of producing a TV Commercial 1) Writing scripts and developing storyboards 2) Briefing the producer 3) Pre-production 4) Shooting

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5) Post-production The Two elements that make TV so exiting are: (1) Sight (2) Sound Focus on single big idea: TVC are generally use for launching the single Big Idea to leave its impression. Effective TV commercials merge video and audio into a powerful sales tool. But don't think one is more important than the other. Audio and video go hand-inhand. For example, turn down the volume on any commercial. You should be able to identify the benefits of purchasing a product just from the video. The same holds true for audio. Close your eyes and listen to the announcer. If the audio doesn't explain the product in detail, then the commercial isn't effective. Potential customers should be able to hear your message even if they're not in the room to see it. Always use a strong audio and video combination when creating your own commercial. Say you're selling a handheld vacuum cleaner: Your video could actually demonstrate the product vacuuming the stairs, hard to reach places and inside a car. You'd also use video to show someone struggling with a regular, bulky vacuum cleaner - fussing with cords and heavy equipment. Use your audio to explain the advantages of owning your product. You'd use words like "convenient, portable, and lightweight." However, there are no words more important than your call to action. What do you want your viewer to do? Tell them to call now. Order now. Visit their local dealer. Your video must match your audio to drive home your selling points. For instance, you wouldn't want to see video of a woman struggling with a large vacuum cleaner while you hear audio claiming, "Our handheld vacuum cleaner is great for cleaning the inside of your car!" Your message gets distorted. The viewer gets confused. And you lose the sale. Think of television as an intimate medium. 1. If you're advertising a restaurant, don't just use a shot of your building's exterior. Use a close-up of your food in your commercial. And show people eating your food.

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2. If you're producing a Public Service Announcement (PSA) about drunk driving, don't just use a shot of a crowd of people at a funeral. Show a tear streaming down a child's face. 3. Combining sight and sound should spark your viewers' emotions and help them identify with your product. And if they can identify with your product, you're more likely to get Successful television advertising sells through emotions: 1. Motivate viewers: Television viewers rarely remember the details of an ad, but they can recall how the ad made them feel. Make sure they feel motivated after viewing yours. 2. Get to the point. You have about two seconds to grab the television viewer's attention, so use a strong opening image - the visual equivalent of a strong headline. You then have a total of maybe five seconds to say what the ad is about - if it's not clear you've lost the viewer for the entire ad. 3. Keep your message simple. Stress your benefits. And remember to stress them visually. You can do this by "showing" what they are, rather than just "telling" what they are. 4. Be sure to tell the viewer your name visually. Put it right there up on the screen, along with your logo, and your address and phone number. Better yet, hit them twice by having the voice-over announcer read it aloud at the same time. 5. Don't forget your call to action. Tell the viewer what to do - Call now!!!; Visit your local dealer; Compare the value; Come see us; etc. Television has a tremendous advantage over radio: In that action as well as sound can be used in the message. The ability to create a mood or demonstrate a brand in use gives television it superior capability. But this also changes the whole concept of copy for the copywriting effort. Copy for television must be highly sensitive to the ads visual aspects as specified by the creative director. The opportunities inherent to television as an advertising medium represent challenges for the copywriter as well. The copywriter must remember that words do not stand alone. Visuals, special effects, and sound techniques may ultimately convey a message far better than the cleverest turn of a phrase. Television commercials represent a difficult timing challenge for the copywriter. Copy must be precisely coordinated with the video. The road map for this

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coordination effort is known as a storyboard. A storyboard is a frame-by-frame sketch depicting in sequence the visual scenes and copy that will be used in a television advertisement.

Writing TV Copy Television Advertising Formats: Because of the broad creative capability of the television medium, there are several alternative formats for a television ad: Demonstration. Demonstrating a brand in action is an obvious format for a television ad. Brands whose benefits result from some tangible function can effectively use this format. Demonstration with sight and sound lets viewers appreciate the full range of features of a brand. Problem and Solution. A brand is introduced as the savior in a difficult situation. This format often takes shape as a slice-of-life message, in which a consumer solves a problem with the advertised brand. A variation is to promote a brand on the basis of problem prevention. Music and Song. Many television commercials use music and singing as a creative technique. The beverage industries (soft drinks, beer, and wine) frequently use this format to create the desired mood for their brands. Spokesperson. The delivery of a message by a spokesperson can place a heavy emphasis on the copy. The copy is given precedence over the visual and is supported by the visual, rather than vice-versa. Expert, average-person, and celebrity testimonials fall into this category. Dialogue. As in a radio commercial, a television ad may feature a dialogue between two or more people. Dialogue format ads pressure a copywriter to compose dialogue that is believable and keeps the ad moving forward. Most slice-of-life ads in which a husband and wife or friends are depicted using a brand employ a dialogue format. Vignette. A vignette format uses a sequence of related advertisements as a device to maintain viewer interest. Vignettes also give the advertising a recognizable look, which can help achieve awareness and recognition. The Taster's Choice couple featured in a series of advertisements in the United States and Great Britain is an example of the vignette format. Narrative. A narrative is similar to a vignette but is not part of a series of related ads. Narrative is distinct in that it tells a story, like a vignette, but the mood of the ad is highly personal, emotional, and involving. A narrative ad often focuses on

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storytelling and only indirectly touches on the benefits of the brand. Many of the "heart-sell" ads by Kodak and Hallmark use the narrative technique to great effect.

Guidelines for Writing Television Copy 1. Use the video. 2. Support the video. Make sure that the copy doesn't simply hitchhike on the video. 3. If all the copy does is verbally describe what the audience is watching, an opportunity to either communicate additional information or strengthen the video communication has been lost. 4. Coordinate the audio with the video. 5. Sell the product as well as entertain the audience. 6. Be flexible. Due to media-scheduling strategies, commercials are produced to run as 10- 15-, 20-, 30-, or 60-second spots. The copywriter may need to ensure that the audio portion of an ad is complete and comprehensive within varying time lengths. 7. Use copy judiciously. 8. Reflect the brand personality and image. 9. Build campaigns. When copy for a particular advertisement is being written, evaluate its potential as a sustainable idea. Common Mistakes in Copywriting Beyond the guidelines for effective copy in each media area, there are common mistakes made in copywriting that should be avoided: 1. Vagueness. Avoid generalizations and words that are imprecise in meaning. 2. Wordiness. Being economical with descriptions is paramount. Copy has to fit in a limited time frame (or space), and receivers bore easily. 3. Unoriginality. Using clichs and worn out superlatives was mentioned as a threat to print copywriting. The same threat (to a lesser degree, due to audio and audiovisual capabilities) exists in radio and television advertising. Trite copy creates a boring, outdated image for a brand or firm. 4. Creativity for creativity's sake. Some copywriters get carried away with a clever idea. Its essential that the copy in an ad remain true to its primary responsibility: communicating the selling message. The Copy Approval Process In copy approval, copy may be subjected to research scrutiny. Developmental copy research provides audience interpretations and reactions to the proposed copy. Evaluative copy research is where the audience expresses its approval or disapproval of the copy used in an ad.

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The final step in copywriting is getting the copy approved. A typical copy approval process goes as follows. In the advertising agency, a copywriter submits draft copy to either the senior writer or the creative director, or both. A redrafted copy is forwarded to the account management team within the agency. A main concern at this level is to evaluate the copy on legal grounds. After the account management team has made recommendations, a meeting is likely held to present the copy marketing staff. Inevitably, the client feels compelled to make recommendations for altering the copy. Finally, copy should always be submitted for final approval to the advertiser's senior executives. Often, these executives have little interest in evaluating advertising and they leave this responsibility to middle managers. Storyboard Creating the Storyboard is the second level of making a television commercial (TVC). Storyboard is a series of visuals which convey the story or the idea behind the commercial. Once the concept behind a TVC is ideated, presented to the client, approved and researched, the storyboard artist is called upon to present the ideas visually with a brief from the creative department. In Advertising, these visuals are usually hand-drawn. The artist is given a detailed description on the commercial viz. Socio-economic profile of the protagonists , their age group, their costumes, the place / location where the TVC is set in and so on. The artist then presents his interpretation of the commercial in visuals as various shots conceived by the creative team. The dialogues / lyrics of the jingle are written against each corresponding visual. This storyboard is in turn forwarded to the producer /director of the TVC. After the initial discussions on the TVC with the creative, the director then takes over the mantle and in consultation with the director of photography, visualizes the entire film shot by shot. His interpretation of the commercial is again presented by a storyboard artist as various shots, locales, look of the models etc on a storyboard but this time in a more detailed version. For a TVC, a storyboard makes things easier for all parties involved. It makes the director's job much easier once he has his well-defined visual representation. The Director of photography too, with the help of a storyboard knows his shots and the angles much in advance and this helps his planning with the kind of equipment, lenses , the lighting technique which could be used to make the frames look interesting. The editor, even before the film gets shot, gets a fair idea on the editing pattern, thanks to the storyboard. From the advertising agency's perspective, the director's storyboard helps them understand what exactly the director's visualization is, of their script.

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II. Cinema: Art of script writing In a good screenplay, dialogue tends to be used frugally. Too much dialogue clutters up and slows down the impact of the film, especially when it slows down or reduces visually showing the audience what is happening. So one of the most important lessons a screenwriter can learn is to show rather than tell. Dialogue is only used to add subtlety to characters and action and to provide additional information that will help the audience better understand what is going on and why. The Elements of The Screenplay i. Drama: First we are telling a story in the form of DRAMA. In presenting our story on the screen through the medium of photographed action we have SCREEN DRAMA. The story is about people, giving us characters. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. CHARACTERIZATION: The portrayal of these characters gives us CHARACTERIZATION. The characters, being human, have desires. MOTIVE: These desires cause them to do certain things--and the causes are called MOTIVE. Motive finds its outlet in deeds, which are the effects of the causes, giving us ACTION. CONFLICT and STRUGGLE: The various motives, clashing, give us CONFLICT and STRUGGLE. Waiting for the outcome of the conflict gives us SUSPENSE CONTRAST: To be interesting the characters must be dissimilar, giving us CONTRAST. CLIMAX. The various minor happenings throughout are INCIDENTS. Incident by incident the conflict grows into SITUATIONS. Each situation builds up to a CRISIS. There must be several situations and crises, following one after another, giving us SEQUENCE. The sequence of situations builds to the final situation and the greatest crisis in the story, which culminates in the CLIMAX. After which we gather the various threads of the story together and reach the ENDING.

DIALOGUE is used throughout to add subtlety and to convey information that fleshes out what is being communicated visually. In addition to these components, there are other fundamentals which are important: The OBJECT of conflict must be of sufficient importance to possess SIGNIFICANCE. The story usually involves a single general SUBJECT known as THEME.

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III. Radio: Writing Radio Copy 1. Characteristics of Radio environment 2. Message strategy 3. Writing script 4. Radio production process 1. Characteristics of Radio environment 1. Radio has been called the Rodney Dangerfield of media because it gets no respect from many advertisers. 2. Radio is capable of presenting words and theatre of the mind. 3.Radio has also become a medium characterized by highly specialized programming appealing to very narrow segments of the population. 4. Radio has survived and flourished as an advertising medium because it offers advertisers certain advantages for communicating messages to their potential customers. However, radio has inherent limitations that affect its role in the advertisers media strategy: a. Creative Limitations: Absence of visual image. A radio commercial is like a TV ad, a short-lived and fleeting message that is externally paced and does not allow the receiver to control the rate at which it is processed. b. Fragmentation: The high level of audience fragmentation due to large number of stations. c. Limited Research Data. Audience research data are often limited, particular compared with TV, magazines, or newspapers. d. Limited Listener Attention: It is difficult to retain listener attention to commercials. Radio programming, particularly music, is often the background to some other activity and may not receive the listeners full attention. Thus they may miss all or some of the commercials. Advantages: Cost and efficacy: Radio commercials are very inexpensive to produce. They require only a script of the commercial to be read by the radio announcer or a copy pf a prerecorded message that can be broadcast by the station. Flexibility: Radio is probably the most flexible of all the advertising media because it has a very short closing period, which means advertisers can change their message almost up to the time it goes on the air. Radio commercials can easily adjust their messages to local market conditions and marketing situations. 2. Message strategy

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Deciding the message is the one of the important activity in the advertising decisions, it includes: 1. Message generation 2. Message evaluation and selection 3. Message execution 4. Social responsibility review Message generation: An important component of communication is the message what is said or written. In order to understand communication, it is useful to understand the characteristics of messages and how to construct the most effective messages. Advertising people have proposed different theories for creating an effective message. Reeves of the Ted Bates advertising agency favoured linking the brand directly. Leo Burnett and his agency preferred to create a character that expressed the products benefits. The Doyle, Dane and Bern Bach agency favoured developing a narrative story with a problem, episodes related to the problem and outcomes.

Whatever the method is used, creative people should talk to consumers, dealers and experts and experts, to have suitability to the message and to understand likes and dislikes of the customers and the middlemens. Some creative people use a deductive framework for generating a advertising messages. John Maloney proposed one framework, he saw buyers as expecting one of the four types of reward from a product: a. Rational b. Sensory c. Social d. Ego satisfaction Buyers might visualize these rewards from: 1. Results of use experience 2. Product in use experience 3. Incidental to use experience. Crossing the four types of rewards with the three types of experience generate twelve types advertising message.

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For example the appeal get cloths cleaner is a rational reward promise following the results of use experience. Message Appeal: Message appeal is the feature that brings about attitude change on the part of the audience; the message appeal can be: a. Informative message: This is to create awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products or service. b. Persuasive message: This type is to create liking, preference, conviction and purchase of product or service. c. Reminder message: This type is to create liking, preference, conviction and purchase of product or services. d. Reinforcement message: This is to convince current purchases that they made the right choice. Message evaluation and selection: The good advertisement normally focuses on one core-selling proposition, but DIK Twedt suggested that messages be rated on desirability, exclusiveness and believability. The advertiser should conduct market research to determine which appeal works best with its target audience.

Message execution: The message impact depends not only on what is said, but often more important, on how it is said. Some aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. Social responsibility review: Advertiser and their agency must be sure their creative advertising does not overlap social and legal norms. Writing Radio script 1. When you place a radio ad, you're speaking to a captive audience The listener has to take an action (actively change the station) to pass by your ad. Because listeners are often sitting alone (frequently in their cars), speak to them like you're having a one-on-one conversation. Address them directly, and your message will get across. 2. On radio, you need to keep your message simple and focused.

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Choose one theme and stick to it. Remember that it takes longer to say something out loud than it does to read it. The average 30-second radio spot contains only about 70 words. Mention your company name at least three times in those 30 seconds. 3. Different radio stations require different types of ads. In "Guerrilla Advertising," Jay Levinson identifies two basic types of stations. "Background" stations are on in the background and are typically music stations that are listened to passively. Foreground" stations require active listening. They would include talk radio, all-news radio, call-in shows, and the like. Make your ad sensitive to the format to keep the listener's attention - don't use a "voice-only" ad on a music station; don't put a country and western jingle on a classical music station; and don't use a music-driven ad on talk radio. 4. You have two basic choices when it comes to creating a radio ad. You can provide a script and have it read by the announcer. Or you can provide a tape. If you choose the latter, have a professional announcer read the copy; and consider using background music or sound effects as a way of making the ad stand out. 5. If you're using a script, consider placing your ads on the show of a well-known radio personality. By having the personality read your ad, it will sound like a testimonial. And make sure the personality is familiar with your product or service - send them a sample, if appropriate. 6. Repetition is very important in radio: Because it takes several airings for the listener to become familiar with your name and product or service. Frequency helps you break through the clutter. Consider running your spots at the same time every day for a week. Take a week off and then run it for another week. 7. Entertaining Commercials sell Humor, much of the mad variety, holds audience just as well as the surrounding program material. Music is used skillfully to capture attention or to create moods. The good radio writer knows that in this era of half-listening radio audiences it is vital to give the listener just one principal idea to carry away. Details should be kept to a minimum. 8. Words are your illustrations Radio scriptwriter job is to make those-listening to your commercial see the product through youre his words alone, smell it, taste it, want it. If you are asked to prepare radio commercials for an automobile you must deftly use description, put your audience in the drivers seat of that car-make them feel its surging strength-its ease of handling-make them see its handsome lines. Description is

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vital in a great many radio commercial. In radio the writer is the artist as well as the writer. 9. Try them out loud The one most important rule to learn about writing for radio is that every single word you set down on paper for use over the air must be read aloud by you before you give it your personal approval. 10. Length of words and sentences Short words are usually the best radio words. Regardless of their pronunciation or ease of understanding, words that contain more than three of four syllables should be used only when absolutely necessary. Thus a great car is better than an exceptional car- Lovely preferable to beautiful- good to outstanding, and so on 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. METHODS OF DELIVERY: The Live Commercials Station Announcers The prerecorded commercials Music Dialog Announcement Celebrity announcer

IV. Writing for Innovative medium New media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century. For example, new media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. Another important promise of new media is the "democratization" of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. What distinguishes new media from traditional media is the digitizing of content into bits. There is also a dynamic aspect of content production which can be done in real time, but these offerings lack standards and have yet to gain traction. Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of advertising which open up new avenues for advertisers. As technological breakthroughs facilitate better modes of communication, the emergence of new media has enhanced reach on several levels.

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The result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach, specific in targeting and most of all lower in cost. 1. The copy for innovative medium should reflect Newness, creativity, novelty and timing which are key themes in innovative medium advertising 2. being different is important. But don't focus on how better or unique you are. Focus on how that uniqueness directly benefits target group; even to the point they can almost taste it. 3. Use words, phrases and imagery that help paint vivid mental pictures. 4. Since innovative medium grab attention the copy should use Positive Emotional Appeals: Positive appeals highlight product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behavior. They are love, humor, pride, prestige and joy. Most baby food products have a mother's love appeal. 5. Other positive emotional appeals involving price, prestige or exclusiveness 6. Direct Appeals: Direct appeals are those that clearly communicate with the consumers about a given need, followed by a message that extols the advertised brand as a product that satisfies that need.

V. Copywriting for Internet Writing for Web Internet writing is different from school taught writing simply because of the process used to read it. Readers want to be able to find information relevant to their search, and are not always prepared to scroll through a page of text to find the element which interests them. Listed below are some valuable tips to write effective copy for web pages and web sites. 1. Write for peoples interest: Writing articles for newspaper or magazine is different to writing for Internet. It should be kept in mind and strictly adhere to the principles of online copywriting to make headlines and copy appeal the online traffic. Unlike writing for print media, writing for web pages is very different in as much as the web traffic is very impatient and any thing less appealing is not likely to generate any interest. Web posts that captivate readers mind and that are understandable, curt and laconic share good ranking from search engine optimizers as well as from the readers. Keep copy stick to one topic and the topic should be burning and topical. 2. Search Engine Optimization: Write copy that is keyword rich. Write copy around the in-demand keywords for your product or service. This enhances the visibility of web page on the search engines, thereby increasing success rate. Also adhere to following norms:

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i. ii. iii. iv.

URL must contain the primary keyword to increase your search engine ranking. Primary keywords that you use in the URL should also be included in headline of the copy. The body of copy should have sufficient secondary keywords. The anchor text of links in the body of text should also contain keywords.

3. since customers can not touch, feel or try the products chosen on Internet, companies that have online shops should offer warranties for products sold. This practice increases customers confidence thereby their willingness to buy on Internet 4. Brevity: Because of barrage of information and pseudo-information, most Web readers seem to skim through Web pages, devoting a lot less attention per word than they would if they were reading a print publication. Peoples attention spans shorten when they go online. When writing for the Web, therefore, it's wise to write a little tighter and meatier than you would for print. Remember that your readers can click away at any second, and try to keep their attention by sticking closely to your topic. 5. Avoid repetition and superfluous clauses. Of course you don't want to economize so much that your prose becomes stilted and humorless. Really talented writers find a good balance, and are able to cover a lot of hard information in a readable, entertaining way. 6. Its good to organize your text in a bit more open, loose format than you would in print. Be generous with paragraph breaks and headings - they make pages a little more eye-friendly and easier to scan quickly. 7. When writing for the Web, keep in mind that you're writing for an international audience. If you want your work to be comprehensible to visitors from around the world. Puns and plays on words can definitely cause problems. People whose first language is not English may be confused or misled by them. 8. Write using an information hierarchy: Write keywords and keyword phrases at the beginning of your description (or as close to the beginning as you can). Follow with the second most important element then the third etc.

5. Writing copy for SMS campaigns


Critical success factors for writing copy for sms campaigns: 1. Be clear about your goals In order to write effective copy for your text message campaign, keep two goals in mind that all social marketing messaging should achieve to be successful: a. It should generate more new supporters or constituents in new areas or By: M H Lakdawala 106

b. It should generate more activities (actions, donations, etc) from existing supporters. it's important that you articulate the goal of the mobile campaign clearly before writing any messages. 2. Strategic Considerations: Before designing a mobile social marketing campaign using SMS, consider: Who is the message addressed to? (new or existing supporters?) What response is required? (Is there an action that you want constituents to perform?) What is the message? (What is the core point that you want to get across?) 3. The Spike Effect Most text messages are acted upon within 20 minutes of receipt. Mobile is at its best when it demands immediate attention and requires an easily acted-upon action. Examples include: 'Call now' 'Turn your TV on now to see...' 'Show up in 30 minutes and bring a poster' 'Sign the petition now by texting back...' 'Forward to a friend now' 'Donate now to support...' Remember to come tonight. 4. The Content: Creating a Great Message A sms marketing text message must be understood, remembered, acted upon. SMS is challenging in this regard. With a limit of 160 characters you have to think very clearly about how to phrase your message. If there is a call to action it should be kept simple and concise. 5. No abbreviations Do not use abbreviations unless you know that your audience understands exactly what they mean. Do not assume that your supporters do! Many older users who are increasingly using text messages may not understand or like cute abbreviations, so be very weary of using them, as tempting as that may be to save space. 6. Use few words Make your point in as few words as possible without missing out on any important information. Talk less about features, and more about benefits! Describe VERY briefly the WHAT, then three magic words: "which means that" and the action or benefit - for a directly simple, effective and positive message.

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Chapter: 8 Principles of writing press release copy.


Whatever your objective, you can deploy PR tactics such as press releases to your advantage. To succeed, you need to understand a few things about the media and how it works. Understanding what the Media Want It is important to establish a working relationship between the organisation and the media (both local and national). Its not enough to want attention. The media have to want to give that attention to you. The secret to successful media relations is to serve your interests by serving the medias interests. The more you can match your story to their needs, the more likely they are to publish You need to think about what they want: i. ii. iii. they want news They want reader relevance They want fresh insights.

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Often success in PR terms comes from a well-crafted, one-page press release. This press release should be a short fact-filled document that tells editors the who, what, where, when, how, and sometimes why of your story. Within its handful of paragraphs, the press release makes a compelling case for: a. Newsworthiness b. Reader relevance c. The organizations credibility A press release should be able to attract further inquiry and generate publicity around your offer. Writing a Press Release Follow three basic steps when writing your press release: 1) Get a grip on the content be sure you have clear understanding of your story and all the facts that support it 2) Follow the standard format press releases have evolved into fast, easily skimmed documents for the medias convenience 3) Turn your content into compelling news explain why its important to the editors readers. Think of it as the so what rule. 4) For every statement you wish to include in the press release, answer, so what? What is it adding to the different parties? 5) Preparing Yourself: If you want to capture the attention of a journalist, think like a journalist! 6) Ask pertinent questions that go to the heart of the story. 7) Collect answers to the following questions: Who is your product/service (offer) useful for or meaningful to? How and why is this offer used, deployed or valued? How or where can the offer be obtained? 8) In addition to asking the big questions that capture the core idea of your press release, you also have to consider smaller issues such as: Who Whos involved? Includes both the readers or the audience for whom the story is relevant What The bulk of your press release the what covers all the specifics of your statement How May include both the offer and how the prospects can acquire/ use it Why The key question is why is this important? Explain the significance of your statement to the editors readers. 9) One of the easiest ways to liven up a press release and to give it added credibility is to include a direct quote from a person connected to the story -preferably someone who is not a member of your organisation.

Press Release Format - Components of a Press Release


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Below are primary components of a press release that are used to format a news release: Dateline The dateline of a news release contains the date a press release was issued. It also contains city and state the press release was issued. A press release has the following dateline: (, September 18 2011) Mumbai, For Immediate Release This phrase tells the news media that the issued news release should be published immediately. Otherwise a press release may have an embargo. It is not necessary to use this format when you are submitting a press release, because press releases are often released as they're posted. Or Embargoed News Release A press release that should be held and released on a particular date is known as embargoed news release. Contact Information If you are sending your news release to the media via the traditional method, place your contact information at the top left preceding the word For Immediate Release. Headline / Title The headline or title of a press release tells the audience what the press release is about, and it should be 100 to 150 characters long. It should grab your audiences attention. Subtitle A subtitle explains the headline. It should be a summary of your press release in one to two sentences. Introduction The introduction of your press release should carry all the messages you want to convey. It should answer the five Ws (Who What, When Why and How). Body The body of a press release should have details of your press release: background information, statistics, quotes or testimonies. If you are writing about a product or service, state its characteristics and benefits for your audience. Boilerplate/About Company or Person In most press releases youll see About the Company. This section of the press release gives background information about the company that is issuing the press release. Such information is also known as a boilerplate. A boilerplate can also mean a template of a press release; information of on a company that can be used over and over again without changing. Hence the background of a company in

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most case remains the same. When you write a press release you can insert the boilerplate into youre news release. Boilerplates are often right before the ending of a pres release. End or Close A press release ends with a close symbol: ###. This tells the reader that what had to be said in the release is ended. Contact Information If you are sending your news release to the media via the traditional method, place your contact information at the top left preceding the word For Immediate Release. If your press release is for online distribution, place your contact information at the bottom of your release. Inverted Pyramid The method of providing most relevant information at the beginning of news release writing is known as inverted pyramid. Use this format of writing and it will pay greatly. People read less, so you want to grab their attention within the first sentences of your press release what you have to say. Expand on your topic further in the body of your press releases. This format is often used by journalists. 10 Essential Tips for Writing Press Releases 1. Make sure the information is newsworthy. 2. Tell the audience that the information is intended for them and why they should continue to read it. 3. Start with a brief description of the news, then distinguish who announced it, and not the other way around. 4. Ask yourself, How are people going to relate to this and will they be able to connect? 5. Make sure the first 10 words of your release are effective, as they are the most important. 6. Avoid excessive use of adjectives and fancy language. 7. Deal with the facts. 8. Provide as much Contact information as possible: Individual to Contact, address, phone, fax, email, Web site address. 9. Make sure you wait until you have something with enough substance to issue a release. 10. Make it as easy as possible for media representatives to do their jobs.

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Chapter: 9

1. Mail Order Advertising:


Mail Order It is a distribution channel. Consumer buy direct by post either in response to an advertisement or from a sales promotional catalogue. Deliveries are made through the mail, by carrier direct from warehouse or factory, or sometimes through a local agent. Definition: What is mail order? Mail order is a term that refers to many different methods of soliciting and/or selling products or services at a distance, where the potential customer is not physically present at a store or other location to make a purchase or to place an order. The mail order customer learns of and views an item and its description through one or more types of media, either print or electronic, including catalog, direct mail, electronic catalog, website, email, television, radio, magazine, newspaper, and others. In today's marketplace, most customers can easily access any number of retail stores, but they don't have the time. Instead of spending their precious free time at the mall, they can pore through the pages of mail order catalogs that offer just about everything they can imagine. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for Mail order advertising: 1. Mail order advertising is always set in small type. It is usually set in smaller type than ordinary print. That economy of space is universal. 2. Every line is utilized. Borders are rarely used. 3. In mail order advertising there is no boasting, save of superservice. There is no useless talk. There is no attempt at entertainment. There is nothing to amuse. 4. Mail order advertising usually contains a coupon. That is there to cut out as a reminder of something the reader has decided to do.

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5. Your potential customers are more interested in themselves than in your product, consequently your ads and sales letter must be directed toward their point of view and their self-interests! Make them want your product because it will benefit them or will do the job better for them! 6. You must put yourself in the place of your prospects and know how they feel, think and react to your ads! If "you" were the customer would your ads persuade "you" to buy? 7. Repetition is one of the secrets of making a lasting impression on the memory. 8. Your ad must name the product, describe it, tell what it will do for the reader, how he can obtain it, and where to get it! 9. Prospects are usually more impressed by what others have to say about the product than by what the dealer tells them. Write to your customers, asking for their opinion on what your program or product has done for them and request permission to use their endorsement in some of your ads. Retain their letters as your authority for using their testimony. 10. The Final Portion of your letter should strongly urge the prospect to act and tell him how to order or the entire message will go waste. 11. Always use TOP QUALITY letterheads, mailing materials and supplies...This is your BUSINESS IMAGE in mail-order! 12. Since you do not have a "window display" to use for mail-order advertising you must either draw pictures or use picture words to describe your product. Prepare advertising copy so that your prospects can "visualize the product" in their mind and "see" themselves using it to good advantage. 13. Get the prospects confidence by offering free samples, by allowing a full money-back guarantee, by building your business image without exaggeration, and by showing proof of satisfied users.

2. Copywriting for Direct Mail-letters


Writing for direct mail-letters, product brochures, leaflets, folders etc

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1. Direct mail works because it is "conversation in writing." No matter what you have heard, read, or believe most people look forward to receiving and reading their mail. 2. Have something to say----- and say it in a way that's understandable by your audience. 3. Keep the opening paragraph of a direct mail letter short-absolutely no more than 17 words. 4. Whenever you go to second page in a letter, split the last sentence in half. Begin it at the bottom of the first page; end it at the top of the next page. Why? To pull the reader with you and "make" them turn the page. 5. Write about benefits. Not the features that you offer.. But the benefits that readers gain from these features. 6. Of your first-time readers, 79%- almost 4 out of 5 will read the P.S. in your letter first, before they read your letter. The P.S. is a repeat of earlier key benefits, opportunities, offers, how to respond. 7. Never, but never tell a lie. Tell funny stories. Be entertaining. Weave a scene. Make a point. Be dramatic. Share a case history. Include testimonials. But never exaggerate. Always be true. Often when people are confronted by a long letter (and long letters almost always sell more), they'll go to the end of the letter because they know that the whole letter will be summed up in the offer and the P.S. At least usually. You P.S. can do everything that your headline can do. Keep that in mind. You can use it to: Bring up the big promise again Add more benefits Powerfully state the offer Create curiosity Build urgency Add even more credibility and proof any or all of the above

Primary purpose of Direct Mailer To motivate the reader to read the message. To have the reader act ( Order the product, schedule a demonstration, send a donation). To provide enough information so that the reader knows exactly what to do.

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To overcome any objections that might prevent or delay action. Secondary Purpose To build a good image of the writer's organization. i.e. to strengthen the commitment of readers who act, and make readers who do not act more likely to respond positively next time.

Components of Good Direct Mail Good direct mail has three components: A good product, service, or cause appeal A good mailing list A good appeal A good product appeals to a specific segment, can be mailed, and provides an adequate profit margin. A good Service or cause fills an identifiable need. A good mailing list has accurate addresses and is a good match to the product. A good appeal offers a believable description of benefits, link the benefits of the product or service to a need or desire that motivates the reader. Makes the reader want to read the letter, and motivates the reader to act. The appeal is made up of the words in the letter, the pictures in the brochure, and all the parts of the package, from outer envelop to reply card. Direct Mail strategies start with three basic steps: 1. Learn about the product, service, or organization 2. Choose and analyze the target audience 3. Choose a central selling point. These steps interact How to organize a Direct Mailer: Opener (Star): The opener of your letter gives you 30 seconds to motivate readers to read the rest or thrown away. A very successful subscription letter for Psychology Today started out: Do you still close the bathroom door when there's no one in the house? To brain storm possible openers, use the four basic modes: 1. Questions 2. Narration 3. Starling statements a 4. Quotations 1. Questions

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Dear writer What is the best way to start writing? This letter selling subscriptions to Writer's digest goes on the discuss Hemingway's strategy for getting started on his novels and short stories. Writer's Digest offers practical advice to writers who want to be published. This information in the letter is useful to any writer, so the recipient keeps reading; the information also helps to prove the claim that the magazine will be useful. Good question challenge but don't threaten the reader. They're interesting enough that readers want the answers, so they read the letter. Poor question: do you want information about investments? Better question: can you still make money investing in land? I. Narration, stories, anecdotes Dear membership candidate: 1. I'm writing to offer you a job. 2. It's not a permanent job, understand. You'll be working for only as much time as you find it rewarding and fun. 3. It's even a paying job. On the contrary, it will cost you money. This fund- raising letter from earth watch invites readers to participate in its expeditions, subscribe to its journal, and donate to its programs. Earth watch's volunteers help scientists and scholars dig for ruins, count bighorns, and monitor changes in water; they can work as long as they like; they pay their own(tax deductible)expenses. Variations of this mode include special opportunities, twists, and challenges. 3. Startling Statements This fund-rising letter from Earth watch invites readers to participate in its expeditions, subscribe to its journal, and donat its programs. Earth watch's volunteers help scientists and scholars diag for ruins, count bighorns, and monitor changes in water; they can work as long as they like, they pay their own (tax-deductible) expenses. Variations of this mode include special opportunities, twists, and challenges. 4. Quotations "I never tell my partner that my ankle is sore or my back hurts. You can't give in to pain and still perform." The series of which this letter is a part sells season tickets to the Atlanta ballet by focusing on the people who work to create the season. Each letter

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quotes a different member of the company. The opening quote is used on the envelope over a picture of the ballerina and as an opener for the letter. The letters encourage readers to see the artists as individuals, to appreciate their hard work, and to share their excitement about each performance.

Body (Chain) The chain is the body of the letter. It provides the logical and emotional links that moves readers from their first flicker of interest to the action that is wanted. A good chain answers reader's questions, overcomes their objections, and involves them emotionally. Content for the body of the letter can include 1. Information readers will find useful even if they do not buy or give. 2. Stories about how the product was developed or what the organization has done. 3. Stories about people who have used the product or who need the organization's help 4. Word pictures of readers using the product and enjoying its benefits. Action Close (Knot) The action close in the letter must do four things: Tell the reader what to do: Respond. Avoid if ("if you'd like to try"). And why not ("why not send in a check?"). They lack positive emphasis and encourage your reader to say no. Make the action sound of easy: fill in the information on the reply card, sign the card (for credit sales), put the card and check (if payment is to accompany the order) in the envelope, and mail the envelope. If you provide an envelope and pay postage, stress those facts. Offer a reason for acting promptly: Readers who think they are convinced but wait to act are less likely to buy or contribute. Reasons for acting promptly are easy to identify when a product is seasonal or there is a genuine limit on the offer time limit, price rise scheduled, limited supply, and so on. Sometimes you can offer a premium or a discount if the reader acts quickly. When these condition do not exit, remind readers that the sooner they get the product, the sooner they can benefits from it; the sooner they contribute funds, the sooner their dollars can go to work to solve the problem. End with a positive picture: of the reader enjoying the product (in a sales letter) or of the reader's money working to solve the problem (in a fund raising letter). The last sentence should never be a selfish request for money. The action close can also remind readers of the central selling point, stress the guarantee, and mention when the customer will get the product.

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3. Writing copy for yellow pages:


Def: The term Yellow Pages refers to a telephone directory of businesses, categorized according to the product or service provided. As the name suggests, such directories were originally printed on yellow paper, as opposed to white pages for non-commercial listings. The traditional term Yellow Pages is now also applied to online directories of businesses. 1. Tell your customers the benefits of buying your products/services immediately! There's not much time so you have to grab a potential customer's attention. Tell them how long you've been in business, why you are different from your competitors and what associations you belong to. 2. Set the business name big and bold but not in all caps. All caps are harder to read. The larger font makes the name stand out. 3. Summarize the scope of the business. 4. Arrange the main services in columns instead of that centered paragraph with bullets. 5. Copy should be descriptive. People are usually ready to make a purchase or get more information when they use the Yellow Pages.e\ 6. Proof read: Once your ad goes in the Yellow Pages, it's going to stay that way for an entire year. Proofread! Proofread! Proofread! If you sell "dogs" and your ad says you sell "dots" then you'll have to wait until next year to fix the error.

4. Writing copy for trade directory


Def: A book containing alphabetical lists and information about companies and organisations involved in trade in a particular area. Listed below are some valuable tips to write effective copy for Trade directory 1. Give Them What They Want. Trades are more interested in knowing about the ROI, Margin, Profit rather than features and the characteristics of the products. 2. And make sure you put your message across with the right tone. Instead of hard sell the tone should be win- win approach.

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3. Another universal technique that works is the use of testimonials. If a target group scanning a trade directory looking at a product/ service that appeals to him, the testimonials can swing it. But make sure they look genuine, or you're wasting your time. A three sentence praise of features, attributed to a person's full name and company. 4. Copy for trade directory should be short, to the point, and lots of them! 5. The copy should be benefit- Copy using complicated, complex, pretentious language doesn't sell. 6. Follow the "3 C's" Rule: Express your offer as Clearly, as convincingly and as compellingly as possible. 7. Forget things like "best," "fastest," "cheapest" and other, broad claims. Because the worst thing you can do, second to making broad claims, is to express those claims broadly.

5. Writing copy for classified advertisement,


The art of writing a powerful advertisement, in three or four lines in such a way that it conveys the message and induces the reader to buy the product, is not easy. Classified advertisement gives you very little room to convey your message. But art of conveying a powerful, attractive, attention grabbing message is a challenge in itself. Listed below are some valuable tips to write effective copy for Classified Advertisement 1. Classified Advertisements in a newspaper are typically short, as they are charged for by the line, and one newspaper column wide. 2. You start classified copy with an emotion-packed opening statement that will get the attention of your reader. This opening statement may be a headline which includes the keys words about the product or service. 3. Write it long, and then cut it down: The rough draft of the ad should essentially be a thorough and detailed description of all you know about the product or service. Having all of the details on paper will allow you to effectively choose what should stay and what should go. Ultimately, the ad should be short and targeted. 4. Choose your words wisely: The ad should be simple and easy to read. The potential customer should have to put zero effort into understanding what is being sold to them. A confused reader will not become a customer.

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5. There are four important ingredients in good classified advertisement. a. It has to grab the attention of the reader. b. Next it has to make him interested in the product. c. Then create a desire in him to possess the product. d. Then it has to induce him to take action, to buy the product.

6. B2B Advertising
Business-to-business advertising is where business houses uses advertising to attract custom from other businesses rather the general public. Definition: Advertising directed to other businesses, rather than to consumers An area of advertising for products, services, resources, materials, and supplies purchased and used by businesses. This area includes: (1) Industrial advertising, which involves goods, services, resources, and supplies used in the production of other goods and services; (2) Trade advertising, which is directed to wholesalers and retailers who buy the advertised product for resale to consumers; (3) Professional advertising, which is directed to members of various professions who might use or recommend the advertised product; and, (4) Agricultural advertising, which is directed to farmers as business customers of various products and services. B2B is traditionally focused on relationships. That means less emphasis on generating transactions and more on providing customers with a consistent stream of information and service. Basing B2B appeals on facts and logic is no longer considered the only way to market. Gaining attention and market share through emotional appeals to business buyers is now emphasize. For example, AT&T advertised its services to businesses through emotionpacked scenarios where managers desperately rue their decisions to switch phone companies. This approach appeals to those who value reliability, a rational way to be, but it does so by striking fear in their hearts.

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What type is your target? Understanding the psychographics or logic system of your particular business target, whether chemists, doctors or data systems managers, may be expedited by convening several focus groups of typical prospects. Some believe that the online medium will shift the B2B paradigm, as B2B customer behavior is precisely tracked, analyzed, and responded to with advertising that more directly galvanizes sales. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for B2B Advertisement: 1. Consumer online advertising works because they are on their own time and are more willing to be diverted to different types of activities. But the same Internet users (B2B Target), on the job during the day, are better focused. They are involved in solving a specific problem. The goal of advertising should be to make that job easier. An advertiser that properly targets the message will be successful. People are receptive to appropriate marketing messages at work. With B2C, the advertisers are after instant transactions. In B2B, customers don't usually click and purchase. 2. Because B2B advertisers are not necessarily looking for an instant purchase, they must look at a longer time line to determine the effectiveness of their approach. That is why click-through rates are not particularly effective in measuring B2B ad effectiveness. 3. Not only is the B2B purchasing cycle longer, but also there is usually more than one person making the decision. The ad viewer might pass the information along to someone else or save the information for future reference." 4. Some of the most common business ad formats are testimonials, case histories, new-product news, and demonstrations

5. Add Credibility: It has become human nature to distrust advertising. Claims need to be real and credible. Roy H. Williams, best-selling author of the "Wizard of Ads" says, "Any claim made in your advertising which your customer does not perceive as the truth is a horrible waste of ad dollars."

6. Be Easy to Contact: Every single brochure, box, email and all company literature should have full contact information including: website and email address, phone and fax numbers, and company address. It seems simple but is forgotten by most companies.

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7. Match Ads to Target: Successful business advertising speaks to one target market only.

Creating B2B Advertising

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Chapter: 10 Different types of copy


I. Advertorial An advertorial is an advertisement in the form of an editorial. The term "advertorial" is a portmanteau of "advertisement" and "editorial." Merriam-Webstr dates the origin of the word to 1946 In printed publications, the advertisement is usually written in the form of an objective article and designed to look like a legitimate and independent news story. In television, the advertisement is similar to a short infomercial presentation of products or services. These can either be in the form of a television commercial or as a segment on a talk show or variety show. In radio, these can take the form of a radio commercial or a discussion between the announcer and representative. Advertorials differ from traditional advertisements in that they are designed to look like the articles that appear in the publication. Most publications will not accept advertisements that look exactly like stories from the newspaper or magazine they are appearing in. The differences may be subtle, and disclaimerssuch as the word "advertisement"may or may not appear. Sometimes euphemisms describing the advertorial as a "special promotional feature" or "special advertising section" are used. The tone of the advertorials is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story. Advertorials can also be printed and presented as an entire newspaper section, inserted the same way within a newspaper as store fliers, comics sections, and other non-editorial content. These sections are usually printed on a smaller type of broadsheetand different newsprint than the actual paper. Many newspapers and magazines will assign staff writers or freelancers to write advertorials, usually without a byline credit. A major difference between regular editorial and advertorial is that clients usually have content approval of advertorials, a luxury usually not provided with regular editorial. By: M H Lakdawala 123

A related practice is the creation of material that looks like traditional media (for instance, a newspaper or magazine) but is actually created by a company to market its products. One familiar example is airline in-flight magazines, which may feature reports about travel destinations to which the airline flies. Television Daytime programs featuring light talk designed to draw in mainly a female audience, often use advertorial segments which feature presentations of products, services, and packages by businesses. A representative of a business will have a discussion with a regular host, along with perhaps making a special offer for viewers. These segments are designed to give a business a detailed presentation of their service that might not be possible in a traditional thirty-second or one minute advertisement. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniquessuch as a new design for golf equipment or a new form of laser surgery. The tone is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story: advertisers will not spend money to describe the flaws of their products. Many newspapers and magazines will assign staff writers or freelancers to write advertorials, usually without a byline credit. A major difference between regular editorial and advertorial is that clients usually have content approval of advertorials, a luxury usually not provided with regular editorial. A related practice is the creation of material that looks like traditional media (for instance, a newspaper or magazine) which is in fact created by a company to market its products. One familiar example are airline in-flight magazines which usually feature reports about travel destinations to which the airline flies. Product placement is another form of non-obvious paid-for advertising. This strategy was first popularized during the energy crisis of the 1970s. Mobil Oil felt its efforts to gets its side of the story out through the American press was failing. Political and media advisor Fred Dutton developed a strategy to publish Mobil Oil's opinion as an advertisement on editorial pages across the country. The strategy proved successful in getting its message out to both the public as well as politicians and Mobil Oil quickly became identified with this unique advertising strategy.

II. Infomercial Infomercial : A commercial that is similar or attempts to appear similar to a news program, talk show, or other form of non-advertising program.

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On television, an infomercial is a short or regular-length television program that combines information presentation with an integrated suggestion to buy a particular product or service. Exercise equipment and correspondence courses are two products sometimes sold through infomercials. In the print media, the equivalent to an infomercial is the multi-page "advertising supplement" that is formatted to look like the news part of the medium and contains real information content. Radio infomercials are relatively inexpensive to produce and media buying costs are significantly less than television. Radio infomercials can be produced in a shorter time and can get to air quickly. This medium is particularly effective when timing is everything. Radio is known as a medium that generates leads. Your infomercial can promote a call-in line or your website for further contact. Radio listeners are more accustomed to making call in responses A wide variety of radio stations are available allowing you to test your product across many defined demographics.

The Internet analog of the infomercial appears to be what advertisers generally refer to as "rich media," including interactive banner ads that sometimes include Flash animations.

The word infomercial is a portmanteau, which is formed by combining the words "information" and "commercial". As in any other form of advertisement, the content is a commercial message designed to represent the viewpoints and to serve the interest of the sponsor. Infomercials are often made to closely resemble actual television programming, usually talk shows, with minimal acknowledgement that the program is actually an advertisement. Infomercials are designed to solicit a direct response, which is specific and quantifiable, and are, therefore, a form of direct response marketing (not to be confused with direct marketing). The ad response is delivered directly to television viewers by infomercial advertisers through the television ad. In normal commercials, advertisers do not solicit a direct response from viewers, but, instead, brand their product in the market place amongst potential buyers. Infomercial advertisers may make use of flashy catchphrases (such as "Set it and Forget it"), repeat basic ideas, and/or employ scientist-like characters or celebrities as guests or hosts in their ad. Famous infomercial personalities include: Cher, George Foreman (with the George Foreman Grill), Daisy Fuentes, Jack Lalanne, Chuck Norris, Ron Popeil, Tony Robbins, Cheryl Tiegs, and Kevin_Trudeau. The book As Seen on TV (Quirk Books) by Lou Harry, Sam Stall

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and Julia Spalding highlights the history of such memorable products as the Flowbee, the Chia Pet, and Ginsu knives. Because of the sometimes sensational nature of the ad form, consumer advocates recommend careful investigation of the claims made within any infomercial ad and investigation of the company sponsoring the subject product of the infomercial before purchasing the featured product or products. Infomercials are for the largest part shown late night to early morning between 2:00am and 6:00am. III. Comparative advertising, Comparative advertising is a special form of advertising. It is a sales promotion device that compares the products or services of one undertaking with those of another, or with those of other competitors. All comparative advertising is designed to highlight the advantages of the goods or services offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor. In order to achieve this objective, the message of the advertisement must necessarily underline the differences between the goods or services compared by describing their main characteristics. The comparison made by the advertiser will necessarily flow from such a description. Comparative appeals The terms comparative advertising refers to advertising that make some form of comparison between the promoted brand and some other brand or brands. In a stricter sense this would involve comparisons with one or more specifically named or recognized brands of the same generic product in terms of one or more specific products or attributes. The advertisement for Harvard Presentation Graphics presents a good example that meets these criteria. Although comparative ads are now fairly popular prior to the 1970s they were quite rare, especially on television. However, in 1979 the Federal Trade Commission formally encouraged the practice, based on the belief that such ads would provide consumers with more and better information for making brand comparisons. Some of the widely known comparative campaigns include the Avis Corporation stating we try harder compared to hertz and showing service attributes as their claim to superior performance. Schick also confronted Norelco, Remington and Sunbeam, in a direct comparison of electric shaver Pepsi Challenge comparative campaign. In all of these cases, and in a umber of others, quite favorable sales results accrued to the company initiating the comparative appeal. However, although many advertising practitioners extol the benefits of comparative appeals, research evidence has suggested a number of potential problems.

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1) Comparative ads have not been shown to be significantly more effective in increasing brand awareness. 2) Comparative ads may results in information over load for at least some consumers. 3) Comparative ads may be perceived as offensive, and the sponsoring company may be perceived as less trust worthy 4) Comparative themes may encourage consumers involvement and as a consequence, lead to more counterarguments against the message This can generate a so called boomerang effect and depress band attitudes rather than generating more favorable ones. However use of two sided comparative ads (where some minor disadvantages for the brand are mentioned) appears to reduce such counterarguments. 5) The effect of comparative ads may be influenced by various sources, audience and situational conditions. For example, those loyal to the advertised brand may tend to respond more favorably than others. Also, some evidence suggest that such ads may be more effective for the brand that is not the present market leaders

Function of comparative advertising Comparative advertising should enable advertisers to objectively demonstrate the merits of their products. Comparative advertising improves the quality of information available to consumers enabling them to make well-founded and more informed decisions relating to the choice between competing products/services by demonstrating the merits of various comparable products. Based on this information, consumers may make informed and therefore efficient choices. (These statements are true only if the comparative advertising is objective.) Comparative advertising which aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer promotes the transparency of the market. Market transparency is also deemed to benefit the public interest as the functioning of competition is improved resulting in keeping down prices and improving products. Comparative advertising can stimulate competition between suppliers of goods and services to the consumer's advantage. IV. Copy for different languages The most important factor to be kept in mind for writing copy for different language is the context of the readers' general knowledge of language. 1. A copy writer must have some conception of what is meant by "normal language". Every language has evolved to have many different kinds of functionality, each of which corresponds to different situations and styles of use. From an analytic point of view, it seems to make most sense to understand "normal language" to include the variety of styles of language that mature speakers and readers control. This will form the backdrop of everyday language in its many functions, against which we can view advertising language.

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2. Like many aspects of human being and human behavior, our unconscious knowledge of language is much greater than our conscious knowledge of it. While writing copy the facts about language that are immediately accessible to the average person only should be use. 3. Focus on creative possibilities language allows,

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