c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
u B
z
u
r
u
r
r
u
v
z
P
r
u
v
z
u
u
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
p
o
p
(2)
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c

















2
2
2 2
2
1 1
z
v
r
v
r
v
r
r
v
v
r
P
z
v
u
r
v
v
p
(3)
It is convenient to write these equations in dimensionless form by means of the following transformation variables,
0 0
2
0
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
, , , , , , , ,
u
u
u
p
        
= = = = = = = = =
U
U
U
U
P
P
U
v
v
U
u
u
R
t U
t
R
R
R
R
z
z
R
r
r
where p , ,
0

P U are the average velocity in the unobstructed tube, pressure and density of blood respectively.
Then
z
u
R
U
R
z
u
U
R z
z
U u
z
z
z
z
u
z
u
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c




0
0
0
0
0
0
. .
. .
r
v
R
U
R
r
v
U
R r
r
U v
r
r
r
r
v
r
v
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c




0
0
0
0
0
0
. .
. .
Using the above transformations, (1)(3) become,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= +
c
c
+
c
c
R
U
r
v
r
v
R
U
z
u
R
U
0 = +
c
c
+
c
c
r
v
r
v
z
u
(4)
















c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
u B
z
u
r
u
r
r
u
z
p
r
u
v
z
u
u
2
0
2
2
2
2
1 1
p
o
v
p
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
2
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
uU B
z
u
R
U
r
u
R
U
rR
r
u
R
U
z
p
R
U
r
u
R
U
v U
z
u
R
U
u U
p
o
v
p
p
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
2
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
uU B
z
u
R
U
r
u
rR
U
r
u
R
U
z
p
R
U
r
u
R
U
vU
z
u
R
U
uU
p
o
v
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
0
0
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
0 0
1
U
R
uU B
z
u
r
u
r
r
u
U R z
p
r
u
v
z
u
u
p
o v
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 3, November2012 Page: 7888
Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 81
0
0
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
1 2
U
R
uU B
z
u
r
u
r r
u
R z
p
r
u
v
z
u
u
e
p
o
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
u M
R z
u
r
u
r r
u
R z
p
r
u
v
z
u
u
e e
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 2
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
(5)
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c

















2
2
2 2
2
1 1
z
v
r
v
r
v
r
r
v
v
r
P
z
v
u
r
v
v
p
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
2
2
2
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
z
v
R
U
R
U
r
v
r
v
R
U
rR
r
v
R
U
v
r
P
R
U
z
v
R
U
uU
r
v
R
U
vU
p
p
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
0
0
2
0
0
2 2
0
0
2
2
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
z
v
R
U
R
U
r
v
r
v
rR
U
r
v
R
U
v
r
P
R
U
z
v
R
U
u
r
v
R
U
v
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2 2
2
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
1
z
v
r
v
r
v
r r
v
R
U
v
r
P
R
U
z
v
R
U
u
r
v
R
U
v
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2 2
2
0 0
1
z
v
r
v
r
v
r r
v
R U
v
r
P
z
v
u
r
v
v
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2 2
2
1 2
z
v
r
v
r
v
r r
v
R r
P
z
v
u
r
v
v
e
(6)
Where
0
BR M
pv
o
= = Hartmann number
v
0 0
2
Re
U R
= =
u
p
0 0
2 U R
=Reynolds number
u is the fluid viscosity.
In order to proceed, three simplifying assumptions are made.
(i) The terms due to the viscous component of the normal stress in the axial direction
c
c
2
2
z
u
are negligible which has been
extensively used in the analysis of nonuniform flow.
(ii) The axial velocity is expressible as a suitable polynomial.
(iii) The pressure gradient term can be eliminated since,
c
c
=
c
c
R R
dr
z
P
ru R dr
z
P
r
0
2
0
Boundary conditions are
(i)
s
u u = at r = R(z)
(ii) 0 , 0 ), (
3
3
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
r
u
r
u
z U u at r = 0
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
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Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 82
(iii)
2
1
) (
0
=
R
dr ru
(iv) u = U and 0 =
c
c
r
u
at =
R
r
Multiplying (5) by r, rearranging and integrating over the cross section of the tube, we get the integral momentum equation.
In the same manner, an integral energy equation is obtained by multiplying equation (5) by r and integrating over the cross
section. Using the above assumptions and combining the integral momentum and integral energy equations we get,

.

\

c
c
+ 
.

\

c
c
=
c
c
c
c
R
s
R R
r
u
u R R dr
r
u
r R dr ru
z
dr ru
z
R ) 1 (
Re
2
2
1
2
2
2
0
2
0
3 2
R R
urdr dr ur R
M
0 0
2 2
2
Re
2
(7)
The dimensionless polynomial velocity profile can be expressed as
4 3 2
) / ( ) / ( ) / ( ) / ( R r E R r D R r C R r B A
U
u
+ + + + = (8)
On using the boundary conditions (i) to (iii) we get
 
4 2 2
) / )( 2 ( 3 ) / )( 2 3 ( 2 R r G F R r G F F R u + =
(9)
Where F=R
2
U, G=R
2
u
s
, u
s
is slip velocity, when F=2 and u
s
=0 in (9) parabolic profile is obtained. The blunted profile can be
expressed as
s < + +
s s
=
1 / , ) / ( ) / (
/ 0
4 2
R r R r C R r b a
R r U
u
(10)
Using the boundary condition (iv), equation (1) reduces to
 
s < +
+
s s
=
1 / 0 , ) / ( ) / ( 2 2 1
) 1 (
/ 0
4 2 2 2
2 2
R r R r R r
u U
u
R r U
u s
s
(11)
Where
) (
) 2 3 (
G F
G F
=
When 2F + G = 3, 0 = and with this restriction the blunted velocity profile equation (10) reduces to a polynomial profile.
When 2F +G<3, is positive and real. When 2F+G>3, is imaginary. So, the blunted velocity profile, equation (3.2.10)
will be valid for 2F+G<3 and for the case 2F+G>3, the polynomial velocity profile equation (9) will be used to approximate
the flow. The profile equations (3.2.9) and (3.2.11) are substituted into (3.2.7). Then it becomes
+ + + + + '
< +
+ + + +
> +
= I
3 2 }
3
) 1 (
2
9
) 1 (
3
) 1 (
2
9 2 ) 54 96 10 12
2 2
43 (
2
) (
{
) 1 ( 3
) (
3 2 2
G F
F
G F F FG G G F G F
F
F G
G F G F
and
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
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Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 83
< + +
+
> + +
= I
3 2 ) 5 . 1 8 . 4 ( ) 166 . 0 742 . 0 ( ) 333 . 1 058 . 4 ( {
) 1 ( 9
) (
) 5 . 0 333 . 0 (
3 2 ] 5 . 0 } 737 . 0 ) 028 . 0 ( ) 072 . 0 ( { 3 [
3 3 3
2
2
3 1
G F R R G R F
F
G F
R G
G F G F R
The primed quantities represent derivatives in the axial direction. The intial condition for solving (12) comes from the
assumption of poiseuille flow in far upstream of the Stenosis, i.e., 2 , 1 , = = = U R z o . (13)
The wall shear stress component at any distant r from the tube axis is given by
] 1 [ ) (
4
1
2
R
r
u
T
R w
' +
c
c
=
On using the velocity profiles in (9) and (11) in the above expression the wall shear stress becomes
< + ' +
> + ' +
=
3 2 ], 1 [
1
) (
3 2 ], ) ( 1 )[ 2 3 (
2
2
1
2 3
G F R
R u U
G F R G F R
s
(14)
In separated region continuity requires
=
s
r
rudr
0
2 / 1 (15)
Where r
s
is the radial coordinate of the separated stream line. From (9) and (15) we get,
2 2
2 4
} ) / ( 1 { 2 ) / (
} ) / )( 2 ( ) 3 {( ) / ( 1
R r R r
R r G G R r
F
s s
s s
= (16)
The particular stenosis geometry used was selected after Young [200] and is described by the expressions
>
s +
=
0
0
0
, 1
, ) cos 1 (
2
1
) (
Z z
Z z
Z
z
z R
t o
where o =(Stenosis height)/ R
0
and Z
0
=(Stenosis length)/2R
0
. Three model stenosis with geometries defined in the above,
but with different values of o and Z
0
were constructed for the experimental testes (Table 1).
Table 1: Geometric parameters of the model Stenosis
Model Numbers R
0
o
Z
0
Percent Stenosis
M1 0.372 1/3 4 56
M2 0.372 2/3 4 89
M3 0.372 2/3 2 89
For classification purposes the severity of a stenosis is often defined by the maximum reduction in lumen area expressed as a
percentage (percent stenosis). Model M1 represents a relatively mild stenosis with a 56 percent severity of constriction and
a total length of 8R
0
. Model M2 has the same length but is more severe with 89 percent constriction. To evaluate the effect
of stenosis length, model M3 was designed to have the same severity as M2 but only half of its length.
4. Result and discussion
The problem under investigation is solved numerically using Shooting Method. Numerical calculations have been done for
various combinations of parameters i.e., the Hartmann number M and Reynolds number Re with slip and no slip. The Young
model is used in computing the centerline velocity U. After obtaining the centerline velocity U from (12), the axial velocity
profiles (u) are computed directly by substituting U into (9) or (11). Then the value of u substituting in equation (13) the
velocity profile v are computed. The wall shear stress T
w
has been computed from the relation (14) for both slip and no slip
case.
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
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Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 84
Numerical results are shown graphically. It has been observed that the effect of the Hartmann number M and Reynolds
number Re on the velocity field as well as on the wall shear stress is very prominent.
It is observed that the centerline velocity U decreases with increasing Reynolds number at M=1.5 (Fig. 4). The nature of U is
also same with no slip (Fig. 5). The centerline velocity U increases when the Hartmann number increases with slip at Re=50
(Fig. 2). The nature of U is same in no slip case also (Fig. 3). It is seen that when Hartmann number increases the axial
velocity (v) decreases with slip (Fig. 6). A similar case occurs in no slip also (Fig. 7). The axial velocity increases when
Reynolds number increases with slip (Fig. 8). A similar case occurs in no slip also (Fig. 9).
The present problem reduces to the problem discussed by Chaturani [14] when M=0. It is observed that when the Hartmann
number increases the fluid velocity and the wall shear stress is greatly affected. Numerical results agree well with their
solution in nonmagnetic case. The mathematical expressions may help medical practitioners to control the blood flow of a
patient whose blood pressure is very high, by applying certain magnetic field.
REFERENCES
[1] Ahmed, S. and Sut, D. K., Effect of Applied Magnetic Field on Pulsatile Flow of Blood in a Porous Channel, Int. J.
Comp. Tech. Appl., Vol. 2 (6), pp. 17791785, NovDec 2011
[2] Caro, C.G., Arterial Fluid Mechanics and Atherogenesis : Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, ed. Niimi, H.,
vol. II (Supplement), Suita, Osaka, Japan, pp. 711 (1981)
[3] Caro, C.G., Transport of Material Between Blood and Wall in Arteries, In Atherogenesis: Initiating Factors, Ciba
Foundation Symposium, Vol. 12, pp. 127164 (New Series), Elsevier, Excerpta Medica, North Holland, Amsterdam (1973).
[4] Chaturani, P and Biswas, D., Effects of Slip in Flow Through Stenosed Tube, Physiological Fluid Dynamics I: Proc. Of
1
st
International Conf. on Physiological Fluid Dynamics, September 57, pp. 7580, IITMadras (1983)
[5] Chaturani, P and Biswas, D., Resistance to Blood Flow Through a Steosed Tube with Axial Velocity Slip at Wall, Proc.
12
th
NCFMFP, NFM10, pp. 400405, IITDelhi (1983)
[6] Lee, J.S. and Fung, Y.C. Flow in Locally Constricted Tube at Low Reynolds Number, J. Appl. Mech., 37916 (1970)
[7] May, A.G., Deweese, J.A. and Rob, C.G., Hamodynamics effect of arterial stenosis, Surgery, Vol. 53, pp. 513524
[8] Rathod, V.P., Gayatri, Applied Science Periodical, Vol. 2 (1), pp. 5258 (2000)
[9] Rathod, V.P., Gayatri, Bull. Of Pure and Appl. Sc. Vol. 19E(1), pp. 113 (2000)
[10] Texon, M., Arch. Int. Med., Vol. 99, pp. 418 (1957)
[11] Texon, M., Atherosclerosis and its origin, Sandler, M. and Bourne, G.H., eds. Newyork, Academic Press (1963).
[12] Womersley, S.R., An elastic tube theory for pulse transmission and oscillatory flow in mammalian arteries, Wright Air
Dev. Ctr, Tech. Rep. WADCTR, pp. 56614 (1957)
[13] Womersley, S.R., K. Physics, vol. 127, pp. 553563 (1955)
[14] Sarma, Mitali and Sut, Dusmanta Kumar, Analysis of Pulsatile Flow of Blood in a Porous Channel under Effect of
Magnetic Field, Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl., Vol. 2 (6), pp. 20012014, NovDec 2011
[15] Shukla, J.B., Parihar, R.S. and Gupta, S.P., Effects of Peripheral Layer Viscosity on Blood Flow Through an Artery
with Mild Stenosis, Bull. Math. Biol., 42, pp. 797805 (1980).
[16] Shukla, J.B., Parihar, R.S. and Rao, B.R.P., Bull. Math. Biol., Vol. 42, pp. 283294 (1980).
[17] Sud, V.K. and Sekhon, G.S., Physiological Fluid Dynamics. III, Swamy, N.V.C. and Singh, M. Eds. pp. 286186,
(1978)
[18] Sut, Dusmanta Kumar and Hazarika, G. C., Effect of Magnetic Field on Pulsatile Flow of Blood in a Porous Channel,
International Journal of Mathematical Archive2(11), pp. 22512257, Nov. 2011
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 3, November2012 Page: 7888
Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 85
[19] Sut, Dusmanta Kumar, Study of Blood Flow with Effects of Slip in Arterial Stenosis Due to Presence of Transverse of
Magnetic Field, International Journal of Mathematical Archive3(3), pp. 983993, Mar. 2012
Fig. 2. Variation of Center line Velocity for different Hartmann number at Re=50
Fig. 3. Variation of Center line velocity for different Hartmann number at Re=60 with no slip
3.753.5 3.25
3
2.752.52.25
2
1.751.51.25
1
0.750.50.25
0
0.25 0.50.75
1
1.25 1.51.75
2
2.25 2.52.75
3
3.25 3.53.75
4
r/R >
v >
M=1
M=2
M=3
M=4
3.753.53.25
3
2.752.52.25
2
1.751.51.25
1
0.750.5 0.25
0
0.25 0.50.75
1
1.25 1.51.75
2
2.25 2.52.75
3
3.25 3.53.75
4
M=1
M=2
M=3
M=4
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
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Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 86
Fig. 4. Variation of center line velocity for different Reynolds numbers at M=1.5 with slip
Fig. 5. Variation of center line velocity for different Reynolds numbers at M=1.5 with no slip
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
3.83.53.33 2.82.52.32 1.8 1.51.31
0.80.50.30
0.25 0.50.75 1
1.25 1.51.75 2 2.25 2.52.75 3
3.25 3.53.75 4
z >
U >
Re=100
Re=110
Re=120
Re=130
Re=140
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
3.8 3.53.33 2.82.52.32 1.81.51.31
0.80.50.30 0.250.50.751 1.251.51.7
5
2
2.252.52.753
3.253.53.754
z >
U >
Re=45
Re=50
Re=55
Re=60
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 3, November2012 Page: 7888
Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 87
Fig. 6. Variation of Velocity profile for different Hartmann numbers at Re=50 with slip
Fig. 7. Variation of Velocity profile for different Hartmann number at Re=50 with no slip
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
r/R >
v >
M=4
M=3
M=2
M=1
20 18 16 14 12 10 8
6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
10 12 14 16 18 20
r/R >
v >
M=4
M=3
M=2
M=1
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 23192968
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Mitali Sarma, Analysis of blood flow through stenosed vessel under effect of magnetic field 88
Fig. 8. Variation of Velocity profile for different Reynolds number at M=0.50 with slip
Fig. 9. Variation of Velocity profile for different Reynolds number at M=0.50 with no slip
20 18 16 14 12 10
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
r/R >
v >
Re=30
Re=40
Re=50
Re=60
Re=70
Re=80
20 18 16 14 12 10
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
r/R >
v >
Re=20
Re=30
Re=40
Re=50
Re=60