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Institute of Shipbuilding tech.

**Three marks questions
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Q) Define stress ,strain & modulus of elasticity and write the relationship between stress & strain? Stress: The force of resistance per unit area, offered by a body against deformation is known as stress. Mathematically stress is written as σ=P/A Where σ= stress P=external force or load A=cross-sectional area. Unit of stress: stress is represented in N/m2 Strain: The ratio of change in dimension to the orginal dimension when subjected to an external load is termed as strain and is denoted by e. It has no unit. Q) Write the relationship between modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio The relationship between modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio is given by

Q) Define modulus of rigidity,bulk modulus and modulus of elasticity. State relationship between them. Modulus of rigidity : The ratio of shear stress to the corresponding shear strain when the stress is within the elastic limit is known as modulus of rigidity or shear modulus and is denoted by C or G G= Modulus of elasticity : The ratio of tensile stress or compressive stress to the corresponding strain is known as modulus of elasticity or young’s modulus and is denoted by E. Explain stress and strain diagram for mildsteel in tension. E= Bulk modulus : When a body is subjected to an uniform direct stress in all the three mutually perpendicular directions, the ratio of the direct stress to the corresponding volumetric strain is found to be a constant is called as the bulk modulus of the material and is denoted by K.

This constant is termed as modulus of elasticity. Elasticity. This property is desirable for materials used in tools and machines. Stiffness. or Stress/strain=constant. Q ) Define hooks law Hooke’s law is stated as when a material is loaded within elastic limit. It is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation when the external forces are removed. 3. Longitudinal strain= e = Where L= length of the body. Strength. the stress is proportional to the strain produced by stress.linear strain how they related to each other? Longitudinal strain or linear strain: longitudinal strain is defined as the deformation of the body per unit length in the direction of the applied load. It is the ability of a material to resist deformation under stress. Lateral Strain = Q ) Define the following 1. . It may be noted that steel is more elastic than rubber. Thus. modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus. The modulus of elasticity is the measure of stiffness. P= tensile force acting on the body dL= increase in the length of the body in the direction of P Lateral strain : The lateral strain may be defined as changes in the lateral dimension per unit lateral dimension. K= Q) Relationship between modulus of elasticity.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. The internal resistance offered by a part to an externally applied force is called *stress. It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied forces without breaking or yielding. 2. E= Q) Explain the term lateral strain .

10. It is a special case of ductility which permits materials to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets. It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear. Malleability. It is property of a material which retains the deformation produced under load permanently.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of time. It is measured by the amount of energy that a unit volume of the material has absorbed after being stressed upto the point of fracture. aluminium. The machinability of a material can be measured in a number of ways such as comparing the tool life for cutting different materials or thrust required to remove the material at some given rate or the energy required to remove a unit volume of the material. This property is desirable in parts subjected to shock and impact loads. 13. 11. It also means the ability of a metal to cut another metal. it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called creep. in stamping images on coins and in ornamental work. Fatigue. When a material is subjected to repeated stresses. It is the property of a material which refers to a relative case with which a material can be cut. The malleable materials commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing malleability) are lead. 4. connecting rods. boilers and turbines. copper and aluminium. 6. A ductile material must be both strong and plastic. copper. zinc. scratching. Resilience. Hardness. wrought iron. snap off without giving any sensible elongation. It may be noted that brass can be easily machined than steel. It is the property of a material to resist fracture due to high impact loads like hammer blows. . gears. 5. The ductile material commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing ductility) are mild steel. it fails at stresses below the yield point stresses. It is a very important property of the metals and has a wide variety of meanings. 7. The failure is caused by means of a progressive crack formation which are usually fine and of microscopic size. Machinability. A malleable material should be plastic but it is not essential to be so strong. nickel. soft steel. 12. It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with the application of a tensile force. The toughness of the material decreases when it is heated. 9. Brittle materials when subjected to tensile loads. Brittleness. percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. This property of the material is necessary for forgings. The ductility is usually measured by the terms. It is measured by the amount of energy absorbed per unit volume within elastic limit. Such type of failure of a material is known asfatigue. tin and lead. Toughness. Ductility. This property is essential for spring materials. It is the property of a material opposite to ductility. 8. It is the property of breaking of a material with little permanent distortion. This property is considered in designing shafts. etc. Plasticity. springs. Creep. This property is considered in designing internal combustion engines. It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to resist shock and impact loads. Cast iron is a brittle material. deformation and machinability etc.

Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. The length over which extension is mesured is called gauge length. (b) Elastic Limit: This is the limiting value of stress up to which if the material is stressed and then released (unloaded) strain disappears completely and the original length is regained. (e) Ultimate Stress (D): This is the maximum stress the material can resist. (f) Breaking Point (E): The stress at which finally the specimen fails is called breaking point. the load starts reducing and the extension increases. After this stage load resisted and hence the stress developed starts reducing. This phenomenon is called yielding of material. (c) Upper Yield Point (B): This is the stress at which. The following salient points are observed on stress-strain curve: (a) Limit of Proportionality (A): It is the limiting value of the stress up to which stress is proportional to strain. Q ) Explain with neat sketch stress strain diagram? The stress-strain relation of any material is obtained by conducting tension test in the laboratories on standard specimen. hence. At this strain is 20 to 25 per cent.125 per cent and stress is about 250 N/mm2 (d) Lower Yield Point (C): At this stage the stress remains same but strain increases for some time.8 shows a typical tensile test specimen of mild steel. At this stage cross-sectional area at a particular section starts reducing very fast . This point is slightly beyond the limit of proportionality. At this stage strain is about 0. Load is increased gradually till the specimen breaks. Extensometer is fitted to test specimen which measures extension over the length L1. This stress is about 370. shown in Fig. After certain load. Its ends are gripped into universal testing machine. The load is applied gradually and at regular interval of loads extension is measured.This is called neck formation.400 N/mm2. 8. it is removed before this stage is reached and extension is measured from scale on the universal testing machine. extension increases at faster rate and the capacity of extensometer to measure extension comes to an end and.8. . Figure 8.

when subjected to two equal and opposite forces.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech.e. This ratio is Poisson’s ratio and it is generally denoted by 1/m or μ poissons ratio = linear strain /lateral strain Q) What are temperature stresses? Derive expression for temperature stress? Whenever there is some increase or decrease in the temperature of a body. Q) With the new sketch explain shear stress and shear strain ? The stress induced in a body. i. there will be change in volume.. Such stresses are known as thermal stresses. Hence. if the deformation of the body is prevented. A little consideration will show that if the body is allowed to expand or contract freely. some stresses are induced in the body. Thus ev =dV / V Where ev = Volumetric strain dV = Change in volume V = Original volume It can be shown that volumetric strain is sum of strains in three mutually perpendicular directions. But. The ratio of the change in volume to original volume is called volumetric strain. ev = e x + ey + ez . it undergoes deformation in all directions. when the material is stressed within the elastic limit. with the rise or fall of the temperature. it causes the body to expand or contract. no stresses are induced in the body. which are acting tangentially across the resisting section as a result of which the body tends to shear off across the section is known as shear stress and corresponding strain is known as shear strain. Q) Define and explain lateral strain and poisons ratio? The ratio of lateral strain to the linear strain is a constant for a given material. Q) Define volumetric strain? When a member is subjected to stresses.

when loaded externally is called resilience. the body first touches the platform on which it is to be placed. just above the platform on which it is to be placed. This is the case of suddenly applied load. The normal stress acting on principal planes is called principal stress. Q ) Define modulus of resilience. Strain energy is the energy absorbed or stored by a member when work is done on it to deform it. Q) Give example for gradually applied load and suddenly applied load. Q) Explain the term elastic limit and working stress? The maximum stress upto which a material can exhibit the property of elasticity is called the elastic limit. the body is first of all. Q ) Distinguish between suddenly applied and impact load. The load which falls from a height or strike and body with certain momentum is called falling or impact load.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. The proof resilience per unit volume of a material is known as modulus of resilience. The planes on which no tangential or shear stresses are acting are called as principal planes. This is the case of gradually applied load. If the chain breaks at once at this moment the whole load of the body begins to act on the platform. 2. Working stress= Yield stress/Factor of safety. Cantilever beam: A beam which is fixed at one end and at the other end is known as cantilever beam. Example for gradually applied load When we lower a body with the help of a crane. Q) Define principal planes and principal stresses. the platform goes on loading till it is fully loaded by the body. and this stress is called Working Stress. Simply supported beam: A beam supported or resting freely on the supports at its both end is known as simply supported beam . Q ) Define strain energy. On further releasing the chain. Q) Define Resilience: The strain energy stored by the body within elastic limit. When the load is applied all of a sudden and not step wise is called is suddenly applied load. Example for suddenly applied load When we lower a body with the help of a crane. The maximum stress to which any member is designed is much less than the ultimate stress. Q ) What are the different types of beams? 1.

Z = I/ymax . Fixed beam: A beam whose both end are fixed or built-in walls is known as fixed beam. 3. Fixed support 2. concentrated load or point load 2. Continuous beam: A beam which is having more than two supports is known as continuous beam Q ) Name the various types of load. Uniformly distributed load Q ) Define shear force at a section of a beam. Q ) Define bending moment at a section of a beam. about the neutral axis divided by the outer most point from the neutral axis. Uniformly load 3. Q ) What is meant by point of contraflexure? It is the point where the bending moment is zero where it change sign from positive to negative or vice – versa. The algebraic sum of the moments of all the force acting to the right or left of the section is known as bending of the beam.I. 5. Hinged support 3. Roller support Q ) What is section modulus (Z)? Section modulus is the ratio of M. Q ) Mention the different types of supports? 1. 1. 4.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. The algebraic sum of the vertical force at any section of a beam to the right or left of the section is known as shear force. Overhanging beam: if the end portion of a beam is extended beyond the support isknown as overhanging beam.

Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. Q ) State and explain parallel axis theorem and perpendicular axis theorem? Q) Write the bending equation on the theory of simple bending ?explain the various parameters involved? Bending euation .

only and that length of the beam is said to be in pure bending or simple bending. length and given torque. (iii)Normal cross sections of the shaft. independently.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. Q ) Define torsion A shaft is said to be in torsion. . remain plane after bending also. So hollow shafts are economical when compared to solid shafts. weight of a hollow shaft will be less. 2. remain plane and circular after twist. The torque is equal to the product of the force applied (tangentially to the ends of a shaft) and radius of the shaft. when torque is acting. Q ) What are the assumptions made in the theory of simple bending? 1. Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract. Q ) Why hollow circular shafts are preferred when compared to solid circular shafts? Comparison by strength. (ii) The twist along the shaft is uniform. when equal and opposite torques are applied at the two ends of the shaft. Q ) What are the assumptions made in the theory of torsion? (i) The material of the shaft is uniform throughout. The transverse sections. remain straight with their magnitude unchanged. after twist. The beam material is stressed. which were plane before bending.e. within its elastic limit and thus obeys Hooke’s law. (iv) All diameters of the normal cross section which were straight before twist. Q ) State the theory of simple bending? If a length of a beam is subjected to a constant bending moment and no share force (i. 3. Comparison by weight: For the same material. of the layer. Q )Define neutral axis of a cross section The line of intersection of the neutral surface on a cross-section is called the neutral axis of a cross-section. which were plane and circular before twist. above or below it. thereby hollow shaft is stronger than the solid shaft. zero shear force) then the stresses will be set up in that length of the beam due to B. The torque transmitted by the hollow shaft is greater than the solid shaft. There is no stress at the axis. 4.M. The stresses set up in that length of beam are known as bending stress. The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous and isotropic.

sectional dimensions. The direct stress is very small compared to the bending stress at the buckling stage. If the ratio of thickness to its internal diameter is more than 1/20. The stress distribution is not uniform over the thickness of the wall. the longitudinal axis of the beam deviates from its original position because of the bending of the beam. Q )What are the assumptions made in Euler’s theory to arrive at buckling load on column? The material of the column is homogeneous and isotropic The linear relationship between stress and strain exists and critical load is correct only if the proportionality limit of the material is not exceeded. . A column is said to be short column if the ratio of the effective length to its least lateral dimension does not exceed 12. Q ) What is meant by deflection of beams? When a flexural member is subjected to transverse loads. This deviation at any cross section is called as deflection. A column is said to be long column when the ratio of the effective length to its least lateral dimension does not exceed 12. thickness of the wall of the cylindrical vessel is less than 1/15 to 1/20 of its internal diameter. Q ) Define hoop and longitudinal stress Hoop stress:The stress acting along the circumference of the cylinder is called circumference or hoop stress Longitudinal stress: The stress acting along the length of the cylinder is known as longitudinal stress. Stress distribution is uniform over the thickness of the wall. then cylindrical shell is known as thick cylinders. Q ) Distinguish between thin walled cylinder and thick walled cylinder? In thin walled cylinder.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. Q ) What is column? Column is a vertical structural member subjected to a compressive load and its length is relatively long in proportion to their cross. The column is initially straight and is axially loaded and the column section is uniform The column fails by buckling alone. Q ) Differentiate between short column and long column.

Material obeys Hooke’s law.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. Q ) What are assumptions made in the analysis of thin cylinders? Radial stress is negligible. Material is homogeneous and isotropic. . Hoop stress is constant along the thickness of the shell.

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