Global Vision International, Kenya Report

Global Vision International Kenya, Expedition Report 064 9th October – 18th December 2006
G R Corti, R J Crouthers, H M Felix, K C Graham & S L Trafford – December 2006 In partnership with: Kenya Wildlife Service

Citation
Corti, G.R., Crouthers, R.J., Felix, H.M., Graham, K.C. & Trafford S.L., (2006) Global Vision International, Kenya, Expedition Report. Global Vision International, Kenya Report

2

Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision International’s (GVI) Wildlife Research, Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Expedition in Kenya run in partnership with Kenya Wildlife Service. From the partnership’s initiation in January 2006, through to December 2006, Global Vision International has:

Supplied manpower and training to Kenya Wildlife Service, and alternative income and indirect funding to members of the Mkwiro community.

Provided employment and sustainable income for up to 15 members of the Mkwiro and Shimoni communities. Provided free local capacity building in terms of English language lessons, environmental education, development of alternative income generation and training in scientific survey techniques.

Conducted 9 months of baseline data on cetacean populations and marine mega fauna, and coastal forest primate populations, faunal biodiversity, floral biodiversity and levels of human resource use.

  

Recruited and trained 95 Expedition Members (EMs) to collect high quality scientific data. Initiated and supported ecological and cultural tourism initiatives. Collected 8820 photographs for a photo-identification catalogue of delphinid populations and catalogued 62 individuals.

Developed working relationships with Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee (KESCOM), World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and a number of community based organisations to support and develop scientific research and local capacity building.

 

Facilitated promotion of local community based organisations’ ventures. Enabled local communities to benefit from support provided by EMs on their return to their home countries through fund-raising, sponsorship, material donations and marketing. This includes sponsorship of three students to access secondary education and one student to access special needs education.

3

Acknowledgements
The achievements of the Global Vision International Kenya expedition over the previous three months would not have been possible without the support, hard work and dedication of the following people. We extend our sincerest appreciation and gratitude.

GVI Kenya Local Partners: Kenya Wildlife Service Mohamed Dhida, Mohamed Omar Said Omar, Yussuf Adan, Tom Amisi Amulavu and all the wardens and staff at the KWS Kisite-Mpunguti MPA Headquarters in Shimoni and KWS Coast Headquarters in Mombasa. Kwale District Education Department J.W Chiuri One Earth Safaris Ranjit Sondhi, and the staff at Shimoni Reef Lodge and Mombasa Reef Hotel. National Museums of Kenya Jimbi Katana and the staff at the Mombasa and Ukunda offices. World Society for the Protection of Animals Dipesh Pabari and Raphael Omondi

The committee members, staff and students of Mkwiro Primary School, the committee members, staff and children of Al-Hanan Orphanage, the committee and members of; Mkwiro Village Committee, Mkwiro Youth Group, Tumaini Women’s Group, Shimoni Village Council, Shimoni Slave Cave Committee, Shimoni Youth Conservation Project, Shimoni Conservation Committee, Shimoni-Mkwiro Dhow Tours, Kidong Ex-Poachers Group. The community members of Mkwiro, Shimoni and Kidong, for their friendship, enthusiasm and support. Global Vision International head office staff Richard Walton, Steve Gwenin, Andy Woods-Ballard, Tabitha Cooper, Sophie Greatwood, Rowana Walton, Paul Jones, Amy Collins, Alexis Bleasdale, Deborah Reeves, Ian Redgewell, and all the other staff that support the expedition behind the scenes. Global Vision International East Africa expedition staff Graham Corti, Rachel Crouthers, Sara Trafford, Kyla Graham, Hugo Félix, Charlotte Le Page, Lorenzo Scala and Piet Oudejans.

4

Expedition Members Wiebke Aurebekk, Sarah Bieber, Paul Burrows, Catherine Collop, Lucy Fleet, Caroline Fogde, Ros Humphreys, Sirya Karisa, Jillo Katello, Eileen Kurtz, Raymond Mwangata, Sally Scott, Gabrielle Stecker, Ilo Van Gilder.

5

Abbreviations
EM GVI KMMPA KWS WSPA Expedition Member Global Vision International Kisite Mpunguti Marine Protected Area Kenya Wildlife Service World Society for the Protection of Animals

6

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 1.1 GLOBAL VISION INTERNATIONAL ........................................................................................................................... 12 1.2 GLOBAL VISION INTERNATIONAL KENYA................................................................................................................ 14 1.3 PARTNERS ............................................................................................................................................................ 14 2. EXPEDITION TRAINING ......................................................................................................................................... 18 3. MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAMME ................................................................................................................... 20 3.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 20 3.2 AIMS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 21 3.3 METHODS ............................................................................................................................................................. 22 3.3.1 Vessel based dolphin survey methods ..................................................................................................... 22 3.3.2 Vessel based dolphin survey forms .......................................................................................................... 24 3.3.3 Boat based mega fauna surveys............................................................................................................... 28 3.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................... 29 3.4.1 Bottlenose Dolphins ................................................................................................................................... 31 3.4.2 Humpback Dolphins ................................................................................................................................... 34 3.4.3 Humpback and bottlenose dolphin mixed groups .................................................................................... 36 3.4.4 Marine Mega Fauna ................................................................................................................................... 37 3.5 CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE WORK ...................................................................................... 37 4.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 38 3.2 AIMS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 39 3.3 METHODS ............................................................................................................................................................. 40 3.3.1 Line Transect Sampling ............................................................................................................................. 40 3.3.2 Primate Community Survey ....................................................................................................................... 41 3.3.3 Primate Behavioural Observations ........................................................................................................... 42 3.3.4 Vegetation & Regeneration Survey........................................................................................................... 42 3.3.5 Habitat Survey ............................................................................................................................................ 43 3.3.6 Butterfly Community Survey ...................................................................................................................... 44 3.3.7 Casual Observations of Other Fauna ....................................................................................................... 45 3.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................... 45 3.4.1 Line Transect Sampling ............................................................................................................................. 45 3.4.2 Primate Community Survey ....................................................................................................................... 46 3.4.3 Primate Behavioural Observations ........................................................................................................... 47 3.4.4 Vegetation & Regeneration Survey........................................................................................................... 48 3.4.5 Ground and canopy cover surveys ........................................................................................................... 49 3.4.6 Butterfly Community Survey ...................................................................................................................... 51 3.4.7 Casual Wildlife Observations .................................................................................................................... 52 3.5 CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE WORK .................................................................................... 52 4 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME..................................................................................................... 55 4.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 55 4.2 TIMETABLE OF ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 56 4.2.1 School Program Timetable ........................................................................................................................ 56 4.2.2 Weekly analysis of activities ...................................................................................................................... 56 4.2.3 Daily Activities ............................................................................................................................................ 61 4.3 TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ..................................................................................................... 62 4.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 62 4.3.2 Mkwiro Primary School Lessons ............................................................................................................... 62 4.3.3 Adult Education .......................................................................................................................................... 65 4.4 ORPHANAGE WORK............................................................................................................................................... 67 4.5 COMMUNITY GROUPS AND INITIATIVES .................................................................................................................. 68 4.5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 68 4.5.2 Fishing Trips ............................................................................................................................................... 70 4.5.3 Drumming ................................................................................................................................................... 70

7

4.5.4 Mwaozi Tumbe Village Tour ...................................................................................................................... 70 4.5.6 Cooking lessons ......................................................................................................................................... 71 4.5.7 Beehive keeping ......................................................................................................................................... 72 4.5.8 HIV/AIDS Awareness ................................................................................................................................. 72 4.5.9 Mkwiro Village Compensation Committee................................................................................................ 73 4.5.10 Mkwiro Dispensary ................................................................................................................................... 74 4.5.11 Mkwiro Garment Industry ........................................................................................................................ 74 4.5.12 Recycling .................................................................................................................................................. 75 4.5.13 Shimoni Slave Cave Committee ............................................................................................................. 76 4.5.14 Tumaini Women’s Group ......................................................................................................................... 76 4.5.16 Water Storage/Purification....................................................................................................................... 77 4.5.17 Village Community Fund.......................................................................................................................... 78 4.5.18 Fundraising ............................................................................................................................................... 78 4.5.19 Year of the Dolphin .................................................................................................................................. 79 5. TERRESTRIAL SATELLITE CAMP ....................................................................................................................... 81 5.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 81 5.2 EX-POACHERS GROUPS ........................................................................................................................................ 82 5.3 DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................................................................... 84 6. NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME......................................................................................................... 85 7. OVERALL ACHIEVEMENTS .................................................................................................................................. 86 8. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE AIMS ................................................................................................................... 87 9. REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................................... 89

8

List of Appendices
Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Event Log Form Sightings Form Dolphin Survey Form Ethogram Photo-ID Form Mega Fauna Survey Form 91 92 93 94 113 114

9

List of Tables
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Dolphin Species on Kenyan Coast Average Group Size Based on Best Summary of Transect Grid System in Shimoni Forest Summary of Primates Observed During Survey in Expedition 064 Sampling Frequency of Sections for Vegetation and Regeneration Surveys During Expedition 064 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 School Programme During Expedition 064 Expected School Programme During Expedition 071 Weekly Timetable for Community Development Programme During Expedition 064 Table 9 Table 10 Holiday Programme Timetable During Expedition 064 Summary of Time Allocated to Community Development Activities During Expedition 064 Table 11 Daily Timetable for Activities for Community Development Programme During Expedition 064 Table 12 Tourism Development Proposals within Mkwiro 61 68 59 58 58 48 56 56 26 31 45 46

10

List of Figures
Figure 1 Number of Dolphin Sightings, Behaviour Surveys and Photo-ID Surveys 064 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Mega Fauna Sightings and Surveys 064 Sightings/Hour of Effort 064 Sightings per Hour of Effort for Time of Day Distribution of Survey Depth in Metres for Bottlenose Dolphins Percentage of Sightings During Different Tidal States Behaviour States of Bottlenose Dolphins for Exp. 064 Depth of Surveys for Humpback Dolphin Behaviour States of Humpback and Mixed Groups in 064 Research Site in Shimoni Forest Frequency of Perpendicular Distances at which Colobus Groups are Observed Figure 12 Representation Analysis of Plant Species Discovery During Vegetation Sampling in 2006 Figure 13 Average Canopy Cover on Sections Sampled Across All Transects with Polynomial Trend Lines for Each Transect Figure 14 Average Canopy Height on Sections Sampled Across 5 Transects During Expedition 064 51 50 49 47 29 30 30 32 32 33 34 35 36 39

11

1. Introduction
1.1 Global Vision International
Global Vision International (GVI) aims to build local capacity to support conservation through longterm, sustainable community development. GVI was formed in 1998 to provide support and services to international charities, non-governmental, non-profit and governmental organisations. Through our international network of 50 professional personnel and 50 projects in over 20 countries GVI continues to support many of the most critical and humanitarian projects around the world.

GVI is a non-political, non-religious organisation, which through its alliance with local organisations throughout the world provides opportunities to Expedition Members to fill a critical void in the fields of environmental research, conservation, education and community development. To date, over 2000 volunteers have joined projects resulting in significant direct financial and practical support.

GVI sources and supplies long-term experienced staff (1 to every 4 Expedition Members), trained personnel, equipment and funds directly to local organisations, government organisations, NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs) and universities. This immediately increases the short-term capacity of the local groups to monitor their local environment and trains local people and researchers to assist in this vital work.

Through the work of GVI programmes, and its in-country training, GVI increases the long term capacity of the local organisations and communities, assisting them to both utilise their resources and monitor the effect of this use. Thus, it helps the local populations to acquire the capacity to monitor the effects of development, and enables them to decide between short-term profit and long-term, sustainable revenue.

GVI’s local partners select the projects they feel are of the highest priorities, work they either want to initiate but have not had the resources to previously, or ongoing programmes that they wish to expand through GVI’s additional resources. The partners choose the methodologies that they feel are most useful locally and that can be compared on a regional level. The Expedition Members’ contributions fund the programmes, and, through training with the experienced GVI staff, it is the Expedition Members that undertake the work.

It has been shown in several instances that with suitable and rigorous training programmes, nonspecialised volunteers can provide useful and reliable baseline data for use in conservation

12

management strategies. All Expedition Members undergo a rigorous training programme, learning prior to arrival and through the entire expedition. All Expedition Members must pass both theoretical and practical in field examinations (95% and 100% respectively), on species recognition and research techniques prior to joining the survey teams with retesting during the expedition. All survey teams and data are checked by the experienced staff prior to being accepted. Thus the standard of knowledge of the surveyors, and the baseline standard of the data collected, is quantified.

GVI employs both international and local national staff to organise the Expedition Members and coordinate the programme, and the Expedition Member’s work alongside local people, researchers and teachers. This is an essential part of all GVI programmes. Each year, GVI invites 30 to 35 local researchers, students, environmentalists and teachers to join the expeditions for free, training and working alongside the GVI Expedition Members. nationals per expedition. Thus GVI recruits and funds 1 to 2 full time

All expeditions focus upon the promotion of their individual partners’ area, and each project complies with one or more of the criteria summarised below: 1. Increase scientific knowledge and interest in the area 2. Increase conservation value for the area 3. Local community cultural and environmental awareness 4. Local community training 5. Tourist cultural and environmental awareness and training 6. Increased sustainable revenue to the local communities

Thus, GVI facilitates local groups to record and document their local area and the effects local development is having upon it. GVI aims to draw in international partners to help conserve the area, brings in funding for the local groups and draws in other international researchers, whom all spend monies in the local communities. GVI discusses the effects observed with the local communities, businessmen, governmental groups, and allow them to draw their own conclusions. GVI aids local communities directly through assisting with funding, direct manpower where needed, helping them with their own initiatives, and through English Language lessons, this allowing them greater access to the tourism revenues. Within some of the areas that GVI operates, this is as an alternative to other kinds of resource use, such as poaching and petroleum. Additionally, the programme is aimed to allow local people to access the tourism, rather than immigrants to the area from richer areas or countries, whom utilise the resources of the local communities, develop the area and take the benefits. GVI aims to present cultural and environmental presentations to tourists and local community members, providing information on the history of the area, the people and the impact of

13

the varied uses of the area’s resources. This leads to the overall aim of assisting local communities to utilise their resources in a sustainable way. GVI assists in accessing sustainable sources of income, through promotion of the area and in direct recruitment of responsible tourists. In addition, the science and community training programmes enable them to monitor their environment to judge if the use of their resources is sustainable. Thus, through successful, sustainable use of resources, the conservation of the area is assured as it is this resource that the sustainable revenue relies upon.

1.2 Global Vision International Kenya The Global Vision International Kenya expedition was initiated in January 2006 and is based on Wasini Island on the South coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centred around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA), which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The marine programme research activities are undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel, Funzi Bay and Sii Island. The terrestrial research programme is focussed on an area of coastal forest in the SouthEast corner of Shimoni peninsula, close to Shimoni village. The majority of activities under the community programme are focussed on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. Community development activities are also being developed in Kidong, a rural village near Taveta, between the Western boundary of Tsavo West National Park and the border with Tanzania.

The GVI East Africa expedition is a partnership primarily with KWS supporting their research and management objectives in respect of the KMMPA. Additional partners in the area include Kwale District Education Department, National Museums of Kenya, Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute, World Society for the Protection of Animals as well as a number of community based organisations in Mkwiro and Shimoni. Expedition members are trained by GVI’s international expedition staff to conduct research and community development activities on behalf of our national and local partners. This report summarises the marine and terrestrial programmes’ research activities and the community programme’s community development and capacity building activities over the 10 week period of the 06-4 expedition, between 9th October and 18th December 2006.

1.3 Partners GVI’s scientific research and community development activities in Kenya are carried out on behalf of our local partners, at their request, addressing areas that they have identified as priorities in terms of research and capacity building. Methodologies and activities have been implemented in response to

14

their needs. GVI merely facilitates the achievement of their objectives through the provision of experienced staff, trained personnel, equipment and resources. GVI East Africa currently operates in support of 15 partner organisations, 4 of which are governmental, 1 is non-governmental and 10 of which are community based organisations, as follows: The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS); a governmental organisation responsible for the management of Kenya’s National Parks, National Reserves and wildlife. The marine research programme is undertaken in direct support of their objectives for the management of the KMMPA. The community programme is also undertaken at their request to build capacity within the Mkwiro community which so far does not receive the economic benefit from tourism that is evident in both neighbouring Wasini and Shimoni villages. The terrestrial programme and community development activities in Shimoni also support the organisation’s objectives for community outreach. GVI East Africa and KWS have also formed a working committee with international and local commercial tour operators TUI, Pollman’s Tours & Safaris Ltd and Charlie Claw’s to oversee community activities in support of the International Year of the Dolphin 2007. Kwale District Education Department; a local government department responsible for school education in the district. GVI East Africa is supporting the national curriculum for primary schools in English language learning at Mkwiro Primary School. Expedition Members under the supervision of GVI teaching staff take English classes for standards 4 to 8 during term time with additional environmental education activities outside of term time. All activities in the school are undertaken in liaison with the teaching staff and Mkwiro Primary School Committee, a community based organisation. National Museums of Kenya (NMK); a governmental organisation with responsibility for the management of Kenya’s national historic and cultural monuments and, through their Coastal Forest Conservation Unit, the protection of forest biodiversity. The terrestrial research programme supports coastal forest biodiversity research, whilst Expedition Member involvement with the Shimoni Slave Cave nature trail, an area that falls under the protection and management of National Museums of Kenya, directly supports the organisation’s management aims. Further to this, Expedition Members have conducted work on the historic monuments in Shimoni in support of National Museums of Kenya’s Shimoni Development Proposal. Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI); a governmental research organisation responsible or marine research and conservation in support of national objectives and international collaborations. As GVI’s marine research programme develops it is expected that we will be able to

15

support a number of the organisation’s research objectives including baseline cetacean research and marine habitat monitoring. World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA); an international non-governmental organisation concerned with animal welfare. The organisation is planning to work in collaboration with KWS on anti-whaling awareness in Kenya and restore Kenya as a voting representative on the International Whaling Commission. GVI East Africa supported the organisation’s awareness campaign through a community initiative that will build capacity for income generation through the recycling of rubbish washed up on Kenya’s coast and has also provided volunteers to assist in the organisation’s environmental awareness activities at the Zanzibar International Film Festival. GVI East Africa is also initiating a collaboration with WSPA to support community capacity building and development around Taveta, Southern Kenya, to tackle socio-economic issues that leave communities reliant on the illegal bushmeat trade and environmentally destructive charcoal burning practices. Al-Hanan Orphanage Committee; a community based organisation that runs the orphanage in Mkwiro, accepting children throughout Kwale District and coastal areas who can not be supported by their relatives. The orphanage is entirely reliant upon donations, primarily coming from Islamic organisations throughout the South coast. The organisation also receives donations from the Global Vision International Charitable Trust to improve the conditions and facilities. Expedition Members have visited the orphanage to undertake activities with the children and provide more practical assistance in the development and maintenance of their dormitories. Mkwiro Village Committee; a community based organisation that oversees the interests of the Mkwiro community. Expedition Members have delivered adult education classes to support English language acquisition in the community, participated in a variety of workshops and GVI East Africa is helping set up a community fund so that proceeds from tourism and other community initiatives can be administered for the benefit of the whole community. Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group; a community based organisation with the objective of furthering health and environmental education in the community and developing alternative sources of income generation including accessing tourism. Expedition Members have worked closely alongside members of this organisation to develop workshops and the Mkwiro Village Tour with its associated tourism activities.

16

Tumaini Women’s Group; a community based women’s group in Mkwiro that make traditional hand crafts for sale primarily to tourists. Expedition members have been working with the organisation to help develop products for the tourist market and to aid the marketing of their products. Shimoni Slave Cave Committee; a community based organisation that has been delegated responsibility by National Museums of Kenya to manage and operate the tourism at Shimoni Slave Cave, a gazetted national monument. The committee operates a guided walk in to the cave and are looking to develop the tour further by incorporating a nature trail through the forest above the cave which by default is also under protection from National Museums of Kenya. The guided tour targets tourists visiting KMMPA and also attracts school parties from across Kenya, Shimoni’s history featuring in the national curriculum. Proceeds from the Slave Cave tour go towards a Shimoni community fund which pays for teachers in the local primary schools, scholarships for students to attend secondary school, pharmaceuticals for the local dispensary and other community projects. Expedition members have been assisting the committee in developing their nature trail. Shimoni Youth Conservation Project (SYCP); a community based organisation that aims to promote environmental awareness, responsible management of natural resources and development of sustainable sources of income generation. Members of SYCP have joined expedition members during their forest biodiversity training and research activities as part of a capacity building programme to enable them to manage and monitor their natural resources. Under the stewardship of GVI, SYCP committee members created the Shimoni Conservation Committee (SCC) with representatives including two elders and one woman from each of the six villages within Shimoni sublocation that are stakeholders in the forest areas. Following the awareness and sensitisation activities, the SCC with GVI support has petitioned community members and submitted a proposal to relevant government authorities requesting that they be designated authority to manage their forest resources on behalf of and for the benefit of local communities. Through community management they aim to designate conservation areas, manage sustainable resource use, reduce illegal timber extraction and develop ecotourism initiatives. Shimoni Mkwiro Dhow Tours; a community based organisation which has been recently formed as a co-operative of tourist dhow operators, taking tourists in to the KMMPA on dolphin watching and snorkelling trips. This co-operative aims to redress the balance of tourism on Wasini Island, planning to take their clients to Mkwiro village for lunches instead of Wasini village. By working alongside this organisation it is hoped that Mkwiro community groups can gain access to tourism revenue, and that these local operators will be the first beneficiaries of education and training, encouraging responsible dolphin watching activities.

17

Kidong Ex-Poachers Group; a community based organisation comprising 40 members from the village of Kidong near Taveta, formed in April 2006, to seek alternative forms of income generation and therefore abandon poaching of wildlife in and around Tsavo West National Park to supply the illegal bushmeat trade and environmentally destructive charcoal burning. GVI East Africa plan to support capacity building and environmental education activities.

2. Expedition Training
Expedition members are put through a two week intensive training programme upon arrival on the expedition prior to participation in programme activities. Theoretical and practical tests are conducted at the end of their training period. Training consists of:  Marine Research Programme: Expedition members receive classroom training on cetacean species identification and marine megafauna identification. Expedition Members learn field identification of nine species of cetaceans. Eight of these are dolphin species and include: Indian Ocean Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp. Truncatus and aduncus), Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleaoalba), Pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuate), Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), and Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus). In addition to the dolphin species, the Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeanglia) is known to occur in the Kisite-Mpunguti area. Reference material is available for self study. Five species of marine turtles are known to occur in Kenyan waters and during training EMs are also taught and examined on the identification of these species. These include: Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), and Loggerhead (Caretta caretta). This is followed by testing utilising slides, requiring a 95% pass mark. Expedition members receive classroombased presentations and practical field training in cetacean and megafauna survey techniques and theories, the collection of environmental data, accurate completion of data forms, distance estimation and GPS training. This is also subject to testing with a pass mark of 95% prior to participation in research activities.  Terrestrial Research Programme: Expedition Members receive classroom-based

presentations and practical field training on primate identification, behaviour and ecology, butterfly ecology, coastal forest ecology as well as primate community surveys utilising distance sampling, butterfly community surveys utilising canopy traps, vegetation surveys and casual observation of fauna surveys. Training is followed by theoretical test requiring a 95%

18

pass mark. Practical training and in field testing is also undertaken on the use of the panga, compass and GPS. Expedition Members receive distance estimation training and in field testing for which participation in sighting distance estimation during primate community surveys is contingent on expedition members achieving an average error within 10m.  Community Development Programme: Expedition Members receive the GVI Introduction to TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) training and an additional Introduction to TEFL for Children course designed to prepare them for teaching in Mkwiro Primary School and activities at the Al-Hanan Orphanage. Their training incorporates practical activities and guidance in classroom management. Following training Expedition Members receive practical testing in the form of lesson planning. Expedition Members receive individual assessment and feedback.  Health & Safety: Expedition Members are all subject to comprehensive health & safety awareness training in the form of risk assessments, a specific hazardous marine life presentation, forest field safety talk, dangerous game and wildlife viewing protocol, a boat safety orientation, radio protocol training, emergency oxygen use training and fire extinguisher & fire safety orientation. Further to this all expedition members are put through the Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care training courses. Assessment for certification is optional. Expedition Members are also asked to complete a 200m swim test, if unsuccessful then wearing of life jackets in the boats is compulsory.

In addition, Expedition Members are also offered additional training, presentations and talks during the expedition on oceanography, marine environment, primate evolution and ecology, African wildlife natural history, bio-geography of Africa, Muslim culture and Kiswahili.

19

3. Marine Research Programme
3.1 Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and covers an area of 39 square kilometres. The KMMPA includes the National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands. The KMMPA and the marine wildlife it contains are an important tourist attraction and, as a result, an important resource for Shimoni and surrounding communities. The islands within the KMMPA are surrounded by coral reefs attracting divers and snorkellers to the area. Almost every day swim-with-dolphin and dolphin-watching companies operating from Shimoni travel through Wasini Channel to the KMMPA (Emerson and Tessema, 2001). These tourist dhows most frequently encounter bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis. Currently, there is neither a code of conduct to follow when manoeuvring around the dolphins nor are levels of interaction monitored or regulated in any way. The impact these activities may be having on the dolphins is unknown. In particular, it’s not known whether increased or even current levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable for local dolphin populations.

Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of East Africa and little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species. Baseline data is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed (Stensland et al.,1998). The main objectives of the marine research programme are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on the dolphin species that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. The study area encompasses a wide range of habitats from mangrove forests, coral reefs, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds, and offshore areas.

GVI Kenya’s main working partner is the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The research conducted by GVI will be shaped to satisfy the objectives of KWS, so as to assist them towards better management of the area. All data collected thus far is made available to KWS to aid in management plans of the study area.

The Marine Programme is supporting KWS to collate data by conducting vessel and land-based surveys. The marine programme will primarily focus on two research areas: (1) the ecology of humpback and bottlenose dolphins and (2) the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins and mega fauna (large marine vertebrates such as turtles, whale sharks, dugongs, and seabirds) within the area and improve the

20

scientific basis and baseline data for management strategies. This information can help lead towards long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area.

During the initial phase of the marine programme research will focus on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and diel movement patterns will be analysed.

Mega fauna species are also attractive to tourists and as such a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity on a number of levels. Another objective of the marine research programme is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine mega fauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly.

3.2 Aims During the first year of operations the marine programme of GVI Kenya has completed initial research activities to determine species distribution within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Research questions were established to ensure that all the research methodologies used were able to obtain the relevant information to satisfy objectives set by KWS.

The marine programme would like to collect data to address the following questions on the dolphins and mega fauna in Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area and its surrounding areas.

From vessel based surveys:         Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition Residency Habitat-activity relationships Diel movement & activity Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

From land-based surveys:  Tidal and diel movement

21

   

Diel activity Dolphin behaviour before, during, and after exposure to vessels Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

3.3 Methods 3.3.1 Vessel based dolphin survey methods During expedition 064 GVI East Africa primarily used two research vessels to conduct surveys within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Stingray, a 5.83m catamaran style power vessel with two 85 horsepower motors, was used during morning surveys from approximately 0730 to 1200. In addition to Stingray, ET, a 6.19 m power vessel was used for shorter afternoon surveys from approximately 1400 to 1600. The areas covered by this vessel were smaller scale but provided extra data on dolphin movements in the afternoon.

Photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens).

To obtain information on population size, demographics and other biological parameters photoidentification (Photo ID) and mark-recapture methods are used for data collection and analysis. Photo-identification: Photo-ID refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be re-sighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs.

The primary aim of photo-ID will be to try to determine population size. Photographers attempt to photograph all the individuals within the group during a photo-ID survey so as not to bias the data by focusing on individuals with distinctive markings or certain behaviours. Results can vary due to conditions, surfacing bouts and animal behaviour.

Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependant on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting

22

and clear shot of dorsal fins. During a photo ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The primary aim during a photo ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with latter analysis of photographs (See the Forms section for further explanation of this procedure).

Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved into the photo-ID database. For the first year this database is divided into various users, so that they are analysed individually and all users know that they are analysing photos in a similar way. Each user quality grades the photos into categories including: deleted, tail flukes, spacer shots, and quality categories which range from 0 (poor quality, distant, out of focus, partial images) to 3 (perfect photo-ID shots). Users then identify individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photo-ID catalogue will be created in which individuals are given unique ID numbers and/or names. This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long term basis. Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals. Mark-Recapture: Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met.

A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption; only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.

Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.

‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured.

Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.

The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Initially, a sample of individuals is photographically ‘captured’ (n1) of which a number, and on a subsequent occasion, a second sample of individuals is ‘captured’ (n2) of which a number were

23

already identified in the first sample (m2). The proportion of individuals that are marked in the second sample can be equated with the proportion in the overall population (N). formulas are as follows (Evans and Hammond, 2004): The mark-recapture

Equation 1 (m2) = n1 n2 N The number of individuals captured and marked is known which allows the population size to be estimated (Ň): Equation 2 Ň = n1 n2 m2 3.3.2 Vessel based dolphin survey forms Four forms were used to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size, demographics and behaviour. These forms include the Event Log, Sightings form, Dolphin Survey form and the Photo ID form. Event Log: Throughout the survey day an Event Log (Appendix 1) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with the number of surveys completed and environmental and condition changes. Every fifteen minutes one person (the scribe) records the current environmental conditions and any environmental or effort changes. Every half hour the

observers rotate roles and view points and every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break as the scribe. If a dolphin is spotted then all observers maintain the same position while filling out one specific survey form. This allows for consistency in data notation making it possible for questions regarding data collection, i.e. reading illegible handwriting, to be easily answered.

At the beginning of the day and at every interval of data collection the recorder notes the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Date Vessel Time (24hr clock) GPS Co-ordinates (using WGS84 datum) Event (See Appendix 1 to see categories) Dolphin Survey number, each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02…

24

7. 8.

Speed of vessel Environmental conditions (swell, beaufort, cloud, precipitation, visibility and tide; All categories are listed in Appendix 1)

9.

Additional comments i.e. if there is a sighting what it was

Sightings Form: The Sightings form was put in place partway through the first expedition and is used to record all sightings of dolphins and mega fauna. This form collates the relevant information to conduct distance sampling. It also produces valuable information if a behaviour survey can not be conducted, for example, due to weather conditions, when there are too many vessels present, or the dolphins are only sighted once. The recorder notes if the sighting occurred due to the presence of a vessel or whether the land based platform informed us of the presence of dolphins. This information is then included in the analysis to note any sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye or if the vessel was simply not in the same area as the sighting.

Once dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the recorder documents the following data into the sighting form (see Appendix 2).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Time using the 24 hour system GPS Co-ordinates of the vessel Effort type during the sighting Sighting number and survey number (either a mega fauna or dolphin Distance and angle to sighting Tidal state upon sighting (introduced during expedition 064) Species sighted Group size on initial sighting using min, max. and best categories Whether the sighting was due to dhow presence Whether a Photo ID survey was conducted or not Number of boats present Comments survey)

Dolphin Behaviour Survey Form: The photo-ID survey protocol provides a systematic approach for sampling the behaviour of free-ranging dolphins. As part of this protocol a Dolphin Behaviour Survey is used to record basic behaviour data when conditions allowed a dolphin survey to be conducted (Appendix 3).

25

This survey is used in conjunction with the Ethogram (see Appendix 4) which provides a guide for dolphin behaviours. GVI East Africa has simplified this methodology to ensure that accurate information is gathered. All EMs receive training on dolphin behaviours to ensure that each individual will be able to recognise behaviours in the field. As well, there is always at least one marine officer assisting with data collection to ensure that behavioural observations are consistent across observers.

Survey encounters differ in many ways—e.g. the number of animals encountered; the degree to which to individuals can be directly observed and identified. As such, the depth and quality of data that are collected during surveys may vary widely. While detailed and individual-specific observations are desirable, at times it is only possible to collect basic data such as the time and location of encounter.

Common Name Bottlenose Dolphin Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin

Scientific name Tursiops truncatus/aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grumpus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuate

Table 1: Dolphin species in Kenyan coast (Peddemonns V.M, 1999) Highlighted in bold are the 3 species which have been identified to date.

Dolphin surveys commence once the sighting form has been completed and the species is identifiable (See species list above, Table 1). Dive durations are measured from the time of the first positive identification until the time of departure from the group. A scan sample of behaviour and group composition is conducted over a 10 minute period. Observers note how many animals are present as early as possible once a group is sighted - group size indicates how many individuals that must be identified visually or through photo-id. This sample is intended to provide an unbiased ‘sample’ of the behaviours and the identity of the individuals present for the calculation of association coefficients and other analyses.

Initially the observation time was only five minutes in duration but during Expedition 062 the observation time was increased, and kept for the rest of the year, to ten minutes. This ten minute

26

sample period is used because it is a more suitable amount of time; it is: (a) is short enough to approximate a true scan sample (more below) and (b) long enough to cover (on average) two to three surfacing bouts during which identifications can be made and group activity, direction, and group composition can be assessed. We also survey for this amount of time because it is short enough to reduce the effect the vessel may have on the original activity of the dolphins when first sighted.

For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below) two individuals must be within 100 m of each other or within 100 m of the initial group to be in the same ‘group’. If fifty percent or more animals are within 100m of another group they are classed as a sub-group and a sub-group behavioral survey completed. If a group is seen outside of this 100 m radius a new survey form is completed.

Cetacean behaviours can be distinguished as either events (short duration behaviours) that include, spy hops, tail slaps, leaps or porpoises or states (long-duration behaviours) such as resting, travelling, foraging and socialising (Mann, 2000). The predominant group activity or state is defined as the activity that fifty percent or more of the group members are simultaneously engaged in (See Appendix 4 Ethogram). Observers scan the group to determine the group’s behaviour state and then record it on the form. Any secondary behaviour states, i.e. when most of the group is foraging but a couple of animals are resting during the survey, are also noted. Events that occur during the survey period are noted in the ‘activity notes’ section.

To help aid the process of identification and number of individuals present any distinctive fin shapes, obvious scars or speckling of individuals is noted. Data is collected on the presence of mother-calf pairs and whether they include neonates or young of the year. Neonates are defined as calves which are up to three months old. These calves will have curled flukes and dorsal fins, foetal folds and usually swim in a position parallel to and forward of the mother’s midline. Young of year are older than three months and are more independent than neonates. They still will travel next to the mother but in the infant position which is behind the mother’s midline near the mammary slits (Mann, 2000). The notation of this data combined with information from Photo-ID should allow for the determination of female animals and the identification of their calves.

Vessel interaction is also recorded during this survey to assess the impact that the research vessel may have on dolphin behaviour. This is recorded by noting whether the dolphins react away from, toward or not at all to the survey vessel. This data was initially recorded on a scale of 1-3; however this was modified because the definition of this scale was subjective and not clearly defined in an objective, quantitative scale.

27

Once the ten minute scan sample is over the scribe completing the Event Log continues recording every fifteen minutes while the vessel continues to follow the dolphin group for the collection of PhotoID data. When both surveys are complete the forms are reviewed by all observers to ensure that the information recorded is accurate and all observers agree with what is written. The ten minute scan sample may be reduced due to environmental conditions or when there are too many vessels present. Should this happen it will be recorded on the form. Photo ID Form: The procedures for this form have changed slightly since the beginning of the year. Rather than conducting photo-ID during behavioural surveys only opportunistic photographs are taken if the individuals move towards the vessel. Photo-ID is usually conducted after the behaviour survey so the vessel can maintain a further distance so as not to change dolphin behaviour. Photo-ID survey times vary and depend on group size, activity and environmental conditions. During photo-ID the vessel can manoeuvre into a better position to obtain the optimum distance and angle for photographs to be taken; this is when the boat is travelling parallel to, and in line with, the dolphins. The most valuable photos for Photo-ID are in-focus, directly perpendicular to the dorsal fin, with the sun behind the photographer and as close a shot of the fin as possible.

During a photo-ID survey the photographer tells the photo-ID scribe the frame numbers of spacer shots, recognizable or distinct individuals and the number of shots taken (Appendix 5). The photographer tries to photograph both the right and left flank of each individual and if this is successful they will note this in the comments section. When the photographer has finished they will take a final shot of the photo ID sheet to separate it from other encounters. This method helps with the assistance of identification in the analysis and also helps separate individuals and encounters for the photo catalogue.

3.3.3 Boat based mega fauna surveys These surveys are conducted using the same procedures as the dolphin surveys. The Event Log and Sightings Form are completed and then the data is collected on the mega fauna survey form (See Appendix 6). This data includes:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Time Vessel GPS position and general location Depth Beaufort Tide

28

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Species Habitat Number of individuals present Photos taken, if possible Any additional notes

3.4 Results and Discussion During Expedition 064 there was a total of 132.38 hours of vessel survey effort. There were no landbased surveys this expedition due to personnel numbers and focus on work in other areas of the expedition.

Stingray was the primary research vessel for surveys from 0730 to 1200 and ET was used for shorter afternoon surveys which ran from around 1400 to 1630. This search effort resulted in a total of 50 dolphin sightings of which 38 were also surveyed for behaviour, 36 photo-ID surveys (Figure 1) and 19 mega fauna surveys (Figure 2).

50
frequency

Dolphin sightings

40 30 20 10 0
nk no w n Bn d/ H bd Bn d bd H

Behaviour surveys (including second group surveys) Photo ID surveys

Dolphin species

Figure 1: Number of dolphin sightings, behaviour surveys and photo-ID surveys 064

U

29

20
Frequency

15 10 5 0 Turtles African Unknow n Fish Eagle fish/Marlin? Species

Megafauna sightings Megafauna surveys

Figure 2 Mega fauna sightings and surveys 064

When sightings/hour of effort is calculated it shows the frequency of animals sighted: Bottlenose dolphins 0.29; turtles 0.124; humpback dolphins 0.053; unknown dolphins 0.03; and other mega fauna 0.023 (See Figure 3). During these sightings the survey team, was on the following search efforts: Dedicated Search (62 sightings, 89%), Casual watch (7, 10%) and Photo-ID (1, 1%). The total number of photos taken this expedition was 1834; 1550 photo of bottlenose dolphins, 192 of humpback dolphins, 78 of both species together and fourteen of mega fauna.

Other megafauna Turtles
Species

0.023 0.124 0.03 0.053 0.29 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 SIghtings Index

Unk Hbd Bnd

Sightings per hour of effort

Figure 3 Sightings/hour of effort 064

Of the two species of dolphin surveyed from the boat more bottlenose dolphins were sighted and more dolphin behaviour surveys were completed on this species (see Figure 1 above). Bottlenose dolphins were sighted 39 times (78% of total dolphin sightings), humpback dolphins were sighted seven times (14 %) and unknown dolphin species were sighted four times (8% of sightings). Thirteen dolphin sightings (26%) were seen due to the presence of tourist dhows with the animals. There were no boats present during 34 of the 70 sightings (49%) and this was also the most common number of

30

boats present. The maximum number of boats during sightings was five and this only occurred during one sighting.

3.4.1 Bottlenose Dolphins In Expedition 064 the total number of bottlenose dolphin sightings was 39 and 30 (77%) of these resulted in behaviour surveys. The total observation time for bottlenose dolphin during behaviour surveys was approximately 5.8 hours; 83% of the total survey time (7 hours) for all dolphin species. The average size of bottlenose dolphin groups, using best group size, from sightings was 3.8 with a range of one to 45 dolphins. After behaviour surveys dolphin average group size was 8.6 with the same range (see Table 2). The difference in group sizes is due to the fact that the survey team are more able to estimate group size after getting closer to the animals and observing them for the ten minute sample time than upon initial sighting.

Dolphin species average group sizes (based on best) Average Min Max

Bottlenose dolphin sighting group size 3.8 1 45

Bottlenose dolphin Postbehaviour survey group size 8.6 1 45

Table 2 Average group size based on best

During expedition 064 behaviour surveys on first groups of bottlenose dolphins were all completed in open water habitats excluding one that was conducted in a sandy bottom habitat. This assessment of habitat is based on what can be observed from the boat so is not very accurate due to variability in water visibility. As a result, the marine programme intends to map sightings on a marine chart of the area to better assess the habitat of dolphin surveys.

Based on the Sighting Index for time of day (Figure 4) humpback dolphins were seen most often between the hours of 0900 to 1100 and most sightings occurred in the morning.

31

0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 07:00 - 0901 - 11:00 - 14:01 - 16:00 09:00 1100 13:00 16:00 18:00 Time categories

Sightings/hour

Bottlenose dolphins Humpback dolphins Unknown dolphins Turtles

Figure 4 Sightings per hour of effort for time of day

Bottlenose dolphins were surveyed in depths that ranged between 7.4 m to 22.2 m with most surveys occurring in the 15 to 20 m depth zone (see Figure 5). Twenty two (57%) of all the surveys occurred during ebb tides (Figure 6) this expedition. At present, the sample size is too small to make any assumptions on tidal activities and dolphin presence.

14 12
Number of surveys

10 8 6 4 2 0 <5 5 - < 10 10 - < 15 Depth ranges 15 - < 20 20 - <25

Figure 5 Distribution of survey depth in meters for Bottlenose dolphins

32

Percentage

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

16

2

Flood 22 4 Ebb

Bottlenose Species

Humpback

Figure 6: Percentage of sightings during different tidal states (this graphic is also referenced in the humpback discussion) During behaviour surveys it was noted whether bottlenose dolphins reacted away from, toward or not at all to the presence of the research vessel. A previous study of bottlenose dolphins has found that there was statistically significant behaviour noted towards boat traffic, but in general they displayed neutral response to boat traffic. Neutral response was defined as no apparent change in directional movement, prior to and after vessel arrival (Gregory and Rowden, 2001). During this expedition bottlenose dolphins reacted toward the research vessel three times (9%), away two times (6%) and not at all during 30 (85%) of the 35 behaviour surveys.

During surveys behaviour states were evaluated and are displayed in figure seven. The primary behaviour (> 50% of the animals spent > 50% of the time) most observed was travelling (11 surveys, 32%) followed by unknown (behaviour could not easily be assessed) (9, 26%), socialising (8, 24%) and foraging (6, 18%).

33

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Foraging Socia lizing Travelling Unknow n Behaviours

Figure 7 Behaviour states of Bottlenose dolphins for exp. 064

Photo-ID surveys were completed for 29 out of the 35 behaviour surveys. A total of 1550 photos were taken of bottlenose dolphins. Work is currently underway to process the photos to assess the number of recognisable individuals encountered and the re-sighting rate of those individuals, which will indicate population size.

3.4.2 Humpback Dolphins As with the Bottlenose dolphins work is currently underway to establish the number of recognisable individuals sighted, and their re-sighting rates. Initial findings from data collected in the Shimoni area suggest that a large percentage of encounters are re-sightings of previously seen individuals. This could indicate a small population size of this species in the area. Humpbacks were sighted seven times during this expedition and surveyed six times. The total time spent on behaviour surveys was 60 minutes; 14% of the overall time spent on observing dolphins (seven hours).

Humpback dolphins tend to occur in coastal water habitats, areas of shallow rocky reefs and estuaries of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific (Ross et al. 1994). To date we have encountered the humpback dolphins around Shimoni in near shore habitats and in small group sizes. Most of the surveys were conducted in near shore habitats and 66% occurred during ebb tides (Figure 6 see above in the bottle nose discussion).

Using best group size as an indicator the Humpback dolphin groups sighted this expedition had an average group size upon sighting of 3.8 individuals, with a range of one to seven animals. After the

34

completion of the behaviour surveys the average group size was 8.1 with a range of one to ten animals. As with the bottlenose dolphin surveys the marine programme intends to compare location data with habitat data in a marine chart.

As can be seen in Figure 4 in the bottlenose dolphin results section the humpback dolphins were seen the most from 1400 to 1600. Compared to the bottlenose dolphins the humpback sightings were more evenly distributed throughout the day. All surveys were conducted in depths between nine and 23 meters with the most frequent occurring between five to ten meters (see Figure 8).
3.5 3
Number of surveys

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 <5 5 - < 10 10 - < 15 Depth ranges 15 - < 20 20 - <25

Figure 8 Depth of surveys for Humpback dolphin

In all the surveys there was no evidence of reaction towards or away from the research vessel. Behaviour states were analysed for each survey and the results can be seen in figure 9. The most common behaviour observed for Humpback dolphins was foraging. Due to the fact that there were only seven surveys conducted on this species this analysis is not very significant.

35

3

2
Fre uency q

Humpback Humpback and Bottlenose 1

0 Foraging Socializing Travelling Behaviours Unknow n

Figure 9 Behaviour states of humpback and mixed groups in 064

Photo-ID surveys were completed for five out of the six behaviour surveys. A total of 192 photos were taken of humpback dolphins. Work is also currently underway to process the photos to assess the number of recognisable individuals encountered and the re-sighting rate of those individuals, which will indicate their population size. 3.4.3 Humpback and bottlenose dolphin mixed groups During this expedition two behaviour surveys were conducted with mixed groups of humpbacks and bottlenose dolphins. The first mixed group occurred when photographs were being taken of a group of bottlenose dolphins and some humpbacks joined the group. The second time a group of humpback dolphins were being photographed when some bottlenose joined them. The total observation time for mixed groups was twenty minutes (5% of the seven hours of total dolphin observation time). During the two surveys the combined group sizes for the first and second surveys were ten and thirteen respectively.

The first mixed group was surveyed during an ebb tide and the second during a flood tide. Both surveys occurred in near shore habitats; the first at coral reef/shelf habitat and the second near the shelf platform. Both surveys occurred between 0700 and 0900 and during both surveys the groups did not react to the survey vessel. As can be seen in Figure 9 for both surveys of mixed species the animals were socializing. During the first survey the bottlenose dolphins (initial survey species) were foraging and started socializing when the humpbacks joined them. During the second mixed group survey the humpback dolphins (first surveyed) were travelling and also started socializing when the

36

bottlenose joined them. From the photo-ID surveys of these two mixed groups 78 photographs for analysis of individual presence were taken.

3.4.4 Marine Mega Fauna The majority of mega fauna sighted during this expedition were unknown turtle species. Short surfacing periods and environmental conditions make it difficult to identify turtles to species level in the field. There were a total of 17 sightings of turtles during this expedition. In addition, one mega fauna survey and one photo-Id survey were completed on an African Fish Eagle and one mega fauna survey was of an unknown fish, possibly a marlin, which was initially thought to possibly be a shark.

3.5 Conclusions, recommendations and future work Now that we are coming into 2007 GVI’s marine programme will continue to collect data to provide information on the baseline ecology of the dolphin and mega fauna species encountered within the KMMPA and surrounding waters. This information will form the foundations of a long-term cetacean monitoring programme as well as providing valuable information that can be used to better implement a management plan for both cetaceans, and the tourism based around them in the KMMPA.

Currently the study area is not sampled in a systematic way but rather most surveys have been randomly placed, as routes, where it is best to survey based on weather conditions. To solve this, a grid of transects will be designed and randomly placed over the study area. Transects will then be randomly selected each day and completed, weather permitting. Such transect survey methods will result in even coverage of the study area over subsequent expeditions. As of yet these transects have not been put in place as the marine programme has to do further research in the proper placement of transects in the research area.

Since this is the last expedition of 2006 the marine programme will be focussing on analysis of photos to start developing the discovery curve. Currently, the bottlenose dolphins have been analysed up to mid-February and there are forty recognized individuals. The Humpback dolphin photos have been analysed up to August and there are approximately 22 recognized individuals. This expedition there were 1500 more photos added to the photo-ID database resulting in just under 9000 photos to be analysed for the whole year.

37

4. Terrestrial Research Programme
4.1 Introduction

The Eastern arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania are an internationally recognised biodiversity hotspot. They support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging but fragmented distributions and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern Arc mountains for example are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests, of which much less is known, but which represent an important and unique yet diminishing forest habitat.

The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, formed on old coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. This in conjunction with salinity levels and the coastal climate influences the plant community that is found and the structure of the forest, for example favouring shallow root systems that reduce stability. Study sites: The research is conducted in Shimoni forest on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village on the western side and the coast on the southern and eastern side (Figure 10, circled in black). The location is situated between the coordinates 04º64.900'S, 39º38.600'E and 04º64.300'S, 39º40.300'E.

38

Figure 10 Research site of Shimoni forest circled in black

Shimoni forest represents an area of important indigenous coastal forest, but is currently threatened by resource extraction and clearing of land, a situation that may be exacerbated by the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly for tourism. The area of forest was selected for biodiversity research primarily because at present it still forms a viable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black & White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Discussions with community based organisations in Shimoni highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Conservation Youth Project were keen to seek protection and sustainable management. As a result we have developed our terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level the forest is readily accessible and we are logistically able to support a long-term wide ranging biodiversity survey and monitoring of the area.

3.2 Aims

The aims of the terrestrial research programme are as follows;  To establish a grid system of 6 east-west transects for access, mapping and long-term monitoring.

39

To conduct vegetation and regeneration surveys to assess biodiversity, species composition and regeneration potential under different levels of disturbance.

To conduct disturbance surveys to assess and monitor levels of resource use including extraction of poles and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity.

To conduct primate community surveys to assess population density, distribution, habitat use and demography.

 

To gather additional biodiversity data on the fauna through recording of casual observations. To support the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project in their petition for community management of forest resources, building capacity within the community for responsible resource use and monitoring.

To support the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee in the development of their nature trail, building capacity within the community to access tourism revenue from responsible management of natural resources.

These aims will contribute towards our objectives of assessing the biodiversity of the coastal forest in the Shimoni area in support of long term sustainable management of forest resources and capacity building amongst local communities, supporting national and international conservation of threatened habitats and species.

3.3 Methods

3.3.1 Line Transect Sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising West-East transects. Parallel transects are spaced 200 m apart, facilitating a 100 m survey distance on each side of the transect. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol.

Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised more accurately and facilitate distribution mapping. A South-North ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and aid accessibility.

The transect lines need to be straight and relatively easy to walk to enable the surveys to be conducted. Transects are laid following a compass bearing as it has been found that use of GPS equipment is unreliable. Disturbance is minimised where practical by utilising ‘off sets’ – where it is not practical to continue the transect line on an Easterly compass bearing, measured segments of the

40

transect are staggered to the North or South of the bearing to bypass obstacles before resuming the original bearing. Transect lines are marked with yellow plastic tags at 5-10m intervals for recognition in the field. Labelled double tags are used to indicate 50m sections and triple tags used to indicate a perpendicular change of direction or ‘off-sets’.

3.3.2 Primate Community Survey The primate community surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team walk behind ensuring that they do not draw attention to any primate groups that the nominated observers have not identified. This maintains consistency in the effort for each survey.

Primate surveys are conducted along one transect at a time, during the mornings when primates are more likely to be active. Transects are walked at a steady pace and all primates must be spotted from the East-West transects. Perpendicular North-South segments of ‘off-sets’ are not included during surveys.

For all groups of primates spotted (a solitary individual counted as a ‘group’) the sighting distance (the distance from the observer on the transect line to the geometric centre of each group of primates) is estimated and recorded. Distance sampling analysis utilises the perpendicular distance from the transect line to the geometric centre of observed groups. To calculate the perpendicular distance the sighting angle is also recorded from the transect line at the position of the observer to the centre of the observed group using a compass.

Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met including random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group with a perpendicular distance of 0m from the transect line has a 100% probability of detection, an assumption that we are satisfied we are able to meet.

The behaviour of the primate group when first observed is recorded along with primate species and group size. Where possible, time is taken to identify individuals in each observed group by sex and age class; 0-3 months (‘infant’), 3-6 months (‘juvenile’) and > 6 months (‘sub-adult’ / ‘adult’). Age classes were selected on the basis of pelt colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate by relative body size. The survey duration (start and finish times) and weather conditions are also recorded for each survey to assess comparative effort and environmental conditions between surveys.

41

3.3.3 Primate Behavioural Observations Behavioural surveys of Angolan Black & White Colobus can be used to investigate habitat use, group structure and interaction, and through habituation support the development of tourism initiatives to derive sustainable income from the forest wildlife.

Preliminary behavioural observations of Angolan Black and White Colobus have been conducted as a precursor to developing a behavioural research protocol.

A protocol was trialled during this expedition, using paired observers, one of whom continually observes a focal primate individual whilst the other records observations on the data sheet. A preliminary ethogram was designed with behavioural definitions and designated codes for recording, to ensure consistency and comparability between observers.

The trialled methodology requires the observer to state a behaviour category, posture category and position category. Behavioural categories were deliberately broad for the purpose of this pilot study and designed to cover the majority of behavioural activities expected based on preliminary observations during previous expeditions. Posture categories relate to the physical posture of the primate and position relates to the habitat layer they occupy.

Observations were conducted on focal individuals selected for ease of viewing, and data recording only initiated after a period of at least 10 minutes to reduce bias caused by the arrival of the observer pair. Observations were recorded at 5 minute intervals, as a focal individual scan. That is, a primate individual was selected, based on ease of observation and tracked or as long as that individual remained visible. If an individual moved out of view and observers were not able to confidently identify the same individual upon reappearing, the survey was ended. There was no time limit set for observations.

3.3.4 Vegetation & Regeneration Survey The vegetation in the forest is important not only for the primate community; the local human community makes use of the natural resources. The vegetation survey is used to gather information about the composition of the forest including species diversity, maturity and canopy profile. This provides data on plant species composition and recruitment, available resources for human populations and habitat information to compliment primate and other faunal surveys.

42

Species identification is done by the assistant of the botanist attached to the National Museums of Kenya Coastal Forest Conservation Unit, a member of SYCP as a result of capacity building with the organisation and terrestrial officers. Labelled specimens are collected in the field where a confident identification can not be made, for later identification. Only woody vegetation is surveyed and identified. Tree size is measured by Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) following UK forestry protocol.

Vegetation and regeneration surveys are conducted in a 2 m corridor running parallel to the North of transects. Woody vegetation <1 cm DBH is sampled in a randomly selected 10m sub-section. Random selection is made by rolling dice (1 = 0-10 m, 2 = 10-20 m subsection etc. A 6 requires rerolling). Specimens are identified and categorised as ‘small’ and recorded within height categories of the stem as follows; 0-50 cm, 51-100 cm, >100 cm.

Woody vegetation ≥1 cm DBH is surveyed along the entire length of each 50 m section. These are identified and recorded with their DBH. Woody vegetation that has between DBH of 5-15 cm is categorised as ‘poles’ if the trunk has 2 m of relative straightness, identifying it as potential resource for construction. Woody vegetation >15 cm DBH is categorised as ‘timber’, identifying it as potential resource for timber.

For woody vegetation categorised as ‘timber’ the canopy height is calculated. This is done using a clinometer to measure canopy angle to the top of the canopy above the tree base with the distance from the angle reading to the base of the tree measured and the height from the ground to the angle reading. The canopy radius is measured by calculating the average of the distance from the outer margin of the canopy in the four cardinal directions (North, South, East and West) to the base of the tree.

Vegetation sampling was initially conducted on every fourth section moving East to West along each transect to maximise the total area of the forest sampled. However, due to time constraints this was increased to every eighth section to ensure widespread sampling during the course of the expedition.

3.3.5 Habitat Survey A basic measure of ground cover and canopy cover, and additionally canopy height is recorded in order to describe the forest profile and compliment faunal surveys and distribution patterns. At the start of each 50 m section a 1 m2 quadrat is placed directly to the northeast of the marker. In the quadrat an estimation of the percentage cover (to the nearest 1%) at ground level of the following categories is recorded:

43

     

exposed rock bare earth leaf litter woody vegetation non woody vegetation other (noted)

Estimations of the canopy cover and canopy height are recorded for every 10 m of each 50 m section enabling the five recordings to be averaged for the section. Estimates are made by looking straight up through inverted binoculars, estimating the percentage of the area blocked by tree canopy foliage and branches, to the nearest 5 percent. Measurements of canopy height are taken at the point where the canopy cover is taken. Canopy height is measured using a clinometer to measure canopy angle to the top of the canopy. The horizontal distance over which the canopy angle is recorded, is measured and the height of the canopy from the ground is calculated taking into account the eye height of the observer.

Ground cover surveys had been completed during previous expeditions, but canopy surveys were repeated in order to assess seasonal variation.

3.3.6 Butterfly Community Survey Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. This expedition canopy traps were trialled as a pilot study for surveying of the forest butterfly community.

Canopy traps are constructed of fine netting sewn in to a tube and closed at the top, approximately 1m in height and 30cm diameter. A plastic base is suspended about 5cm from the bottom to allow butterflies entry. In general butterflies will fly upwards and so are unlikely to escape. Mashed banana that has been allowed to ferment for at least 3 days is used to bait the traps in a plastic dish secured to the bottom plate. Traps are raised over branches in the canopy and suspended on ropes so that they can be lowered when checked. Traps are baited and left for approximately 24 hours before checking. Three canopy traps are used simultaneously on each trapping day.

Details of each trap are recorded including location and trap height, measured with a tape measure between the bottom plate and the ground. Weather conditions are recorded on each day that the traps were checked as this is likely to affect butterfly activity and hence number of captures.

44

Butterflies caught in the traps are removed by gently but firmly holding the thorax and digital photographs of the upperside and underside of each individual taken for later identification using Torben B Larsen’s ‘Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History’ (1996).

3.3.7 Casual Observations of Other Fauna During all other surveys, records are also made on dedicated data sheets of other Fauna observed and identified in the field, noting species with confidence of identification, location, habitat, group size and other applicable notes. Indirect observations of animals such as tracks or dung are also recorded as indicators of presence. This expedition the amount of time, or effort, spent in the forest when casual observations were applicable was also recorded.

3.4 Results and Discussion

3.4.1 Line Transect Sampling The laying of transects was completed over the previous three expeditions and due to the time required to travel to the furthest areas of the study area in Shimoni forest it is not considered practical to increase the study area through the formation of further transects.

Table 3 summarises the total number of sections and lengths of each transect. Transect 1 was initiated 100 m North of the southern coastal edge of the forest area, and subsequent transects initiated 200 m North of each other. Although a total of 20 sections have been laid to the West on Transect 3, safety concerns about the terrain resulted in only 16 of the sections being utilised for surveys this expedition. Therefore while a total of 11.15km of transect is available for surveys, only 10.95km was considered for surveys this expedition and due to time constraints only 10.05km was actually utilised, the Western half of Transect 6 also not utilised this expedition.

Table 3 Summary of transect grid system in Shimoni forest Transect Sections West of North-South spine 1 2 3 4 0 8 20 11 Length West (m) 0 400 1000 550 Sections East of North-South spine 17 26 32 32 850 1300 1600 1600 Length East (m)

45

5 6 Total

8 7 54

400 350 2700

31 31 169

1550 1550 8450

3.4.2 Primate Community Survey 11 Primate community surveys were undertaken on 10 separate days and with two observers a total of 29 man hours of effort was spent on primate community surveys. Primate surveys were undertaken on all Westerly and Easterly sections of Transects 1 – 5. Time constraints prevented surveys being conducted on Transect 6 this expedition.

We recorded two species of primate as follows: 7 groups of Angolan Black and White Colobus and 2 groups of Syke’s monkey during primate surveys this expedition. The results are summarised below in Table 4.

Table 4 Summary of primates observed during surveys in expedition 064 Angolan Black & White Colobus Area surveyed (km²) Number of primate groups Number of primate individuals 1.84 7 28 1.84 2 6 Sykes Monkey

The data set on observations recorded at different distances, necessary for distance sampling analysis can be added to from this expedition. Distance categories are in 10 m groups, Figure 11 shows distance categories of observed groups of colobus for this expedition combined with previous expeditions.

46

Figure 11 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which colobus groups are observed. Expedition 064 data has been added to previous data set

Colobus group sightings
25

20

# groups

15

Exp 064
10

Exp 061+062+063

5

0 0<1 0 1 0<20 20<30 30<40 40<50 50<60 60<70 70<80 80<90 90<1 00

Distance (in m)

Primate groups for primate community surveys were fewer than in previous expeditions, 7 colobus during 064 compared a cumulative 74 over three previous expeditions. As with the previous expedition when they had also been fewer, it may be the continued and consistent rainfall has reduced their activity and as such made them less easy to spot. The rainfall has supported growth in the forest and it may be that increased canopy density, up to 79.7% this expedition, has made detection more difficult. Alternatively and abundance of food resources may have increased their dispersal with smaller group sizes being harder to detect.

The Sykes encounters remain too small a sample to start analysing.

3.4.3 Primate Behavioural Observations During this expedition 1 hour 40 minutes of behavioural observations were conducted during one day on Angolan Black & White Colobus as a pilot for the methodology. Five individuals were observed in total for between 5 and 25 minutes, at the Westerly end of Transect 3, close to Shimoni village. Individuals included an adult male, adult females and a sub adult. Resting, feeding and travelling behaviours were all observed in the middle of a cloudy day. There is not enough data for any worthwhile analyses, but amendments to the ethogram and protocol in selecting troops and focal individuals were evident.

47

3.4.4 Vegetation & Regeneration Survey During this expedition the availability of the assistant of the botanist, attached to the National Museums of Kenya Coastal Forest Conservation Unit enabled vegetation and regeneration surveys to be continued from earlier in the year.

A total of 50 hours and 30 minutes effort was spent on vegetation surveys, over 13 days, on 29 sections across all 6 transects, distributed as shown in Table 5 below. Transects 1 and 2 were sampled most frequently (every 4th section), the remaining sections less frequently. With the exception of transect 5 with only one section sampled, transects were sampled evenly from West to East. Transect 1 had already been sampled up to section 8 in previous expeditions.

Table 5 Sampling frequency of sections for vegetation and regeneration surveys during expedition 064 Transect Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 All transects Sections Surveyed 8, 12, 16 -8, -4, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 28 -16, 0, 8, 16, 24, 31 -4, 4, 13, 20, 28 4 -7, 0, 8, 16, 24 Total Number of Sections 3 9 6 5 1 5 29

A total area of 2900m² was surveyed during this expedition for woody vegetation ≥ 1cm DBH, and 480m² surveyed for woody vegetation < 1cm DBH. A total of 3911 woody plants were recorded, 1110 woody plants ≥ 1cm DBH, with an average density of 0.38 specimens per m², and 2072 woody plants < 1cm DBH, with a corresponding average density of 4.32 specimens per m².

A total of 70 different species were recorded, with 49 species represented by specimens > 5 cm DBH. Representation analysis can be used to indicate whether the sampling frequency is sufficient to capture the majority of species present or whether more species could be expected were the sampling to be increased. Figure 12 below shows the representation analysis from expedition 064. If the discovery curve flattens out it indicates the majority of species have been recorded, however the figure indicates that the discovery curve is still rising.

48

Figure 22 Representation analysis of plant species discovery during vegetation sampling in 2006
Representation analyses
60 50
Cumulative # species

40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 Researched area (x100 m 2)

3.4.5 Ground and canopy cover surveys Ground cover surveys were not conducted this expedition having been completed previously in the year.

A total of 25 hours and 14 minutes effort was spent on canopy surveys, over 9 days, covering 140 sections across transects 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Time constraints prevented all sections across all transects being surveyed.

The average canopy cover for a section varied from 9% to 96%, the average being 79.7%.

In Figure 13 below, the average canopy cover of every sampled section across the five transects is represented as a point. A polynomial trend line of the second order (parabola) is fitted through the points showing the trend of the canopy cover following the transects. The flatter the line of the parabola the more even the canopy cover along the transect. The lines indicate reduced canopy cover closer settlements and that the densest canopy is in the centre of the forest corresponding with the theory of influence of human settlement closer to the forest and the influence of environmental conditions along the coast line. Transects 1 and 5 show steep slopes, explained on transect one by the shorter range of data (sections 0 to 17 only), and on transect 5 by a limited number of Westerly

49

sections (7). Transect 3 has been subject to the highest degree of recent disturbance on the Westerly sections (clear-felling for agriculture) and shows correspondingly low percentages of canopy cover.

Figure 33 Average canopy cover on sections sampled across all transects, with polynomial trend lines for each transect

Canopy cover
140 120
Coverage (in %)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Poly. (T1) Poly. (T2) Poly. (T3) Poly. (T4) Poly. (T5) 0 10 20 30 40

100 80 60 40 20 0 -30 -20 -10 Section #

50

Average canopy height was also calculated across the same sections and the results are shown in Figure 14 below.

Figure 44 Average canopy height on sections sampled across 5 transects during expedition 064

Canopy heights
25 20
Height (in m)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

15 10 5 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Section #

3.4.6 Butterfly Community Survey A total of 29 trapping days (where one trapping day is counted as one trap baited for a 24 hour period) were undertaken this expedition over 11 separate days, at 3 different sites, 2 days at Shimoni Reef Lodge in the gardens close to the coast (only one trap was used), 3 days in the Shimoni Slave Cave forest and 6 days at section 3 on transect 4 in Shimoni forest. One species, Charaxes brutus, was caught at Shimoni Reef Lodge, over two trapping days. A total of 2 specimens were caught. One species, Charaxes brutus, was caught at Shimoni Slave Cave forest, over a total of 9 trapping days. A total of 1 specimen was caught. However on 8 out of the 9 trapping days, the traps had been interfered with and the bait was absent. Five species, Bicyclus safitza safitza, Charaxes brutus, Charaxes varanes vologeses, Eurytela dryope angulata and Melanitis leda, were caught on transect 4 in Shimoni forest, over a total of 18 trapping

51

days. A total of 72 specimens were caught. All specimens identified are awaiting verification by the African Butterfly Research Institute based on the digital photographs. Charaxes brutus was present in all three localities and trapped consistently between traps and over trapping days. It is a powerful flyer, widespread and known to be attracted to the bait. Melanitis leda was trapped only in Shimoni forest, but was the most commonly trapped species at this location. All specimens exhibited wet season forms of the underside of wings. Bicyclus saitza safitza was only provisionally identified as there are a number of similar species within the genus. It was also caught regularly but only in Shimoni forest, and was more commonly caught in the lower trap in more dense vegetation. It is also known to be attracted to the bait. Charaxes varanes vologeses and Eurytela dryope angulata both trapped on only one occasion, again both in Shimoni forest.

The butterfly community survey pilot proved successful with the exception of the Shimoni Slave Cave forest where it appears Syke’s monkeys regularly raided the traps for bait. This problem was not observed in Shimoni forest where Syke’s monkeys are also present. Anecdotal observations suggest that there were consistent differences between the 3 traps in Shimoni forest in terms of the relative abundance of species trapped, despite their proximity, within 10m of each other. More detailed habitat data for each trap may reveal more specific habitat preferences.

3.4.7 Casual Wildlife Observations A total of 68 hours and 8 minutes effort was spent on casual observations of fauna during this expedition, over 18 days, covering all 6 transects.

Confident identifications of the four new species were recorded this expedition; bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus delameri), African pied hornbill (Tokus fasiatus), Dark-backed weaver (Ploceus bicolor kersteni) and the running frog (Kassina senegalensis). In addition two previously unrecorded amphibians only identified to genera were recorded this expedition; Bufo sp and Ptychadena sp.

Furthermore, indirect signs indicated the presence of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

A total of 14 different non-primate animal species were identified through casual observations this expedition.

3.5 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work

52

Primate community surveys this expedition resulted in relatively low encounters of primates, and it may be that earlier or more frequent surveys should be undertaken, or a larger area covered on a given day. However it may be that seasonal differences in vegetation density have made detection more difficult or that abundant food resources have resulted in dispersal of populations. Observations of colobus utilising garden habitats in Shimoni more often than during previous expeditions would support this theory. Behavioural surveys of primates would be of value in investigating seasonal dispersal and habitat use.

It is hoped that with the development of a standard behavioural survey, seasonal activity may be assessed in support of the primate community surveys. A pilot study of a behavioural survey protocol suggests a revision of the ethogram is necessary, to enable it to be more comprehensive and at the same time less ambiguous in behavioural definitions. The 5 minute focal individual scan worked well enabling accurate assessment and recording of behaviour at the designated intervals, however selection of focal groups and individuals need to be re-assessed and possibly more habituation undertaken to reduce bias caused by the presence of observers and to allow individuals to be tracked for longer periods of time.

Vegetation and regeneration surveys progressed significantly this expedition and the decreased sampling frequency of sections enabled a greater diversity of forest habitats and areas to be sampled. However the representation analysis suggests that further sampling is required to be confident that the biodiversity of plant species has been satisfactorily sampled. Transect 5 remains under represented in the sampling of sections and this should be targeted in future.

Canopy surveys continue to provide valuable data on seasonality of canopy density in support of primate surveys, it is unfortunate that due to time limitations, an incomplete data set was collected this expedition. It is recommended that average canopy cover data be recorded over the course of next year, repeated for each section on each expedition, but that average canopy height data not be repeated on sections already surveyed.

Trapping of butterlies should be continued in Shimoni throughout the course of next year to ensure representative sampling of the different habitats present within the forest and to assess seasonal variation in the butterfly community. Anecdotally it was also observed that a large number of butterfly species present in the forest did not frequent the traps. This is likely to be either that they are habitually low flyers and do not ascend to the height of the traps or that they are not attracted by the bait. Therefore complimenting the canopy traps with other methods of surveying the butterfly community, such as sweep netting should be considered.

53

Casual observations continue to reveal greater faunal diversity in the forest and the presence of the bushbuck in the colonizing bush vegetation on transect 3 was of particular interest, bearing in mind its proximity (about 50m) to houses in Shimoni village.

Future work is summarised as follows:  Continue primate community surveys along transects in Shimoni but with the aim of simultaneous surveys over all 6 transects. It has also been requested within KWS that forested land at the KWS Shimoni head quarters also supports Angolan Black & White colobus and this should be investigated next expedition.  Revision and further trialing of primate behavioural surveys should be undertaken in conjunction with a conscious habituation process.  Continue with evenly distributed sampling of sections for vegetation and regeneration surveys until representation analysis indicates a leveling of the discovery curve.   Continue seasonal repetition of canopy density surveys to support primate community surveys Standardise butterfly community trapping protocol, increase habitat data collection for traps, and continue trapping in different habitats and seasons within Shimoni forest and eventually other forest areas. Pilot complimentary methods of sampling the butterfly population such as sweep netting.  Continue casual observations of non-primate fauna and trial protocols for targeting different taxa to accelerate the process of collecting biodiversity data.

54

4 Community Development Programme
4.1 Introduction

At the request of KWS, GVI’s Community Development Programme is focused on the community of Mkwiro Village. We aim to assist KWS in their objective of capacity building within the community, to access tourism revenue bought in by the KMMPA and to improve the socio-economic status of the villagers.

Mkwiro has a population of approximately 1400, with around 200 children attending Mkwiro Primary School, and 26 resident boys in the Al-Hanan Orphanage. The village remains a relatively isolated and very traditional rural Islamic community, with a mainly sedentary population. Traditional fishing is essentially still the main form of economic income, but is supplemented by seasonal small scale arable farming, livestock keeping and other small scale activities such as traditional woven crafts and supplying the shell trade.

With the creation of the KMMPA, the community lost many some fishing rights within the area, and the perception amongst the community is that they have yet to see the compensatory economic benefit from tourism. There is one tourist operator based in Mkwiro, operating diving, snorkelling and dolphin-watching tours within the KMMPA. Tourists with this operator are brought to Mkwiro for lunch at private facilities, offered a short tour of the village, but very few stay overnight.

In Mkwiro, the priority for almost every community group within the village continues to be the adequate provision of fresh water. By supporting the local economy, we aim to contribute to the village community fund established in expedition 061. Among other things such as funding Madras teachers, this fund will also help to facilitate the people of Mkwiro in restoring their water storage tanks with their own funding. GVI has assisted members of the community to develop funding proposals for the water catchment area and tanks.

GVI also continues to support many community organisations, identifying and developing tourist activities and small scale industries that could provide an alternative income for the village. These activities include a village tour, apiculture, recycling plastic bottles and flip flops, marketing of crafts and a small scale garment industry. A percentage of the revenue gained from these developments will continue to be directed into the community fund, and has once again already contributed to a substantial amount being raised.

55

Both adult and primary school education lessons are delivered by GVI in the community. Villagers have been very keen to learn these new practical skills, and numbers remained relatively high in comparison to previous expeditions. A three week holiday program consisting of environmental education and craft activities was also implemented for Mkwiro Primary School students.

Additional activities incorporated into the community section of the project included beach cleans, white washing the inside of the school, tidying the site of Mwaozi Tumbe’s grave, and supporting the launch of the ‘Year of the Dolphin’.

4.2 Timetable of Activities

4.2.1 School Program Timetable As shown in Table 6, the ten week period was broken up into several different sections including:    Training – 3 weeks School time - 4 weeks of lessons Holiday time – 3 week holiday program

Table 6 School programme during expedition 064 Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T S S S T S H H H T = Training, H = Holiday Programme, S = School Term

In the next expedition, the EM’s will have the opportunity to work in the school for 8 weeks as shown in Table 7.

Table 7 Expected school programme during expedition 071 Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T S S S S S S S S T = Training, H = Holiday Programme, S = School Term

4.2.2 Weekly analysis of activities Community development activities fall broadly into four categories:

 

Mkwiro Primary School lessons Adult Education lessons

56

 

Orphanage sessions Community Group development

The weekly timetable is scheduled so that each group within the expedition participates in each of the various categories during the week. During expedition 064 activities were run four days a week, from Mondays to Thursdays, a change from previous expeditions where the community development programme had been run over a six day week. This program worked well, as all standards in the school were still able to receive at least two lessons a week, orphanage sessions were conducted twice a week, and adult education was held on alternate days. This ensured that activities were balanced for each group of EMs, and there was continuity for both EMs and students.

With community groups and initiatives, each with numerous members, it was beneficial in previous expeditions to remain flexible in our approach to setting up meetings each week. However, time constraints during previous expeditions had meant that a limited amount of time was spent on these projects. In expedition 064 dedicated time was actually set aside each afternoon for working on community development projects and interest groups. This meant there was a lot more time to work on these areas, and expedition members appeared to feel more ownership of the projects.

Lessons were allocated so that each team taught the same two English classes twice a week. In expedition 064 pupils from standard eight were offered tutorials by expedition members in the afternoon, rather then lessons during school hours. This was beneficial in the lead up to exams as they were able to get individual help in the areas they were concerned about, and the use of a series of KCPE exam question and answers books in Science, Maths, English and Social Studies also facilitated their sessions.

Table 8 outlines the general weekly schedule for each of the GVI groups in the community during school time. During the two weeks when the satellite camp was being run, community activities were only held on Tuesdays and Thursdays. These particular days were chosen so that adult education would not be affected by the satellite camp and continuity would be maintained. Day Group Monday 1 Mkwiro AM School (5 & 6) Tuesday 1 Mkwiro School (5 & 6) Wednesday 2 Mkwiro School (7 & 4) Thursday 2 Mkwiro School (7 & 4) OFF OFF Friday Saturday 3 3

57

Std 8 Early Afternoon Tutorial Community Group Work Men’s Late Afternoon Orphanage Community Group Work Orphanage Education (16.1518.15) Table 8 Weekly timetable for community development programme during expedition 064 Women’s Education (14-16:00) Std 8 Tutorial Community Group Work Community Group Work

OFF

Table 9 below outlines weekly activities during the three weeks of the holiday programme in expedition 064. The holiday program in utilised the Pan African Conservation Education material and DVD’s, as well as the Blue Planet DVD to construct activities and lessons plans on issues surrounding communities living near the ocean, and general marine ecology.

Living by the Ocean – harmful (dynamite, seine net) fishing practises versus sustainable ones (gill nets, fish traps), alternative sources of income to fishing, and protecting the marine environment including mangroves.

 

Blue Planet DVD Turtles – an introduction to Turtle ecology, morphology, species ID and conservation.

The Holiday program in expedition 064 was well advertised but numbers attending were variable from day to day. Although the schedule was timetabled to target different levels on different days, in reality the classes were often a mix of levels, as some younger and older students wanted to participate each day, and we did not turn away students eager to learn during their school holiday break.

Table 9 Holiday programme timetable during expedition 064 Day Tim e AM Monday PM Week One Std 6: Living Ocean Community Development Week Two off off Week Three

Std 6: Turtles Community Development

58

AM Tuesday PM AM Wednesday PM AM Thursday PM

Std 5: Living Ocean Adult Education Std 7 + 8: Living Ocean Community Development Std 4: Living Ocean Adult Education

Std 4, 5 & 6: Blue Planet Adult Education off off Std 7 & 8: Blue Planet Adult Education

Std 5: Turtles Adult Education Std 7 + 8: Turtles Community Development Std 4: Turtles Adult Education

Once again it was observed that during the holiday sessions students were not as punctual, as similar to the previous holiday programme, we would often start with a class of 3 or 4 students and end up with a full class by the end of the session. In expedition 063 two hour lessons were conducted in the morning and in the afternoon, however in 064 we only ran one two hour session each morning to allow more time for community development issues in the afternoon. Also, as it was the end of the school year, we were advised that students may not be as willing to attend. During school time we are limited to 35 minute lessons, so these two hour sessions were a welcome change for both EM’s and students, and resulted in some relaxed sessions in which much was achieved.

Table 10 below summarises the total amount of time spent on scheduled activities per week during expedition 064. It is important to remember that this figure does not reflect the true nature of the work effort put in, as it does not show the large number of hours spent preparing lessons, creating resources, and also the meetings held on a flexible weekly basis with community members and groups each week.

Table 10 Summary of time allocated to community development activities during expedition 064 Actual teaching time only, excluding preparation Primary Education Orphanage Adult Education Community Development Projects Week One (training) 30 min 1.5 hrs 2 hrs -

59

Week two (training) Week Three (3 days school + Eid) Week Five (sat camp, 2 days school) Week Six (training+ week off) Week Seven (Exams + 3 days school & prize giving) Week Eight (4 days holidays) Week Nine (sat camp, 2 days holidays) Week Ten (4 days holiday) Total

30 min 6 hrs

1.5 hrs 3 hrs

2 hrs 2 hrs

20 hrs

4.5 hrs

1.5 hrs

4 hrs

8 hrs

30 min

1.5 hrs

4 hrs

8 hrs

6.5 hrs

9 hrs

4 hrs

20 hrs

8 hrs

-

4 hrs

16 hrs

4 hrs 2 hrs 32.5

18

4 hrs 2 hrs 28

8 hrs 28 hrs 108

The number of time spent in primary education dropped by approximately 20hours, this was partly due to time off base during terrestrial research. However the extra tuition offered to the Standard Eight Class in the lead up to exams, and long sessions during the school holidays helped to alleviate this. Both students and expedition members appeared to thoroughly enjoy and benefit from the after school tutorials. Attendance by EMs was not always high, as it was optional, but the majority of the time they chose to use their time in this way and this should again be offered in expedition 07-1, for the new standard eight class.

Orphanage hours also dropped slightly as with only two groups we did not visit them as much as pervious expeditions, however extra sessions in the weekends and in the lead up to exams to practise their prize giving performance boosted the number of hours spent in the orphanage.

As recommended in the expedition report 063, after consultation with the women adult education for the ladies was changed from a Saturday to a Tuesday. Attendance at the women’s classes remained high even with the change of schedule. The drop in hours in adult education from previous expeditions can be attributed to the fact that adult education was delivered twice a week this expedition as opposed to three timetabled lessons per week.

60

In expedition 071 if three adult education lessons are timetabled in per week, it is recommended to use the third adult education session as a beginners only session.

4.2.3 Daily Activities Table 11 below outlines the typical structure of a day spent on community.

Table 11 Daily timetable of activities for community development programme during expedition 064 Time 7.008.50 Activity EM’s revise their lesson plans for the morning, completing materials or resources required to implement the lessons smoothly, and ensuring all involved know their roles and responsibilities during the lesson. Lessons are delivered at Mkwiro School. After each lesson there is review and reflection time, assessing what worked and what could have been improved in the lesson. Lessons are then planned ahead for the next day or next week’s lessons. Lunch and free time

8.5012.30 12.0013.00 13.0014.00 14.0015.00 15.0016.00 16.1518.30 15.0018.30

Community Development projects Adult Education lesson planning/and or delivery (Tues) + Community Development Projects Community Development Work and Std Eight Tutorials

Adult Education Lessons delivered at Mkwiro School (Thurs) or Community Development

Orphanage sessions (2x a week).+ Community Development

The current timetable seems to work relatively well, with most days in the community being very full. In previous expeditions it was recommended to implement remedial reading with school students in the afternoons, and to explore the potential of EMs being utilised as Teacher Aides in school during the afternoons. Teachers at Mkwiro Primary school who were approached about the idea of teacher aides seemed very open to the idea, and have promised to organise a list of students who we would focus our in-class attention on. We are still waiting for the list of students who would be targeted to receive remedial reading attention.

61

However, we would need to be wary about initiating these early afternoon programs. The mornings spent on community are often very energy demanding, and the late afternoons and evenings right up can also be busy and tiring. It may be that any early afternoon activities such as extra tuition in class or remedial reading, would have to remain optional. This will undoubtedly result in variable numbers of EMs being available in the school in the early afternoons, so should be discussed very carefully and thoroughly with Mkwiro Primary school teachers before being initiated.

Daily Timetable Recommendations  Investigate EM response to additional early afternoon activities and Mkwiro teacher response to these activities if they were to be optional, resulting in variable numbers in the classes each day.

4.3 Teaching English as a Foreign Language 4.3.1 Introduction Permission was granted by the Kwale District Education Department early in 2006 to work during school hours in Mkwiro Primary School. Part of the agreement in being allowed to work during the day in the school was a stipulation that we must follow the Kenyan Primary Schools Syllabus. During the holidays we deliver lesson content based on our own objectives, essentially environmental education. Adult Education lessons are also held two or three times a week depending on the expedition and EM numbers. These have been very successful with certificates given out at the end of each expo, and regular attendance by a core group of individuals.

4.3.2 Mkwiro Primary School Lessons We utilise the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using these as the basis around which our lessons are planned.

Using this method has been effective, in that we are seen by the regular teachers to be following the syllabus, we have a solid framework around which we can plan lessons, and we can also introduce our own activities into the lesson. In expedition 064 feedback from the EMs reconfirmed that the syllabus is above the level of the students we teach. To combat this problem we employ a variety of methods to break down the information into simpler chunks that are able to be assimilated and practised more easily by the students. While still delivering the national syllabus, this enables us to make the lessons less challenging for the students in the school, and also easier for the EMs to deliver.

62

Methods include:  Pre-teaching lots of extra vocabulary from the books, and using the vocabulary lists on the back to reinforce targeted words.   Simplifying lesson plans, focusing on a very small part of each chapter at a time. Deconstructing grammatical activities so that each member of an EM group is able to have a chance at completing the activity, or so that it is easier for the EM to teach.    Breaking up activities to make them fun or more accessible for less able students. Role play, miming, and using flash cards to elicit vocabulary. Basing new/alternative activities around the content of each chapter to give students access to different learning situations.

Chapters were allocated in consultation with each class’s regular teacher, so that GVI took responsibility for a whole chapter avoiding over-lap between us and the regular teachers. In this way we ‘bunny hopped’ through the book with the regular teachers, teaching alternative chapters.

The structure of each lesson given varies, but basically consists of a GVI staff member leading a quick introduction or warmer activity, before breaking into small group activities allocating 4-5 students per EM.

At the end of each unit a vocabulary list is regularly put up on the walls and tested (with spelling tests) to encourage memorisation of new words. EMs mark, record and analyse the results of these tests. Any marking done by EMs is in a green pen, and students are encouraged to head up work done by GVI with the words ‘GVI’ and the date, to indicate when and for which teacher the work was done.

We were once again able to successfully avoid the first lesson of the day and thus the morning assemblies, which can go on for longer then anticipated cutting into lesson times, and during which physical disciplinary procedures occur.

Results from the spelling tests were once again variable, and it is recommended to teach younger students learning skills such as ‘look, cover, spell, look’ methods of how to learn new words, and to provide spelling cards or notebooks for them to take home and learn.

Additional resources from Pan African Conservation Education (PACE), focusing on ‘Living next to the Ocean’, were implemented into the holiday program and will be used again in the future. In expedition

63

064 two new resource books were added to the library which proved extremely helpful in planning activities and lessons.

In previous expeditions dolphin fact sheets were used in environmental lessons, these were sent out by an organisation in England called Siren. In expedition 064 EMs and staff translated these sheets into Kiswahili, and they were distributed to attendees at the launch of ‘The year of the dolphin’. Corporate sponsorship of these fact sheets may mean they are mass produced and then distributed to all the schools in the area.

At the end of Expedition 061 several library books were donated to the school, with a card system of borrowing in place on the inside back cover of each book. This system has not yet been adopted by the school, and at the beginning of expedition 063 the library consisted of several books stored in a cardboard box. In expedition 063, three bookshelves and 200 books were purchased with volunteer donated funds.

A new building in the school has meant the old 7 and 8 classes are empty, so these have been set aside to utilise as the school library. The card system is yet to be implemented, but teachers at Mkwiro Primary School have informed us they will take over the role of librarians and keep track of books going home in the future.

In expedition 063 GVI sponsored a trophy for the first annual inter-class football tournament – named ‘The GVI Cup’. This involved each standard playing several other standards in a series of football matches after school. This event is now held each term, and was again supported by volunteers and the community in expedition 064.

Expedition Members also white washed class one of the junior school, and began on educational posters for the senior school.

Mkwiro School Recommendations  Continue using the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books as a framework to construct lesson plans, pre-teaching extra vocabulary, focusing on small parts of each chapter at a time, and add in extra activities to reinforce the subject matter taught.  Teach younger students the skills for learning new vocabulary, and provide them with spelling cards/note books to take home and learn.  Support the implementation of a library by providing books, and encouraging students to read the books by asking questions about them and doing their own book reviews.

64

4.3.3 Adult Education Adult education lessons are offered in the first week after training, between 4.15 pm and 6.30pm at Mkwiro Primary School for men, and between 2pm and 4pm for women at the Nursery School. Students normally learn conversational English and extend their vocabulary, and range from lower intermediate to advanced learners. In expedition 063 however, basic computer literacy lessons were introduced utilising the GVI lap tops, and this was continued this expedition.

Women are free to bring their children and young babies to these lessons, to encourage attendance. The presence of so many young children in the women’s classes often makes them quite challenging, but the EMs cope admirably and find the lessons to be both rewarding and worthwhile.

The number of men attending lessons remained fairly consistent with other expeditions, class sizes again ranged from 1 pupil to 6 pupils with an average of 3-4 per lesson. The average class size for the women’s lessons remained relatively consistent with only a slight increase at 14 pupils, with once again a maximum attendance of 17 pupils. The number of different women attending classes was 22, a decrease from last expedition, but these women were fairly consistent in attending lessons.

Overall 30 different men and women attended adult education classes during this expedition. There were core students who regularly attended without fail, and ‘drop in’ students less motivated or with other commitments.

The implementation of computer literacy lessons has once again attracted various community members, and has proved to be very popular. Various community members have picked up the concepts quickly and have started exploiting their new skills for community benefit, writing proposals and letters.

There have been many requests from community members for individual computer tuition, but we are unable to offer this. Both lessons for men and women on the computers are now also beginning to become difficult to manage, with new students turning up at each lesson, requiring the students currently sharing the computer to go back over the basics. These issues could be alleviated if there were more computers available to use, and this has been passed onto the fundraising committee to try and address in the future.

During normal adult education lessons the majority of students attending the men’s classes were at an intermediate to advanced level, and benefited from activities such as debating, discussions, formal

65

letter writing, and vocabulary extension. However, there is a co-hort of the community that we are yet to access – the true beginners in English. It was recommended in expedition 062 to deliver a four week intensive beginners class, however this has yet to be implemented.

To make this work in the current timetable we would have to run con-current English lessons, in order to maintain lessons for more advanced students. This would be possible if three adult education lessons per week were resumed in expedition 071. It is recommended that in the review of the community timetable for 2007, this issue is investigated and if possible a beginner course initiated. It is hoped that if a new course for less advanced students was offered, numbers of men attending adult education lessons might increase to a level that is currently enjoyed by the women.

During expedition 064 we created and started to present an education programme for the tourist dhow operators of the Shimoni-Mkwiro Dhow Tours. During these five dhow presentations operators and staff were trained on topics including: cetacean biology and behaviour, species identification, impacts to cetaceans, codes of conduct and what research GVI is conducting. These presentations were very successful and between 15 to 20 people in attendance per session. The feedback from the

presentation was very positive and GVI intends to continue with these sessions for other companies in consecutive expeditions.

Adult Education Recommendations  Continue to deliver computer literacy lessons, if necessary splitting the lessons to allow for the different ability levels.  Deliver varied, interesting and relevant lessons to the classes, integrating more community based themes (such as proposal writing, budgeting etc) that will assist in the development of community initiatives.  Provide an intensive four week evening course for beginners, structured around the syllabus provided in the official GVI TEFL teaching syllabus, delivered con-currently to the men’s advanced group, or utilise the third session to teach true beginners.   Look into the fundraising or donation possibilities for computers for the community. Continue to utilise the knowledge and skills of EMs, teaching other languages or skills such as budgeting to community members.

66

4.4 Orphanage work

Twice a week EMs visited the orphanage to spend time with the boys. This time was unstructured to allow the EMs and the orphans to interact with each other in a more relaxed manner.

Activities included:   reading library books and listening to stories lateral thinking exercises and development of cognitive skills using interactive books brought out by Ems    playing sports like frisbee, football, volleyball, acrobatics and athletics other physical activities like hacky sac, poi dancing and dancing to music creative arts such as colouring in, using crayons, felt tips, and paints to create paper murals for the walls    help with homework and exam study group games and circle time performance arts

Although the amount of time spent with the boys in the orphanage in expedition 064 was limited due to the school holiday break, it still proved to be one of the highlights for many of the EMs. The boys were once again hugely responsive to the attention given to them, and enjoyed participating in activities led by EMs.

EMs and staff worked with the boys to deliver a presentation at the end of year prize giving ceremony entitled ‘Africa our Home’. This performance was based around the PACE educational material and involved groups of boys reciting information about forests, soil, water, energy, people, and wildlife. Some of the boys exhibited a real aptitude in performance, and all of them appeared to gain a feeling of pride in representing their orphanage at a school celebration.

The Global Vision International Charitable Trust (GVI-CT) has pledged 1000 pounds to the orphanage per expedition. In expedition 064 the major output from this funding was the digging of a water pit at the orphanage to provide fresh drinking water all year round. A new set of clothes and shoes for each of the boys was also purchased with GVI-CT funding to celebrate the last day of Ramadan, known as Eid.

67

Continued donations from the GVI-CT will greatly be appreciated, and will be spent in liaison with the Al Hanan orphanage caregivers to prioritise projects they deem most important. In expedition 064 it was stressed to caregivers to prepare in advance any requests for funding, as in this and other expeditions they often requested help at the last.

GVI has also helped the caregivers of the orphanage formulate and write proposals for further funding from additional sources from within Kenya.

Orphanage Recommendations   Continue providing EM support to the orphans in the evenings Continue close liaison with orphanage caregivers to develop and improve the orphanage, utilising the GVI-CT funds in the most cost effective way, and on a project by project basis

4.5 Community groups and initiatives

4.5.1 Introduction Individual expedition members who have an interest in particular projects in the community form groups to develop each project. Community members are not only invited to be involved and participate in these discussions, but to ultimately make the major decisions concerning their own community ventures.

Community projects are handed over to successive expedition members so that the work being done towards the objectives of each of the community based organisations is perpetuated. Community members and EMs constructed a list of activities that could attract tourists, these are listed in Table 12. A summary of the work achieved on these and other community projects is also given.

In expedition 064 actual dedicated time was set aside to work on these projects each day, resulting in more output from the expedition members, and solid outcomes for the projects.

Table 12 Tourism development proposals within Mkwiro Name of activity Fishing Trips ( with local fishermen and women) Details traditional line fishing in a small dug-out canoe checking traps octopus hunting catching squid (calamari) in a small dug-out

68

Village Tours

-

tour the village with local guide eat a traditional lunch in Kaya Bogoa, a forest with cultural significance to the local community

Guided nature Walks

-

-

beach and mangrove forests on the south side of the island

-

hunt for (catch and release) the large and rare Coconut Crab

Cultural activities

-

visit the grave of Mwauze Tumbe to hear the story of her life and death

-

visit Jiwe jahazi, or ‘dhow rock’, and hear the story of how it changed from a dhow into an island

-

visit the sacred cycad trees, where offerings are still made

-

visit cultural cave sites where the villagers’ ancestors went to pray

Drumming Lessons

-

Msondo (men and women, in lines) Kipumbwi (general drumming) Msapata (dangerous) cook in the home of a local women, learning the secrets of her trade

Cooking Lessons

-

-

take the fish you caught earlier in the day, and cook on an open fire while listening to village stories around the flames

Community Centre

-

one of the women’s groups have a co-operative building that is currently being used as a restaurant. If this could be developed, it could become a focal point for the community. This is where they could advertise the tourist activities provided in the village, and where they could sell some of their goods. GVI could also help by putting up information about the research being conducted in the area.

69

4.5.2 Fishing Trips EMs and staff have participated in fishing trips out in dug out canoes. These trips were a big success, not only in the fish that were caught, but also in the enjoyment of both fishermen and GVI members. By using expedition members as ‘guinea pig tourists’ the fisherman were able to see some of the ideas they need to work on to offer these trips to the larger tourist community. An initial brochure and flyer has been designed to advertise the trips, but these have yet to be finalized with community members.

Recommendations: Finalise the brochures and flyers with community members and distribute in local areas like Diani, Shimoni and Wasini. Perhaps also look at advertising in budget accommodation or hotels in Mombasa, and at the camp ground in Tiwi Beach.

4.5.3 Drumming Mkwiro Villagers are descended from the Shirazi tribe, a group historically known for their amazing drumming and drum making. The drums are mentioned in the story of Mwauzi Tumbe but are currently located in the Fort Jesus museum in Mombasa. Unfortunately these drums are no longer made in Mwkiro, and instead villagers perform at weddings and in the evenings on plastic barrels.

Previous EMs have taken up the opportunity to have drumming lessons, and have enjoyed these with community members. These have been on an informal basis, and no marketing has been developed on this activity.

Recommendations:  Source funding for replica’s of the Fort Jesus drums to be made, and use these as one of the focal points of the village tour  Write a formal proposal to include the original Mkwiro/Shirazi drums in a display at the proposed Shimoni Tourist centre  Work with community members to start actively marketing drum lessons on the island by designing leaflets and brochures to be distributed in local tourist areas

4.5.4 Mwaozi Tumbe Village Tour Several meetings have been held between EM’s and community members (primarily from the Mkwiro Youth Group) to discuss the development of a tour of Mkwiro Village, incorporating both natural and cultural aspects. The focus of this tour is to be a visit to the grave stone of Mwaozi Tumbe, with a

70

local lunch offered and a short nature walk in Kaya Bogoa. In previous expeditions EMs have participated in research trips to Mombasa Library and Fort Jesus to investigate the history of the Mkwiro people, and the story behind Mwaozi Tumbe’s grave. A visit to Kaya Kinondo was also provided for several community members and EMs, providing them with an opportunity to see a similar venture that has been successful, and to observe the conduct and eloquence required of a guide in interacting with tourists.

Villagers are keen to get started on delivering the tour as soon as possible, and have shown much enthusiasm and energy for the project. Although some members of the community would like to start as soon as possible, most have begun to appreciate that they need to have everything in place before delivering their final product, and that these things take careful thought and consideration before implementing, so that they are professional.

In expedition 06-4 more work was done on the script for the tour, finalising the telling of some of the local legends, making cue cards for the tour and practising with the guides. In consultation with village elders, the area around Mwaozi Tumbe’s grave was demarcated with whitewashed stones, and flowers were planted in between the stones.

Recommendations  Continue meetings to report back on progress made on the list of tasks to be done before the community is ready for the tour. These meetings should try to help drive the group forward, by providing an impetus for task development by the Mkwiro Youth Group and with the additional help of EM’s  Finalise the script for the tour by continued liaison with community members about the content and facts involved, and by practising the script with potential guides

4.5.6 Cooking lessons In all expeditions cooking lessons have been offered to the EMs, who leave the women a tip as thanks. Chapattis, samosas and mandazi’s have been the focus of the lessons, but other dishes such as pilau, local bean dishes and local tomato based dishes could also be offered. It was recommended in expedition 06-3 to formalise an agreement between members of the community and GVI to offer cooking lessons every phase of each expedition, however this remains outstanding.

Recommendations:

71

Liase with community members to develop cooking lessons as an activity available to the wider tourist community, and formalise and agreement to offer lessons

4.5.7 Beehive keeping The donation of bee hives by an NGO to the Mkwiro community has offered the opportunity for alternative income generation through apiculture. However, community members do not appear to have received the knowledge or expertise to utilise the bee hives effectively. Meetings have been held with members of the community to assess their knowledge of apiculture and to look at methods of moving forward with bee keeping.

It was found that hives had been placed deep in the forest, in areas that may not be conducive to bee keeping. Insects such as butterflies were more prevalent on the forest edges, and thus it was advised as a first step to relocate the hives to the edge of the forest, where conditions may be more suitable.

In expedition 062 the National Scholarship Programme (NSP) student collected information on bee keeping and led most of the discussions. In expedition 063 community members and staff went on an investigative trip to some working beehives in the local area to gain insight and advice on how to run the project successfully in Mkwiro. After expedition 063, a visit to Honeycare Ltd in Nairobi on behalf of the Mkwiro community indicated that training had been delivered to Mkwiro community members and that the cost of this training was expected to be repaid with the sale of honey produced. To offer the relevant training again would require payment in advance and so the decision remains with community members as to whether they are committed to pursuing this to generate income.

Recommendations  Source alternaitve expertise on apiculture and attempt to facilitate alternative training for community members

4.5.8 HIV/AIDS Awareness The Mkwiro dispensary nurse has informed us that very few people in Mkwiro know their HIV status, and very few favour the use of condoms. It is valuable that the benefits of testing for HIV/AIDS are related to the villagers, and that the use of condoms is advocated particularly for people having intercourse before marriage.

In previous expeditions workshops have been delivered in Mkwiro, Wasini and Shimoni communities on HIV/AIDS awareness. The workshops were successful, with open honest environments created

72

whereby community members felt comfortable asking detailed questions and learning new information about HIV/AIDS.

A second workshop was to be planned for expedition 064, in each of the three villages of Mkwiro, Shimoni and Wasini. Details to be included were caring for people with HIV, more information on reducing the stigma of aids, and details on how the illness progresses. However, other commitments during expedition 064 meant there wasn’t time to initiate this to an acceptable standard, so it has been postponed until next year. Before initiating these workshops contact should be made with HIV/AIDS awareness groups such the Marie Stopes organisation in Mombasa for advice about how to best progress. This may mean inviting certain organisations to give presentations in this area.

Recommendations  Source expertise on HIV/AIDS awareness in Mombasa and initiate discussions about what can be done further in the Shimoni sub-location.

4.5.9 Mkwiro Village Compensation Committee Members of the village committee have approached GVI to help draft several letters to the Minister of Tourism and KWS officials seeking compensation for the loss of their fishing grounds to the KMMPA. A percentage of park fees paid by tourists had been promised to the community at the time of its creation.

Community members would also like park boundaries to be re-adjusted in favour of the marine reserve, and for park boundaries to be clearly demarcated with brightly coloured buoys to prevent inadvertently entering the park in their fishing dhows, and thus receiving fines. With our support they have also written letters to request assistance in eradicating many of the illegal fishing practises that are carried out in and around the KMMPA, which they believe are depleting their fish stocks.

GVI has assisted the community to draft many of these letters and to interpret some of the complex language in some of their replies. We have remained impartial.

In expedition 064 a letter was once again drafted for the government, this time the focus being on the upcoming government proposed review of communities surrounding marine protected areas. The Mkwiro community are worried that many additional communities are trying to be included in this review, in order to benefit from any compensation given.

Recommendations

73

Use the adult education computer literacy classes to draft any further letters required, or make the computers available to community members who are now computer proficient to write their own letters in consultation with GVI to interpret any complex English.

4.5.10 Mkwiro Dispensary The villagers have a range of medical needs, such as malaria, diarrhoea, pregnancies, children under five requiring immunisations and other medical care, and a population of elderly people who also often need assistance. There is also a lot of sharp coral rag substrate on the island, which means there are many accidents, especially with children playing and requiring stitches. It is much easier and safer to give stitches at the dispensary, than it is to try to get to the mainland for assistance. Community members do not always recognise the early signs of malaria, and thus may deteriorate quickly.

The re-opening of the dispensary has been one of the most positive and beneficial aspects of community development this year. Feedback about the new nurse continues to be very positive, as she has made herself available in the evenings and weekends.

This expedition the current nurse requested a review of her salary and an increase in line with Kenyan Health authority salaries. GVI will not increase the salary from the orphanage fund, but will look for other ways to provide funding for the nurse, aiming for the dispensary to have independent funding in the future.

Recommendations  Regular additional funding for medicines, nurses salary and other medical equipment should be sourced

4.5.11 Mkwiro Garment Industry Fisherman pants made of Kikoi material continue to sell well, and the fundis have grown in confidence experimenting with pockets, skirts, and other designs requested by EMs. These sales have greatly contributed to the community fund.

An EM in expedition 063 proposed getting labels manufactured in the United States and air freighted over, but again unfortunately we have had no contact with her since the expedition ended. She did work diligently on the marketing of the project, coining the name ‘Mkwiro Mvuvi Pants’. Translated this means Mkwiro Fisherman Pants, which ties in nicely with the fact that they are of Thai Fisherman

74

design, and also that Mkwiro’s essential income is from fishing. She also designed a small information tag to be attached to each pair of pants, explaining a bit about the village, the history of the Kikoi material and the community fund.

On a trip to Shimoni, Diani and Wasini the same EM approached several shops to sell the pants, emphasising that they were locally hand made and that a percentage of the profit would be going to a local community. Initial contact with commercial vendors was very positive, and interest in selling the pants was expressed by several shop managers or hotel operators.

In expedition 064 a meeting was held with the fundi to encourage him to start saving long term so that he can start selling pre-made pants and make a bigger profit. It took a lot of persuading as the fundi found it difficult to look past the short term gains and the needs of his family and imagine the long term potential of such a project. Further work will be needed on this in the future.

Recommendations   Research methods of printing the labels commercially either here or abroad in the UK Encourage the community sewing fundis to start buying their own material and manufacturing the pants for EMs to choose, rather then simply sewing the material the EMs are providing  Follow up on leads to sell the pants in Diani, Wasini and Shimoni, or from within Mkwiro itself.

4.5.12 Recycling During this and previous expeditions several beach cleans of the mangroves along the South coast of the island have been held. These have been conducted with community members and commemorated such special events as ‘Dive into Earth Day’ and ‘International Clean Up Day, but also simply as part of the general community program.

To date 800 shillings have been earned for the community from the recycling of plastic bottles into pillows, and added to the community fund.

Flip Flops collected from the mangroves have been used to construct a promotional model Minke whale for WSPA and the anti-whaling campaign. The whale will be transported to Europe and auctioned, and the revenue used to help Kenya, through KWS as the governmental representative, to either regain their voting membership in the International Whaling Commission or to support the antiwhaling campaign in other ways.

75

Members of the community were also invited by a company called UniquEco to take part in the construction of the whale in Nairobi, learning how to utilise flip flops and make marketable items such as key rings, toys and jewellery. Hopefully UniquEco will then buy the products from the community and market them internationally.

In expedition 06-3 four members of the community travelled to Nairobi to make the most of this opportunity, and are currently utilising the new skills they have learnt to help in the construction of the flip flop whale. Several orders have been put through for strips of the whale, and whale key rings. Unfortunately, community members have been slow to fulfil these orders. Further encouragement and organisational support will be needed in the future if Mkwiro community members are to provide a professional service to Uniqueco ensuring future orders.

This venture has great potential for alternative income generation and associated publicity for Mkwiro, and has already resulted in one film crew visiting the island and filming. Through WSPA the BBC are making a short clip about recycling in Kenya, the waste being washed up on Kenyan beaches and the construction of the flip flop whale. Mkwiro community will feature in this presentation, as will parts of an interview of conducted of community members during the clean up. The viewing capacity of the clip, which will probably be shown several times during the day it is featured in the news, could be as many as 60million people.

Recommendations  Mentor community members to try and fulfil orders and promote business managment

4.5.13 Shimoni Slave Cave Committee Shimoni Slave Cave Committee operates a community based tourism project at Shimoni’s culturally important salve caves with proceeds going to a community fund, contributing to the payment of medical supplies, teaching staff and scholarships. The committee is keen to expand their tour to include a nature trail in the forest above the slave cave. Previously GVI have facilitated training of guides through visiting a similar project at Kaya Kinondo near Diani. A drat brochure has also been developed and during this expedition further amendments were made. Unfortunately constraints on personnel and time limited further involvement this expedition.

4.5.14 Tumaini Women’s Group Fishing is the main source of income for Mkwiro village, restricting the amount of jobs available to women. The Tumaini Women’s group was set up to help the women earn money to support their families by selling their crafts to tourists. They now also sell their hand crafts to GVI EMs.

76

An information leaflet has been produced to be attached to their products. EMs in expedition 06-3 approached vendors in Shimoni to sell the products, but unfortunately the vendor concerned had just taken an order of very similar crafts from Diani. Despite this the Shimoni vendor seemed very interested in the Mkwiro product, and may be inclined to buy from Mkwiro in the future. EMs have also approached Charlie Claws to sell the products in their craft shop and on the boat.

In Expedition 064 an EM with contacts with 10,000 Villages collected a sample box of crafts and these were sent to Canada to be sold on their behalf. Price checks were also made on crafts being sold in Shimoni to check that the Mkwiro vendors prices were competitively priced.

A trip to Charlie Claws with EMs was made to gain advice on how best to proceed with sales, and EMs finalised contacts to begin sales in the new year.

Recommendations   Take the products to Diani and try to market them to stall holders there Encourage EMs to take information leaflets and examples of crafts back with them and contact possible buyers overseas  Contact other major buyers of small scale crafts such as ‘Trade Aid’ and develop links with 10,000 Villages

4.5.16 Water Storage/Purification In conjunction with members of the youth group, and the adult education group, a joint proposal with GVI was written to Bamburi Cement for a donation to sponsor the restoration of Mkwiro’s community water storage tans. Unfortunately the proposal was turned down, as Bamburi have delineated an area 25km from their plant in Mombasa to be their main priority for charitable donations.

In expedition 064 an engineering company in the UK contacted GVI Kenya through contact with a previous EM. They are investigating the possibilities of water supply and water sanitation issues for Wasini Island in conjunction with Water Aid

 

Use the fundraising interest group to contact other cement companies in Kenya for funding Research alternative water purification methods, particularly in relation to making water stored over a long time safer to drink, and to try to dispose of mosquito larvae safely in stored water tanks (e.g coconut bacteria)

77

4.5.17 Village Community Fund Ten to twenty percent of all transactions made between GVI and Mkwiro village goes to a central village fund. These include bread and samosa sales, clothing sales, laundry, home baking, and crafts. This money will be used by the village committee for the benefit of the whole community.

At present the funding raised has been earmarked to assist in purchasing iron sheeting to mend part of the community water storage facility. Five thousand shillings were spent on salaries for Madras teachers in the school holidays, and money raised from the laundry ladies is directed towards the mosque.

In expedition 06-3 GVI staff initiated a meeting with Village elders to determine the correct means of money transfer to the village fund, and to identify who would be the co-signers of any transactions, as the correct channels were still unclear. The results of the meeting were a designated secretary and treasurer.

Recommendations  Channel any money to the community fund through the designated secretary and treasurer, ensuring they co-sign all receipts.   Keep a GVI record of all transactions, and monitor what the fund is spent on. Encourage the elders to establish a bank account for the village fund.

4.5.18 Fundraising In expedition 06-3 a fundraising group was formed in response to the requests of various community villagers for assistance with a number of issues. These include:        concrete for the water storage facility ongoing medical supplies, equipment and support for the medical dispensary scholarship funds for students graduating from primary school to high school medical operations for village members tertiary education for primary school teachers and nursery school teachers primary education for disabled community members (such as a blind girl) sponsorship for sporting teams such as volleyball, netball and football or simply the provision of sporting equipment  library books for a school library

78

A newsletter to be sent to previous EMs was designed in expedition 063 and will be sent out at the end of expedition 064. This explains what smaller things can be done for the community, as well as giving a general update on the project and new developments. Another edition was created in expedition 064 which will be edited in the first expedition of 2007. It is hoped that this newsletter will be perpetuated by consecutive projects, becoming a quarterly edition for all previous EMs interested.

One of our major initial concerns while working in the community was that we would create a culture of begging, simply by our very proximity to the community and the obvious differences between our material wealth and theirs. Once again during this expedition there were no examples of begging behaviour by children; it appears the firm guidelines given to expedition members on this topic seem to have taken effect with the younger members of the community.

GVI Kenya continues to collect for the EM Scholarship fund to help support local school children from the orphanage or Mkwiro School in attending high school.

Gifts such as pens, pencils, books and items of clothing were given to students at the end of the expedition, with each class from 1-8 receiving a farewell gift box from the EM’s.

An expedition member from a previous expedition visited in 06-4 and organised 7 boxes of football shirts, shorts, boots and equipment to be distributed to members of the community. These were handed out in order to the boys from the orphanage, the local Mkwiro Stars football team, orphans living in Mkwiro, and finally on a class by class basis from standard one up to standard 5. An inventory was recorded and those missing out on equipment in this round will receive priority in the next round of donations. These hand out sessions need to be strictly organised with both teachers, and/or GVI staff.

Recommendations Continue the policy of not giving gifts during the expedition to individuals, as these are to be handed over during formal school assemblies or class time Continue to support the local community in seeking funding from alternative sources When giving out donations follow strict guidelines, (e.g only dealing with a maximum of two people at a time, orderly lines, recording who gets what, have teachers present). 4.5.19 Year of the Dolphin This expedition GVI were requested to help with the launch of the ‘Year of the Dolphin 2007’, designated as such by the United Nations Environment Program. In collaboration with corporate

79

sponsors such as Charlie Claws, Polemans and Tui, GVI are also helping to organise a series of activities in local schools to celebrate the year.

80

5. Terrestrial Satellite Camp
5.1 Introduction Community involvement in the protection and conservation of natural resources is essential for their successful sustainable management. Global Vision International (GVI) working in collaboration with the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and the Kenyan Wildlife Service (KWS) has embarked on a project with community groups in the Taveta area to promote environmental awareness, anti-poaching activities, eliminate the bush meat trade, create alternative livelihoods and encourage community involvement in protecting and conserving their natural places in and around the Tsavo West National Park.

The main threat to much of the wildlife in area of Tsavo West and surrounding protected areas is the bush meat trade. In Kenya poaching and the associated bush meat trade has continued to escalate despite concerted efforts by various conservation bodies and governmental institutions to curb consumption. Originally thought of as a subsistence motivated activity, carried out by rural families with a history of traditional use, poaching and the bush meat trade has now been recognised in Kenya as more of a commercial operation, often transboundary.

Poverty coupled with a lack of alternative income generating activities in the affected areas perpetuate the trade despite frustrations and a fear of imprisonment for those inolved. To alleviate this cycle, it is critical that in the future poachers are provided with long term sustainable mechanisms for participation in the conservation and management of their wildlife, while also creating alternative methods of earning an income.

For many years in Kenya, indigenous knowledge or community participation in conservation was ignored, as it was perceived as outdated or inferior to the modern concept of conservation. However, this perception is slowly changing as governmental and non-governmental organisations are realising the value of stakeholder and community ownership of environmental issues. Communities that have historically been disenfranchised from the direct involvement of the management of their natural resources are now being encouraged to take action and actively participate.

In April 2006 a PRA report conducted in the Ziwani area of Tsavo West National Park revealed a serious problem. According to the report, between October 2005 and April 2006 over 507 snares were removed and 10 poachers were arrested. Further arrests followed and in a period of six months over thirty poachers were prosecuted for various offences related to the bush meat trade (Omondi, 2006).

81

Conservation bodies in the area such as KWS and the David Sheldrick Wildlife Foundation tried to stem the trade through the use of anti-poaching and de-snaring units, however incidents continued to rise to unsustainable levels. The situation was aggravated by the constant alienation of local communities from participating in the mainstream conservation and management of their wildlife.

Local communities contain an immense amount of knowledge about terrain, landscape, frequent hunting and poaching routes. If encouraged to actively participate in conservation, identifying and solving problems associated with the bush meat trade themselves, they could become a powerful weapon in the fight to stem the flow of meat being taken from protected areas.

Many inhabitants also currently perceive wildlife as a threat to crops and lives, with little compensation from government bodies. They do not feel obliged or are unwilling to reveal information to the authorities in fear of victimisation and arrest (Omondi & Pabari, 2006). Changing these attitudes with education and by finding alternative methods of solving wildlife conflict issues will also be integral in the conservation of wildlife in the local area.

Poaching and bushmeat consumption will continue to escalate unless communities which have previously disassociated themselves from wildlife are able to take ownership for their protection. In order to eventually eradicate the bush meat trade in this area, community involvement and participation is mandatory. By participating in the direct conservation and management of their wildlife, and accruing a direct economic benefit from this, communities will identify with the resource and take full charge of its sound management for posterity. Economic benefits made by the wider community and country as a whole will be able to trickle down to individual households, and thus raise the standard of living for communities in the area.

5.2 Ex-poachers groups

Community members from three main villages in the area have abandoned poaching in favour of trying to find alternative sources of income for themselves and their families. GVI will be working with all three groups, and it is envisaged that they will provide a working model for other communities in the area in the future.

 

Kidong: 38 members Kasaani: 30 members

82

Mandahakini: 36 members

Both GVI’s in country partners the Kenyan Wildlife Service (KWS) and WSPA identified Kidong as a hot spot for poaching activity. As such it is crucial that the bushmeat trade in this area is tackled. If successful the programmes implemented in this village will be used in other poaching hot spots around Kenya.

GVI was invited to Kidong by WSPA to participate, and hope to provide a range of activities that may help eventuate in the success of the anti-poaching program in Kidong, sending a message to other communities and thus helping to eliminate the bushmeat trade in Kenya.

During this expedition the first satellite camp was initiated, aimed at beginning a collaboration with a group of men and women calling themselves the ‘Kidong Ex-poachers’ group. Until recently these 39 individuals relied mainly on poaching as a means to generate income, supplying the bushmeat trade with animals such as Dik Dik, Buffalo, Zebra, various antelope and even Elephant. Under the guidance of Raphael Omondi, the representative from WSPA, the group have given up poaching as a livelihood and now advocate more ethical and sustainable principals, conserving and protecting their wild places and animals.

Under the guidance of WSPA GVI will work with all the groups to educate and transfer skills and knowledge that can help them achieve their aims.

Activities we hope to implement in the future include educating the ex-poachers groups and other villagers both in environmental education as well as English language acquisition, business skills, identifying alternative means of income generation, taking part in de-snaring activities, problem solving of wildlife conflict issues, and general capacity building within the village.

During the satellite camps time was spent exploring the local area and meeting with various officials to open communication with local governmental bodies in the area. Places and people visited included; the District Council, Town Clerks, Town Chief, KWS Community Officer, Village Chief, the office of the local member of parliament, Njoro natural springs, the Taveta Market place, Kidong Hill, and Lake Chale.

Members of the Kidong ex-poachers group also took the expedition members on a guided walk of their area, during which Zebra, Hartebeest, Thomsons Gazelle and Gerenuk were sighted. EMs were shown where they had been cutting trees for charcoal burning – a major cause of habitat destruction

83

and desertification in much of Africa. Since forming the group the Kidong ex-poachers have ceased charcoal burning, and are looking at how they could start a tree planting program instead.

GVI presented a DVD dramatisation called ‘Carcasses’. This is a one hour Kenyan produced feature supported by the Born Free Foundation in Nairobi. It raised issues about the bush meat trade such as the risk of catching diseases like and featured a scenario where men and women from a village not dissimilar to Kidong ended up with serious problems due to poaching.

The video raised much discussion amongst both EMs and members of the community on many of the issues emphasised by the video, the Kidong group identifying with the story. 5.3 Discussion GVI’s initial visits to Kidong appear to have been a boost to the morale of this, raising the profile of their organisation and objectives. Additional men and women from the Kidong community have subsequently expressed an interest in becoming involved.

Future development of the satellite camp may involve Expedition Members focusing on one particular group each week, implementing a range of activities in that village. GVI’s role will be to support WSPA in their proposed initiatives. This involvement will be emphasised to local communities and local partners.

84

6. National Scholarship Programme
GVI offers National Scholarship Programme placements on expeditions to facilitate capacity building within partner organisations and for host country nationals. NSP placements are offered free of charge to individuals, and are funded by GVI. NSP placement students participate fully as an expedition member receiving the same training and experience. Our primary partner, KWS nominated two individuals for this expedition. Jillo Katelo is a KWS ranger, previously posted at Jipe gate, Tsavo West National Park, who joined us for the ull 10 week expedition as his attachment for a diploma in Environmental Management at KWS’ Naivasha college. Sirya Karisa is a KWS employee based at the coast, who joined us for the initial five weeks of the expedition to further reinforce the working relationship and lines of communication between GVI and KWS. In addition, Raymond Mwangata, a Fisheries management graduate with experience in primary teaching and environmental restoration of quarries, applied independently and joined us for the second five weeks of expedition.

All three NSP students integrated exceptionally well, had much to contribute to the expedition and reportedly gained much from their experience. From the perspective of GVI it was of great value to work alongside KWS personnel and receive their input and feedback and it is hoped that we will be able to continue this in future. It is also hoped that we can continue to support KWS students in offering placements for attachments for courses of study.

85

7. Overall Achievements
GVI East Africa has completed its fourth 10 week expedition based in Mkwiro, during which the following has been achieved:       132 hours 8 minutes of effort from vessels on the Marine Research Programme 50 dolphin sightings from vessels 38 dolphin behavioural surveys 36 Photo Identification surveys of dolphins resulting in 1742 photos 19 marine mega-fauna surveys from vessels 11 primate community surveys conducted with 7 groups of colobus monkeys recorded and 2 groups of Sykes monkeys   1 hour 40 minutes of primate behavioural surveys trialled 29 trapping days undertaken for butterfly community surveys, at 3 trapping sites. 5 species identified  2900 m² surveyed for vegetation and regeneration, covering 29 sections. 70 plant species were identified       7 km of transects had canopy surveys undertaken, covering 140 sections 14 species identified through casual observation surveys including 4 new species recorded 32 hours 30 minutes delivering lessons in Mkwiro Primary School 28 hours delivering adult education lessons 18 hours of activities at Al-Hanan orphanage Delivery of 5 dolphin education awareness workshops to local boat operators accessing 20 individuals   Over 13,000 KSh raised for the Mkwiro community fund through GVI economic activities GVI-CT has funded the continuing work on the orphanage water storage tank and supplied new clothes and shoes to all the orphanage.

86

8. Conclusions and Future Aims
This fourth expedition for GVI East Africa continued to build upon what has been initiated in the previous expeditions. The Marine Research Programme continued the core research, utilising vessel based survey techniques. Weather conditions this expedition did not interrupt survey effort in any significant way as there was little heavy rain, and wind conditions remained calm until the final few weeks. GVI’s locally employed boat captain underwent further training on the marine research programme as part of a capacity building initiative, practising photo identification surveys and data capture, with the aim of utilising him to conduct and supervise marine research surveys in future.

Future aims are to continue the marine research programme activities attempting to continue to run both vessel based and where possible reinstate land based surveys. Surveys using transects are planned for the future to offer a more structured and random approach to sampling and facilitating the use of distance sampling techniques, however further research is required to ensure that applicable methods are implemented in our study area, to ensure confidence in data analysis. Appropriate survey designs are being investigated in respect of this.

The Terrestrial Research Programme also continued and consolidated upon what has been initiated. Primate surveys continued utilising the same methodology and a structured protocol for behavioural surveys trialled. All though this needs further revision, it appears to be a workable approach for the long term. Most significantly, the vegetation and regeneration surveys progressed significantly this expedition, with sections sampled throughout the study area. Representation analysis indicates that further work is required before biodiversity can be confidently assessed.

The implementation of the butterfly community survey through a pilot this expedition proved successful and will be pursued next expedition following a more structured protocol.

GVI’s presence in Mkwiro Primary School continues to be well received and the teaching delivered by expedition members effective in improving English language acquisition. Tutorial sessions for Standard 8 pupils in preparation or the exams was successful and we await the results of their eaminations. Adult education continued with computer literacy this expedition combined with environmental education. The skills learnt are of value to members of the community who despite not having ready access to computers have been able to utilise GVI’s computers to produce formal letters and proposals in support of community activities. The community development programme continued

87

with increased time allocated to it, and significant progress was made with the marketing of local crafts and garments and as well as the implementation of dolphin education workshops. This is an important step in building capacity within the local community and assisting the responsible management of tourism within the KMMPA, particularly with dolphin watching code of conduct in development. GVI’s standing in the community remains positive and our focus on Mkwiro has enabled widespread and integrated support for many community stakeholders. The primary concern has to be the careful management of time to ensure all projects initiated receive appropriate on-going support from GVI.

Overall, GVI East Africa has continued to successfully implement the broad objectives outlined by KWS in the formation of our partnership and established long-term programmes to support their longterm objectives for sustainable management of resources in the KMMPA and community outreach. As the partnership develops GVI East Africa will review the priorities for research and community development with KWS and implement changes within our current capacity.

88

9. References
Bejder, L., and Samuels, A. 2003. Evaluating the effects of nature-based tourism on cetaceans. 229 – 256.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. 2000. Introduction to distance sampling:estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York. 423 pp.

Emerton, L. and Tessema, Y. 2001. Economic constraints to the management of marine protected areas: the case of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti National Reserve, Kenya. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya. Evans, P.G.H and Hammond, P.S. 2004. Monitoring cetaceans in European waters. Review. 34,1. 131-156. Mammal

Gregory, P.R., and Rowden, A.R. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic mammals, 27.2. 105-113.

Mann, J. 2000. Unravelling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods. In: Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. (Ed. Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., and H. Whitehead). 44-64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Omondi, R. and Pabari, D. 2006. Participatory rural appraisal report on bushmeat consumption and trade in Ziwani area of Tsavo West National Park conducted between 20th April and 12th May 2006. Unpublished.

Peddemors, V. M. 1991. Delphinids of Southern Africa: A review of their distribution status and life history. In: Journal of Cetaceans Research Management. 157-165.

Parsons, K.M., 2001. Procedural guideline No. 4-5 Using photo-ID for assessing bottlenose dolphin abundance and behaviour. In: Marine JNCC Marine Monitoring Handbook. 1-21. Reeves, R.R. and S. Leatherwood. 1994. Dolphins, porpoises and whales: 1994-1998 Action plan for the conservation of cetaceans IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

89

Ross, G.J.B., Heinsohn, G.E and V.G. Cockcroft, 1994. Humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765), Sousa plumbea (G. Cuvier, 1829), Sousa teuszii (Kukenthal, 1892). Pages 23-42 in S.H. Ridgeway and R. Harrison, eds. Handbook of marine mammals. Volume 5. The first book of dolphins. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Stensland, E., Berggren, P. and R, Johnstone. 1998. Marine Mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment. Ambio. 27,8. 771-774.

90

APPENDIX Appendix 1 Event Log Form

91

EVENT LOG
DATE: VESSEL: STAFF: SCRIBE: Environmental Conditions Time 24hrs Event South 04° East 039° Effort Trans # Beari ng WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide Precip Wind Comments

T

I

S D

92

Sightings Form
Date:
Latitude

Entered onto computer □

Vessel:

Skipper:
Angle Distance to sighting to Cloud Cover: sighting Specie Measure in eighths (P or S) s e.g. 0/8 – clear 8/8 - over cast

Recorder:
Group size Precipitation Ma Type Min Rain x Fog Intensity Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10 Intermittent Continuous Best Spotted because Dhows? PhotoENTERED ON ID? COMPUTER Yes/No Comments

Events:

Events: Beaufort South Longitude of survey Sighting – Glass Effort day 01 - Start of survey day 01 - Start 0 Survey Time East 039° type number 02 - Change in 04° effort 02 - Change in effortnumber01- Ripples type type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other Boat Speed: (use GPS) 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other Swell:

02 - small wavelets 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps 05 - Many whitecaps

Initials

0 - no/weak swell 1 – intermediate swell 2 – strong swell

Effort type: CW - casual watch, DS - dedicated search, LT - line transect PI - photo identification

Appendix 2 Sightings Form

93

Appendix 3 Dolphin Survey Form

DOLPHIN SURVEY FORM

ENTERED ONTO COMPUTER

DATE

VESSEL

OBSERVER

RECORDER

SURVEY # DS

START TIME LOCATION

SOUTH 04°

EAST 039°

SPECIES TIDE
Ebb/flood/slack

DEPTH

WPT#

HABITAT NOTES

ASSOC SIGHT/ RESIGHT?

DOLPHIN INFO – FIRST GROUP ID NOTES

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

M/C PAIRS? WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS): ACTIVITY REST/MILLING TRAVELLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) SOCIALISING BOWRIDE FEEDING (FISH SEEN) SUBGROUPS:

UNKNOWN

DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE DOLPHIN INFO – SECOND GROUP (SPECIFY WHETHER THIS SECTION
IS INCLUDING 1
ST

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

GROUP OR ONLY SECOND GROUP)

ID NOTES

M/C PAIRS?

SUBGROUPS:

94

WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS):

ACTIVITY REST/MILLING TRAVELLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) SOCIALISING BOWRIDE FEEDING (FISH SEEN)

UNKNOWN

DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

JOINED AT TIME: END TIME:

LAT:

LONG:

REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE

LAT:

LONG:

TOTAL # ANIMALS: _____A _____YOY _____N TOTAL PHOTOGRAPHED: _____A _____YOY _____N

PHOTOGRAPHS ROLL NUMBER: SPACER SHOTS:

Appendix 4 Ethogram
Ethogram This ethogram is the copyright of the long-term dolphin research project at Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, Western Australia. The ethogram is reproduced here with permission and with some adaptations for the Shimoni project. I. GROUPING

95

Ten meter chain rule For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below), individuals in a ‘group’ must be linked by the ten meter chain rule. The rule states that in order for two individuals to be in the same ‘group’ they must be within 10m of each other or within 10m of another dolphin that is within 10m of one or both of them, and so on ad infinitum.

Definition of a group We restrict the term group to refer to assemblages of dolphins in which the following requirements are fulfilled: (a) the median inter-individual distance is <2m (i.e. a “tight” group); (b) the predominant group activity is Rest, Socialise, and or Travel (note: all assemblages of foraging and feeding are excluded); (c) all individuals are linked by the 10m chain rule); and (d) all, or nearly all, of the individuals in the group have been identified. Individuals in tight assemblages separated by >5m but in the same ‘group’ by the 10m chain rule are said to be in different subgroups of the same group. Individuals in tight groups that are not in the same assemblage according to the 10m chain rule are said to be in different groups. Note that this definition is designed for studies of dolphin social behaviour and is quite restrictive.

Group Spacing Very tight vti modal distance between group members is: Tight Moderate Spread Widespread Wide-disperse tig mod spr wsp wdi 0.3 - 2m 2 - 5m 5 - 10m 10 - 30m 30 - 100m less than 0.3m

Important Group Geometries Abreast abr Individuals are side-by-side abreast [staggered at less than ½ a body-length (BLD) between individuals], any distance Staggered Abreast sgg Individuals are abreast and staggered between ½ and 1 BLD, any distance

Formation

frm

The basic Formation is two individuals flanking another on either side and just behind. Variations between three or more individuals occur and should be described.

96

Group Movement Straight str Individuals in parallel orientation moving in one general direction (i.e. not varying more than 45 for a period of at least a minute or through at least two surfacing bouts. Meander

mnd

Individuals in parallel orientation repeatedly changing direction (varying more than 45 within every minute or in sequential surfacing bouts. Speed is typically slow to very slow. Single individuals engaging in this movement pattern are said to be milling.

Milling

mill

Individuals changing orientation with respect to each other on every or nearly every surfacing. Individuals in a milling assemblage are typically stationary over an area but assemblages may also progress at any speed.

Dive type Dive types are discussed in Section II (Feeding & Foraging).

Speed None Very slow Slow Cruise Moderate Fast Blast vsl slo cru mod fas bla 0 mph <1 mph 1-2 mph 2-3 mph 3-4 mph 4-6 mph >6 mph

II. FEEDING & FORAGING

97

We refer to foraging as those behaviours which indicate that dolphins are seeking prey. Feeding, on the other hand, refers to the active pursuit and processing of captured prey. Foraging is by definition a “continuous” behaviour (i.e. a behavioural state) for which we attempt to record a duration. Thus, we may use the term foraging bout to indicate a discrete period of time in which an individual dolphins engaged in the activity of foraging. We refer to discrete behaviours (e.g. a tail slap) as a behavioural event). This dichotomy is useful because typically we can use observations of behavioural events to diagnose the behavioural state (i.e. activity).

Feeding, however, may be continuous or instaneous (note that we still refer to feeding as a behavioural state even in situations where the duration of the activity is emphemeral). Which category a particular kind of feeding falls into is determined by two factors: (a) whether the prey are solitary or schooling and (b) whether the prey are large or small.

When feeding on small prey the cycle of puruit-catch-process is essentially instaneous, but some large prey items take considerable time to process and we can record a feeding duration for those items. Examples include bream, large squid or cuttlefish, snake eels, and rays. Note that dolphins cannot masticate (i.e. chew) and thus must “process” prey items that are too large to shallow (e.g. by rubbing on bottom or throwing on surface). Feeding is also considered continuous when dolphins are feeding on small schooling fish, as the cycle of pursuit-capture-process continues essentially uninterrupted. Examples include bouts of ‘leapand-porpoise’ feeding on concentrations of schooling fish such as anchovies or sardines. Thus: (1) if we can record a feeding duration for large and small schooling fish or a large solitary fish record the activity as Feed; (2) if we record only occasional instantaneous observations of feeding during a continuous foraging bout, record the activity state as Forage/Feed; and (3) if there are no indications of active feeding, but there are indications of foraging, simply record the activity as Forage.

As with anything to do dolphins, there are many shades of grey. The key is to develop a transparent diagnosis for what constitutes the activity state of Forage that is consistent across different observers abd over time. A. Foraging

Foraging Foraging is generally characterized by single dolphins or slightly spread-out assemblages of dolphins (i.e. >2m between dolphins). A general exception is when one or more dolphins

98

remain close to a foraging dolphin for social reasons (e.g. during herding, mother/calf pairs). Both the dive type and the inter-individual geometry are important in determining foraging independent of observations of feeding.

Dive type Tail out dive td Flukes are raised above the water surface as the dolphin descends at an angle for a deep dive. Peduncle dive

pd

The peduncle is humped up out of the water as the dolphin descends for a deep dive. Tail flukes are partially submerged.

Geometry Milling Changing directions with every or nearly every surfacing. In an assemblage of dolphins, individuals are changing directions with respect to each other. Dispersed Milling

An assemblage of dolphins milling in a large area; typically 10m or more between dolphins. There may be smaller, tighter ‘clusters’ of dolphins within the assemblage; often after a lp/pp bout.

Lateral Line

A frequently occurring type of spread (>5m) movement pattern in which dolphins are in rank formation (i.e. abreast – ‘on-line’).

Behaviours Weed prod A dolphin prods into a seagrass/seaweed mass at the surface with its rostrum. Maybe followed by a fish chase such as snacking. B Feeding

Pursuit: individual behaviours Rapid surface rs A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface. Porpoise

pp

A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal

99

horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface but in which the dolphin does completely clear the water surface. Leap

lp

A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin completely clears the water surface.

Humping surface

hs

A normal surface in which the dolphin ‘humps up’ its posterior half to break its forward motion as it descends. Often seen when dolphins are driving or pursuing a fish school in shallow water.

Fast swim

fsw

A dolphin rapidly accelerates and/or swims fast along or below the water surface.

Rooster tail

rs

A fast-swim along the surface in which a sheet of water trails off the dorsal fin.

Belly-up chase

bu

A fast-swim belly-up just under the water surface. The fish may often be seen skipping along the surface just in front of the dolphin.

Snacking

snk

A slow or moderate swim, belly-up, after a small fish (typically 2” or less—a ‘snack’).

Bottom-grub

bg

The dolphin is vertical in the water, prodding into seagrass patches with its rostrum.

Tail-whack

tw

A dolphin stops abruptly at or under the surface and wheels, swinging its flukes sharply. May be indicated by observing fish being knocked into the air.

Snap

snp

A sudden jerk of the head and snap of the jaws at or just below the surface or underwater. The fish is often seen.

Tail-slap

ts

A dolphin lifts its flukes and sometimes the posterior portion of its body out of the water and brings the flukes/body down vigorously against the water (sometimes creating a ‘kerplunk’

100

sound). Beach feeding Not likely to observed in Shimoni but a dolphin chases a fish out of the water onto the beach, momentarily “stranding” itself.

Pursuit—group behaviours Lp & pp feed An assemblage of spread out, milling dolphins in which the predominate surfacing type is leap or porpoise. The aggregation may progress rapidly in any direction. Bird feed A milling assemblage in actively feeding group of seabirds.

Cluster feed/mill

Feeding on a relatively stationary school of small fish (2-4”) in a milling group but with individuals surfacing side-by-side with one or two others. Record as cluster mill if fish not seen.

Snack party

A slightly spread to spread assemblage of dolphins snacking.

Fish catch & process: direct observations Fish catch With fish fc wf Dolphin observed to catch fish or another prey item. Dolphin observed with fish in its mouth.

Fish toss

ft

Dolphin observed to toss a fish.

Fish-busting

fb

Dolphin observed to rub fish against the bottome (=bg+wf over sand substrate).

Fish catch & process: indirect observations Note: The indirect observations are dependent on context as each may indicate a different behaviour in a non-foraging context. Chew

cw

Dolphin seen to make biting motion in a foraging context.

Fin jerk

fj

A sudden twitch of the fin (indicates sudden movement of the

101

head); again in a foraging context. On side osd A dolphin lies still on its side at the surface; again in a foraging context.

Foraging types Note: More than one type may apply—e.g. bird feed may occur with other foraging types. Foraging (nonspecific) Group Bird feed Dolphins are surfacing within or around actively-feeding seabirds.

Foraging that could not easily be classified as any other type.

Lp & pp feed

Dolphins are multi-directional (i.e. milling) and lp/pp continuously within an area. The area may be relatively small or dispersed over as much as a kilometer or more. The activity usually occurs in closely spaced bouts with abrupt starts, stops, and changes of direction. The assemblage as a whole may progress rapidly.

Foraging aggregation

An assemblage of foraging dolphins in which 10 or more dolphins are present.

Individual Bottom grub Dolphin sticks its beak to the se floor to ferret something out of the sea floor while in a vertical position. This can only be observed in shallow water. Td/pd

Foraging in which predominant dive type is td/pd. Breath intervals are irregular with no long intervals between dives. Dolphins typically stay submerged for more than a minute after a td or pd dive.

Mill

Dolphin forages and changes direction (orientation) with virtually every surface or breath. Often hovers over a particular location but maybe progress in any direction.

Rooster tail

The predominant dive type is during foraging is rt. Only occurs in shallow water.

Tail slap

Foraging in which dolphins frequently utilize tail slaps, often with

102

several tail slaps in succession followed by a fish chase. Snack party Belly-up chase and capture of fish trapped against the water surface. Boat-begging

Dolphin approaches to within 1-2m of stationary or slow-moving boats and exhibits solicitous behaviours such as opening jawing or orientating head-out.

III. MISCELLANEOUS Some behaviours do not fit obviously into either social or feeding/foraging categories. In some cases behaviours may occur in a wide variety of contexts including feeding, socializing, or resting (e.g. snagging) and in some cases they can be clearly excluded from either (e.g. stretching). Snagging

sng

A dolphin floating at the surface, still or slowly moving, is said to be snagging. When still the dolphin’s flukes will drop to the degree that only the anterior edge of the dorsal fin may show at the surface and the rostrum may be exposed to the top of the mandible. Snagging may last from a few seconds to several minutes. Occurs in a wide variety of contexts: (a) resting: when dolphins are in a tight group, moving slowly with regular, peduncle, or tail-out dives and with no evidence of foraging or socialisng (b) socialising: snagging may occur in several social contexts; dolphins may snag prior to joining other dolphins or while waiting for group members to “catch up” (e.g. when one member has strayed off to catch a fish)

103

Stretching

sth

Occurs frequently during snags. The dolphin flexes its body one or several times in succession. A typical sequence is to depress the neck region while flexing the head up, then to flex the neck region up while pointing the rostrum down. Stretching may include side-to-side flexing as well.

Weed rub

wrb

A dolphin approaches a patch of seaweed/seagrass and rubs it while rolling side or belly-up. The dolphin’s pectorals and flukes are often lifted out of the water, draped with weed. May be difficult to distinguish from weed-prodding.

Chuffing

chf

Dolphin emits a ‘coughing’ sound. May be voluntary or related to stress and increased respiration.

IV SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR

We consider five categories of social behaviours: 1) affiliative; 2) aggressive; 3) sexual and 4) non-contact dispays; and 5) miscellaneous for behaviours that do not fit easily into the first four categories. Bottlenose dolphins are remarkable for the variety of synchronous behaviours they perform. Each category includes a sub-section of synchronous behaviours. A. Affiliative Behaviours

Contact Behaviours (prb = Petting and/or Rubbing) Petting pet Gentle contact involving movement between the pectoral fin, dorsal fin, or flukes of one individual with any part of the body of another individual. Petting triplets, with two individuals petting with another positioned between them, are sometimes seen.

Observation quality: 1. Observation based on direct observation of pec-body contact:  stiff  Note part of body being contacted: (common parts include: Note whether pec is: 1) actively moving; 2) knee-jerking; or 3)

blowhole, dorsal surface between blowhole and dorsal fin dorsal ridge between dorsal fin and flukes; dorsal or ventral aspect of flukes; side below dorsal fin; side peduncle; eye region; “chin” chest (between pecs); genital area).

104

Note whether receiving pec contact is actively moving against

pec: 1) roll; 2) pitch; 3) yaw 2. Observation based on surface observation of underwater roll of one dolphin at distance 0 from another dolphin

Frequently observed sub-categories:  keel-rubbing (krb): One dolphin rubs ventral aspect of its flukes and/or

keel of peduncle against (typically) the leading edge of another dolphin’s pectoral fin. Female to male but may occur male-male (or female-female). The pec often knee-jerks. One individual may keel-rub to two others simultaneously who are side-by-side at distance 0.  mutual face-genital petting (mfg): simulataneous petting in which one

dolphin receives petting around the genital area while the other receives petting around the eye.  rub-pec (rp): One dolphin rubs along stiff pec of another, typically along

side from behind the eye to peduncle. Often seen in herding context (female to male), often in response to pops. Also between males in an alternating series. Rubbing rub Gentle to more vigorous body-to-body contact. Individuals are often seen rubbing against each other vigorously in play groups.

Frequently observed sub-categories:  chin-rub (chr): A dolphin approaches another and rubs, head first, under

the chin of the other dolphin. Often observed female to male. The rubbing dolphin may be right side up or belly up, but is more typically on its side. Bonding bnd One dolphin rest its pectoral fin against the flank of another dolphin, behind the other dolphin’s pectoral fin, and below or just posterior to the dorsal fin. The actor is positioned just above and alongside the other at distance about .3-.5m behind the tip of the other’s rostrum. Typically female to female, and often in cases of harassment by males. Infrequently male to male. Observation quality: Note whether the observation is based on: (a) surface position (sbs staggered by .3-.5m at distance 0) or (b) direct observation of the pec resting against the side of the other dolphin.

Synchronous Contact Behaviours Synch spt Two dolphins approach from either side and contact the central dolphin’s

105

petting

pectorals with the same body part and perform synchronous movements against the pec and/or are petted by both pectorals of the central dolphin synchronously. An example is two dolphins, on side, under the pectorals of the central dolphin, pitching toward and away from each other synchronously.

Non-Contact Behaviours Synch surfs ss Two or more dolphins surface synchronously—they both break the surface and dive in synchrony. If the dolphins are side-by-side but staggered note the relative location as ½ body-length difference (1/2 bld) or 1 bld. Note distance between dolphins as: 0 = <.3m; 1 = .3-2m; 2 = 25m; and 3 = 5-10m. Synch up

ss-up

Two or more dolphins break the surface synchronously but do not dive synchronously. A common example is when one dolphin remains snagging at the surface. Distance and location are as for SS.

Synch down

ss-dn

Two or more dolphins break the surface asynchronously but dive synchronously. Distance and location are as for SS.

Almost synch surfs Touring

ss-al

Two dolphins surface side-by-side but are not quite synchronous during any part of the surfacing cycle.

trg

When a dependent calf repeatedly approaches (to within 2m) and leaves from an adult or adolescent animal, or the baby remains remains at <2m from this animal while remaining >5m from the mother. The bay does not tour on its own (then it’s traveling). Touring is a state, and must occur for the majority of a surfacing bout (when surfacing bouts are discrete) to be called. If there are non-discrete surfacing bouts, then touring should be called if it occurs for the predominant interval you are using for measurement (i.e. 5-minute intervals).

B. Aggressive Behaviours

Individual-to-individual Head-tohead Tiff tf A head-to-head in which at least one individual is bobbing its head up hth One or more individuals line up with one or more individuals.

106

and down. Accompanied by Donald Duck vocalisations. Head jerk hj A sharp lateral or vertical jerk of the rostrum. Often accompanied by a sharp bang sound. Jaw clap

jc

An exaggerated opening and closing of the mouth.

Fin jerk Chase

fj chs

An indirect indicator of a HJ or JC in social groups. Two individuals fast swimming, one behind the other. The individual in the aft position is the chaser.

Circle chase Charge

cch

Two dolphins ‘chase each other’s tail’ in a tight circle.

chg

A dolphin rapidly accelerates and swims fast directly at another dolphin approaching to within two meters or less.

Tail hit

tht

A dolphin strikes another violently with its flukes/peduncle.

Fin hit

fht

A dolphin swims rapidly past another so that its fin hits the other dolphin.

Pec hit

pht

A dolphin ‘karate-chops’ another dolphin with its pectoral fin.

Rostrum hit

rht

A dolphin strikes another dolphin with a sharp lateral strike of its rostrum. Essentially a HJ with contact.

Bite

bte

A dolphin bites another with a rapid motion of the head and jaws.

Body slam

bsl

A charging dolphin slams into another with any part of its body other than its rostrum, peduncle and tail, fins and pectoral fins.

Ram Attack

rm atk

A dolphin charges into another dolphin with its rostrum. An intense aggressive interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive behaviours by one individual only (e.g. biting, hitting, etc.).

Fight

fgt

An intense interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive attacks by both participants.

107

Group-to-Individual Head-to-head: X on 1 hth-2, -3, etc. Two or more dolphins line up head-to-head against another dolphin, e.g. hth-4 indicates a four-on-one interaction. Group attack: X on 1

atk-2, -3, etc.

Two or more dolphins attack a single individual. The single dolphin may or mat not fight back.

Synchronous Behaviours Synch head jerk shj Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous head jerks.

Synch jaw clap

sjc

Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous jaw claps.

Synch charge

scg

Two dolphins, side-by-side, charge another synchronously. May veer off synchronously in opposite directions.

Synch chase

sch

Two dolphins, side-by-side, blast after another dolphin or group of dolphins. The pursuing dolphins porpoise or leap synchronously abreast.

C. Submissive Behaviours On-side

osd

In connection with being approached or (more clearly) receiving aggression from one or more dolphins, a dolphin lies on its side at the surface.

D. Sexually-Oriented Behaviours Sexual behaviours are given a separate category because some behaviours may be performed in both aggressive and affiliative contexts. As well as judging the intensity of the behaviour, the observer should look for other behaviours (e.g. biting, petting) which would indicate that the interaction is an affiliative or aggressive interaction.

108

Individual-to-individual Erection Mount erc mnt Obvious. One dolphin approaches another from the side and slides ventrum over the dorsum of the other animal at a 5-30 angle with respect to the anterior-posterior axis of the other dolphin. An erection may be seen if the mounting individual is male. Males have been observed to mount males as well as females and females have been observed to mount males and females. Two dolphins may mount another synchronously or iteratively from either side. Inverted mount

ivm

A common variation of mounting. The individual being approached rolls belly up at or below the surface, then the approaching dolphin rolls over and mounts ‘upside down.’ The penis is more readily visible in inverted mounts.

Side-press

sdp

A dolphin approaches another as though to mount but instead of angling up over the back of the other it presses against its side in parallel orientation. May be simply another variation of mounting. Often occurs with two dolphins ‘sandwiching’ a third between them.

Double roll-out

dbr

Two individuals approach another from either sides though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour.

Goose

goo

A dolphin moves its rostrum into the genital area of another dolphin. May be performed slowly and gently in affiliative interactions and violently in aggressive interactions. The goosed dolphin often avoids by rolling belly up and tail-slapping at the goosing dolphin. A tailslap, rub, or belly-present may also precede a goose in affiliative interactions.

Push-up

psh

One or more dolphins push up under another dolphin’s mid-section

109

forcing it out of the water. The dolphin being pushed is typically on its side or belly-up. Pec-mount pm One dolphin approaches another and inserts the other dolphin’s pec-fin intoits genital slit.

Group-to-individual Group-on-onesex Herding gps An encounter in which two or more dolphins perform multiple sexual acts on a single individual. hrd An aggressively-maintaind association. Two or more dolphins use vocal (pops, screams) and physical (head jerks, charges) threats to force another dolphin to accompany them. Herding dolphins engage in normal daily activities such as foraging while herding another dolphin as well as in social and sexual behaviours directed at the herded dolphin. Typically seen as an aggressively-maintained consortship between coalitions of males and a female. Synchronous Behaviours Synch mount smt Two dolphins approach another from either side and synchronously mount it. Synch goose

sgs

Two dolphins approach another side-by-side from either side or from behind and synchronously goose it.

Synch sidepress

ssp

Two dolphins approach another from behind, swim up on either side, and synchronously perform side press or ‘sandwich’ the dolphin in the centre.

Double roll-out

dbr

Two dolphins approach another from either side as though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour.

110

E. Displays Dolphins, particularly males, perform a wide variety of displays. Many displays by males are often performed in synchrony with another male or males and these can be quite spectacular. Displays are divided into two categories, those that can only be observed as synchronous displays (by definition) and those which can be performed by a single individual.

Individual or Synchronous Tail-slap ts A dolphin raises its tail flukes out of the water and slaps them against the water surface. Chin-slap

cns

A dolphin raises its head out of the water and slaps its rostrum against the water surface. Maybe light or hard.

Belly-slap

bls

A dolphin raises itself out of the water to at least its dorsal fin and then slaps its belly on the water surface. Maybe light or hard.

Belly-breach

blb

A dolphin leap clear of the water and lands on its belly.

Leap

lp

A dolphin leaps clear of the water, remains orientated normally in the air and re-enters head first. Note: this class is the most common form of leap and occurs in many non-social contexts such as very fast Travel (i.e. blasting) and leap feeding.

Chin-slaptail-slap

cst s

A commonly occurring sequence in which a chin-slap is immediately followed by a tail-slap.

Face-slap

fcs

A dolphin, on its side, raises its head out of the water and slaps the side of its head on the water surface. May be light or hard.

Side-slap

sds

A dolphin, on its side, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its side on the water surface. May be light or hard.

Side-breach

sdb

A dolphin leaps clear of the water and lands on its side.

Side-leap

sdl

A dolphin leaps clear of the water side-up, or turns on its side in the air, and re-enters the water head-first.

111

Head-slap

hds

A dolphin, belly-up, raises its head out of the water and slaps it on the water surface. May be light or hard.

Back-slap

bks

A dolphin, belly-up, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its back against the water surface. May be light or hard.

Back-breach

bkb

A dolphins leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and lands on its back.

Back-leap

bkl

A dolphin leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and re-enters the water headfirst.

Vertical rise

vtr

A dolphin rises partially up out of the water while in the vertical position. Dolphins have been observed rising out past the pectoral fins or son only the rostrum breaks the surface.

Tail-walk

tlw

A vtr in which the dolphin rises up to at least halfway down its peduncle and holds the position with vigorous fluke-thrusting.

Bellypresent

be p

A dolphin rolls on its side belly toward another dolphin at distance 0-1 as it swims past in front of or alongside the other dolphin.

Tilt-belly-in

tlb

A dolphin tilts its belly toward another dolphin while positioned beside and just behind the other dolphin. Often performed by two dolphins in formation behind another.

Tilt-head-in

tlh

A dolphin, from tilt-in position, angles its head into the vicinity of the other dolphin’s genital slit.

Head-circle

hcl

In horizontal position, a dolphin rotates its head in circles (only seen once as a synchronous display by two dolphins).

Roosterstrut

rst

A dolphin pushes its chest down and arches its head up and out of the water, then moves forward, often with a slight bobbing motion of its head. The bobbing motion is typically not as pronounced as in a rst. May be accompanied by tail slaps.

Side-sway display

ssd

Like the rooster strut except that the dolphin sways its head from side to side instead of up and down.

112

Tail-flailing

tfl

Very rapid, short strokes of the flukes in any orientation. Often used in intense, singleton displays.

Arching display

acd

The most intense single display. Often growing out of the rooster strut, the dolphin arches its head up higher and higher, often until it is arching out to the dorsal fin, while whirling around, often rolling over on its side or back; often with an open mouth. Often accompanied by tail-flailing and sometimes tail-slaps.

113

Appendix 5 Photo-ID Form

Date (Year-Month-Day) Initials (RC/KG) Roll # :

Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number: Start time: Photographer: Camera: End time: Scribe:

Frame #

Notes

114

Appendix 6 Mega Fauna Survey Form
Megafauna Survey Form (1/06) GENERAL INFORMATION Vessel: Entered Computer: MFS#

115

Date

South 04

East 039

Wpt #

General Location

Closest

Habitat Notes

Observer

Recorder

Time

Depth

Species

Temp

Tide: Ebb

Number Present

Bft NOTES

Flood Slack

Roll 1 (date/ID):

Frames:

Spacers(s):

Roll 2: (date/ID): Frames: Photo Notes:

Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (1/06) GENERAL INFORMATION Date South 04 East 039 Wpt # General Location

Entered Computer: Closest

MFS#

Habitat Notes

Observer

Recorder

Time

Depth

Species

Temp

Tide: Ebb

Number Present

Bft

Floo d Slac k

116

NOTES

Roll 1 (date/ID):

Frames:

Spacers(s) :

Roll 2 (date/ID):

Frames:

Spacers(s) :

Photo Notes:

117

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.