# Prepared by Vinod Bhagat

Institute of Shipbuilding tech.

Three marks questions
Q) Define stress ,strain & modulus of elasticity and write the relationship between stress & strain? Stress: The force of resistance per unit area, offered by a body against deformation is known as stress. Mathematically stress is written as σ=P/A Where σ= stress P=external force or load A=cross-sectional area. Unit of stress: stress is represented in N/m2 Strain: The ratio of change in dimension to the orginal dimension when subjected to an external load is termed as strain and is denoted by e. It has no unit. Q) Write the relationship between modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio The relationship between modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio is given by

Q) Define modulus of rigidity,bulk modulus and modulus of elasticity. State relationship between them. Modulus of rigidity : The ratio of shear stress to the corresponding shear strain when the stress is within the elastic limit is known as modulus of rigidity or shear modulus and is denoted by C or G G= Modulus of elasticity : The ratio of tensile stress or compressive stress to the corresponding strain is known as modulus of elasticity or young’s modulus and is denoted by E. Explain stress and strain diagram for mildsteel in tension. E= Bulk modulus : When a body is subjected to an uniform direct stress in all the three mutually perpendicular directions, the ratio of the direct stress to the corresponding volumetric strain is found to be a constant is called as the bulk modulus of the material and is denoted by K.

This constant is termed as modulus of elasticity. Elasticity. This property is desirable for materials used in tools and machines. Stiffness. or Stress/strain=constant. Q ) Define hooks law Hooke’s law is stated as when a material is loaded within elastic limit. It is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation when the external forces are removed. 3. Longitudinal strain= e = Where L= length of the body. Strength. the stress is proportional to the strain produced by stress.linear strain how they related to each other? Longitudinal strain or linear strain: longitudinal strain is defined as the deformation of the body per unit length in the direction of the applied load. It is the ability of a material to resist deformation under stress. Lateral Strain = Q ) Define the following 1. . It may be noted that steel is more elastic than rubber. Thus. modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus. The modulus of elasticity is the measure of stiffness. P= tensile force acting on the body dL= increase in the length of the body in the direction of P Lateral strain : The lateral strain may be defined as changes in the lateral dimension per unit lateral dimension. K= Q) Relationship between modulus of elasticity.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. The internal resistance offered by a part to an externally applied force is called *stress. It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied forces without breaking or yielding. 2. E= Q) Explain the term lateral strain .

10. It is a special case of ductility which permits materials to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets. It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear. Malleability. It is property of a material which retains the deformation produced under load permanently.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech. When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of time. It is measured by the amount of energy that a unit volume of the material has absorbed after being stressed upto the point of fracture. aluminium. The machinability of a material can be measured in a number of ways such as comparing the tool life for cutting different materials or thrust required to remove the material at some given rate or the energy required to remove a unit volume of the material. This property is desirable in parts subjected to shock and impact loads. 13. 11. It also means the ability of a metal to cut another metal. it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called creep. in stamping images on coins and in ornamental work. Fatigue. When a material is subjected to repeated stresses. It is the property of a material which refers to a relative case with which a material can be cut. The malleable materials commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing malleability) are lead. 4. connecting rods. boilers and turbines. copper and aluminium. 6. A ductile material must be both strong and plastic. copper. zinc. scratching. Resilience. Hardness. wrought iron. snap off without giving any sensible elongation. It may be noted that brass can be easily machined than steel. It is the property of a material to resist fracture due to high impact loads like hammer blows. . gears. 5. The ductile material commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing ductility) are mild steel. it fails at stresses below the yield point stresses. It is a very important property of the metals and has a wide variety of meanings. 7. The failure is caused by means of a progressive crack formation which are usually fine and of microscopic size. Machinability. A malleable material should be plastic but it is not essential to be so strong. nickel. soft steel. 12. It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with the application of a tensile force. The toughness of the material decreases when it is heated. 9. Brittle materials when subjected to tensile loads. Brittleness. percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. This property of the material is necessary for forgings. The ductility is usually measured by the terms. It is measured by the amount of energy absorbed per unit volume within elastic limit. Such type of failure of a material is known asfatigue. tin and lead. Toughness. Ductility. This property is essential for spring materials. It is the property of a material opposite to ductility. 8. It is the property of breaking of a material with little permanent distortion. This property is considered in designing shafts. etc. Plasticity. springs. Creep. This property is considered in designing internal combustion engines. It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to resist shock and impact loads. Cast iron is a brittle material. deformation and machinability etc.

when subjected to two equal and opposite forces.Prepared by Vinod Bhagat Institute of Shipbuilding tech.e. This ratio is Poisson’s ratio and it is generally denoted by 1/m or μ poissons ratio = linear strain /lateral strain Q) What are temperature stresses? Derive expression for temperature stress? Whenever there is some increase or decrease in the temperature of a body. Q) With the new sketch explain shear stress and shear strain ? The stress induced in a body. i. there will be change in volume.. Such stresses are known as thermal stresses. Hence. if the deformation of the body is prevented. A little consideration will show that if the body is allowed to expand or contract freely. some stresses are induced in the body. Thus ev =dV / V Where ev = Volumetric strain dV = Change in volume V = Original volume It can be shown that volumetric strain is sum of strains in three mutually perpendicular directions. But. The ratio of the change in volume to original volume is called volumetric strain. ev = e x + ey + ez . it undergoes deformation in all directions. when the material is stressed within the elastic limit. with the rise or fall of the temperature. it causes the body to expand or contract. no stresses are induced in the body. which are acting tangentially across the resisting section as a result of which the body tends to shear off across the section is known as shear stress and corresponding strain is known as shear strain. Q) Define and explain lateral strain and poisons ratio? The ratio of lateral strain to the linear strain is a constant for a given material. Q) Define volumetric strain? When a member is subjected to stresses.