B.E. , P.G.D.M, LL.B .

T/FAX 0141-2705901, PHONE: 09829059018

INTRODUCTION Sect ion 2 of The Disaster Management Act, 2005 defines ‘Disaster’ as a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from either natural or man made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering, or damage to and destruction of property or damage to or degradation of environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.


disruption occurr ing on a scale

• •

A disaster is an overwhelming ecological

suff i c i ent to require outside assistance; A disaste r is an event located in of t ime and space which produces structure and process of socia l

condi t i ons

whereby the cont inu i t y

uni ts becomes problemati c ;



an event or ser i es

of events which ser i ous l y

dis rupts


act i v i t i e s ; Calamitous, distressing, or ruinous effects of a disastrous event (such as drought, flood, fire, hurricane,

war) of such scale that they disrupt (or threaten to disrupt) critical functions of an organization, society

or system, for a period long enough to significantly harm it or cause its failure. It is the consequences of a disastrous event and the inability of its victims to cope with them that constitute a disaster, not the event itself. Although there is no universally accepted definition of a disaster, the following observation by the US disaster relief specialist Frederick C. Cuny (1944-1995) comes close, "A situation resulting from an environmental phenomenon or armed conflict that produced stress, personal injury, physical damage, and economic disruption of great magnitude." The definition adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) terms a disaster as "The result of a vast ecological breakdown in the relations between man and his environment, a serious and sudden (or slow, as in drought) disruption on such a scale that the stricken community needs extraordinary efforts to cope with it, often with outside help or international aid." The US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) describes it as "An occurrence of a natural catastrophe, technological accident, or human caused event that has resulted in severe property damage, deaths, and/or multiple injuries." Dr. Kathleen J. Tierney (Director, Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware) puts the matter in a different perspective: "Many people trying to do quickly what they do not ordinarily do, in an environment with which they are not familiar."


RELEASE OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS EXPLOSIONS CIVIL DISTURBANCES WATER CONTAMINATION FOOD SHORTAGES TORNADOES/HURRICANES/FLOODS/SEA SURGES/TSUNAMIS SNOW STORMS/LANDSLIDES ) • • • • • • • • EFFECTS OF MAJOR DISASTERS DISASTERS throughout history have had significant impact on the numbers. requi r i ng extens ive treatments Increased r i sk of communicable diseases Damage to the heal th fac i l i t i e s Damage to the water systems. many public health practitioners would characterize a disaster as a "sudden. health status and life style of populations. heal th" DISASTERS INCLUDE • • • • • • FIRES EARTHQUAKES SEVERE AIR POLLUTION (SMOG) HEAT WAVES EPIDEMICS BUILDING COLLAPSE TOXICOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS. RELATED TO MAN MAY EXACERBATE NATURAL DISASTERS DISASTER MEANS SUDDEN OR GREAT MISFORTUNE Although experts may differ in their definitions of disaster. Food shortage Populat i on disp lacements • • 2 . DISASTERS ARE CLASSIFIED IN VARIOUS WAYS • • Natural disaste r s and Man made disas ters Sudden disas ter s and Slow onset disaste rs The div id ing l i ne between these types of disasters is ACTIVITIES imprecise . • • • • Deaths Severe in j u r i e s .The magnitude of the effects of the event will be viewed differently. which affects or threatens.G. extraord inary calamity or catast rophe. (E.

Eliminate morbidity. prevent i on should be di rected towards reducing 1) 2) THEREFORE. and economic loss resulting directly from the disaster. Increase in indigenous diseases. which result from a disaster situation. Emotional stress. and economic dis rupt i on resul t i ng f rom disas ters • Morbid i t y and mortal i t y resul t i ng f rom disaste rs di f f e r according to the type and locat i on of the event requi res specia l i z ed response. 3. mortality. 2. and economic loss directly attributable to Mismanagement of disaster relief efforts. can be classified into four types: 1. • In any disas ter . 2. Losses due to the disaste r event i t se l f Losses resul t i ng f rom Mismanagement of disaster rel ief . Injuries. the THE PUBLIC HEALTH OBJECTIVES : OF DISASTER MANAGE NT CAN BE STATED AS FOLLO S ME W 1. in j ury . NATURE AND EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM Morbidity and mortality. mortality. Prevent unnecessary morbidity.HEALTH PROBLEMS COMMON TO ALL DISASTERS • • • • • Socia l react i ons Communicable diseases Cl imat i c exposure Mental heal th Damage to heal th in f ras t r uc ture DISASTER RESPONSE OBJECTIVES • Appropr i a te use of technology to prevent much of death. THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF DEATHS AND INJURIES DIFFER ON THE TYPE OF DISASTER : - 3 . 4. Epidemics of diseases.

. • Immunization programs are rarely indicated as a specific post disaster measure. tornadoes.INJURIES usual l y exceed deaths in explos ions .g . disease surveillance. they can also be the result of other disaster situations. EPIDEMICS are included in the definition of disaster. and preventive medicine can lead to a significant reduction in the threat of epidemics following disaster. and epidemics. fi re famines. f l oods . shigellosis) Diseases spread by the respiratory route (e.g. gastroenteritis typhoid. DISASTER VICTIMS often exhib i t SYNDROME. and cholera). diseases spread by person-to-person contact (e. plague and malaria). DISEASES. measles & influenza.g. consists suggestibility.. The syndrome emotional stress or the " DISASTER SHOCK" of successive stages of shock. which may be associated with disasters. Each of these stages may vary in extent and duration depending on other factors. hurr i canes. speci f i c food and/or water borne i l l nesses (e . volca erupt ions . DEATHS f requent ly exceed in ju r i e s in lands l i des . vector borne illnesses (e. euphoria and frustration. . avalanches. however. include • • • • flu H1N1).g. Swine • The environmental sanitation. hepatitis A. and earthquakes. • A disaster is often followed by an increase in the prevalence of diseases indigenous to the area if there is disruption of medical and other health facilities and programs. Morbidity and Mortality from Mismanagement of Relief 4 . t ida l waves. typhoons.

 Indian Oil Corporation Limited failed to use the fire fighting resources. management actions taken after a disaster contr ibuted to unnecessary morbidit Many of the Causalities and much more of the Destruction occurring to natural disaster are due to ignorance and neglect the part of the individuals and on public authorities. they have contributed over Rs. Nagar Nigam and JDA were noticeable. 3. these problems were categorized as follows: 1. DISASTER RELIEF  The Petroleum Depot Fire has not been identified by any of the Districts in Rajasthan in their Disaster Management Plan. Gopal Prasad Gupta. areas in numbers far in excess of actual need. attempts to mitigate the results of a disaster would not add to the negative consequences. however. However.Ideally. Inadequate apprai sa l of damages 2 2.  The lack of Fire Fighting Resources with Indian Oil. President. suppl i es they need to apply thei r ski l l s avai l ab l e in suppl i es In some disaste rs . and a waste of resources . • Medical and paramedical personnel have often been hampered by the to the disaste r si tuat i on lack of the speci f i c • wel l after needed. Inadequate problem ranking Inadequate identification of resources Inadequate locat i on of resources 3 Inadequate transpor ta t i on of resources Inadequate utilization of resources 4 6. there have been many instances in which inappropriate and/or incomplete mortal i ty . the funds are misappropriated towards salary and allowances of the staffs. 5 . Airport Authority. 15 Crore to the kitty of Nagar Nigam towards fire safety of Multi Storied Buildings. MANY OF THE MISMANAGE NT PROBLEMS TEND TO RECUR ME • Physi c i ans and nurses have been sent into disas ter . Hindustan Petroleum. Bharat Petroleum. have not been inventor i ed unt i l of mater ia l which i s used or resul t i ng the importat i on In a study of past disaster mismanagement problems and their causes. As per Mr. 5. Rajasthan Builders & Promoters Association. the disaste r . 4.

 As all kinds of disasters require immediate rescue and Medical Relief. The object i ve of Survei l l ance in a disaster is to obtain information si tuat i on 7 6 5 required for making relief decisions. three -step processes includes: 1) 2) 3) Collect data. evaluate results. provide relief services. relief resources available and relief activities already in progress. thus Vice-Chancellor Rajasthan University of Health Sciences. and provide information to the public . Although many relief workers may be needed to obtain surveillance information. Reliable information must be obtained on problems occurring in the disaster stricken area. if required. 6 . it is essential that a single person with managerial experience be placed in absolute charge of the entire disaster relief operation. analyze the data. Respond to data. ASK FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:• •  What problems are occurr i ng? Why are they occurr i ng? There was no regular bulletin disseminating information on disaster on any of the local TV channels. All major Hospitals should be nodal centre for Disaster Relief Management. Jaipur should be in-charge of Disaster Relief Management. Analyze data. a surveillance system must be set up immediately . Following a disaster.An effective plan for public health and other personnel during a disaster would outline activities designed to minimize the effects of the catastrophe. the desire to provide immediate relief may lead to hasty decisions which are not based on the actual needs of the affected population. These efforts can be summarized as closely situation analysis and response. The specific information required would vary from disaster to disaster. For this. The disaster relief managers can determine the actual needs of the population and make responsible relief decisions. but a basic. the two types of activities are interrelated.  The CGM BSNL and MOBILE SERVICE PROVIDERS must be part of Disaster Relief Management team to establish communication facilities or help lines.

. In developing this plan one will decide what types of relief responses are appropriate and what the relative priorities are among the relief activities.e.• • • and mortal i t y ? • • • • • • • • • making? Where are problems occurr i ng? Who i s af fec ted? What problems are causing the greates t morbidi ty What problems are increas ing or decreas ing? What problems wi l l What problems wi l l What re l i e f subs ide on thei r own? increase i f unattended? resources are avai l ab l e? resources avai l ab l e? Where are re l i e f How can re l i e f What re l i e f Are re l i e f resources be used most ef f i c i en t l y ? are in progress? meeting re l i e f is needs? decis i on act i v i t i e s act i v i t i e s What addi t i ona l in fo rmat ion needed for After answering such questions one can carry out the third part. IMMEDIATE ASSESSMENT The object of this phase of surveillance is to obtain as much general information as possible and as quickly as possible. THE MOST BASIC FOLLO WING : INFORMATION NEEDED AT THIS POINT IS THE Immediate Assessment Short term assessment Ongoing Surveillance Analysis and Response can be described as a closed feedback system involving re-evaluation of relief needs 7 . 3. planning an appropriate Response to the situation described in the surveil lance data. SURVEILLANCE FOLLOWING A DISASTER EVOLVES IN PHASES: 1. This 3-step process of Data Collect ion. 2. i. and their effects.

AND MORGUES. An Arial survey may be useful in defining the geographical extent of the disasterstricken area and in observing major damage and destruction. One of the actions could be to have under ground/above ground storage tanks in addition to overhead tanks. 8 . The number of people effected. One way to organize data collection during this phase of assessment is to divide the disaster-stricken area into smaller areas or "blocks" to be surveyed simultaneously by different workers or teams of workers. Listening carefully and asking questions is the best way to begin. This information can be obtained by whatever means seems most efficient. New types of disasters. Some problems likely to occur after a disaster can be predicted according to past experience with that particular type of disaster. HOSPITALS .  The Public Health Engineering Department must have a ‘Disaster Management Plan’. may be able to obtain numbers of known deaths and injuries. There must be parallel arrangement for supplying water directly from tube well into the domestic water supply line. For example. experience has shown that disruption of water supplies 9 8 has often been a problem following earthquakes. RAWAT BHATA must have disaster management plan to deal with such situations. which were in operation.1) 2) 3) The geographical extent of the disaster-stricken area. still present many unknown problems. SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT The short-term assessment involves more systematic methods of collecting data and is likely to result in more detailed reliable information on problems. The major problems occurring in the area. and relief information on problems. Census data can be examined to determine how many people previously lived in the disaster-stricken area and thus were at risk. Simple reporting  One of the most atrocious ‘Disaster Management Decision’ taken by the district administration was to close down all Petrol Pumps in five kilometer area without making alternative arrangement for supply of Diesel to the Hospitals which were running on DG sets in the absence of electricity supply. It is useful to determine the most frequent causes of deaths and types of injuries in order to predict whether demands for medical care will be increasing or decreasing. CLINICS. relief resources and relief activities in progress. 10 KOTA. relief resources. such as chemical emergencies and nuclear accidents10.

g. Description of relief activities already in progress (E. Location and condition of health facilities. Short-Term Assessment12 may take 5-6 hours or up to 2-3 days. ASAP relief priorities should be determined. food rel ief . A rel ief plan developed during any of the surveil lance cycle may include some or all of the fol lowing activit ies : • Rescue of victims Disposal of human bodies. communication facilities and public utilities. estimates of medical personnel. which are still habitable. and solid waste Provision of on-site emergency medical care • • 11 Either we should do away with naming the streets with names of persons living or dead. The estimated number of persons severely injured requiring medical care. temples and other public buildings etc. and also condition of roads. When ongoing surveillance information is analyzed new problems may require attention. churches. Condition and extent of water and food supply. Once appropriate relief is in progress. bridges. The number of persons known to be dead. and type of injury or medical problem. 9 . equipment's and supplies available. The following is a list of Information.mechanisms (formats) can be developed and workers sent out to survey the different areas and report at a specified time. f irst aid. and full scale relief activities initiated. possibly according to age group. Condition of schools. surveillance becomes an ongoing system. or alternatively should have a parallel system of streets and avenues so that even a first timer to the city in a rescue team can find his way. homes uninhabitable. which may be needed in order to make relief decisions • • The geographica l extent of the af fected area as def ined 11 and by streets other clear boundaries. sex. and homes. coordination with different agencies to prevent duplication of relief efforts. etc) ONGOING SURVEILLANCE Depending on the factors above. search and rescue. • • • Estimated number of homes destroyed. 12 The assessment should be immediately put in public domain to (a) avoid panic and (b) sourcing help like rare blood group donors and services of specialists.

2005 envisages that every State Government. This rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately. clothing. HOSPITAL RECEPTION AND TREATMENT • fields • Standardized simple therapeutic procedures followed Organizational structure in the hospital with a disaster management team consists of senior officers in the medical. sift or select. food. or the transport destination for the patient. meaning to separate. in turn. RE-DISTRIBUTION OF PATIENTS BETWEEN HOSPITALS DISASTER PREPAREDNESS 13 14 Triage (pronounced /’triɑʒ/) is a process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition. ) Evacuat i on of the populat inuclear and chemical emergencies ) on ( Provision of off. based upon the special needs of the patient or the balancing of patient distribution in a mass-casualty setting. the order and priority of emergency transport. is to establish a District Disaster Management Authority for every district in the State with the 10 . The term comes from the French verb trier. The outcome may result in determining the order and priority of emergency treatment. 14 The Disaster Management Act. nursing and administrative preventive and routine medical care Provision of water. There are two types of triage: simple and advanced.• • • • • • El iminat i on of physica l dangers ( gas leak etc f ire. sort. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE • • • • Search and Rescue First Aid Field Care Stabilization of the victims Triage13 Tagging • • 2. shelter Disposal of human waste Control of vector born diseases MASS CASUALTY MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT OF MASS CASUALTIES IS DIVIDED INTO THREE MAIN AREAS 1.

WHO & other international agencies NGO’s. 11 . multi-sectoral activity to carry out the following activities. clear mechanisms for coordinat ing with other sectors Health Disaster The and Coordinator is in charge of preparedness activities and coordinating plans with: • Govt.htm 15 SHOCKINGLY FIRE FROM AN OIL DEPOT WAS NOT IDENTIFIED AS POTENTIAL DISASTER. http://www. procedures and resources are in place to provide prompt. communication. Armed Forces • • • • EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS District Collector as the Chairperson and such number of other members. • • • Develop public education programs Coordinate information sessions with news media Organize disaster simulation exercises that test response mechanisms For the Health Sectors Disaster Preparedness plan to be successful . water services etc.UN. The District Authority is to act as the district planning. information and warning systems Ensure coordination and response mechanisms Adopt measures to ensure that financial and other resources are available for increased readiness and can be mobilized in disaster situations. Adopt standards and regulations Organize effective assistance to disaster victims. UNICEF. Agencies Foreign Relations. Disaster preparedness is an ongoing. not exceeding seven. Those responsible for power. However. Housing.rajrelief.The objectives of the disaster preparedness is to ensure that appropriate systems. coordinating and implementing body for disaster management and take all measures for the purposes of disaster management in the district in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority and the State Authority. • • • • • 15 Evaluate the r i sk of disaste rs .Red Cross etc. Civil Protection agencies-Police. the information on JAIPUR District Disaster Management Authority is missing from the state website. thus facilitating relief measures and rehabilitation services.

Terrorism Agents: Anthrax. 4. Typhoons. Smal lpox. DISEASES AND OTHER THREATS 1. 17 Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2. This colorless gas gained infamy as a chemical weapon during World War I. small amounts occur naturally from the breakdown of chlorinated compounds and the combustion of chlorine-containing organic compounds. bromine is a reddish-brown volatile liquid at standard room temperature that is intermediate in reactivity between chlorine and iodine. it is classified as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations in UN Resolution 687. The U. is a chemical element with the symbol Brand atomic number 35. Blasts. 3. Floods . Tsunamis. 6. brómos. Mitigation measures to aim to reduce the Vulnerability of the System [e. A halogen element. also known by its NATO designation of GB. Radioactive Emergencies: Mass Trauma: Explosions. Sarin19. is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. 12 . 2. 5. Bromine (pronounced /’broʊmiːn/ BROH-meen or /’broʊmɨn/ BROH-min. It can be either a white powder or a liquid in crystalline form. West Nile Virus. Some soldiers during the First World War stated that it smelled faintly of May Blossom. In low concentrations. but it is not realistic in most hazards.AGENTS. Cyclones. Production and stockpiling of Sarin was outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.S. and is toxic. Chemical Emergencies: Ricin16. and is also a valued industrial reagent and building block inorganic synthesis.g. Mad Cow Disease. from Greek: βρμος. SARS.g.] Disaster prevention implies complete elimination of damages from a hazard. Plague. 18 19 Sarin. Approximately 556. Bromine18. Natural Disasters : Earthquakes. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) gives a possible minimum figure of 500 micrograms (about half a grain of sand) for the lethal dose of Ricin in humans if exposure is from injection or inhalation. Ricin may cause allergic reactions. though the severity depends on the route of exposure. DISASTER MITIGATION It is vi r tua l l y impossib le to prevent occurrence of most Natura l Disasters is possib le minimize or mitigatetheir damage effects. its odor resembles freshly cut hay or grass. Burns. Bromine vapors are corrosive and toxic. Injuries Recent Outbreaks and Incidents: Bird flu.000 metric tonnes were produced in 2007. Phosgene 17. [e. Relocating a population from a flood plain or from beach front] 16 Ricin (pronounced /’raɪ sɨn/) is a protein that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). The main applications for bromine are in fire retardants and fine chemicals. As a chemical weapon. meaning "stench (of he-goats)"). In addition to its industrial production. H1N1 Virus. by improving & enforcing building codes etc. Bio.

Civi l Defense Adminis t ra t i on • • • • Armed Forces Fi re Fight i ng The Mitigation Program will direct the following activities 1. 21 HCM (RIPA) should not only train Government Servants but also citizens about disaster mitigation 13 . Mitigation and Publ i c FACILITIES. 4. 3. Identify priority hospitals and critical health facilities that comply with current building codes and standards. Sewerage complements the Disaster Preparedness and Disaster Response activities. 2. Hospitals 20 must remain operational attend to disaster to vict ims.made Hazards and determine of key heal th fac i l i t i e s the work of codes Disaster Mult i and water systems teams in in the designing f rom and & the vulnerabi l i t y Coordinate Inc l ude Disc ip l i na ry the water Measures developing damages. maintenance and use of facilities about disaster mitigation. Publ i c Heal th & Hospi ta l Publ i c Pol i cy Water Systems Engineer ing & Archi tec ture Planning. bui ld i ng protect and Mit i gat i on dis t r i but i on planning development of new fac i l i t i e s . 5. administration.MEDICAL CASUALTY Qual i ty HEALTH of Houses. A SPECIALISED UNIT WITHIN THE NATIONAL COORDINATE HEALTH THE DISASTER OF MANAGEMENT PROGRAM SHOULD WORKS EXPERTS IN THE FIELD OF: • • • • Heal th . reduced by improving the Structura or Pr ivate System bui ld ingsOF SAFETY . Educat i on etc . could be drast i ca l l y Schools . Ensure that mitigation measures are taken into account in a facility’s maintenance plans. operation. Water Supply. etc. Promote the inclusion of Disaster Mitigation in the curricula of 20 All hospitals must necessarily b equipped with Diesel Generating sets and keep stock of diesel for minimum seven days. sensitize and train21 those personnel’s who are involved in planning. Ident i f y areas exposed to Natural /Man. Inform.

SMS Medical College. iii . all Government Hospitals and Dispensaries should be the nodal point for Disaster Management Activities. water and shel te r in disaste r si tuat i on THE PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AFTER A DISASTER ARE TO2 2 . ii. 14 . and Nursing Colleges. al l publ i c heal th measures to reduce the r i sk 22 Looking at important role of health services in post disaster management. Simulat i on exerc i ses /Mock Exerc i ses Desktop simulat i on exerc i ses [war games] Fie l d exerc i ses Dri l l s designed to impart ski l l s EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE AND DISEASE CONTROL: Natural disasters may increase the risk of preventable diseases due to adverse changes in the following areas • • • • • • • Populat i on densi ty Populat i on disp lacement Disrupt i on and contaminat i on of water supply and sani ta t i on serv i ces Disrupt i on of publ i c heal th programs Ecologi ca l changes that favor breeding of vectors Displacement of domestic and wi ld animals Provi s i on of emergency food.Professional training institutes. • Implement as soon as poss ib l e disease transmiss i on . such as MNIT. TECHNICAL HEALTH PROGRAMS • • • • • • • Treatment of in j ured Ident i f i c a t i on and disposal of dead bodies Epidemiolog i ca l surve i l l ance and disease contro l Basic sani ta t i on and sani ta ry engineer ing Heal th management in shel te r s or temporary sett l ements Train i ng heal th personnel and the publ i c Logis t i ca l resources and support • i.

and promoting personal hygiene. 15 . the Evaluator wil l be look ing at “actual" verses the "desired" on two levels. i. management of communications etc) A critical step in the management of any disaster relief is the setting of objectives. disposal of excreta . shelter. reports of disease outbreaks rapid l y . Ensur ing that there are adequate amounts of safe dr ink ing basic sani ta t i on fac i l i t i e s . establ i sh i ng or cont inui ng measures. 2. waste water and sol i d and adequate shel te r . (Provis ion of food. Al ternate water sources Mass dis t r i but i on of Dis in fec tants Food Safety Basic Sani tat i on and Personal Hygiene Sol i d Waste Management Vector Contro l Bur ia l of the Dead Publ i c in fo rmat i on and the Media EVALUATION In the case of disaster management. the overall outcome of disaster management efforts and the impact of each discrete category of relief efforts.e. which specify the intended outcome of the relief. The general objectives of the disaster mortal i t y management will be the elimination of unnecessary morbid i ty .• • Organize a re l i ab l e in i t i a t e contro l Invest i gate al l disease report i ng system to ident i f y outbreaks and to promp measures. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT Post disaster environmental health measures can be divided into two priorities 1. Ear ly clar i f i c a t i on si tuat i on may prevent unnecessary dispers i on of scarce resources and disrupt i on of normal progress . water . and economic directly and loss indirectly attributable to mismanagement of disaster relief. vector contro l • Water Supply   • • • • • • Provid i ng food protect i on measures.

courts. 23 Despite experiencing Disaster in 1981 floods and periodic noises by people. Early warning systems and Disaster preparedness which wil l help to minimize morbidi ty . the civil administration controlled by land mafia has allowed construction of houses and Multi Storied flats in Amani Shah Nala. 16 . mortal i t y and economic loss . CONCLUSION Disasters loss .prone area. media. UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF DISASTERS IS OFTEN NOT APPLIED • • • • • • Hurr icane/Tornado/Cyclone warning systems. 23 Legis la t i on preventing bui ld ing in the f lood prone areas Requirement of protect i ve cel lars / she l te rs in disaster prone areas. if the objectives were not met. Str i c t procedural code fol l owed to prevent Nuclear . those who have part i c i pa ted in the re have demonstrated that they have accomplished what they set out to do. On the other hand. identify the reasons for the discrepancy and suggest corrective action. SIMULATED DISASTER PREPAREDNESS OPERATIONS should be undertaken to test the var ious components before actual need ar ise . of the "actua l " with "desi red" is the first cr i t i c a l the object i ves were met. it is desirable for those conducting the evaluation to continue with the evaluation process. Toxicologica l and Chemic disasters .Public have resul ted is in signi f i c ant with morbid i ty . A Seismic housing code for earthquake.The comparison evaluat ion I f . two mortal i t y in and econ health concerned objectives disaster management. EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM • • • Evaluat i on of the preparedness program Evaluat i on of the mitigat i on measures Evaluat i on of the tra i n i ng PREVENTION OF DISASTERS EXISTING KNO WLED GE THAT MIGHT REDUCE THE .

• It must have Coordination with the local community. • • The disaster proneness varies widely from State to State . FIRE BRIGADE and with various governmental and non-governmental bodies including voluntary organizations like Red Cross. of Community 17 . The country wi l l have to pay more attent i on towards public iawareness creat ng and preparedness in respect of people living in known disaster prone areas. Medicine. . Chennai Professor. their effects and their relief efforts [what has been effect ive and what have been mismanaged] better plans as for are now avai lab le for effect i ve disaster management as wel l the reduct io preventable losses .• • the el iminat i on of the preventable consequences of the disas ter The prevent ion of losses due to disaste r mismanagement. voluntary workers in the relief and rescue work. civil defense. References: 1. • Special training is required to the medical. Dept. RECOMMENDATIONS: to be added. • Through study of the past disasters. Stanley Medical College. FAILURE ANALYSIS: to be added.S. APPROPRIATE DISASTER RELIEF FOLLO SA SPECIFIC PATTERN W • • • Gather ing in fo rmat ion on the si tuat i on Analys i s of th i s in format ion Developing and implementing an appropr ia te response : THIS PATTERN OCCURS AT VARIOUS LEVELS: • • IMMEDIATE ASSESSMENT SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT ONGOING ASSESSMENT . army. paramedical. DR.GOPALAKRISHNAN. • Any Disaster is an emergency situation and the health sector alone cannot tackle it in isolation. police.

Wikipedia Disaster Management & Relief Department.2. 3. Government of Rajasthan http://www. 2005 18 The Disaster Management Act. 4.nic.

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