You are on page 1of 66

2

RECTANGULAR WAVE GUIDE



ATTENUATORS

TUNABLE PROBE






3

STUDY OF MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

AIM:
To study the various microwave components structure and its application.
RECTANGULAR WAVE GUIDE
Wave guides are manufactured to the highest mechanical and electrical
standards and mechanical tolerances. L and S band wave guides are fabricated
by precision brazing of brass-plates and all other wave guides are in extrusion
quality.
ATTENUATORS
Attenuators are passive resistive elements that do the opposite of
amplifiers, they kill gain. Why would you want to do that? Suppose your design
specification calls for 10 dB gain, with a 1.2:1 maximum VSWR. You search
the amplifier vendors, and locate an amplifier in your frequency band, but it has
14.5 dB gain and a lousy 2.5:1 match on the input. By adding an attenuator to
the input, you can bring the gain down to 10 dB, and you will be improving the
input match. Two things to consider when you play this game: dont add an
attenuator to an amplifiers input if you are concerned with the amplifiers noise
figure, every dB of attenuation you put on the input will raise the noise figure
by the same amount. Similarly, dont add an attenuator to a power amplifiers
output without considering what it will do to your output power, or what the RF
output power of the power amp might do to your attenuator.
TUNABLE PROBE
Tunable probe is designed for use with model 6051 slotted sections.
These are meant for exploring the energy of the EF in a suitably fabricated
section of wave guide. The depth of penetration into a wave guide - section is
adjustable by the knob of the probe. The tip pick up the RF power from the line
and this power is rectified by crystal detector, which is then fed to the VSWR
meter or indicating instrument.



4


DETECTOR MOUNT





ISOLATOR





CIRCULATOR












5

WAVE GUIDE DETECTOR MOUNT (TUNABLE)
Tunable Detector Mount is simple and easy to use instrument for detecting
microwave power through a suitable detector. It consists of a detector crystal mounted
in a section of a Wave guide and shorting plunger for matching purpose. The output
from the crystal may be fed to an indicating instrument. In K and bands detector
mounts the plunger is driven by a micrometer.
ISOLATOR
An isolator is a nonreciprocal transmission device that is used to isolate one
component from reflections of other components in the transmission line. An ideal
isolator completely absorbs the power for propagation in one direction and provides
lossless transmission in the opposite direction. Thus the isolator is usually called
uniline. Isolators are generally used to improve the frequency stability of microwave
generators such as klystrons and magnetrons in which the reflection from the load
affects the generating frequency. In such cases the isolator is placed between the
generator and load to prevent the reflected power from the unmatched load from
returning to the generator. As a result the isolator maintains the frequency stability of
the generator.
CIRCULATOR
A circulator is a ferrite device (ferrite is a class of materials with strange
magnetic properties) with usually three ports. The beautiful thing about circulators is
that they are non-reciprocal. That is, energy into port 1 predominantly exits port 2,
energy into port 2 exits port 3, and energy into port 3 exits port 1. In a reciprocal
device the same fraction of energy that flows from port 1 to port 2 would occur to
energy flowing the opposite direction, from port 2 to port 1. The selection of ports is
arbitrary, and circulators can be made to "circulate" either clockwise (CW) or
counterclockwise (CCW).
SLIDE SCREW TUNERS
Slide screw tuners are used for matching purposes by changing the penetration
and position of a screw in the slot provided in the centre of the wave guide. These
consists of a section of wave guide flanged on both ends and a thin slot is provided in
the broad wall of the Wave guide. A carriage carrying the screw, is provided over the
slot. A VSWR upto 20 can be tuned to a value less than 1.02 at certain frequency.

6


DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS




MULTIHOLE DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS


MAGIC TEE












7

DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS
A directional coupler is a four-port waveguide junction. It consists of a
primary waveguide and a secondary waveguide. When all the ports are
terminated in their characteristic impedance there is no free transmission of
power, without reflection between port 1 and port 2, and there is no
transmission of power between ports 1 and port 3 and between ports 2 and 4
because no coupling exists between these two pair of ports. The degree of
coupling between ports 1 and 4 and between ports 2 and 3 depends on the
structure of the coupler.
MULTIHOLE DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS
Multihole directional couplers are useful for sampling a part of
Microwave energy for monitoring purposes and for measuring reflections and
impedance. These consists of a section of Wave guide with addition of a second
parallel section of wave guide thus making it a four port network. However the
fourth port is terminated with a matched load. These two parallel sections are
coupled to each other through many holes almost to give uniform coupling;
minimum frequency sensitivity and high directivity.
Magic Tees (Hybrid tees)
A magic tee is a combination of the E-plane tee and H-plane tee. The
magic tee has several characteristics.
1. If the two ports of equal magnitude and the same phase are fed into port 1 and
port 2, the output will be zero at port 3 and additive at port 4.
2. If a wave is fed into port 4 (H arm), it will be divided equally between port 1
and port 2 of the collinear arms and will not appear in port 3.
3. If a wave is fed into port 3 (E arm), it will produce an output of equal
magnitude and opposite phase at port 1 and port 2. The output at port 4 is zero.
4. If a wave is fed into one of the collinear arms at port 1 or port 2, it will not
appear in the other collinear arm at port 2 or port 1 because the E- arm causes a
phase delay while the H- arm causes a phase advance.



8





H-Plane Tee


E-Plane Tee



MOVABLE SHORT











9

H-plane tee (shunt tee)
An H-plane tee is a waveguide tee in which the axis of the side arm is
shunting the E- field or parallel to the H field of the main guide. It can be seen
that if the two input waves are fed in port 1 and port 2 of the collinear arm, the
output wave at port 3 will be in phase and additive. On the other hand, if the
input is fed into port 3, the wave will split equally into port 1 and port 2 in phase
and in same magnitude.

E-plane tee (series tee)
An E-plane tee is a waveguide in which the axis of the side arm is parallel
to the E- field of the main guide. If the collinear arms are symmetric about the
side arm, there are two different transmission characteristics.

MOVABLE SHORT
movable shorts consists of a section of waveguide, flanged on one end
and terminated with a movable shorting plunger on the other end. By means of
this non contacting type plunger, a reflection co-efficient of almost unity may be
obtained.

WAVEGUIDE BENDS
The size, shape, and dielectric material of a waveguide must be constant
throughout its length for energy to move from one end to the other without
reflections. Any abrupt change in its size or shape can cause reflections and a
loss in overall efficiency. When such a change is necessary, the bends, twists,
and joints of the waveguides must meet certain conditions to prevent reflections.









10



MATCHED TERMINATION


HORN ANTENNA

KLYSTRON TUBE





11

MATCHED TERMINATION
It consists of a small and highly dissipative taper flap mounted inside the centre
of a section of wave guide. Matched Terminations are useful for USWR measurement
of various waveguide components. These are also employed as dummy and as a
precise reference loads with Tee junctions, directional couplers and other similar
dividing devices.
PYRAMIDAL WAVEGUIDE HORN ANTENNA
Pyramidal Wave guide Horn antenna consists of waveguide joined to pyramidal
section fabricated from brass sheet. The pyramidal section shapes the energy to
concentrate in a specified beam. Wave guide horns are used as feed horns as radiators for
reflectors and lenses and as a pickup antenna for receiving microwave power.
KLYSTRON
A klystron is a specialized vacuum tube (evacuated electron tube) called a
linear-beam tube. The pseudo-Greek word klystron comes from the stem form klys of
a Greek verb referring to the action of waves breaking against a shore, and the end of
the word electron.
Frequency Meter
The cylindrical cavity forms a resonator that produces a suck-out in the frequency
response of the unit. This you would turn the knob until a dip in the response is observed.
The graduations will tell you what frequency you are at. Waveguide frequency meters use
a short circuit resonant cavity, which resonates at half wavelength. Most wave meters are
waveguide, however, coaxial types are possible. Waveguide wave meters can only
measure frequency over their respective frequency band.
Gunn Diode
A Gunn diode, also known as a transferred electron device (TED) is a form of
diode used in high-frequency electronics. It is somewhat unusual in that it consists only of
N doped semiconductor material, whereas most diodes consist of both P and N-doped
regions. In the Gunn diode, three regions exist: two of them are heavily N-doped on each
terminal, with a thin layer of lightly doped material in between. When a voltage is applied
to the device, the electrical gradient will be largest across the thin middle layer.
Eventually, this layer starts to conduct, reducing the gradient across it, preventing further
conduction. In practice, this means a Gunn diode has a region of negative differential
resistance.

12






















































13


VSWR meter
The SWR meter or VSWR meter measures the standing wave ratio in a
transmission line. This is an item of radio equipment used to check the quality
of the match between the antenna and the transmission line. The VSWR meter
should be connected in the line as close as possible to the antenna. This is
because all practical transmission lines have a certain amount of loss, causing
the reflected power to be attenuated as it travels back along the cable, and
producing an artificially low VSWR reading on the meter. If the meter is
installed close to the antenna, then this problem is minimized.















RESULT:






14


Block Diagram:






















Klystron
Power supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Detector
Mount
Multi
meter
VSWR
meter
CRO
Klystron
Tube

15

REFLEX KLYSTRON CHARACTERISTICS

AIM:
To study the mode characteristics of the reflex klystron tube and to
determine its Electronic tuning range.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Klystron power supply
2. Klystron tube 2k-25 with klystron mount
3. Isolator
4. Frequency meter
5. Detector mount
6. Variable Attenuator
7. Wave guide stand
8. VSWR meter
9. Oscilloscope
10. BNC Cable
THEORY:
The reflex klystron is a single cavity variable frequency microwave
generator of low power and low efficiency. This is most widely used in
applications where variable frequency is desired as
1. In radar receivers
2. Local oscillator in w receivers
3. Signal source in micro wave generator of variable frequency
4. Portable micro wave links.
5. Pump oscillator in parametric amplifier
Voltage Characteristics: Oscillations can be obtained only for specific
combinations of anode and repeller voltages that give favorable transit time.
Power Output Characteristics: The mode curves and frequency
characteristics. The frequency of resonance of the cavity decides the frequency
of oscillation. A variation in repeller voltages slightly changes the frequency.

16

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Beam Voltage :V (Constant)
Beam Current :.mA
Repeller
Voltage (V)
Voltage,
Vrms
(mV)
Power,
P=Vrms
2
(10
3
/R).
(mW)
Dip Frequency
(GHz)































EXPECTED GRAPH:



17

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
A. CARRIER WAVE OPERATION:
1. Connect the equipments and components as shown in the block diiagram.
2. Set the variable attenuator at maximum Position.
3. Set the MOD switch of Klystron Power Supply at CW position, beam voltage control
knob to fully anti clock wise and repeller voltage control knob to fully clock wise and
meter switch to OFF position.
4. Rotate the Knob of frequency meter at one side fully.
5. Connect the DC microampere meter at detector.
6. Switch ON the Klystron power supply, CRO and cooling fan for the Klystron tube.
7. Put the meter switch to beam voltage position and rotate the beam voltage knob
clockwise slowly up to 300 Volts and observe the beam current on the meter by
changing meter switch to beam current position. The beam current should not increase
more than 30 mA.
8. Change the repeller voltage slowly and watch the current meter, set the maximum
voltage on CRO.
9. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for the maximum output.
10. Rotate the knob of frequency meter slowly and stop at that position, where there is
less output current on multimeter. Read directly the frequency meter between two
horizontal line and vertical marker. If micrometer type frequency meter is used read
the micrometer reading and find the frequency from its frequency calibration chart.
11. Change the repeller voltage and read the current and frequency for each repeller
voltage.
B. SQUARE WAVE OPERATION:
1. Connect the equipments and components as shown in the block diagram.
2. Set Micrometer of variable attenuator around some Position.
3. Set the range switch of VSWR meter at 40 dB position, input selector switch to
crystal impedance position, meter switch to narrow position.
4. Set Mod-selector switch to AM-MOD position .beam voltage control knob to fully
anti clockwise position.
5. Switch ON the klystron power Supply, VSWR meter, CRO and cooling fan.



18

Out Put:


































19

6. Switch ON the beam voltage. Switch and rotate the beam voltage knob clockwise
up to 300V in meter.
7. Keep the AM MOD amplitude knob and AM FREQ knob at the mid position.
8. Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter or square wave on
CRO.
9. Rotate the AM MOD amplitude knob to get the maximum output in VSWR meter or
CRO.
10. Maximize the deflection with frequency knob to get the maximum output in VSWR
meter or CRO.
11. If necessary, change the range switch of VSWR meter 30dB to 50dB if the deflection
in VSWR meter is out of scale or less than normal scale respectively. Further the
output can be also reduced by variable attenuator for setting the output for any
particular position.
C. MODE STUDY ON OSCILLOSCOPE:
1. Set up the components and equipments as shown in the block diagram.
2. Keep position of variable attenuator at min attenuation position.
3. Set mode selector switch to FM-MOD position FM amplitude and FM frequency
knob at mid position keep beam voltage knob to fully anti clock wise and reflector
voltage knob to fully clockwise position and beam switch to OFF position.
4. Keep the time/division scale of oscilloscope around 100 HZ frequency measurement
and volt/div. to lower scale.
5. Switch ON the klystron power supply and oscilloscope.
6. Change the meter switch of klystron power supply to Beam voltage position and set
beam voltage to 300V by beam voltage control knob.
7. Keep amplitude knob of FM modulator to max. Position and rotate the reflector
voltage anti clock wise to get the modes as shown in figure on the oscilloscope. The
horizontal axis represents reflector voltage axis and vertical represents o/p power.
8. By changing the reflector voltage and amplitude of FM modulation in any mode of
klystron tube can be seen on oscilloscope.
RESULT:





20




BLOCK DIAGRAM























Gunn
Power
supply
Gunn
Oscillator
PIN
Modulator

Variable
attenuator
Detector
Mount
VSWR
meter

Isolator


21

GUNN DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

AIM:
To study the V-I characteristics of Gunn diode.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Gunn power supply
2. Gunn oscillator
3. PIN Modulator
4. Isolator
5. Frequency Meter
6. Variable attenuator
7. Slotted line
8. Detector mount and CRO.
THEORY:
Gunn diode oscillator normally consist of a resonant cavity, an
arrangement for coupling diode to the cavity a circuit for biasing the diode and a
mechanism to couple the RF power from cavity to external circuit load. A co-
axial cavity or a rectangular wave guide cavity is commonly used.
The circuit using co-axial cavity has the Gunn diode at one end at one end
of cavity along with the central conductor of the co-axial line. The O/P is taken
using a inductively or capacitively coupled probe. The length of the cavity
determines the frequency of oscillation. The location of the coupling loop or
probe within the resonator determines the load impedance presented to the Gunn
diode. Heat sink conducts away the heat due to power dissipation of the device.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
Voltage-Current Characteristics:
1. Set the components and equipments as shown in the block diagram.
2. Initially set the variable attenuator for minimum attenuation.
3. Keep the control knobs of Gunn power supply as below


22


MODEL GRAPH:


OBSERVATION TABLE:

Gunn bias voltage
(V)
Gunn diode current
(mA)



















Volts (V)
Threshold voltage
I-V CHARACTERISTICS OF GUNN OSCILLATOR
I
(mA)

23

Meter switch OFF
Gunn bias knob Fully anti clock wise
PIN bias knob Fully anti clock wise
PIN mode frequency any position
4. Set the micrometer of Gunn oscillator for required frequency of operation.
5. Switch ON the Gunn power supply.
6. Measure the Gunn diode current to corresponding to the various Gunn bias
voltage through the digital panel meter and meter switch. Do not exceed the
bias voltage above 10 volts.
7. Plot the voltage and current readings on the graph.
8. Measure the threshold voltage which corresponding to max current.

Note: Do not keep Gunn bias knob position at threshold position for more than
10-15 sec. readings should be obtained as fast as possible. Otherwise due to
excessive heating Gunn diode may burn



















24

Out Put:



































25




























RESULT:








26


Block Diagram:




Klystron
Power supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Slotted
Line
VSWR meter
Matched
Termination

Movable
Short
Klystron
Tube
Tunable
Probe

27

MEASUREMENT OF VSWR FREQUENCY AND
WAVELENGTH
AIM:
To determine the VSWR, frequency and wavelength in a rectangular wave
guide working in TE
10
mode.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Klystron tube
2. Klystron power supply
3. Klystron mount
4. Isolator
5. Frequency meter
6. Variable attenuator
7. Slotted section
8. Tunable probe
9. VSWR meter
10. Wave guide stand
11. Movable Short
12. Matched termination
THEORY:
The cut-off frequency relationship shows that the physical size of the wave
guide will determine the propagation of the particular modes of specific orders
determined by values of m and n. The minimum cut-off frequency is obtained for a
rectangular wave guide having dimension a>b, for values of m=1, n=0, i.e. TE
10
mode
is the dominant mode since for TM
mn
modes, n#0 or n#0 the lowest-order mode
possible is TE
10
, called the dominant mode in a rectangular wave guide for a>b.
For dominant TE
10
mode rectangular wave guide o, g and c are related as
below.
1/o = 1/g + 1/c
Where o is free space wave length
g is guide wave length
c is cut off wave length
For TE
10
mode c 2a where a is broad dimension of wave guide.

28

OBSERVATION TABLE:

B
e
a
m

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
v
)

B
e
a
m

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
m
A
)

R
e
p
e
l
l
e
r

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
v
)

f
o

(
u
s
i
n
g

f
r
e
q

m
e
t
e
r
)

(
G
H
Z
)

d1

(cm)
d2

(cm)
d3

(cm)
d4

(cm)
d1=
d2-
d1

(cm)
d2=
d3-d2

(cm)

d
3
=

d
4

-

d

3

d
=
(

d
1
+

d
2
+

d
3
)
/
3

g
=
2

x

o

(
c
m
)

f
o

(
H
Z
)



































29

PROCEDURE:
1. Set up the components and equipments as shown in figure.
2. Set up variable attenuator at minimum attenuation position.
3. Keep the control knobs of klystron power supply as below:
Beam voltage OFF
Mod-switch AM
Beam voltage knob Fully anti clock wise
Repeller voltage Fully clock wise
AM Amplitude knob Around fully clock wise
AM Frequency knob Around mid position
4. Switch ON the klystron power supply, CRO and cooling fan switch.
5. Switch ON the beam voltage switch and set beam voltage at 300V with help of
beam voltage knob.
6. Adjust the repeller voltage to get the maximum amplitude in CRO
7. Maximize the amplitude with AM amplitude and frequency control knob of power
supply.
8. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for maximum Amplitude.
9. Tune the repeller voltage knob for maximum Amplitude.
10. Tune the frequency meter knob to get a dip on the CRO and note down the
frequency from frequency meter.
11. Replace the termination with movable short, and detune the frequency meter.
12. Move the probe along with slotted line. The amplitude in CRO will vary .Note and
record the probe position , Let it be d1.
13. Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position again, Let it
be d2.
14. Calculate the guide wave length as twice the distance between two successive
minimum position obtained as above.
15. Measure the wave guide inner board dimension a which will be around 22.86mm for
x-band.
16. Calculate the frequency by following equation.

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
2 2
1 1
c
g
c
f


Where C = 3x10
8
meter/sec. i.e. velocity of light.

30





































31

17. Verify with frequency obtained by frequency modes
18. Above experiment can be verified at different frequencies.
f
o
= C/o => C => 3x10
8
m/s (i.e., velocity of light)
1/o = 1/g + 1/c

2 2
0
c g
c g

+
=
g = 2x d
For TE
10
mode => c = 2a
a wave guide inner broad dimension
a = 2.286cm (given in manual)
c = 4.6cm
SWR is given by, SWR= g/(d)













RESULT:








32

Block Diagram:



















Klystron
Power supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Klystron
Tube
Matched
Termination

Isolator/
Circulator
VSWR
Meter
Detector
Mount

33

STUDY THE FUNCTION OF ISOLATOR

AIM:
To study the function of isolator by measuring the main line and auxiliary
line VSWR.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave source Klystron tube
2. Isolator
3. Frequency meter
4. Variable attenuator
5. Slotted line
6. Tunable probe
7. Detector mount
8. Matched termination
9. Klystron power supply & Klystron mount
10. Cooling fan
11. BNC-BNC cable
13. VSWR or CRO
Theory:
Isolator: An isolator is a two-port device that transfers energy from input to
output with little attenuation and from output to input with very high
attenuation.
Circulator: The circulator is defined as a device with ports arranged such that
energy entering a port is coupled to an adjacent port but not coupled to other
ports. Refer to the fig. A wave incident on port 1 is coupled to port 2 only, a
wave incident at port 2 is coupled to port 3 only and so on.
Insertion loss
The ratio of power supplied by a source to the input port to the power detected
by a detector in the coupling arm, i.e. output arm with other port terminated in
the matched load, is defined as insertion loss or forward loss.

34


Tabulation for Isolator
Line Power in dB
Input Line P1
Mail line P2
Auxiliary line P3




























35

Isolation
It is the ratio of power fed to input arm to the power detected at not coupled port with
other port terminated in the matched load.
Input VSWR
The input VSWR of an isolator or circulator is the ratio of voltage maximum to
voltage minimum of the standing wave existing on the line when one port of it
terminates the line and other have matched termination.
PROCEDURE:
1. Input VSWR Measurement
a. Set up the components and equipments as shown in the fig with input port of
isolator or circulator towards slotted line and matched load on other ports of it.
b. Energize the microwave .source for particular operation of frequency.
c. With the help of slotted line, probe and SWR meter. Find SWR, of the
isolator or circulator as described for low and medium SWR measurements.
d. The above procedure can be repeated for other ports or for other frequencies.
2. Measurement of Insertion Loss and Isolation
a. Remove the probe and isolator or circulator from slotted line and connect the
detector mount to the slotted section. The output of the detector mount should be
connected SWR meter.
b. Energize the microwave source for maximum output particular frequency of
operation. Tune the detector mount for maximum output in the SWR Meter.
c. Set any reference level of power in SWR meter with the help of variable
attenuator and gain control knob of SWR meter. Let it be P1.
d. Carefully remove the detector mount from slotted line without disturbing the
position of set up. Insert the isolator/circulator between slotted line and detector
mount. Keeping input port to slotted line and detector at its output port. A matched
termination should be placed a third port in case of circulator.
e. Record the reading in the SWR meter. If necessary change range -dB switch
to high or lower position. Let it be P2.




36





































37


f. For measurement of isolation, the isolator or circulator has to be
connected in reverse i.e. output port to slotted line and detector to input port with
another port terminated by matched termination (in case circulator) after setting a
reference level without isolator or circulator in the set up as described in insertion
loss measurement. Let it be P3.

Result and Analysis:
g. Compute insertion loss on P1 P2 in dB.
h. Compute isolation as P1 - P3 in dB.
i. The same experiment can be done for other ports of circulator.
j. Repeat the above experiment for other frequencies if required



















Result:







38



Block Diagram:






















Klystron
Power
supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Detector
Mount

CRO
Klystron
Tube

39

ATTENUATION MEASUREMENT

AIM:
To study insertion loss and attenuation measurement of attenuator.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave source Klystron tube
2. Isolator
3. Frequency meter
4. Variable attenuator
5. Slotted line
6. Tunable probe
7. Detector mount
8. Matched termination
9. Test attenuator
a) Fixed
b) Variable
10. Klystron power supply & Klystron mount
11. Cooling fan
12. BNC-BNC cable
13. VSWR or CRO
THEORY:
The attenuator is a two port bidirectional device which attenuates some power
when inserted into a transmission line.
Attenuation A (dB) = 10 log (P1/P2)
Where P1 = Power detected by the load without the attenuator in the line
P2 = Power detected by the load with the attenuator in the line.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the equipments as shown in the block diagram.
2. Energize the microwave source for maximum power at any frequency of operation
3. Connect the detector mount to the slotted line and tune the detector mount also for
max deflection on VSWR or on CRO.


40


MODEL GRAPH:



OBSERVATION TABLE:
Micrometer
reading
(mm)
Voltage,
Vrms1
(mV)
Power,
P1=Vrms
2
(10
3
/R).
(mW)
Voltage,
Vrms2
(mV)
Power,
P2=Vrms
2
(10
3
/R)
(mW)
Attenuation
= 10
log(P1/P2)
(dB)

















41

4. Set any reference level on the VSWR meter or on CRO with the help of
variable attenuator. Let it be P1.
5. Carefully disconnect the detector mount from the slotted line without
disturbing any position on the setup place the test variable attenuator to the
slotted line and detector mount to O/P port of test variable attenuator. Keep
the micrometer reading of text variable attenuator to zero and record the
readings of VSWR meter or on CRO. Let it to be P2. Then the insertion
loss of test attenuator will be P1-P2 db.
6. For measurement of attenuation of fixed and variable attenuator. Place the
test attenuator to the slotted line and detector mount at the other port of test
attenuator. Record the reading of VSWR meter or on CRO. Let it be P3
then the attenuation value of variable attenuator for particular position of
micrometer reading of will be P1-P3 db.
7. In case the variable attenuator changes the micro meter reading and record
the VSWR meter or CRO reading. Find out attenuation value for different
position of micrometer reading and plot a graph.
8. Now change the operating frequency and all steps should be repeated for
finding frequency sensitivity of fixed and variable attenuator.
Note:1. For measuring frequency sensitivity of variable attenuator the position
of micrometer reading of the variable attenuator should be same for all
frequencies of operation.



RESULT:


42

Block diagram:











Klystron
Power supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Matched
Termination

Klystron
Tube
Magic TEE
Matched
Termination

Matched
Termination

Klystron
Power supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Matched
Termination

Klystron
Tube
Magic TEE
Detector
Mount
Matched
Termination


43

TO STUDY THE S - PARAMETER OF E-PLANE T, H-
PLANE T AND MAGIC T
AIM:
To determine isolations and coupling coefficients for E, H plane Tee and
Magic Tee junctions.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave source Klystron tube
2. Isolator
3. Frequency meter
4. Variable attenuator
5. Magic Tee, E-Plane Tee and H-Plane Tee.
6. Tunable probe
7. Detector mount
8. Matched termination
9. Cooling fan
10. BNC-BNC cable
13. VSWR or CRO
THEORY:
H Plane Tee
An H-plane tee is a waveguide tee in which the axis of the side arm is
shunting the E- field or parallel to the H field of the main guide. It can be seen
that if the two input waves are fed in port 1 and port 2 of the collinear arm, the
output wave at port 3 will be in phase and additive. On the other hand, if the
input is fed into port 3, the wave will split equally into port 1 and port 2 in phase
and in same magnitude.
E Plane Tee
An E-plane tee is a waveguide in which the axis of the side arm is parallel
to the E- field of the main guide. If the collinear arms are symmetric about the
side arm, there are two different transmission characteristics.


44

Tabulation:
Pin=_________dB
Nature of
Tee
Relative Power(dB) Isolation(Iij)dB
Coupling
Coefficient
Cij=10
Iij/20

E-Plane
Tee
I-arm
II-arm C
12
III-arm C
13

III -
arm

II -arm C
32

I-arm C
31

H-Plane
Tee
I-arm
II-arm C
12
III-arm C
13

III -
arm

II -arm C
32

I-arm C
31



Pin=_____________dB

Magic Tee orientation
P
i
(dB) P
j
(dB) I
ij
(dB) C
ij

Input Arm-i
Output
Arm-j
1
2 I
12
C
12
3 I
13
C
13
4 I
14
C
14
2
1 I
21
C
21
3 I
23
C
23
4 I
24
C
24
3
4 I
34
C
34
1 I
31
C
31
2 I
32
C
32
4
3 I
43
C
43
1 I
41
C
41
2 I
42
C
42












45

Magic Tee
A magic tee is a combination of the E-plane tee and H-plane tee. The
magic tee has several characteristics.
1. If the two ports of equal magnitude and the same phase are fed into port 1 and
port 2, the output will be zero at port 3 and additive at port 4.
2. If a wave is fed into port 4 (H arm), it will be divided equally between port 1
and port 2 of the collinear arms and will not appear in port 3.
3. If a wave is fed into port 3 (E arm), it will produce an output of equal
magnitude and opposite phase at port 1 and port 2. The output at port 4 is zero.
4. If a wave is fed into one of the collinear arms at port 1 or port 2, it will not
appear in the other collinear arm at port 2 or port 1 because the E- arm causes a
phase delay while the H- arm causes a phase advance.

Input VSWR
Value of VSWR corresponding to each port, as load to the line while
other ports are terminated in matched load.
Isolation
The isolation between E and H arm is defined as the ratio of the power
supplied by the generator connected to the arm to the power detected at H arm
when side arm 1 and 2 are terminated in matched load.
Hence, isolation(dB)=10log
10
(P
4
/P
3
)
Similarly isolation between other parts may also be defined.
Coupling Coefficient
It is defined as C
ij
=10
-/20

Where, =attenuation/isolation in dB,
iinput arm
joutput arm





46







































47

Procedure:
VSWR Measurement:
a. Set up the components and equipments as shown in fig. keeping E arm towards
slotted line and matched termination to other ports.
b. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation and tune
the detector mount for maximum output.
c. Measure the SWR of E-arm as described in measurement of SWR for low and
medium value.
d. Connect another arm to slotted line and terminate the other port with matched
termination. Measure the SWR as above. Similarly, SWR of any port can be
measured.
Measurement of isolation and coupling coefficient:
a. Remove the tunable probe and Magic Tee from the slotted line and connect
the detector mount to slotted line.
b. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation and
tune the detector mount for maximum output.
c. With the help of variable attenuator and gain control knob of SWR meter set
any power level in the SWR meter and note down. Let it be P3.
d. Without disturbing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob,
carefully place the Magic Tee after slotted line keeping H-arm connected to
slotted line, detector to E arm and matched termination to arm 1 and 2. Note
down the reading of SWR meter. Let it be P4.
e. In the same way measure P1 & P2 by connecting detector on these ports one
by one.
f. Determine the isolation between port 3 and 4 as P3-P4 in dB.
g. Determine the coupling coefficient by P3- P1 for port P1 & P2.
h. Repeat the above experiment for other frequencies.
Result:







48


Block Diagram:




































Klystron
Power supply
Klystron
Mount

Isolator
Frequency
meter
Variable
attenuator
Detector
Mount
Klystron
Tube
VSWR
meter
Horn
Antennas

49

ANTENNA GAIN MEASUREMENT AND TO STUDY
THE RADIATION PATTERN OF AN ANTENNA
AIM:
To measure the polar pattern of a waveguide horn antenna.
Apparatus Required:
1. Microwave source Klystron tube
2. Isolator
3. Frequency meter
4. Variable attenuator
5. PIN Modulator.
6. Horn Antenna
7. Detector mount
8. Cooling fan
9. BNC-BNC cable
13. VSWR or CRO
THEORY:
If the transmission line propagating energy is left open at one end, there will
be radiation from this end. In case of a rectangular waveguide this antenna presents
a mismatch of about 2:1 and it radiates in many directions. The match will improve
if the open waveguide is a horn shape. The radiation pattern of an antenna is a
diagram of field strength or more often the power intensity as a function of the
aspect angle at a constant distance from the radiating antenna. An antenna pattern
is of course three dimensional pattern in one or several planes. An antenna pattern
consists of several lobes, the main lobe side lobes and back lobe as low as possible.
The power intensity at the maximum of the main lobe compared to the power
intensity achieved from an imagery omnidirectional antenna with the same power
fed to the antenna is defined as gain of the antenna.
3DB BEAMWIDTH
The angle between the two points on a main lobe were the power intensity is
half the maximum power intensity. When measuring antenna patterns it is normally
most interesting to plot the pattern far from the antenna.

50

Mode Graph:

Tabulation for radiation pattern:
Input Power, P1=______________dB
Angle
(left
side)
Relative
Power(dB)
Angle
(right
Side)
Relative
Power(dB)
P2 P2













51

PROCEDURE
1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in the figure.
2. Ensure that all the knobs in the power supply and VSWR meter are of
minimum position
3. Switch on the Klystron power supply and wait for 2 minutes
4. Switch ON the beam switch and turn it to beam voltage position
5. Set the beam voltage at 250V
6. Switch ON the CRO and VSWR meter
7. Keep the switch SW3 at INT position
8. Adjust the repeller voltage knob (70V) so that a distorted waveform is
obtained
9. The operating repeller voltage is 70 V
10. Adjust the modulating frequency and the modulating amplitude to get a
perfect square wave
11. Find g from slotted section
12. Replace the detector mount by horn, receiver horn was also placed on the
stand at some distance.
13. Turn the receiving horn to the left in 2
o
or 5
o
steps and take corresponding
VSWR dB reading.
14. Now turn the receiving side and repeat the above step 13
15. Draw a relative power pattern
16. From the diagram determine 3db width of the horn can be measured
17. Theoretical beam width was determined using the formula.

Gain Measurement:
1. Set up the equipments as shown in fig. Both horns should be in line. Connect
standard gain horn antenna (16dB) at transmitter end and any other antenna for
which gain is to be measured at the receiver end.
2. Keep the range dB switch of VSWR meter at appropriate position.

52

Tabulation for Gain measurement:
Transmitted Power
(dB)
Received Power (dB)





















53

3. Energize the Gunn Oscillator for maximum output at desired frequency with
modulating amplitude and frequency of potentiometer and by tuning of detector
4. Obtain maximum reading in SWR meter with variable attenuator. Record this
reading as Pr (received power).
5. Replace the transmitting horn by detector mount and change the appropriate
range db position to get the reading (do not touch the gain control knob) Note
and record the range db position and reading as Pt.
6. Now change the horn antenna at the receiver end.











RESULT:






54

Block Diagram

Tabulation:
Sl.No Input LED Voltage(Volt) Output Power(dB)

















A

55

DC CHARACTERISTICS OF LED AND PIN PHOTO
DIODE

Aim:
The objective of this experiment is to plot the V-I Characteristics of Photo LED
and characteristic of Photo Detector.
Apparatus Required:
1. Optical fiber trainer kit
2. Optical fiber
3. Voltmeter
4. Ammeter
Theory:
LED
LEDs and LASER diodes are the commonly used sources in optical
communication systems, whether the system transmits digital or analog signal. It is
therefore, often necessary to use linear electrical to optical converter to allow its use in
intensity modulation & high quality analog transmission systems. LED's have a linear
optical output with relation to the forward current over a certain region of operation.
Photo Diode
Photo Transistors and Photo Diodes are the commonly used detectors in optical
communication systems, whether the system receives digital or analog signal. It is
therefore, often necessary to use linear optical to electrical converter to allow its use in
intensity demodulation & high quality analog receiving systems. Photo Diodes have a
linear electrical output with relation to the light intensity over a certain region of
operation.
Procedure for VI characteristics of LED:
1. Connect power supply to the board.
2. Ensure that all switched faults are in OFF condition.
3. Put emitter 1 block in Digital Mode
4. Make connections as shown in the Block Diagram.
a. Connect the bias 1 preset of comparator to the emitter 1 input.
b. Adjust the bias 1 preset to its minimum setting fully counter clockwise.
5. Now look down the emitter 1 LED Socket and slowly advance the setting of
the bias 1 preset until in subdued lighting the light from LED is just visible.
6. Connect the DMM between + 12V supply (Red Socket) and tp of Input of
Emitter LED. The DMM will now read the forward voltage (V f)



56

Block Diagram:

Tabulation:
Sl.No Input LED
Voltage(Volt)
Photo detector
Current(mA)

















57

7. Measure the voltage drop across the 1k (R9) current limiting resistors by
connecting DMM between tp of Input of Emitter LED and (tp3). The forward
current is given by dividing the readings by 1k. This If is known as threshold
current.

8. Vary the bias 1 preset so as to vary the forward voltage (as 1.0, 1.54.0), note
the corresponding If (forward current).
9. Record these values of Vf and If & plot the characteristic between these two.
Procedure for Photo Detector:
1. Connect power supply to the board.
2. Ensure that all switched faults are in OFF condition.
3. Put emitter 1 block in Digital Mode
4. Make connections as shown in the Block Diagram.
a. Connect the bias 1 preset of comparator to the emitter 1 input.
b. Adjust the bias 1 preset to its minimum setting fully counter clockwise.
8. Now look down the emitter 1 LED Socket and slowly advance the setting of
the bias 1 preset until in subdued lighting the light from LED is just visible.
c. Connect the fiber optic cable between emitter output and detectors input.
5. Connect the DMM between + 12V supply (Red Socket) and tp of Input of
Emitter LED. The DMM will now read the forward voltage (V f)
6. Measure the voltage drop across the 75E resistors by connecting DMM
between tp of output of Photo Transistor and Ground. The detector current is
given by dividing the readings by 75E.

7. Vary the bias 1 preset so as to vary the forward voltage (as 1.0, 1.54.0), not
the corresponding If (forward current).
8. Record these values of Vf and Id & plot the characteristic between these two.
Result:




58


Block diagram:
Study of Propagation Loss

Study of Bending Loss








59

STUDY OF BENDING LOSS AND PROPAGATION
LOSS IN OPTICAL FIBRE
AIM:
The objective of this experiment is to measure the propagation loss and the
bending loss in the optical fiber.
Apparatus Required:
1. Optical fiber trainer kit
2. Optical fiber of different lengths
3. Power meter
4. CRO
Theory:
Attenuation loss (or path propagation loss) is the reduction in power density
(attenuation) of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space. Attenuation
loss is a major component in the analysis and design of the link budget of a
telecommunication system.
Attenuation occurring as a result of either a bend in an optical fibre that
exceeds the minimum bend radius or an abrupt discontinuity in the core/cladding
interface is called bending loss. The incident light rays strike the boundary between
the core and the cladding at an angle less than the critical angle and enter the cladding,
where they are lost
Procedure:
i)To find propagation loss:
1. Connect the power supply to the board.
2. Make the following connections
a) Function generators 1KHz sine wave output to input 1 socket of emitter 1 circuit
via 4mm lead.
b) Connect 0.5m optic fibre between emitter 1 output and detector 1s input.
c) Connect detector 1 output to amplifier 1 input socket via 4mm lead.
3. Switch ON the power supply.
4. Set the oscilloscope channel 1 to 0.5V /div and adjust 4-6 div amplitude by using
x1 probe with the help of variable pot in function generator block input 1 of emitter 1.
5. Observe the output signal from detector t p 10 on CRO.

60


Tabulation:
Attenuation Losses:

Input Amplitude
V1(Volt)
Output Amplitude
V2(Volt)
Fiber-1_____Length,
L1(metre)

Fiber-2_____Length,
L2(metre)



Bending Losses:

Radius of curvature,
R(metre)
Input Amplitude
V1(Volt)
Output Amplitude
V2(Volt)






















61

6. Adjust the amplitude of the received signal as that of transmitted one with the
help of gain adjust
pot in AC amplifier block. Note this amplitude and name it V1.
7. Now replace the previous FO cable with 1m cable without disturbing any
previous setting.
8. Measure the amplitude at the receiver side again at output of amplifier 1
socket t p 28. Note this
value and name it V2.
9. Calculate propagation (attenuation) loss with the help of following formula
V1/V2 = exp(-(L1+L2))
Where is loss in nepers/m
1 neper = 8.686dB
L1 = length of shorter cable (0.5m)
L2 = length of longer cable (1m)
ii)To find bending loss
1. Repeat all steps from 1-6 of the above procedure using 1m cable.
2. Wind FO cable on the Mandrel and observe the corresponding AC
amplifier output on CRO.
It will be gradually reducing showing loss due to bends.




RESULTS:







62

SETTING UP FIBER OPTIC ANALOG LINK

Emitter circuit Detector circuit
Function Generator AC Amplifier
1 KHz Circuit


OBSERVATION


Input Voltage
(V)

Output Voltage
(V)

Time
(ms)












Out

63

FIBER OPTIC ANALOG AND DIGITAL LINK
SETTING UP FIBER OPTIC ANALOG LINK
AIM:
The objective of this experiment is to study a 650 nm fiber optic analog
link. In this experiment, we will study a relationship between the input signal
and the received signal.
Apparatus Required:
1. Optical fiber trainer kit
2. Optical fiber
3. CRO
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the power supply to the board.
2. Ensure that all switch faults are OFF.
3. Make the following connections.
a. Connect the function generator 1 KHz sine wave output to the
emitter 1s input.
b. Connect the fiber optic cable between the emitters output and
detectors input.
c. Connect detectors output to the AC amplifier 1s input.
4. On the board switch emitter 1s driver to analog mode.
5. Switch ON the power.
6. Observe the input to emitter (TP 5) with output from AC amplifier 1
(TP19) and note that the two signals are same.


RESULT:





64

SETTING UP FIBER OPTIC DIGITAL LINK
Emitter circuit Detector circuit

AC amplifier
Circuit
OBSERVATION


Input Voltage
(V)

Output Voltage
(V)

Time
(ms)












Function
Generator
1 KHz
Out
Comparator

65

SETTING UP FIBER OPTIC DIGITAL LINK

AIM:
The objective of this experiment is to study a 650 nm fiber optic digital link. In
this experiment, we will study a relationship between the input signal and the received
signal.
Apparatus Required:
1. Optical fiber trainer kit
2. Optical fiber
3. CRO
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the power supply to the board.
2. Ensure that all switch faults are OFF.
3. Make the following connections.
a. Connect the function generator 1 KHz square wave output to the emitter
1s input.
b. Connect the fiber optic cable between the emitters output and detectors
input.
c. Connect detector 1s output to the comparator 1s input.
d. Connect comparator 1s output to AC amplifier 1s input.
4. On the board switch emitter 1s driver to digital mode.
5. Switch ON the power.
6. Monitor both the inputs to comparator 1 (TP9 & 10). Slowly adjust the
comparator bias. Reset until DC level on the input (TP9) lies midway between
the high and low level of the signal on positive input (TP11).
7. Observe the input to emitter (TP 5) with output from AC amplifier 1 (TP 19)
and note that the two signals are same.
RESULT:





66

Connection Diagram:








Tabulation:

Sl.No. Distance of
Screen from
fiber(L cm)
Diameter of Spot
(W cm)
NA=Sin
max

amax
=Sin
-1
(NA)


















Function
Generator
Emitter
Circuit
To the
Numerical
aperture jig
Screen

67

NUMERICAL APERTURE DETERMINATION FOR
FIBERS
Aim:
To Measure the Numerical Aperture (NA) of an optical fiber
Equipments Required:
1. ST2501 Techbook with power supply cord
2. Optical Fibre cable
3. Numerical Aperture measurement Jig
Procedure:
1. Connect the Power supply cord to mains suppl.
2. Connect the Frequency Generator 1 KHz sine wave output to input of
emitter circuit. Adjust its amplitude at 5Vp-p.
3. Connect one end of fiber cable to the output socket of emitter circuit and
the other end to the numerical aperture measurement jig. Hold the white
screen facing the fiber such that its cut face is perpendicular to the axis of
the fiber.
4. Hold the white screen with 4 concentric circles (10, 15, 20 & 25 mm
diameter) vertically at a suitable distance to make the red spot from the
fiber coincide with 10 mm circle.
5. Record the distances of screen from the fiber end L and note the diameter
W of the spot.
6. Compute the numerical aperture from the formula given below.

7. Vary the distance between in screen and fiber optic cable and make it
coincide with one of the concentric circles. Note its distance.
8. Tabulate the various distances and diameter of the circles made on the
white screen and computer the numerical aperture from the formula given
above.

RESULT: