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COLLEGE SERIES OF GREEK AUTHORS
EDITED UNDEK THE SUPEKVISION OF

JOHX WILLLA.MS WHITE AND CHARLES BURTOX GULICK

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE

GREEK DIALECTS
GRAMMAR
SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS

GLOSSARY

BY

CARL DARLING BUCK
PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AND INDO-EUROPEAN COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

GINN AND COMPANY
BOSTON
.

NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON

Entered at Stationers' Hall
Copyright,
1910,

by

John "Williams White and Charles Burton Gulick
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
910.1

Cftt jatftenteum i)rtg<

GINN ANU COMI'ANV PRIhTUKS HUSTON

I'KOU.S.A.

TO
THE MEMORY OF

THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR

.

or as a substantial foundation for a critical study of these literary dialects. has remained unfilled up to the present time. but also by rather full grammatical notes. or merely for the ability to handle intelligently the niimerous dialect inscriptions which are important in the investigation of Greek institutions. the case of several dialects the material there given vas quite over- shadowed meantime in importance by the discoveries of recent years. 1883). AVith regard to the explanatory matter. or for a greater appreciation of the variety of speech in the Greek world.PREFACE The aim of this Avork is to furnish in concise form the essential Hitherto the requirements material for an introductory study of the Greek dialects. namely of more explanatory matter for the assistance of beginners in the subject. which it Avas equally a part of the plan to supply. there has been no single volume intended to fulfill of college and graduate students who wish to gain a first-hand knowledge of Greek dialects. which pro^ed useful for many years. only half suspected from the few dialects employed in literature. vhether for a better understanding of historical Greek grammar. But another need. and made a selection for this purpose. with references to the grammars where the . the first ])lan was to accompany the inscriptions not only by exegetical. In the this situation has been relieved by the publication of Solmsen's Inscriptiones Graecae ad inlustrandas dialectos selectae. It is now more than ten years since the author formed the plan of publishing a brief collection of Greek dialect inscriptions with explanatory notes for the use of students. At that time Cauer's Delectus inscriptionum Graeca- rum (2d ed. though here again in the meantime a book has been announced as in preparation (Thumb's Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte) Avhich presumably aims to serve the same purpose as the present one. had already In ceased to be a representative collection of dialect inscriptions.

as the most competent critics will also be the peculiarity in the vast and first to admit. fuller information of this kind has been brought together than is to be found in any other general work. . Put. the not sifted out from the discussion of the usual literary forms. and it is be- lieved that. P)ut tlie desire to include all that was most essential to the student in this single vol- ume mar led to the expansion of the introduction into a concise " of the Dialects. lect or. Without it the dialectic peculiarities are student Avould be forced at every turn to consult either the larger Greek Grammars. further- the danger of having overlooked some stray occurrence of a given still much more. Especial pains have been taken to define as precisely as possible the dialectic distribution of the several peculiarities. Furthermore. such statements of distribution are subject to the need of continual revision in the light of the constantly appearing new material. the desired brevity could be secured only by eliminating almost wholly any detailed discussion of disputed points and citation of the views of others. 129-153). are added in the Ajipendix. naturally. and the comparisons are almost Avholly within Greek itself. For. though briefly stated and without exhaustive lists of examples. clia- Some of the ad- vantages which this latter method undoubtedly possesses we have aimed to preserve by means of the Summaries (pp. but even these are kept vitllin narrow limits. no one can be safe from scattered material. the works devoted to the Greek dialects. this Grammar is distinctly not intended as a manual of comparative Greek grammar. was completed. since Ahrens. where. which began in Septemadopted in the ber 1908. Highly important as are the dialects for the comparative study of the Greek language. at the have consisted in separate grammars of a single most." may prove to Gramand the author has come to believe that this be the most useful part of the Avork. and. or else the various grammars of special dialects. sition to those whether in agreement or in oppoSome notes and references text. It restricts itseK to the discussion of matters in which dialectic differences are to be observed. of a single group of dialects. Several of these references are to articles which have appeared since the printing of the Grammar.vi peculiarity iu question PREFACE was treated as a Avhole. aside from discussions of special topics.

in Arcadian to read first no. It is sometimes advisable for a student to depart from the order in Avhich the inscriptions are given. as it might appear. and. from the point of view of the dialect in question. but this again is the result of longsettled couAaction that this system. IG. and some few examples collection. except for necessary reduction. has nothing abnormal about it. vii for not attempting in the Grammar a fuller account of the peculiarities exhibited by our literary texts in dialect are set The that Selected Inscriptions show such a noticeable degree of coin- cidence with the selection made by Solmsen. The later inscriptions Avith their various types of dialect mixture are of great interest. Detailed discussion of the problems of etc. as used for example by Baunack in his Inschriften von Gortyn (1885) and his edition of the Delphian inscriptions (1891). he will not feel the need of a comment or reference for a form that. constitutional antiquities. but of an independent selection. in the vork cited above. adhered to with probably not over half a dozen For a brief collection the choice of the most representative inscriptions from a time Avhen the dialects are comparar tively unmixed is fairly clear. it is perhaps well to state expressly that this is not the result Avith of having simply adopted a large part of his selections some additions.PREFACE The reasons forth on p. before beginning the inscriptions of a its main characSummaries (180-273).g. and to begin his study of a dialect with one of the later inscriptions. is The brevity of the notes If. of the inscriptions is which are involved in ])rin(n})al not called for in a Avork the aim of which is linguistic. chronology. justified by the assistance giA^en in other parts of the book. 18. leaving until later the more difficult nos. of his Avork. 17. the Glossar}^ makes it unnecessary to comment on given dialect. of these is have been included. Furthermore. e. But to represent this phase adequately possible only in a much more comprehensive The transcription employed is also identical Avith tliat used by Solmsen in his second edition. made some some years before the appearance substitutions. the student familiarizes himself with teristics by the help of the many many individual Avords. is the one best adapted for a work of this kind. 14. .

inscriptional and literary.viii PREFACE besides serving as an index to the all The Glossary and Index. The late Professor Seymour. ^^ Smyth. because of other interests. the editors invited tribute me my contemplated Avork to the Series. finding that Professor Smyth. was Some time after this book editors of the College Series ' to con- quite willing to relinquish the task. and before his lamented death read over a large j^art of my I am also under oljligation to Professor Gulick for the great care Avith Avhich he has read the proofs and for important suggestions. But. mar. I learned that the had already arranged for a dealing with the monuments. is Gram- intended to inchide words occurring in the Selected In- scrii)tions Avhich are nut to be found in Liddell and Scott. The proofreading it. in the office of the publishers has been so notably accurate and scholarly that I cannot omit to express my appreciation of r r Chicago. gave me valuable counsel on the general manuscript. was hrst planned. November 1909 . under plan. by Professor H. or exhibit unusual meanings. which represent the different dialects of Greece. whom more than tAventy years ago I had read my first dialect inscriptions.

CONTENTS PAET IXTRODUCTIOX ClASSIFICATIOX and IxTEREELATlOX OF THE DiALECTS I: GRAMMAR OF THE DIALECTS ... Page 1 The Dialects ix Literature 12 PHONOLOGY Alphabet Vowels FOR before and after Liquids FOR a IX Other Cases FOR 15 17 17 18 e 19 19 19 FROM € IN AtTIC-IoXIC BEFORE A VoWEL BEFORE V ix Arcado-Cyfriax t BESIDE e IX Other Cases FROM e BEFORE IX XORTHWEST GrEEK West Greek = East Greek e 1 FROM FROM e e 20 .. . Boeotian etc Secondary e AND 0.25 25 2o 2...20 . . 23 23 e FROM AFTER IN AeOLIC CoNSOXAXTAL FROM AxTEVOCALIC t t 1 IX LkSIUAN AND TlIES24 24 24 SALIAX Interchange of £ and from . • 21 21 22 FROM ei IX IX ai Eleax TlIESSALIAX AXI) BoEOTIAX .. 23 23 FROJI Lesbiax I — . "Spurious IJiphthonos"" ix .) IX TlIESSALIAX AXD IN . . ESPECIALLY FROM V uj IN ArC ADO-C YPRIAX . .

) 33 33 34 30 38 In OR e 7} + Vowel ^ + Vowel + Vowel + Vowel 38 Notes to Preceding Assimilation of Vowels Epenthetic Vowels Anaptvctic Vowels 39 40 41 41 41 Vowel-Gradation Consonants F In General fr 43 44 FOR Initial f before a Vowel 44 Intervocalic f POSTCONSONANTAL f f BEFORE Consonants Consonantal Spiritls Asper. . . ev in East Ionic of . .Page DlPHTHONOS ai IN ei FROM FKOM FROM at IN Boeotian TUESSALIAN 28 28 28 fl € t ei ei IN Boeotian 20 ai. . Monophthong € before Vowels In Lesbian 30 30 31 Insertion of Loss of 31 31 Long Diphthongs In General . . .. . 32 et FROM Non-Dipiithongal A\)\vel Combination (Contraction etc. General from .. Rhotacism 45 40 47 48 49 51 52 Change of to - 53 . . eo. . Psilosis Loss OF Intervocalic ocr. il. FROM 01 IN Boeotian 01 BEFORE VoWELS 29 29 30 In General FROM ao. f. . ...

Original S.57 58 59 Transposition of a Liquid. Dissimilation. and Glttuuals Nasals and Liquids Nasal before Consonant . Q2 62 62 63 •. . ou Loss by Dissimilation 60 Cretan from PT.. - + t Intera'OCalic v<r + Liquid or Nasal 61 Original Intervocalic + Consonant Secondary Intervocalic Final . .. ... 67 Assimilation. . L.. Dissimilation.. Dentals. 66 - m . FROM Double Liquids and Nasals .. and Transposition. - 64 65 66 -. <. .^ 00 00 in Lesbian and Tiiessalian 61 01 P.CONTENTS ... and Transposition of Consonants Assimilation in Consonant Groups 68 69 Transposition in Consonant Groups Assimilation.. and Aspirates Interchange of it and itt Interchange of Labials. . ". Sonants. <r<r... V XI Page 54 55 . between Non-Contiguous Consonants Doubling of Consonants 69 70 Changes in External Combination In General Elision 71 72 72 Aphaeresis Shortening of a Final Long Vowel Crasis 72 72 Apocope Consonant Assijiilation Final Final Final v s 74 75 76 77 . 55 56 .VrOXIAN FROM Interchange of Surds.

. t> 77 77 . Interrogative.. Time.. and ..... 95 97 99 100 Verbs Augment and Peduplication Active Personal Endings Middle Personal Endings I. Consonant Doubling . 92 93 Manner Prepositional AND Other Adverbs Prepositions Peculiarities in Form Peculiarities in Meaning and Construction ..78 78 MOVABLH Accent 79 INFLECTION Nouns and Adjectives Feminine Masculine o-IStems o-SteiMS -88 80 81 81 Consonant Stems -STEMS 1-Stems in General 82 83 84 v-Stems 85 85 80 87 87 Nouns in -evs Some Irregular Nouns Comparison of Adjectives Numerals Cardinals and Ordinals Pronouns Personal Pronouns possessives 90 91 91 REFLExnE Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Relative. and Indefinite Pronouns Adverbs and Conjunctions Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place..mperative Active and Middle Future AND Aorist Perfect Subjunctive Optative Infinitive 103 103 105 100 107 109 110 112 112 Unthesiatic Inflection of Contract Verbs 114 .. .CONTENTS Page Final Mute 4.

...CONTENTS Middle Participle in -e^evos Type Transfer of ^t.. ... -TTfp = -TTjs -tos = -eos = --ovSas . Interchange of Different ^owEL Stems in First Member of Compound..Verbs to the Type of Contract Verbs Some Other Interchanges in the Present System The Verb " To Be " xiii -... .... .. 120 120 121 121 121 121 121 121 . .... .- -...... . . . -5. etc 122 Patronymic Adjective instead of Genitive Singular 122 . Page 114 115 . Individual Cases of Variation in Suffix -repos -l8ios .115 . . . .117 WORD-FORMATION On the Form and Use of Certain Suffixes and Certain Peculiarities OF Composition -Tjtos = -etos Type xapleis -rts..... 120 -. .... .. . in -kX^os . . 115 . . -ffis. SYNTAX The Cases The Genitive The Dative The Accusative The Moods The Subjunctive The Optative The Imperative and the Word Order 124 125 125 125 12G Infinitive 128 128 SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL GROUPS AND DIALECTS East Greek Attic-Ionic Ionic 129 130 132 Arc ado-Cyprian Arcadian Cyprian 133 134 .. ... Proper Names Aio^oTos.... . . . 119 119 119 120 120 120 ... .. ...... . . ..

SURVIVAL OF THE DIALECTS GROWTH OF VARIOUS FORMS OF The Attic Koivi] The D()ric The Northwest Greek Dialects 154 156 157 Kotvn 158 Fokjis. Hyper-Doric Revival of 160 PAET IONIC II: SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS 164 169 East Ionic Central Ionic West Ionic (Euboean) 171 174 180 183 ARCADIAN CYPRIAN LESBIAN THESSALIAN Pelasgiotis Thessaliotis 190 195 BOEOTIAN PHOCIAN Delphian Exclusive of Delphi . 196 . . « 205 212 . . Artificial Hybrid Forms.xiv CONTENTS Page Aeolio LusniAN TllESSALIAN Boeotian' 135 135 136 139 141 142 143 West Greek NouTiiwEST Greek Phocian LOCRIAN 144 144 146 147 Elean Doric Laconian Heraclean Argolic Corinthian 148 148 149 149 150 Megarian Rhodian COAN Theran Cretan 151 151 .

CONTENTS LOCRIAN XV Page 214 ELEAN NORTHWEST GREEK LACOXIAN HERACLEAN ARGOLIC CORINTHIAN 219 223 225 231 239 247 MEGARIAN RHODIAN COAN THERAN CRETAN APPENDIX Selected Bibliography Notes and References 249 201 2 259 261 281 287 GLOSSARY AND INDEX 299 CHARTS ILLUSTRATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF IMPORTANT PECULIARITIES Plates I-IV DIALECT MAI^ OF GREECE Plate V .

Other abbreviations which are occasionally employed will be readily understood. = Latin Germ. = Cyprian Cyren. 1. = Sicilian Sicyon. . see under the Bibliography. Dor. Cypr. pp. =: Lesbian Greek Pamph. = of Melos Mess. Skt. = Epidaurian Epir. = Attic-Ionic Av. = Delphian = Pamphylian = Phocian = of Rhegiiim Rhod. = of Nisyrus N.W. Acarn. = Elean Eng. — Argolic (of Argolis) Astyp. = of Glynthus Crop. = Achaean Aegin. = Eretrian Eub. = Epirotan Eretr. = Arcadian Arc. = Theran Thess. Arc. list lias ])een = Sicyonian = Sanskrit Stir. = Arcado-Cyprian Arg. = Chalcidian Cnid. = Tegean Thas. subj. pi. Phoc. = dative. = Megarian Mel. imv. = Cnidian Corcyr. = of t)ropiis Lesb. = of Dodona = Doric El. and local sources Amorg. = Aeginetan Aetol. = Aetolian Agrig.-Ion. = Ephesian Epid. dat.-Cypr. Rheg. = Ionic Lac. 281 ff. = literary (forms quoted from the literary dialects without mention of the individual authors). For abbreviations of modern works of reference. = of Styra Sybar. = Corcyraean Corinth. = of Tliasos Ther. = grammatical (forms (juoted from the ancient iiramniariaiis). ascpd. of the forms quoted. = Attic Att. of Calymna Carpath.Grk. = Thcssalian Troez. And.= subjunctive. Note also the more general gram. Liddell and Scott's generally followed. — Avestan Boeot. = Acanianian Ach. = of Miletus Mycen. = = of Agrigentum = of Amorgos of Andania = German = Gortynian Heracl. = Euboean Dodon. = line. = singular. = Rhodian Selin. of Chalcedon Chalcid. = of Selinus Sicil.ABBREVIATIONS The foUowiiifi abbreviations are einijloyed for languages. or Avest. dialects. and lit. sg. = English Epiies. = Syracusan Teg. = of Stiris Styr. = of Hermione Ion. = of Troezen 111 abbreviating tlie names of Greek authors and of their works. = Corinthian Cret. = iiiiperativ'e. = Mcssenian Mil. = Mantinean Meg. = Boeotian Calymn. = Argive (of Argos) Argol. Gortyn. of Caipathus Clialced. = Laconian Lat. = of Astypalaea Att. = of Cyrene Delph. Locr. = of Mycene Nisyr. = Cretan = = = = Locrian Mant. = Heraclean Herm. — compound. = of Sybaris Syrac. = plural. = Northwest Olynth.

on the coast of Asia Minor. and Doric elements in the people and speech of Greece is an undoubted fact of Greek history. most of wliich play no part whatever in apart from some scattered glosses. ^ Wlien the ancient grammarians spoke Greece — of the four dialects of Attic. And as the lonians.I: GRAMMAE OF THE DIALECTS INTRODUCTION Classification and Intekrelation of the Dialects 1. or had once existed. either in the earlier Greek tradition classi- or in the linguistic evidence. making this an all-inclusive it These three elements were precipitated. wliich furnished the occasion and object of their study. it and Dorians of Asia Minor were colonists from Greece proper. and Charts 1 I and la at the end of the book. Aeolic. was a natural and proper inference of the historians that they reflected ethnic divisions which also existed. The existence of Ionic. in 1 See also the Summaries of Characteristics. 180-273. where their juxtaposition gave rise to the his- torical recognition of the distinction. for fication. dialects represent only a But these literary few of the many forms of speech current literature. would be entirely to soil us were it not for the wealth of inscriptions which the of Greece has yielded in modern times. in Greece. as were. Aeolians. to which some added the KOLvrj as a fifth — they had in mind solely the literary dialects. But there no warrant. Ionic. . and Doric. and one of first importance to an understanding of the dialect relais tions. Aeolic. and.

57). Megara (e. Epidaurus (e.g. and Thucydides linguistic evidence is equally unmistakable. naturally. Of a still remoter period the view has been advanced that the lonians formed the first wave of Greek migration.26. much more problematical.g. Strabo 9. 2 That is. home and many of Achilles. . the most remote from the historical period. Pans. 7. This is.145-146.^ GKEEK DIALECTS As to [l who were the Dorians of Greece proper They formed a well-defined group throughout the historical period. 7. (e. are lonic. in a period contemporaneous with the Aeolic and Achaean occupation of other parts of Greece (see below). The The only uncertainty here is as to the extent of territory which was once Ionic. That the na7ne Ionian.56) was an accepted fact in Greek history. Such generic terms are everywhere of gradual growth. 1.392).^ significant for the Argolic Acte. but in the east. 2.73). of Attica That the lonians were akin to the inhabitants both in Herodotus 1. yet we cannot doubt before the migration were not confined to Attica. as also of their of their place-names eponymous hero had their counterpart in Thessaly. relationship of the Doric and Northwest Greek dialects (see below). Hdt. But Thessaly was the scene . There are various accounts according to which lonians once occupied the southern shore of the Corinthian gulf. and it is in cult and legend. for example. the later Achaea (e. and the tradition that they came originally from the Northwest is completely borne out by the close there was of course no mystery. and Cynuria (Hdt. did not gain its current application on the mainland. is of no consequence.g. and quite justifiable as a matter of convenience. If these accomits in themselves that the lonians are of questionable value. for theirs was the earliest migration to Asia Minor.g.2). and for a time occupied also the territory which with the next wave of migration became Aeolic or Achaean. were in fact the much-discussed Pelasgians. tions of Epidaurus The close rela- and Troezen with Athens. to apply the same names to these earlier divisions. 8. of their favorite legends. In Herodotus we find the tradition that the Thessalians of the liistorical period were invaders from the west who occupied 1 It is equally natural. and the Athenians are called Ionic (6. reasonable to assume that at least the entire shore of the Saronic gulf was once The affinities of the Aeolians were more obscure. the Aeolus.82.94).2 the mother country.

1] INTEODUCTION land.s). 7.12 yap . These three have several notable characteristics in 201 and Chart I). not a part of tlie old Aeolic population of Greek invaders from Epirus (cf. id. or some of them. • Boiwrots Toh Thuc. See 201. we credit the state- ment of Thucydides that the Boeotian invaders were from Arne. Ildt. of which there are some specific indications. The Boeoby Thucydides. .e. But in ele- Boeotian there is of West Greek I). The Aeolic element is to be ascribed rather to ihe tribes. However obscure such details may be. 210. 4€ ^ $ i. but were overrun by West Greek tribes which adopted the speech Thessaly.s of Methymna. and at the same time shares dialects.^ 3 this the linguistic what had hitherto been an Aeolic evidence is and with is in perfect accord. comnamely the Boeo- (of the Le.57 . common (see and are known as the Aeohc an even stronger admixture (see dialects. were ^vyyevQv re Thuc. Boeon). — in fact the Aeolian. . Teiiedos. comprising the early stratum. and Chart tians also are called Aeolians dialect is.2 8 -. but a tribe of AVest of the earlier inhabitants in greater or less degree.. tliat not only Thessaly diate lands of Phocis and Boeotia but the interme- and Locris. like the Thessalians who forced them onward. oi who founded eret these cities. '^ yfjv . I. 1.sbian. For Thessalian of all dialects the most of closely related to Lesbian.17(3 ^. Mt. 202. whence they had been driven by the Thessalians. etc. the evidence is perfectly clear that both Boeotia and Thessaly were once Aeolic. 3.^ we should recognize in these Boeotians. and even southern Aetolia 1 wep 2 pelled to fight against the Aeolians tians. ments than in Thessalian 217 and Chart If the historical explanation of which must be the same. 7. this in some of the characteristics of the AVest Greek admixture West Greek elements being somewhat stronger in Thessaliotis than in Pelasgiotis.^ and the Boeotian next to Thessalian. the most closely related to Lesbian. as for example the Minyans of Orchomenos. It is a natural presumption.

though later Ionic. .^ the error of which has long rots iv ^ . 42 is 7« ^oXuynos ?. vvveTi AhXeis .' tradi- The Aetolian occupation of of Elis was an accepted and the existence an Aeolic element in the dialect of Elis.4 all GREEK DIALECTS that portion of Greece north of Attica [l legends of early Greece — was once Aeolic. by means of is an not unwarranted extension of Aeolic to include everything that Ionic or Doric. As is for southern Aetolia. which plays a r61e in the Phocaea in Asia JVIinor. tion. though their name was taken by the invaders.3). -. . unfortunately. or in general the division into Ionic. 4. . '. Greek they had nevertheless adopted certain characteristics of the earlier Aeolic Aetolian and brought them to Elis. this statement of since been recognized.102 Thuc. limits within But we have passed beyond the which the term and Aeolic.333 wavres yap » AloXeis 9. later. 1 2 Thuc.. surely belonged originally to the strip of Aeolic colonies. which and it is is unknown foimd in various Corinthian colonies (107. which is found in eastern Locris. and in the also which. as the dative plural of consonant stems in -€ (107. . with any propriety be applied to the peoples and dialects historical period. It is only in Strabo that these three groups are made into an all-inclusive system of classification.. can of the Aeolic. was believed to be a colony of Phocis. that is AVest Greek. ? . .^ a noteworthy fact that the dative plural in in other Doric dialects. West Greek. this if may be brought into Elean is connection with we assume that while the invaders were Aetolians in the distinctly a AVest later sense. . Doric. trtpl 6 Strabo 8. as dialect. 3.^ and the probability that the Aetolians of the Homeric period were Aeolic. eir' 4 AlyiaXbv ' aayaybvv.' ) 6€'. the region of Calydon and Pleuron was once called Aeolis according to Thucydides. like the dative plural in -eaai.3). And yet it is. Corinth was also once occupied by Aeohans according is to Thucydides.. that Strabo's.% '^leyap4v ivTOs (sc. dialect of Phocis there are actually some relics of Aeolic speech.

226. The East Greek are the the peoples Old Hellenic " dialects. also calls Aeolic. remained in obscurity in when the West Greek peoples the northwest. Locrians. In fact the most fundamental division that into these of the Greek dialects dialects. them under any one of the three groups. are. in spite of some few traces of Aeolic as mentioned above. If See 223 with a.5 ^ . the is West Greek and the East Greek " terms referring to their location prior to the great migrations. which Strabo the three groups. all of Northwest Greek There is scarcely one of the general characteristics com on to the Doric dialects in which they do not share. . Indeed modern scholars do often class them under " Doric in the wider sense. . our 5 has often been taken as representative of ancient tradition and still colors. it is unquestionably Doric to which they have the best claim. Thucydi- nor any early writer. though. with that of Elis. iv rrj WeKonovvqau) . were not. of the Thessalian and Boeotian. '. and if Strabo and our maps so classed them there would be no very serious objection.1] INTRODUCTION in the literal sense. which may be conveniently designated the dialects. des. that is those employed by who held the stage almost exclusively in the period represented by the Homeric poems. as explained above. are they ever brought under any one of Their dialects. and Chart I. ' ^. as Strabo's statement implies. Neither in Herodotus. though they also have certain peculiarities of their own. dialects belonging in . \€• . ^ 'HXe/ots. called Aeolic. The historical Phocians. most closely related to the Doric dialects. \.. Aetohans. etc." But on the whole it seems preferable to retain the term Doric in its historical application and employ West Greek as the to classify we were comprehensive term to include the Northwest Greek dialects and the Doric proper. maps of ancient Greece. belong the Ionic and Aeolic groups." calling them then specifically " North Doric. To the East Greek division latter. 6 6. . are mixed 6€ .

are the most interpret historically. prehistoric times. is the group in applied to of the strikingly infelicitous when The relations of this group to the others East Greek division. On the other hand. which are unknown l)e See 189 and Chart This is to accounted for by the fact that Cyprus was colonized. calls the Arcadians Aeolic. (7. at a time when speech was like that which in Arcadia survived This group represents. the the Doric migration.57). that any such intermediate stratum ever existed. of these. especially Aeolic.6 part also in the GREEK DIALECTS West Greek division. No two share in a Avhere. either linguistic or otherwise. " Achaean " is applied by some to a supposed stratum intermediate between which survived in Arcado-Cyprian and the later Doric. but without warrant in earlier usage. pre-Doric s})eech of most of the Peloponnesus. left of which. beyond question. [l And to East Greek belongs also another group. not even Attic and Ionic. we choose ^ The term Achaean to this group. but does not class the Arcadians with any one Arcadian and Cyprian dialects show notable resemblances to the Aeolic dialects which cannot be accidental (see 190. the Arcado-Cyprian. from the Peloponnesian coast. But there is no good evidence. while describing accurately what the historical period. whatever to call it. many all together under the head of " Aeolic of the characteristics common to the Aeolic dialects are lacking. in describing the forces For example. engaged at Syracuse makes the Yet the most of the distinction between Ionic. but its Arcadia itself. Doric. and Aeolic nations. of course. apply which actually has the best claim is whenever the need is felt of some other term than Arcado-Cyprian.3-6 and Chart I). 1 tliat . They else- number of notable peculiarities I. belong together more obviously than do those of Arcadia and the distant Cyprus. Thucydides. difficult to Strabo. dialects. and some would class in the widest sense" or tlien appearing as " them "Achaean" (Aeolic in the usual sense North Achaean "). many But different senses that it niight be well to avoid it it is convenient to to it. not necessarily or probably from as tradition states. is it used in so entirely.

lands or traces of Achaean speech in the Doric For example.1. vhich might be called simply East Greek without further But. 2). there are others of forms which are common to both. and conceding that the precise peculiarities historical background of their interrelations is hopelessly obscure. entiation. apart from some few striking examples. . as noted above. 61. whose dialect is West Greek.2. Besides survivals which bear specifically either the Aeolic or the Achaean stamp. so surprising to find dialects some spoken in Laconia Poseidon was worshiped under the which recalls Arc. (e. (49. Arcadian shows some few to the West Greek which we may properly attribute influence of the surrounding Doric dialects in the historical period. with Aeohc peoples But that brings us before the " mystery of the Achaean name.g. 157. probably Achaean. as a distinct group intermediate between Aeolic and Attic-Ionic. only their provenance leading us to infer either Aeolic Achaean source 137. which are in part confined to Arcadian.3. and so from the linguistic point of view might be called Aeolic-Achaean." that most difficult problem of the relation between the Achaeans of the Phthiotis and the pre-Doric Achaeans of the Peloponnesus.1] INTRODUCTION of 7 (see and there are certain points 190. €\€€€<. and of those again to the historical reflecting a period of geographical continuity somewhere in Northern Greece. One may surmise that the due latter. name in the true Doric form being tv = iu . Achaeans on the Corinthian Gulf. and that the connections with Aeolic are earlier and more fundamental. Just as in the Northwest Greek dialects some traces of the former Aeolic speech have survived.5). are to contact p. the ques- tion of survival versus accidental agreement or historical borrowing is a very delicate one. Here possibly belongs . or Achaean.5.1. 5. 193. with loniaus on the coast of the Peloponnesus (see abo\'e. Conservative procedure here consists in recognizing Arcado-Cyprian. it is not some Cretan in- scriptions (10). or again others differ- etc. in of formerly Achaean. 6). agreement with Attic-Ionic and Chart I). <.

3. EAST GREEK I. Naxos. so Pamphylian of Achaean and AVest Greek. Paros with dres. of which the meager remains permit only a very imperfect knowledge. shows notable affinities on the one hand with Arcado-Cyprian ( = . together with their colonies. Ionic. Division 1. containing some Lesbian features. as follows [l ^ : West Greek 1. There are some local varieties. i^ lap6s. and which is therefore. boea. Ceos. and with their important subdivisions noted. later followed by Dorians. The Ionic cities of the coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands. or Euboean. and Euxine. etc. C. classified in scheme. Eleau. East or Ionic of Asia Minor. . Thessalian. As with dat. 2. Arcado-Cyprian or Achaean. or Ionic of the Cyclades. mostly on the Hellespont. 1 Pamphylian. seen in the inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus. Amorgos.. are the lowing. of which the most marked is Chian. accordance with the preceding fol- 2. Tenos. Locrian. and the Chalcidiau peninsula) and the other cities of EuA local dialect with marked characteristics is the Eretrian. Delos. on the other with West Greek Thessalian and Boeotian represent a mixture of Aeolic and AVest Greek. Argolic. . barring occasional references. see 180-273. etc.. Central Ionic. etc.). Aeolic : Lesbian. Corinthian.). A. For summaries of the characteristics of each. Cretan. Ionic. etc. Propontis. 2. East Greek Division Attic-Ionic. its colony Tliasos. Quite probably the earliest colonists {. Doric : Laconian. B. Sicily. The Attic-Ionic Group Attic. Boeotian. etc. An- West Ionic. etc. in outline. The Greek dialects. ignored in this book. Chalcis (with its colonies in Italy. 1. Chios. 2. Northwest Greek: Phocian. Samos. were Achaeans from the Peloponnesus.8 GREEK DIALECTS The classification of the dialects is then. The Ionic Cyclades.

but most of Aetolian domination and in See 279. and one of considerable length. in part West Greek. INTRODUCTION The Arcado-Cyprian or Achaean Group The most important material is 9 Arcadian. from Tegea and Mantinea. That Thessalian and Boeotian are only in part Aeolic. Thessalian. 2. which may be conveniently. and Magnesia the material 3. Cyprian. 1 Sometimes called simply Aeolic.^ The material very extensive. There are numerous short inscriptions.^ extensive. including nearly all that is is is of an early date. 3. but period.2] II. 2. A large part of the material. but a few are from other islands and towns of the Aeolic mainland. III. the designation Lesbian is to be preferred in spite of the formal impropriety of applying it to a dialect not restricted to Lesbos. Most of the inscriptions are from the chief cities of Lesbos. or Asiatic Aeolic. All are in the Cyprian The Aeolic Group The inscriptional material is fairly Lesbian. pp. is From Histiaeotis. Phocian. and representative is of all the important Boeotian towns.2 Two if subdivisions with marked differences are formed by the dialect of Pelasgiotis and that of Thessaliotis. very scanty. Perrhaebia. Most of the material 2 is actually from Lesbos. From Phthiotis there of the material is from the period the Northwest Greek . to avoid confusion with Aeolic in its wider sense. 1. 2. meager for the early WEST GREEK IV. designated as East and West Thessalian. 1. the bronze of Idahum. and very little that is older than the Macedonian period. But. 1. syllabary. There is nothing approaching the time of the poems of Alcaeus and Sappho. . not quite appropriately. The Northwest Greek Group from Delphi. and quoted specifically as Delphian. has been explained above. is Boeotian. but late. is an early Thessalian inscription.

is not in the Northwest Greek but in the same Doric that was used in Corinth and Sicyon. Heraclean. as yet no adequate linguistic evidence of For. 1. GREEK DIALECTS Locrian. and treated as a distinct dialect. dialects of this group. for example. probably most nearly related to Locrian. as shown by the use of the Corinthian alphabet in the few early inscriptions . all the material dates. . See 279. nearly the time of the Achaean league. 3. is This probable on general grounds. The Northwest Greek . but there it. Locrian. apart from the inscriptions of Achaean colonies in Magna Graecia. Hence the actual material from Acarnania and Epirus Cephallenia and Ithaca is more properly classified Avith Corinthian. before the rise of the Northwest Greek Avas undoubtedly a distinct Northwest Greek dialect. are indecisive. Elean. See 279. has Heraclea. Peloponnesian Achaea in the historical period) is generally believed to belong to this group. the language employed but the Doric . and in later times. e. Olympia. From from we have decrees in the Northwest Greek the Aetolian period (see 279). which. Note.10 2. and this the material is from . From eastern Locris material of is is meager and very early. [2 Tlie early and important inscriptions are from westtlie ern Locris. From Zacynthus there is almost nothing. well known from the Heraclean is peculiarities of its own. colonies Tarentum and Tables. late. Of the Aeniania and IMalis previous to the Aetolian domination we have no remains. Laconian The Doric Group Laconia and its and Heraclean. It is natural to suppose that Northwest Greek dialects were once spoken also in Acarnania and Epirus. but of this pure Aetolian sjieech of we have no knowledge. The is dialect of Achaea (i. All the material. Only Phocian. not the like that of the contempora- neous inscriptions of Corcyra. But here the influence of the Corinthian colonies was strong from an early period. and Elean are known to us as distinct Of others which presumably belong here we have practically no material from a time when they retained their individuality. is from Avhich nearly Northwest Greek . both on account of their meagerness and the mixed all elements in the colonization. ^. there In Aetolia. but from earlier times not enough to show whether the dialect was Northwest Greek or Doric. 4. much which is from Employed in Aetolia and other regions under the domination of the Aetolian league.

when 3. etc. is in the same dialect). and Epidaurus together with Aegina. Mycenae. and Syme. for example. The material is considerable. and insufficient to and other small The material is late.) and Carpathus. as Hermione. The dialects of Cnidus. determine whether any of these should properly be grouped with Rhodian. Rhodian. but 1 From Aegina there is not much material from the period before the Athenian occupation.). Telos. was nearly always connected politically with either Cos or Rhodes. while Argive (Arg. Material from places other than Corinth. Cleonae. Anactorium. Chalcedon. but little of it is early. lalysus. Astypalaea. of Corinthian. etc. as Epidaurian to that from Epidaurus. 58 6). quoted specifically as Sicyonian. Theran and Melian.. ^Sicyon. Corcyraean. and the cities of the Acte. or Theran. Troezeu.^ Argolic (abbreviated Argol. though coming under the general head Argos. in Sicily. etc. and of Nisyrus.2] 2. Lindus. and Melos. is late. JMegara. Ambracia. and its colonies in Sicily (especially Sehnus) (as and ou the Propontis and Bosporus Except from Selinus the material 4. and the Corinits thian colonies Corcyra (with own colonies Apolloiiia etc. Early brief. 8. and Dyrrha- chium). Thera with Cyrene. though not a Rhodian colony. Corinthian. no longer pure. in- scriptions are numerous.) more specifically to the material from Argos (with the Argive Heraeum). Anaphe. Argolic.. but enough to show that tlie dialect was Argolic (note lap^os with lenis. . Leucas. and the city of Rhodes) with the adjacent small islands (Chalce. Corinth. Coan and Calymnian. 9. Coan. is generally etc. Phlius. but not early. Syracusan. PJiodes (Camirus. and the Sicilian colonies Gela and Agrigentum (an inscription of Rhegium. The material is very extensive. islands. INTRODUCTION Messenian. Nisyrus. 7. 11 There is is scarcely any material until a late period. Syracuse with its own colonies.) refers is used as the general term. the settlements on the mainland (the Rhodian Peraea) and Phaselis in Pamphylia. and. 5. the dialect Megarian. 6. Byzantium.

and. in Litekatuke Of the numerous dialects of Greece a few attained the rank of literary dialects. the Megarian Theognis. ficial though for the most part in a mixed and arti- form not corresponding to anything actually spoken at a Moreover. The Dialects 3. etc. owing to the very extensive early material. mostly from the eastern and western extremities of the island. is -. GREEK DIALECTS This is [S all now the best-known of the Doric dialects. unless otherwise stated. in the course of literary developto be characteristic of certain classes of dialects given time and place. ment these came literature. all epic is and the language Homer. Cretan. Alcaeus and Sappho followed very closely their native Lesbian dialect. to late. whence passed into the hands of the neighboring of lonians. a mixture of Aeolic and Ionic. The dialect of Gortyna and other cities of the great central portion of the island is also known more specifically as Central Cretan. though not entirely unaffected by epic The language of these and other Lesbian poets was . Of the melic poets.12 10. especially from Gortyna. but the Athenian Solon. exclude the divergent type seen in the inscriptions. But the term Cretan alone is to be understood as referring to this Central Cretan. the choice of one or the other usually depended upon this factor rather than upon the native dialect of the author. The language Hesiod some Aeolic forms not used in Homer. their r61e once established. such as beside €<. See 273. influence. substantially the same. The of literary development it of epic songs began with the Aeolians Asia Minor. etc. the Spartan Tyrtaeus. also some Boeotian and Doric peculiarities. The elegiac and iambic poets also use the epic dialect with some modifications. but witli not only lonians like Archilochus. which became the norm of poetry and strongly affected subsequent poetry of all classes. — in the main Old Ionic but with beside of the retention of many genitive singular in - Aeolic forms.

with the political and intellectual supremacy of Athens. which was mainly Doric. In the meantime. as Archimedes. is a Dorian. Attic had become the recognized language of the drama. not any specific Doric dialect. Henceforth Attic was the lan- guage of literary prose. though under the impulse of Lesbian poets. no matter is whether the poet identical with posite.S] directly imitated INTRODUCTION by some more. of A form Magna was developed among the Pythagoreans some fragments others. and contributed an important element to the language of many e. This Doric. The earliest prose writers were the Ionic philosophers and and ia the fifth liis- torians of the sixth century. the elimination of local peculiarities. pp = ). The dialects mentioned are the only Hterary dialects known and otliers cultivated throughout the Greek world. as provin- avoided certain Attic peculiarities wliich were cialisms (e. however. though also mixed with Lesbian and epic forms. like the tragedians. earlier prose writers as Thucydides. in general. Archytas of Tarentum. in their native of Doric prose Syracusan Doric. and. but Hippocrates of Cos. Epicharmus and Sophron wrote did. Philolaus and though the greater part of the writings of this class are . or a Boeotian like Pindar. language is Doric. w4iose Doric a severer type and evi- dently based upon the Baconian. Anacreon of Teos. notably 13 by Theocritus in three of his idyls. But some few were employed locally. in the case of An is of exception is to be made Alcman.g. in the seventh century. later writers.g. who in the main employed his native Ionic (Xew Ionic). later. for example. wrote in Ionic. seen in of Croton. of Graecia. but is an artificial Ijut comwith showing many of the general Doric characteristics. choral lyric. a Dorian. felt also. to the The choral lyric was developed among Doric w^lio peoples. and before the end though the of the fifth century was employed in prose stiU. with an admixture of Lesbian and epic forms. we know were welcomed Its in Sparta. or an Ionian Hke Simonides and Bacchyhdes. century not only Herodotus. = .

). are m Boeotian. attaches to the language of Excep- Homer because of its antiquity. GREEK DIALECTS The comic poet Ehinthon. But the great majority whom sometimes quote. and to the Lesbian of Alcaeus and Sappho because it is relatively pure and much older than the inscriptional material. as it is. But a detailed treatment of the dialectic peculiarities observed in our literary texts is so bound up with questions of literary tradition and textual criticism that it is best left to the ci-itical editions of the various authors. moreover. as well as Megarian and Laconian. and which is so important as a basis for the critical study of the mixed literary forms. not only because of their character but also because of the corruptions which they have suffered in transmission. however. dialectic forms from literary and grammatical sources are not infrequently quoted. Such forms are sometimes quoted with their specific (lit. literary Lesbian grammatical (gram. Dor. from [s the grammarians The fragments of Corinna of Tanagra.). . tional importance. or (lit. especially where the inscriptional evidence is slight.). used the Doric of Tarentum.14 spurious. whose fame was scarcely more than local. for the personal pronouns. of the dialects play no role Avhatever in literature. Even mains must for those dialects for the which are represented. are caricatured by Aristophanes. literary Ionic (lit. Ion. quite naturally. for example. In the following exposition. and the Boeotian dialect. Note. It would be impracticable in a work of the to obscure that jjresent scope. tend more trustworthy picture of the dialects which is gained from inscriptions. sources. and would. sometimes simply as literary Doric Lesl).). the artificial literary re- most part be regarded as secondary sources.

by . they consist merely in variations of the forms of the deciding the age and source of inscriptions.. . employs into two classes. The numerous differences in the local alphabets. .ses only the first two and expresses . and 1 Is clearly This distinction of eastern and western alpliabets. . . 15 and West Greek dialects. have not yet been introduced. to which Ionic as them as . has no connection with that of and is anything but coincident with it. as in Crete. after the introduction fall of . whence it carried to Italy by the Chalcidian colonies and became the source of the Latin alphabet. and Melos. .. In the most primitive type Greek alphabet.PHONOLOGY The Alphabet 4. as . . those () when used of . where . is not h. was at western division. employs . are not In the next stage of development. as it is seen in the earliest inscriptions of Crete. X.^ to which belong the majority of the alphabets of Greece proper as well as that of Euboea.. though The a subdivision of this group. by . (or ph). Thera. 1. according to the values signs. The eastern division.. important as they are to the epigraphist in But certain points in of express- the use of the alphabet and its development as a means of the ing the Greek sounds should be noted. distinguished from 2. . and also uses the . the distribution of which shown in the Chart in Kirchhoff's Stiidlni zur GcHchkhte den griechiJ':ast schen Alphabets. X. . represented mainly by the Attic alphabet. and the are represented by The sounds of . not using I all. so far as letters. need not be discussed here. or. the alphabets attached to these belongs. u. Y. the non-Phoenician signs is not in use.

/39. and I. from Ephesus [^]7. which known from Att. which was thus account as a vowel sign.16 generally expressing GREEK DIALECTS by *). (no. which is also probably a modification of the san. . for differ- See 28. very ^. namely ^ of or $ (sigma) and (san). = Att. beside In Boeotian. rious et and ") are distinguished from the short e in East Ionic. But was lost at a was turned to show a difference in quantity (in the case of a. At Corinth and Megara the e-sounds. V. [4 (only in Locrian and Arcadian by a special sign 3. . is used to denote a sibilant of specifically Arcado-Cyprian origin. In most of the alphabets the (early B) is the sign of the e spiritus asper. where the sound of the spiritus asper very early period. 9 Xepf^o?. . a simplified form of the san. e. etc. In the earliest inscriptions nearly the alphabets have the . .3.2). .. which for a time was more open than the sound of the inherited e. it is f (vau or digamma). I.) = Cypr. \€() of Asia l Minor for the usual beside = reaaape^. some Ionic inscriptions from Halicarnassus TeTape^. all or. and both soon became to much . E. and that too even if a liquid intervenes. tions 4. though this was also open as compared with the short e. which is used before or .. the H. from Teos sometimes there a compromise between later (9. is used for the close e. and neither and nor the lengthened and and ("spuo. A in sign T. not so left free. that is for the specifically Attic-Ionic (8). Two signs were available for . But there are some few examples is a differentiation. 6. is used e.g. but usually were two characters. 5 and entiated.<? 5. the charac- In an early Arcadian inscription of Mantinea ter \A. sources. . and many the ? (koppa). . See 68. and most alphabets use one of these to the exclusion of the other. other (in other posi- rare). as in v\i9 (transcribed at<. oftener.g. no such need was felt) as one of quality. 16). It was probably used first only for the extremely open e coming from a.

found though in Crete w^nt out of use for a time. Thera. no such it is had passed etc. 8) in the penult). fifth or Inscriptions of the end of the the beginning of the fourth century often show a Ionic. transi- tional with the Even was generally retained where it was f still sounded. Sicyon. 19. Epidaurus). Thera. at Delos. as . The Ionic alphabet some or 7. 6) (with no. to which the use of the from East Ionic. and not much later replaced the native or " epichoric alphabets in other parts of Greece. as also in Rhodes. the sign was used both as and as with the value of he. it sure. The Delphian Labyadae inscripform of the alphabet. no. 6)..g. 60. where in the earliest inscriptions. Pdiodes. (usually namely Paros. but seen in some of the Cyclades. as in the Heraclean Tables and occasionally elsewhere (Elis.C. h. and sometimes a form of was used for the spiritus asper. Ionic. see VOWELS 5. and Siplmos. of The use = 77 extended not only to the Ionic but also to the it is Doric islands. the Ionic alphabet was officially introduced at Athens. and = ). Melos. 51) has = A. = . For the Cyprian syllabary. but in = 0. =." 6] identical PHONOLOGY and were denoted in the same way. Thasos. partly full Ionic alphabet. not appearing for example in the Law-Code.46). e. and Crete. partly epichoric.g. In 403 B. l• tion (no.. for a before or after liquids. no. from Naxos (no. is and Oropus and (no. In Central where the sound of the spiritus asper still survived. Naxos (no. 14. mainly from literary and grammatical sources. To be 17 distinction is to be observed in East Ionic inscriptions. also characterized of by its distinction of through differentiated forms of the islands. Similar examples from Ceos . It occurs also and Melos. and Amorgos. but (e. Examples are most numerous in Lesbian.

). siqyj^ort. are to be attriljuted to Cf. 8e/co = = Thess.. . see 22). . Whether forms may be less certain.^ << [] ( GREEK DIALECTS = [ = (uo. attested whence In Arcado-Cyprian also we find Arc. . g.'^ . = = and Lesb. might be regarded simply as inherited o-grade forms (cf 49. Heracl. rites. proper Lesb. = a. *€. Heracl. '. Boeot. while the precise conditions and scope of the phenomenon are not clear. Boeot. itself always has Sicyon.. (no. names. Thess. Cypr. €o.. in Hesych. The forms with attested for Thessalian.) = fopjov = *KaT€fap'yov aorist of of the root as in weak grade In various West Greek dialects occur derivatives of though the verb . 6v = {. like Hoiii. in Heraclea. but it is i^robable that these are Achaean survivals (see p. Mel. Argolis. in Argolis also Cret. . = . ehpaKov from (49. = '^ '^ ' = (Naples) (49. e. etc. '.. . by themselves. . Elean . (). Thus ^ = with the with in Elis. (Strabo 13. West . and.613). Cret.2). = hurial .. 23). . 7). . names. Cypr. Arc. Some of the examples. . Sybaris. = and in numerous in proper but also a. . (cf . ). likewise in Boeotian proper names. also Cret. and belong in this same connection. . Both = = etc. '^^. ..18 So . (Hesych. Locris . Thessalian (PeLesb. if taken . *-4<^ ('^) a. Ion. for a in other cases. etc. . €'. by Lesb.. 6. hurial-place ' . 21) as regularly). from .2). Arc. are anything more than inherited o-grade share. occur in inscriptions. But an actual substitution must be recognized in Lesb. lasgiotis). in Lesbian. ). = Delph. aveiri'ypoEpid. (cf. = but in form belonging with = (also Arc..2). = which are the only ones influence. and Arcado-Cyprian also Arc. . it is evidently one in which all the Aeolic dialects and Arcado-Cyprian had a etc. Cf.

an e before another vowel had a closer sound So. . . 1. Even in Attic than in other positions. d in all other dialects. not . in Ionic.0. becomes Thus but in other dialects («-stem). b. 77. Sta.1. for appears to be. was at first an extremely open e-sound. here as in 5. ). For the contrast between sents an inherited e-sound also. a. Attic-Ionic from a.g. dare). and not necessarily the same For example. but and hence did not affect the latter (so Att. The began in the Attic-Ionic period. differs But Attic and p. repre- (Lat. 78. wliich occurred. = -ul (27). See original the . That is. 8. . . and that which (Lat. See 4. The arising € 9. in Att.." . see 49. distinguished in the spelling of some inscriptions of the Cyclades. i. it is possible that the of = West Greek the same light as that of 19 the forms cited here. is to be viewed a. even 'more open than that of original e. and was frequently written (Oropus) . before the new sound had become completely identical with that representing original e. e. which remains unchanged in Attic-Ionic. from and from See 76. fdri). from e before a vowel. ei.-Ion. actual change of final -ei to e is seen in Thess. hie = Cf. But in original was of later origin and was unaffected. ..:5. and is common it to the other dialects elsewhere from Ionic. See e for a. 116 7. in But the preference Achaean characteristic. An Thess. Original a.-Ion. note Att. mater). sometimes. from lengthening of a in connection with original interfrom vocalic etc. an Aeolic- ? . the r/ from a. . The change of in the direction of etc. . in that = Ion. . however. as ^eid? = . as ?=. is not the original a unchanged. . For forms with e beside a wliich fall within the regular system of vowel-gradatioii. The explanation is uncertain. = = . as <y€vea. has a. this (Lat. *. Att. undergoes the same change. for all etc. and even in the historical period the two sounds are -. 77. *. but a special Attic reversion to . and was universal. <yeverj.2-4. after e.9] PHONOLOGY .

Thus Boeotian. <. (see 4. . . ^'. as was frequently. came was unaffected. Heraclean. is In later inscriptions the spelling Verbal forms show with the same restriction but peovra. *^5 (68.SeSo/AiV[o<?] = But other . before another vowel. . as Arg. Lysist. or I- = aveOiav. other words. ^to9. = (16). or even regularly. In In Argolic and Thessalian. Cyprian. so constant that it -. is e. We find f. et. e. Boeotian c in general had a relatively close sound. -. = iovra. . owing to .2). 10.: 20 GREEK DIALECTS In several dialects the e [9 progressed so far in the direction of that 2. € (). in early inscriptions (also in = 6.g. = = €. . Laconian. some examples before of i. . (Mantinea. as in Cretan. ^/? \\<.. to Cypr. . also in compounds as Arc.). regularly. but usually e. . . as = etc. from in Arcado-Cyprian. and Uameworthy (. form in Arcadian and Cyprian. with the same restriction as in Cretan. TrXee?.. {) 4. t. but sometimes e. the change was prior to the loss of interlater. tv = iv the regular ^. .). of which usually show Trehiov = . . At Idalium the l spelling is regularly as ^. peirija = eirea. occurs occasionally even before a consonant. We find — but Thus vleo^. and the which with the loss of f. irXie'. 7. both there are . . 3. . .. Cretan. as fereof. = = 'peovro<i. influence. = i6vT0<. in usually e. no. <. aveOeiav beside avedeav. e. Cf. . 16) ev occurs a7n. a. was shortened name town vere etc. of the and the spelling « the spelling which in other dialects connected with ^ ei is perhaps stands for original as if . except where the e was once to stand followed by vocalic f That e is. the In iv ^. Ar. <. = Hom. written i.g. . e Alcman and t. it .5). 5. = . also early Arc. ^^. Thess. t. The spelling is usually i.

p. the pronunciation of a preceding the spelling is '. Arc.1). Att. . . *. and in an " an Achaean 11. . fapyov. before /'/? no. = iv is found also. = -. . Cf. in is In tliis case the l.. inscriptions. Coan Cret. are from *. 56) El. as beside = open sound.(. as tvaac = -. 7). with effect after the and later gives way Delph. as = . Locr. from the aorist). . also ep in no. = ^ (l^)• . earta in all other dialects. as vowel-gradation. Heracl. Zei"? *- and Pamph. is kind of occa- same word. <). vice versa. Att. . and show that in Phocian too e. from while (76). a. Elean has a also after from (31).€ ( \_2 . not quite uniform even in the early to ep (see 241). analogy of the present but the spelling ap . showing that Elean in general had a very El.g. 50). . £€ . in a fifth-century inscription (no. Ion. Hom. possibly p. on but except in these instances Cf.?. <?. ^eo?. (no. Locr. e. = 4. Ion. in contrast to (see 161. well as the early substitution of due to the influence a from but e of . and the more precise conditions of the change are not yet clear. other cases. but not of the common types . . = virep. . Delph. (no. . opt... Here . ' Syrac. Ehod. also for may be = with (as. *€ given in 49). 5 . . in some Cretan beside e in inscriptions of Achaean " survival (see Eleutherna and Vaxus. t dialectic forms of the reaaepe^. (= ). Lesb. . had a similar Ach. 12.. . . v. 3 pi. so far as quotable. Cret.. L inscription. Boeot. Thess. . etc. ptov. (but Northwest Greek. . as for f in most dialects. also before final etc. occasionally elsewhere.12] PHONOLOGY iv 21 words. The occasional interchange beside (a of l and € in related words. . 51). sionally seen among = appears with Lesb. . 51)..

. (probably from but with quotable from early inscrip- tions. with = I). of by-forms in which the preference for the a forms characteristic. -.22 b. (or is i'e/009) though the occurrences is Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian.. influence. Boeotian. Elean forms imder = East Greek e e. Boeotian. (likewise ipev<. ). € West Greek (and (but Lesb. See 132. belong to some.=. ei *2. . Besides the examples of a and cited under the head of vowele — and is forms there is a group a marked West Greek 1. -= See = je is likewise West Greek and -€. . ta/309 (or lapo<i) is the regular form in early inscriptions of all West Greek dialects and Boeotian.-Ion.1. is the form Greek dialects except Cretan. etc. . beside .g. crcpos belongs to Atticexamples in other dialects being late. name widely different dialectic distribution. . verbs in dialects. . . in which the distribution of the various (e. a. doubtless Boeotian) .2. .2-4). Ionic only. are perhaps to be viewed in the a. Epid. AdWest Greek is 133. There are many other words wdth as variation between -e/?o? and -<. = = though more contamination with = grade or assimilation). "'. = Ke . {. beside *-. all So far as we know. and Cyprian.. Arc.. . In later Doric and Delpliian inscriptions replaced by 3. but also is quotable from Arcadian. is like Lesbian wliich are also Att. all West Greek dialects and BoeoSee 134. both forms are late - late. tian. is and open to other possible explanations yreiik same light as the 13. arcjoos = not confined to West Greek dialects. . . while Thessalian The same etc.-Cypr. so far as the of all AVest is ". and even for Attic implied by arepos with crasis. . GREEK DIALECTS and [l2 isolated. while a third I/ao? form seen in Lesb. and Lesbian. lepo<i occurring only later is and plainly due to The situation of probably the same t€/309 in Thessahau.9). tpeta. but not all. Ion. West Greek a dialectic interchange of gradation (49. () is in usually the form of lias «re. *laepo-). and of tliis is Boeotian.

= <^. €<. /)€7€9.) is = was = The explanation difficult. . beside . cf.3). since in all other cases remains unchanged in Lesbian. = ^s. 15. '^ .. though by no = means consistently. = Lesl).. and (47). .' denoted by a. in connection with the epenthetic vowel I from after t after is in the Aeolic dialects. from . (but also ete) Cf.18] PHONOLOGY 23 14. . et 16. . . see The sound of was so open in Elean that it approximated that of a. 18. Boeot. .. Thus (but also a from .) . led to ai. = . Att. . ea beside in Thessalian e. from . '. beside Tpairehha. remains un- changed in nearly all dialects. Magn. this. both being seen in Attic-Ionic = 4.6. ^ . € Lesb. and was frequently. 17. On the introduction of the character H. of other dialects. Boeot. = Boeot. that is representing original e. But vowel-assimilation (46) is also possible. = -€. €'. also (Etyni. In late Boeotian inscriptions the spelling Trapets beside (eh '. is open pronuncia- *€ = /. is An perhaps from also 19.^ . Contrast the special Attic-Ionic from (8). A probable I'oeotian Cf. Thess. (Lesb. example Hesych. and Boeotian. tion of indicated by (but occasional spellings such as Lesb. In these dialects the sound was so close that with the introduction -}9. t of the Ionic alphaei. is sometimes found. .2. Original . bet = = -. ). as Tracts 163. it was uniformly denoted not by time represented a close Thess. Perhaps more open initially than in other positions. = --. which at that Boeot. but by = . but ). Tliess. in Elean. Thess. 8= = for e (12 a).

i. . = . apyvpa 3). .4< (Herodian) = '/?9. late of t. as Lesb. or of the sufhx . . . = e and d — (12 a. €< €< and v. Omission . as ihhiav. Kvppov beside Cf. epp. . 7roWio<. p^. from glosses or inscriptions.. VLovv. t. = in Attic 8 Cf. or sumetimc'S denoted by which had come to have the sound = . ^ the oppo- = etc. in Lesbian and Thes() from antevocalic The consonantal pronunciation of antevocalic t might occur anywhere in rapid speech. et. But in late inscriptions as € €. 1. Lesbian and Thessalian. <. €<. etc. < eu.. the influence of indicate an open pronunciation of the though isolated occurrences. the development being pi. relation of wliieh Meg. aWoreppo<i. -. <. Lesb. but was especially characteristic of AeoUc. = owes its c to and fitvioL = . the usual also (^) Lesb. epi. h. = . 4. under Assimilation of t to i» of the fol- seen in = which appears .. Interchange of is lowing syllable in the early fourth century.24 a. • on a coin of Phocaea. 'EXefAiiwa = name of a montli). Thess. in other dialects only late site assimilation in ceding (also Olynth. /09. (see also 20. = apyvpia. 21.). beside Influence of the pre- in Lac.. 3. from which may then apyvppoi beside apyvptoi. . \. remains unchanged everywhere. Att. . the is uncertain. El. are and €<. from St in . 15). GREEK DIALECTS Lesb. Consonantal salian. Cf El. (Hesycli.. TToXep [18 etc. Thessalian doubling of consonants before be retained or omitted in the spelling. as indicated by the following related phenomena in 19.. 2. Other by-forms. Cypr. it is I. inscriptional spelling being 8ta etc.

in final syllables regularly becomes written or . and Arc. in later inscriptions . and -ro in a late inscription ence)... especially in Arcado-Cyprian. the original «-sound (English oo in food) This is was retained most obvious in several. French u. ou begins to appear beside frequent after 300 . 23.. o. -dv Cypr. dialects except Attic-Ionic. Cypr.. = compounds and which are is universal. formed . the In Chalcid. -rv = -do. it became a = ^. Gen. 15 . for = aWo.C. vvedeKe (once) beside ovedeKe. sg. epperaaarv {in Arcadian there are no early examples of . = -. Cf. and Instead of becoming a sound like German ii. as = . 'Ovaaiyopav. (22 h). c. Arc. B. vvedvae a.24] PHONOLOGY 25 22. = . the spelling was replaced by is ov. etc. after the rayovv ov. may be due to after Arc. introduction of the Ionic alphabet. as did in Attic at an early period. and. / . about 350 and is uncommon until the last apyovpiov. as Arc. In Lesbian there are several examples of before h. then . Cf. Cypr. original or secondary (25). jevoLTv. = especially is common to nearly all. the second due to assimilav. wdiere. mid. from . Thus ovirep.. In the third century the spelling . also vv Cypr. all. et . is also Lesbian and Thessalian. B. perhaps etc. as influ- the ending. In Pamphylian. perhaps the majority of. 9<. and Cyprian. was regularly denoted by ' rovv 24.C. In Boeotian. . aovvypa- . though not quarter of the century. = . = Cf.. Long close in Thessalian. from (16). whether . from in Thessalian. first. But 6v = affli (6) in (no. 3 sg. the Attic values of the letters being taken as a basis. In both Arcadian final nearly always appears as v. dialects. Arc. due to the initial ). tion to the d.

26

never consistently, after

, , <;, , ,
(pronounced like English u in cube
?)

GREEK DIALECTS
is

[24

also

employed, though

, , , ,

(^)

and once

initially

tively rare, spelling

m Boeotian

( ).
=
is o,

and

,

as

= 8,

etc.

;

also once after

Another, but compara-

as

= virep,

=

.

a. Except in Boeotian and Pamphylian, where ov is also frequent, the is retained in inscriptions. So in Laconian, for which the retenspelling tion of the i/-sound is amply attested by the numerous glosses spelled Avith

ov in accordance with Attic values,

and by the pronunciation of the modern

Tsakonian.

In various other dialects, as Arcadian, Cyprian, Thessalian,
for v, or

Lesbian, Cretan, Euboean, there are indications, of one kind or another, of
the same pronunciation, such as the occasional spelling ov or

(22 «), use of 9 before day pronunciation.
for

(Chalcid. 9upvus,

/^?, etc.), or present-

Secondary € and
25.

.

" Spurious Diphthongs "

In

many

dialects, as in Attic, e

and
q).

differed in quality

from

and

,

being close vowels

(e,

Consequently the long

vowels which came from them by contraction or compensative
lengthening, since they retained the same quality, were not identical

with

and

,

but were e and

q,
et

the latter becoming

it,

and

eventually came to be designated by

and

after these original
(28, 34).

diphthongs had become monophthongs in pronunciation

But in other
so written.
*rp€L€<;

dialects they

were identical with

from

€ €<; *€*€
(42.•')),

Hence such
and
(74),

dialectic variations as

from
and

*
and

and

,

rpeU and

'

and were
from

(76),

and
from

from

feV/ro? (54),

from

(76),

and

from

(106.1), ace. pi. -Of?

and

-

(54), gen. sg.

- and

*\ et

and
(75),

from

-old

from

-ov<i (78).

The

dialects

which regularly have
et

and

in such forms are

Arcadian, Cyprian, Elean, Laconian, Heraclean, antl Cretan.
tian has
a.

Boeo-

,

but

as for original

(16).

Other dialects which occasionally show
beside eiAcro,

usual, are Argolic

{

,,
and

, though
etc.;

and ov are

at Ilermione

25]
gen. sg. in

-,

Coan
etc.;

(€,

at Cyrene, a colony of Thera, regularly

,,
acc.pl. in
et,

-),

,
But
is

PHONOLOGY
Khodiau

(,

etc.),

Theran

?, ,{, ,/,
, ).
It is

probable that
regularly,

,
27
etc.),

these dialects belong properly with those which haAe

,

and

that their usual

Ionic alphabet they also adopted in the
of such words.
b.

rest

,) , .
=
X"p- (Att.

ov are due to the fact that with the introduction of the

main the

Attic-Ionic orthography

,
-.

is

even jnore widespread, e.g. not only

Cret. Kipavs, Arc.

C'ypr. i^ipov,
it is

but Epid.

Corinth,

probable that this

^
is

and even Delph.

wholly upon
sg.

a nom.

due in part at least to the influence of (quoted by Ilerodian as Aeolic) formed after the analogy

*€- (79), but

-

does not

of inherited p-stems in
c.

8,

Dor.

?

Cf. Att.

in place of

(112.3).
Bov-

(Cret., Theocr., Callim.) do not belong here.

Aos has a genuine diphthong, as shoAvn by the spelling ov in early Attic
inscriptions and in Boeotian, while

5•

?

must come from a by-form
to Att.

*-

The

relation of Lesb., Boeot., Dor.

ow

obscure, since

is also Ionic.

d. It is to

be remembered that the early inscriptions of most dialects have

simply E, 0, which we transcribe c, 5, no matter Avhether the later spellAmong the , dialects the actual spelling , does ing is et, ov, or ,

.

not occur, of course, until the introduction of the Ionic alphabet about

400

B.C., except that in Crete,

Rhodes,

etc.,

where

=

>;

is

much

earlier,

we

find

etc. in
et,

the earliest inscriptions.
is

Of the

ov dialects, Corinthian
et,

the only one in which the identity of

genuine and spurious

ov belongs to the earliest period,

owing

early monophthongization of the diphthongs (28, 34).
of the earliest inscriptions
is

The

El,

OV

at Corcyra (e.g

OV

(but E, not El) at Corinth.

are more common until even earlier), but E, and occasionally appear much later. In general El becomes established earlier than OV, and many inscriptions use El uniformly but and OV. In Ionic the gen. sg. -0 is especially persistent. vary between
in the fifth century
after

(

,

to the very

spelling even
Ei/xt),

and

In Attic-Ionic examples of El,

OV

occur

400

B.C.,

In Locrian no. 50 has only E,
earlier no. 55 has El

in the gen. sg.
is

(/).

( ,
(e.g.
etc.),

ros), while the

somewhat

and

OV

in the ace. pi. (tovs) but
gra])hic vagary,

This

last difference,

though only a

observed also in several Ionic inscriptions. In other dialects El, OV come in with the introduction of the Ionic alphabet, and even then the
spelling varies for a time.

28

GREEK DIALECTS
Diphthongs
26.

[26

from at in Boeotian.

earliest inscriptions,

at Tanagra, e.g.

as a

monophthong, an open

Ionic alphabet

infin.

@€ - = -, -. -,
=

found, as
27.

,, . €,
€ from
we
ai in Thessalian.
et

©.
find

,. ,
ai

The diphthong
ai,

is

retained in the
ae, especially

sometimes as

sometimes as
it

But

came

to be

pronounced

e,

and with the introduction

was regularly denoted by , e.g. dat. sg. and nom. pi. - = -at,

=

dat. pi.

, —= -

of the

,

ai,

In very late inscriptions even In general

ei is

Larissa

for final ai,

T€i =

ytvveireL =

TreTrelaTeLv

=

ovypayjreiv

€, ^, ^,
at,

remains, but at

e. g.

=

and, with added

(139.2, 156),

=

=

€1

28.
e
(e),

Sooner or later

et

became everywhere a monophthong, a

close

though the spelling was retained and extended

to the f of

different origin (25).

In Corinthian this had taken place at the
Avliile at

time of the earliest inscriptions, and,

was
e.g.

El (25 d), at

a single sign, though generally differentiated from the open

Af Efia,

i.e.

TloTBiSav), but

Megarian inscription
a.

^ .,
Apevia
e,

Corcyra the spelling

Corinth the sound was nearly always denoted by
e or

,

= Aeiviov, i.e. TloreSavL (rarely = = retSe in an early Cf. also = ; and genuine or spurious et). (here ^ =
e

At

a late jjeriod the

jJiOgresscd

still

further to an , usually with
to
t.

retention of the old spelling

et,

which then came

be used also for original
In some words this late
of

(21), hut sometimes with phonetic spelling
spelling with

became

fixed in our texts, e.g.

', £, ?,
and other

which

€, €, €£5.
b.

the proper spelling, as

shown by
it

insci-iptions of Attic

dialects, is

But before vowels

remained
it

,
c.

elsewhere, and, to distinguish
Uprja, etc., especially in

for some time after it had become from et = t, was often written , e.g. the Augustan period.

-

For Elean

at

from

et

after p, see 12 a.

31]
29.

PHONOLOGY
from
et

29
in pronunciation

in Boeotian.

took place everywhere at a late period (28 a) occurred very early
in Boeotian,
fifth
i,

century varies between

e.g.

16),

e^t

-, .
and here showed
ei,

The change
itself in

which

the spelling, which in the

h (4.5),

and

i,

but later

is

regularly
(cf.

= e^ei,

€< =

=

eVt

= eVet,

eVtSet

=

also

30.

from

in Boeotian.
et (29),

The diphthong
appearing as

oi

was retained much
also, in

longer than at (26) or

ot,

but

some

of

the earliest inscriptions especially of Tanagra, as

oe, e.g.

Xoepi'Xo?,

¥/€8€.
the
V,

But in the third century
o,

it

became a monophthong,
ov for
v, 24),

probably similar to the German

to denote which, approximately,
(cf.

with

its

Attic value of w as a basis

was emdat.

ployed with increasing frequency from about 250 B.C. on, though
not uniformly
sg.
till

the end of the century,
-ol,

e. g.

=
ot is
ai, 26),

and nom.
it

a vowel

though

In some late inscriptions
€i is

/
pi.
is

-=

dat. pi.

-l»?

= -oa.

,

AVhere

followed by
as

usually retained (in contrast to
occurs once, also

=

".

?,
I

also found, indicating the further progress of the

(see 28 a), e.g.

avreh

=

.
€1,

of

Lebadea and Chaeronea the spelling

sound to

,
31.

before vowels

In the case

of ac,
its

et, ot,

also

vl,

before vowels the omission
tlie

of

L,

consequent upon
is

consonantal pronunciation with

follow-

ing vowel,
is

anything but constant, and

statement as to the conditions of the
later

70€ =
beside ete

,,
voia,

Thess. Tevvaot

, ,
beside

to be observed in various dialects,
it is

though the spelling

impossible to
loss.

', ,,
Lesb.

beside

so e.g. Ion.

=

=

,

=

Vevvaiov, Arc.

=

*€

^, , ,
Thus, as in Attic

make any

general

=

(12 a),

,
beside

evvoa beside ev-

evvoav

= evvoiav^
El.

ea

Cret.

a^eXaot

=

30
ayeXaioi, Del})li.
of

,

as Att. Troet,

Boeot.

€70€€,

Arc.

vaTroLa<i.
a.

*, , , ,
GREEK DIALECTS
=
(liut

[31

.

(). ),

So especially in forms

Lesb.

Cuau

beside

Owing

to the variation in

ing sometimes appears in words where
as late

8<;,

6•,
ev,

32.
it

lu

, ,

. ,
(33),

forms like the
it

ahoA-e, the diphtliong'al spell-

has no etymological justification,

€,
ii

did in

many dialects when

not only by Ionic ao, eo

such as Corinth.
Cret.

,
33.
a.

fore the i(-sound,
ao, eo

, ,, ,
the

remained an ii-sound, not becoming
not part of a diphthong. This
is

as

?,
fifth

shown
Ion.

but by occasional varieties of spelling
Corcyr.
Att.

where f indicates the natural glide beCret. airophhav, etc.
ao, eo appear in East Ionic
of the fourtli cen-

and Locr.

from

,

eu in East Ionic,

inscriptions (eo also in

Amphipolis and Thasos)
century) and
is

tury

(eo

once in Chios in

later, e.g.

,,
The explanadoubtful.

eovoia, €oe/37eT7;?.

This spelling

tions of this region.

For
ov

El.
(cf.

from

tv after p, see

12

show
34.

tion of

= ev =

Att. ov from eo), as

in Delph.

?,

late Lac.

,. ,
n.

frequent even in

inscrip-

Some

late

Cretan inscriptions

=

etc., is

became, in most dialects, a monophthong

(first

, later

il),

though the spellmg
tended to

was generally retained and eventually exthe secondary o. In Corinthian this had taken place at
See 25
d.

the time of the earliest inscriptions.
a.

Occasionally words which contain genuine
in early inscriptions

spelling
ovK, eral

when

for secondary 8

=

(or

=

have genuine ov (e.g. Cret.

early Attic, e.g.
i. e.

, ), {

^?

See 37.1).

In forms of

,
was

are found with the
usual,
e. g.

=

which in genfrequent in

etc.), this spelling is so

also in

Thasos;

cf. also

Orop. cvro^a,

as to point to

some

special caiise.

Possibly, as has

been suggested, there exi.sted beside the usual forms with genuine ov (e.g. from *--'), a gen. sg. formed by doubling of

(),

TO (jov), which then influenced the other forms.

37]

PHONOLOGY

31

,€
35.

before vowels

Certain \vords

show

a

diphthong in Lesbian (and in Homer)

in contrast to other dialects, e.g.

),

= Dor.
(cf.

Horn.

<, Att. ?, from
etc.

*ausos-d), vavQ<i
Att.
vea)<i,

= Dor.

()<;

* ()
etc.
(cf.

(cf.

Hesych.

L.

aurora from

Lac. vapov),

*€.

probably from *vaafo<i {5if),

= Att.

,

Hom.
need,

<,
from

a. In such forms comes from a combination containing or p, not from simple intervocalic p, vhich in Lesbian, as elsewhere, regularly drops out without affecting the preceding •owel. Forms like citSe from *€8(. are

poetical only,

and due

to metrical lengthening or doubling of the

under
(89. ))

the ictus.

The consonant-doubling

accounts for the di2)hthong in Thess. KXem?, from
avTos, Cret.

tween V and the following vowel
Cypr.

,
36.

In words vith regular antevocalic ev the natural glide beis

In late inscriptions
of

tives

Corcyr.

,,, , .
Calynin.

, ?.
as

in hypocoristic pro])er

*€,

names

-

often expressed by p, as Boeot.

Lac.

\<; ( = ,
Lesb.

51).

is

sometimes omitted, especialh'
Delph.

in deriva-

€<;,

€,
;

Att. irapeaKeaa

Long Diphthongs
37.
1.

The

original long diphtliongs di, an, ei, eu, oi, on, except

when
ei,

final,

were regularly shortened in prehistoric times

eu, oi, ou, or, in

some

by-forms as /Sou? from
Ids, Skt. ace. sing,
(cf.

gdm

Skt. di/dus) but ace.

consonant declension,
2.

The Greek long diphthongs may be original when final, but otherwise are of secondary origin. Most of the latter arose by loss
of

an intervening consonant, as

cldvis), and in the earlier period these were not diphthongs but

* * ,, , ,, *
cases, lost the
(cf.

to ai, au,

second element. Hence such
(cf.

Skt. (/dus) but Dor.

Lat.

also once in

Homer),

from

(cf.

Lat. dies),

whence, with transfer to
(84).

etc., Cret.

from

were pronounced in two

syllables.

So

•;,

,,
(cf.

Lat.

32

GREEK DIALECTS
etc.

[37

7<;,
poets.

the other hand the change of

presupposes the diphthongal pronunciation

, , , ^, ^, , , , ,
regularly iu

Homer, aud often in the later Ionic This pronunciation is also indicated by occasional spellings
in Ionic inscriptions.

such as

On
(38)
e.g.

to

ei

(39) or
;

the loss of the

t

and where we find
side,

and

side

by

the latter
it is

must be

understood as

leprjLov.

But

in general

impossible to

determine just

when

the change from dissyllabic to diphthongal
it is

pronunciation took place, and hence

we should

-, ',
diaeresis, for

accent

,', ,
e.g.

('')
We

or

<;
and

often uncertain whether
(/cX?;?),


is

or

or

editors of the

same
of

texts differ in their practice.

employ the accentuation which

goes with the earlier pronunciation, though without the

mark

the early Ionic inscriptions

;

and likewise

in general,

simply as a matter of convention, in citing forms of this kind in the

grammar.
38.
a,

, ,

from

at,

,.

In Attic the

t

ceased to be prospelling without
t
t

nounced

in the second century B.C.,

and the
;

(the iota subscript is a mediaeval device
like other letters or omitted entirely)

in inscriptions

written
fre-

became more and more
all

quent, and Greece.

may
in

be found in late inscriptions from

parts of

But

some

dialects this dates

from an
dat. sg.

earlier period.

East Ionic has occasional examples of
sixth century B.C. on, though

-=-

from the

-

is

the usual spelling.

Lesbian has

in a fifth-century inscription (no. 20),

though

this is possibly only

an error due

to confusion

with the

genitive construction

which

follows.
B.C.)

For

no.

21

(first

half fourth
sg.
-ai,

century) and no. 22 (324
(3 sg. subj.

have uniformly 22
;

dat.

-

,

in no. 21,

-77

in no.

see also 149).
-a,

But from the

end

of the fourth

century the forms in
fifth

-,

-

predominate.

Thessalian has from the

century dat.

sg.

and raya beside arayiai
Ionic alphabet
subj. -ei

(in no. 33),

and

in inscriptions in the

we

find regularly dat. sg. -a,

-

(=

,

23), 3 sg.

(=

,

16).

40]

PHONOLOGY
dat. sg. -a, -6, beside -ul, -ol,
(no.

33
but in the Idalium

Cyprian has
bronze
as
a.
b.

19) only in the case of the article

when

followed by

t,

IpovL.

The The

loss of

j^rohably

began

in the article,

fluctuation between the historical

inscriptions introduced confusion in the spelling of forms with original

hence such spellings as nom.

Such imperative forms in
the subj. in
39.

-

sg.

and

, -,
of

which was proclitic. and the phonetic spelling in late

gen. sg.

8,

imv.

where

this spelling

was favored by

.

,;

-,

are especially frequent, notably in Cos.

€ from
at,

that of

,—

,.

The history
at,

differs in

especially in Attic,

where
a,

it

some dialects from became et (i.e. f) some
(37.2) the spelling
i?.C.

two centuries before

became
of

.
is

almost universal,

^
ei is

In the case of medial

secondary origin

frequent in the fourth century and from about 300

from

^.
e.g.

/cXei?

from

In inflectional endings

ei is

also

and predominates in the third and second,
3
sg. subj. etVet.

But here, owing to the analogy of other forms same system, as was never given up and eventually was fully restored, so that the normal spelling in imperial times was or (38). The spelling ei beside partly at least due to Attic influence, is also frequent in third- and second-century inscriptions of other dialects, or even earlier as in the Heraclean Tables, where we
with
of the

' , , ,,,
<;,
from

frecent

in the fourth century
e.g. dat.
sg.

,

find 3 sg. subj.
a.

,,
of to

etc. (so

usually, but twice

-,

once -).

Euhoean, where it was accompanied by was effected about 400 n.c. Someat Olynthus. at AmphipoHs, and oi beside what later et occurs beside Dat. sg. -« is found also in an inscription from Naples.
is

The change

«

also

a change of

to

ot.

Tn Ereti'ian this

N0N-Diri[TII0N(iAL COMBINATIONS OF

VOWKLS
and

(Contraction
40.

etc.)

large

Owing number

to
of

the proetlinic loss of intervocalic

,

a

new vowel-combinations

arose,

and these were

the accent. which have in West Greek and Boeotian.3i GREEK DIALECTS [40 subsequently augmented by the dialectic loss of intervocalic f (53). 2. When contracted. . So far as we know.. 4- or .(*a'yXafo-). ^avy€vei<. - [*. Boeot. in Boeotian and from ' is *€-. the number of syllables in the word. Boeot. [ .. ). tracted in Boeotian (as in Homer). as well as West Greek and Boeotian. Thessalian. . See 45. etc. ao from afo from etc. Rhod. from ae is Attic-Ionic only. Only some of the most important facts can be stated here.. + vowel or . -. with but also no certain examples of from ae.6. Boeot.. (^) ? ). is ( (cf. . also uncon- <. But from and Arcadian. . (subj.). rarely. etc.. . e. since the contract verbs in these dialects ac in crasis is Lesbian.. . but in most dialects yields as . Boeot. -. of the numerous combinations lost. (Selinus) Lac. as Att. €.. So regularly in forms of verbs in '. from from *7-^<. but elsewhere . the result is in all dialects.g. -. eVAe/3oAai9 from but also. In Lesbian. 1.. a. a Arg. show other types Meg. Corcyr.. Hesych. 159). but that further distinctions should made according to the character of the consonant which was that of the sound which preceded the combination. + e. Delph. cf. etc. . Boeot. Similarly at or from Examples are forms of verbs in -. Cf. Attic-Ionic a. An exhaustive treatment of their history in the several dialects would require not merely that each should be considered by be itself. ^ from ayXao. Thessalian. Heracl. e {spurious ec). and Arcado-Cyprian there are no such forms 7]. Cret. Lac. + €t. otherwise unknown here perhaps . at least in . as Att. Locr.-Ion. West Greek and Boeotian. Locr. or 41. Locr. uncontracted as Boeot. Meg. of inflection (see 157. . vlkovtl. See 94. group of four houndary-stones. occasionally elsewhere). ivUe. (AyXaois Cypr.). etc. etc. from ao ). ^.. (Ar. . '€<.

be further contracted to in Attic not so restricted. (but but -. from Crannon. ^^. ydvat). /. sg.<?. ?. in Pindar etc. /) from ^. in most compounds pi. 7. 4. -. Boeot. AVest Att. UoriBafovi. -stems. clear). and which (in Ionic may 45. from Lesb.3. -do as in Homer (here Aeolic. *-.-. at always rdv. .. Arc. (-). see 45.41] due to the influence of a etc. West Greek = ). -. -av (22). masc. (also -rjov in no. (Hes. whence of (with shortening of the of . 3. elsewhere Att. 8). -stems. ^. in Att. - (also - in no. See 45.(*-.2 . beside Ion. from (rare -a.e. + e. Lesb.. -. Oidwpia. Lesb. 54/). Hom. . Thessalian {rdv but otherwise Att.. Att. cf. in the case the second . as . often preserved in Homer.. ^?.. Lesb. names of several dialects . etc. but the conditions are compUcated and not wholly Boeotian. (Horn. have - * (not PHONOLOGY like Cret.-Ion. . from Att.-Cypr. Ton. 43). Eub. Attic-Ionic first or (cf. 6). West Greek Boeot. elsewhere first cf. lengthening vowel. -€. Boeotian etc. {Cret. Ion. In the other dialects the uncontracted forms are most general in Gen. -). Arc. ? (Hom. €\<) Dor. YloreBdvi. -dv). Lesb. . '.-Ion. . . + or . So Epid. . edp. mostly after vowels. Attic-Ionic . .. -dv. Corinth. from *€. ? (Hom. ^) from *a/ro9 (Skt. -) and Boeotian Greek in Thessalian). 35 35 a). West Greek Att. . Ion. *-/:. . Thess. Pindar. (seen in proper (but see 35. .' and. Gen.4). abstracted from a. Skt. or uncontracted.. i. dialects).-Ion.-Ion. which often has the value of one syllable. gloss a/3e\to?j. €8. . Arc. West Greek a?. eto?. -dv. Boeot. Ion. In Attic-Ionic . -dsdm) as in Homer (Aeolic). etc... 6).

. are employed also we expect d. besides later Lac. Ther. as Rhod. (-). In Thessalian there are some exam2)los of . Att. < \\'^< = K.\eayopa<i. Avith dialectic coloring (for coristic in . Rhod. sixth sg. . -'). as <. ace. eap. = Dor. century). as Delph. (no. So in an inscription of Oropus (no.. pi. Homer. ples (e. [41 . €8. and hvXopiovTos from {. \. Lac. becomes some of . K\€o<yep. is Rhod. € But the . Rhod. HoreiSowt.. Lesb. . Tn Ionic. TlohotSap .8. Heracl. . sometimes in West Greek dialects.:]). which may be due to Even ea from €fa. as remain uncontracted in Attic . Cf. -tv (Erythrae etc. though in But - late times partly replaced regularly in Ionic (from &() and sometimes elsewhere. ( .. also €<. and hence are possibly due so. see 280). [)4. .). cf. 2.2).g. 93 . 8 fifth beside usual eVea etc. of rj. (archaic). sg. . 23). Cf.8 (see 167). -. (Theocr. . ()€€. — very from early — lonio influence but not necessarily Dor. which is uncontracted in Attic.. Rhod. . (9). usually the Ionic form) and most by -. Delph.). gen. is Avhere three are probably such hybrids. €. from ea are from the islands (Syrac. is dialects. as gen. But occacentury) sionally in other dialects. as in as ^£/)05. exam- ivSoyevfj). 1. Thasos). (Paros. Proper names in -ea?. Arc. above.. 45. ^? in Herodotus and (from •. € pi. All the cer- doubtful). + a. h. a.) = (Acrae) = fiaatXy) (43. * . -. etc. [-).) (Alcman Callim. forms a hypo- 42. In Ionic some of the older forms witli unshortened by later writers. beside usual . uncontracted ea or as ace. = Dor. ovTos (cf. 111.beside . . .36 Cret. first . influence. c. as (cf. 14). Delph. there are some examples or tv (cf 33). sg. (cf. (no.<. <. ivvi) = ivvea. to .<^ = etc. €. TloreiBav Lac. ace. as from tain examples of Dor. ea. € + a.).. (sixth century). GREEK DIALECTS Rhod. hvXopi- . as Ther. Sicil. elsewhere elsewhere Ion. In general + vowel Attic .

Contraction to . . So in Megarian proi:)er '. but arc com- . (ei) trayas). and diphthongal pronunciation came to be represented by ev 33). etc. - But see 45. Ther. Eegularly contracted to et. 44. e (9. as at Megara. is see 45. . Cf. . etc. iv. where of the spelling lov but once also b. .5. forms like Names -. . €0 = original This spelling. / — of (24).- « or o.g.1). it beside lo (both original and vas supported by the prevaleuce consonant. found in certain parts of Crete (see 273) before a (but see d). but occur elsewhere. Boeot. Thus Ntv/AetVto?. See 45. as in yevov. sis. from *y€veao^. in Avhich. and from the third century etc.).4) are Ion. compounded consonant. it is found in continental Greece. ?. like Locr. as //?. as . single consonant. (cf. .4). ^. occur in some dialects.. . Such forms in 0€-. lov. For eo we sometimes find simply l)efore . though most have only (but '. . e.. as . The contraction have from Most tliis dialects * a. = is eo before a single from tpo). . from *€< x/jee?. Delphi. forms also occur. 4 e + €1. ^. 5. or . in ev. . ®<. Boeot. Delph. names Other examples of from from eo (so-called liyphaere- Cret. Heraclean has (but c. two.. though foimd in our texts of earlier authors (sometimes even in Homer. also an inscription of Phaselis. (-). (from See 108. (). .42] 3.appears before a single mon only in Megarian. . But uncontracted (9. cf. . Boeotian has some examples of £o).1) are usually uncontracted.) . Sok€€l. nearly always.5. as Att. Thera. Uncontracted forms. Attic only. Eegularly contracted to /3€9. . . eo or lo (9). ®€. At this time etc. from but mostly after dentals.?. 16). as yeveo^ (-to•?). as T£9 in d. ©cyetros. (Ilierapytna Delph. a. (Skt.. let. In Ionic eo often has the value of one syllable in poetry. PHONOLOGY € 37 or (see 25). ev spread to the From also Doric islands.1 € + 0. does not appear in inscriptions until the fourth century Ionic. TifeTLd. (but also TroUovra. on is frequent in Ehodes.C. . . to are rare. . €<. as Cret. See 45. Cos. €<. ®. + e. B.

in of the second vowel. GREEK DIALECTS Mess.2). of Delphian and most Doric . In other dialects regularly uncoutracted €0L. ). . . '? — Hdt. . '). is (. as Ion. but is etc. (111. in all dialects Heracl. Ion. Boeot. e.2). in Lesbian. ttoloito (also Troieot).g. + or oi.). dialects. ivKoXeoi.). and in Attic in the majority of dialects shortened (a this is (. is ? or "Xeo'il) from (109. '<. Cret. cf. West as well as East dialects. In Attic regularly contracted.). and Cyprian few examples also in early Ehodian and Coan). in (cf.1) is seen but shortened in most etc. as but sometimes (but etc. . and. Boeotian. (42..4). also = . See retained in Hom. . *€ with '.g. Hom. El. (Herodas. Elean. (). . the result is 41. (49. e €.. (Herodas (161.. . KovpovdeUi. . = Cret. 43. 44. or . but Cret. '\^^len contracted.3).2). Arc. after a vowel (see 54. in Coan) though the usual Ionic form Cf. etc. but but Lesb. &'^]\. Mil. from -().1). if or This "quantitative metathesis" seen in Attic many other words Ionic also (as usually from ? €. -\- + vowel a. Thessalian. Heracl. loi (9). 3 (Hdt. 151. accompanied by lengthening See 111. (cf. to (but probably through ea. from a + o. from in . etc. Delph. see 45.2. 1. ).2). . + vowel In the declension of nouns in -eu9 the of the stem is re- tained. e. from (113. [42 Ileracl. eovri. Bok€ol but iroLov.38 ? 6. ? . 41. also the subjunctives ). (. pi..)). ).2 a). Contraction of in Eul). (Att. i^aypeov. Att. .. . evirotol. as in Homer. / Greek elpearai dialects and etc. . but Locr. borrowed from Ionic.. €€ .

8€<. + When contracted. oe. Arc. Boeot. cf. (94. So beside Att. tion .. e. as Corinth. but Ion. So Ion. in matter whether 0780774.. 39 Cf. Notes to 41-44. /€/)7'9 initial (with elision. . after the vowel in second mem- Nisyrus and Astypalaea. . aXopyo^ in to account of Teos and Samos.from -olo e.5 at (Ion. Heracl. Att. but Heracl. Att. and ?. analogy of compounds with original ''. ("hyphaeresis. but Coan. from -()€<?) but Lac. 9 () is or . So Heracl.. ArgoL. mainly from . ope. lihod. . Lesb. 8<<. Xoerpov). etc. . ^eXivoevrc but ^eXivovrtot. Att. Aetol. Meg.45] PHONOLOGY from --{) +. Ehod.g. the form of most dia(attested for Arc.4). .) but Boeot. Meg. . also find uncontracted . other dialects sometimes a. 8. rdo'yadov 2. in crasis. pi. (see 45. 42.. - + or 0.. of the factors which help for divergence in the treatment of the same combination vowels in the same dialect may understood from the following. ^ ' Some Ije Ep. also (once) r. Hdt." MaXoevTL. Eegularly contracted to (106. etc.. from *7rpoe77uo9. later 'OXoWt. 8'. (94). ber. Cret. sometimes i^).. e.. See 4..g.. = ayadov etc. ). Aetol. €<. 77 For Ionic cf. before two consonants. ^^^ cf. .. Locr.1). sg. = and o'ySwfcovra from (with original and In the termination of beside whence beside Lesb. from o?.).) lects is Cnid.. also the crasis in Att.). 45.. and. (for Ehod. e. . BoXoet'Tt'ooi/. '^/. Mess. no is from a or original ?. also taken 3.2).. . (Hom. also see 167).. . and in the same inscripCret. (nom. Delph. + (see 25). 8^. Att. . hyphaeresis has j^lace. Locr. Att..^ .. ^. the result the same as from (3). But we Lesb. Usually iincontracted (Att. 7€\^<. . El. Leslj. (Ep. ?. g. . '/ . but in Ionic regularly Cret. 8€'^^. Cf.). 4. as gen.

5 other factors also must be involved in part.40 1. dialect. etc. Locr. Cf also Meg. . ". yevwv. which assimilation 49. For Boeot. The assimilation of vowels comparatively rare in Greek. after and tioned name Boeot. 46. @8. Fe/ceSa/xo? beside = Delpli. etc. yevovs. tracted only later. . forms like etc. . Att. may be but contracted Ion. of compounds. acts the not subject to contraction often counter- normal phonetic development. . . see . . (not -) after etc. ?.4) originated in like is sometimes a and perhaps all conditions. belong under 4. though beSuch words may be when forming the first member . trast to € ) .. .. tracted in dissyllabic words. Att. uncontracted. The position of the accent on a following syllable factor. longing also under contracted 1. and So Cret. being of later origin than in contrast to or . 44. Thess. name of the Boeotian local hero. though phenomenon is Thess.1. article. The nouns 5. Locr.. ®. is For 8. also)..i. El. . form to show contraction. may remain rjSea. 2. Here belongs probably Dor. as in con- The analogical influence of grammatically related forms in which the is vowel. by the loss of p. . ?• . as proclitic.. . and the whole still not wholly clear. as Att. (- etc. otherwise contracted Dor. A combination which . Treos. not characteristic of any particular Here may be menfrom from the regular native form of the of both the Boeotian and the Arcadian town. ples of not necessary assumption. . as regards their origin.. So Locr. (see 42. in (Crannon elsewhere - Eub. etc. Dor. ti). either of stem or ending. 4.. A . (later iZ. Boeot. . combination which Att. or be con- - later is otherwise uncontracted after a vowel. is often the first Cf. these forms. Iriwv l)ut . in see 18. 8. a possible but . sometimes after consonants but '. with - after Ion. but also. may remain unconand likewise. For exam- . cases of " hyphaeresis " (42. arises t [45 that arising from the loss of . GREEK DIALECTS A coiiibiuation which So Att. crea. ®. Perhaps but ?. 8€ but is but not usually). '. . see 20.3. Assimilation of Vowels is 8 ?.

as Att. Arc. ei and with in various dialects (144 a). '. but usually Boeot. which the following may be mentioned.. {. Series ep. Lac. . Cret. inherited. ap or pa rerope^. ( Ion. \i. perhaps due Lesl). in Sappho and see 74 grammarians. in Cretan. Ionic and Coan beside ?. Coan (also but Att. Cret. appevrepov. *€-. heiK- and -. are included for convenience. Ion. For epenthesis in the case vl. In the system of inherited vowel-gradation the dialects gen- shown by corresponding forms e. . also El.g. Homer.7) from Thess. ot (lait ?) the famous Potidaea was Arc. to contamination of ) oy . as Att.beside Avest..4) . and (114. see also 80).?}? = ireXedpov perhaps an Vowel-Gradation erally agree in the grade eXiTTov. . €. but not found in inscriptions. Lesb. . /. 2. Lesb. of 1. ^. a. ]^ . '=\. arsan-). of original etc.. (114. Sata). = inherited by-form. (from ). . . etc. (41. cf. (= Att. Ion. ol.. as in . (assimilation (?) in and Lesb. But there are some examples . fappevop (from a by- initial f . Skt. A^ry rare). Epid.. (cf. examples are '^. 49. Delphian. eXnrov). . Ther.l•. . *6-. Mess. Lac. etc. (*6f€iy-) Carpath.49] PHONOLOGY Epenthetic Vowels 41 47. reaaepe^. later epae- influence. (17). (*6fL'y-). Lesb. c (.. ei. Anaptyctic Vowels 48. is Other 'E/aeyu. = in Aeolic Some cases fall into the where the variation is quite possibly not same system. form with { '). . but vvliich . dialects alike. is only exceptional occurrence. from Pergamum. Cf. ). op. also 1 in derivatives.). etc. etc.4). etc. of El. 79. vrsan. Cf. pt. Series. in all of dialectic differences.^ XeXoiira. = Att.

= a or av weak grade . West Ion. = Arc ( to assimilation from *.. but . . o\. Heracl. . () For Coan. [49 names most Arc. . as Ion. Series . Thess. The weak grade and likewise varies = Bpa)(^^rj. Cret. = etc. Tliess. sometimes in Herodotus. but Cret. Cret. Epid. ^ (assimilation ?). see 163. . = as in Pindar etc. and •. Delph. 4. For see 13. as in Horn.. .. . variation is ap uniformly. . Boeot. vitulus). Cret. Boeot. . in Aeolic (gram.).pp'ya. *. = Cret. )... . Boeotian. or = Arc. v). Epid. beside ?). . For see 5. Thessalian.. = (with obscure etc. (rarely early Attic). /. . Homer ... Pamphyl. (Horn. . Cret. (cf.42 (gram. (89. West Greek all from a grade in (but this is (. (6) = . (Lac. Arc. as (see 5) the ei is not original). Boeot. Coan Lesb.). ). etc. .. = ( . Cypr. So Cret. and clearly so in Cretan. Thess. (Naples). = a Semitic loanword). GREEK DIALECTS Lesb. as 3.. . (). . but in proper €<. which has See 70. .1. . characteristic of Arcado-Cyprian.1. ov (). . '] El. Thess. = ). = East Ionic assemhly ayopa). . = — Lesb. Series and = (pyv. Delph. . . ). fl.^ '^ (. Corinth.. etc. depaeta' in Theocritus)... . (depaovv.8. (f^epaia^. and in proper frec^uently in Lesbian.. = due with See 75. = (in names etc. Corcyr. pa. 7^ ^.3) Cypr. and Arcadian. = Boeot. whence . yearling (cf. (cf. "AttXovv with . as Lesb. ^ . 8. . .. . Lat. Arc. from as iu see 116 a. For 5. . Arc.. This also has = Series \. and between etc. . ). . .. 7709.. Cret. as Att. Lac. Ion. in part it due to metathesis. participles with ...-Ion. ).

owner. ? El.) likewise at lihodes. So evidently in Laconian. But it till in most till dialects it is of frequent occurrence initially. dialects (though the influence). too. . = examples are late PHONOLOGY Dor. . lamh (/rapv-). the earliest inscriptions (seventh century Cos. very rare in Central and West Ionic its v. etc. Arg.. later. see 146. representative of Laconian. but by its shown not only by its reap]iearance in the spellsurvival in some vords in Tzakoniun. .. In Attic-Ionic the is was of it lost at a very early period.. For Heracl. CONSONANTS F 50. . etc. contain a differfre- and related forms. and before consonants in a very few. a.. initially at least.. in Attic-Ionic. e. in where survives the fourth century or Cretan and Boeotian the second. Cret. the modern (vanne). it is . in most. the dialects except Attic-Ionic. €. See 69. Boeot. aor. Cyjjr. 50] etc..4. Locr. Between vowels dialects. 43 = etKa. Corcyr. In some cases the disappearance of from inscriptions is due to influence rather than to an organic loss of the sound within the dialect. were employed in iweference to perhaps all. Meg. perf. and in Attic the only absent from evidence of existence as is its occasional use to express the glide sound before (32). of which. €<^< Epirotan. besides . In Lesbian it existed. as ing (51). .. etc. though here early material is scanty. and various West Greek and so possibly due to (also but ejKTaai^ in Thessalian etc. Arc. Cf. Trd-. quent in literary Doric..g. Heracl. none of any extent is earlier than the fourth century. Corcyraean. however. but not found in inscriptions. . sul)]. B. = ent root like . In earliest inscriptions East Ionic there it is no trace even in the . etc. in the time of is Alcaeus and Sappho.4. /?. In Thera... also in Lesbian '. it occurs in the earliest inscrip- tions of many after consonants in several.C. €<). a. siibj. Boeot.

of see 55. b. it is (see also a. used in place of = an early Co- rinthian inscription. ^. . nos.. also pero^. or omission of initial f is constant for certain words. beside etc. Examples are numerous in in- scriptions of lects.g. the spelling. . and often there an interval of considerable length in which the older spelling with f and the later spelling without f occur promiscuously. dialects. GREEK DIALECTS Even where there is is [50 loss of the no reason to doubt the actual sound. only gradually adapted itself to the is pronunciation. Nerva by Nepoa. . So frequently in to the second century a. ''. Arc. (cf. etc. e. in various vlgintl) in eight dialects. In the Ileraclean Tables the presence . initially before a vowel. without piv. which we must understand in in its later value of a spirant (Engl. Cf. most (cf. . The name of the Cretan town Fa^os was sometimes represented by*Oa^os. etc.. . in the stereotyped phrase otherwise f is For in initial = pp. e.g. 61. 16. Lac. e. Lat. especially in proper names. a. vicus) in f eVo•? (cf. (but not before etc. pepyov.g. '. €87]. in the Laconian from the fourth century e. .). for f. ¥. precise dialectic scope of this povhy analphenomenon is not yet determined. .g. title of officials (piS-). in no. c). beside = 8€< = rom */. 3. .44 b. vetus) in eleven diatwelve dialects. as Lat. . Conversely. f is represented by . lost). etc. always and derivatives.? 51. 17. g. 70-73) f later inscriptions .. in is Gortynian forms of /?.^. and in . etc.. fyap a. dialects.). (no. Bo'/a^to?. = older Corcyr. Lat.. and many others .C.. fifth century. Homer. in 4. (. 52. peiir-. also Arg. = earlier = (no. etc.. even in the same inscription. <.. e. etc. e. /rtSios. . But the . and po by no means unknown. ^. and hiaos. 8€<. Lat. . fourth century.g. (see 51). beside ogy of pa. Cretan. /?. in ten dialects. Cret. v). (cf. Bop^ios. numerous glosses and of several dialects.- . B.d. but oikos. . ot). In several dialects which otherwise jireserve as in . further. lost before and wvij. as natural in such cases.

loilwan). beside iiroieaev Thess. even in the same inscription. from which otherwise have inipe^. This inconstancy p. the proper lost. e. which) but which. ves-tw). Att. /caTat/rei' (also ?. ^. or wholly lost in pronunciation and retained only in the spelling. but see a) El. . beside Xeoi. . . occasionally written usually simply shown by the fact that after the loss of asper. in Boeotian. uniformly except in some later inscriptions. pepaheKora. '. . hike poi. Lesb. alpei. but not found after 450 with Locr. sixth century). (no.e. ^. was pronounced as hp (or a surd p).8). c. . Arc. where it appears almost popof. than elsewhere. Delph.C. €€.. phi$.53] h. vid-). exjilanation. Boeot. vesper). «/ (cf. B. dialects this was lost earlier where (from are frequent in inscriptions (no. (but always in Eub.. ? ' also ' ph (of. The coming from (cf. but usually etc. Skt. 9). Phoc. F/ie/<a-8a)U. dialects. not €. . in Cyprian. is much greater than in the case of initial The spelling with often persists in proper names. than *suek\s) in general. e. . Thess.g. and in most find forms of these only in the earliest Often with and without from the same period or the same inscription. i. as . PHONOLOGY Initial 45 / /r. we etc. vapov. . Cret. . [Troji/reot once (also airope- but see a).g. loss of p).. original initial p. and sometimes in certain conventional or solemn expressions.. ). 33). Locr. ^. Intervocalic This was lost sooner than initial hence is found in fewer inscriptions. showing that it was either weakly sounded. (cf. as in p. some other cases of secondary but the following 53. however. with name e. but otherwise iiroipeae. and . '. (cf. yields hf. is uncertain. Lat. *A'yaai\epo with (no. . (cf. (cf. and analogical influence are the chief factors... as -/. Lat. ^.. c^ such words have the spiritus Cret. Locr. Boeot. Thess. as in hvXSpeovro^. ' .g. Eng. Thus Boeot. alpei (Crissa . p. Locr. There are some words with /. ^. tial p. except in a late archaistic inscription etc. .o€. Lac. later In some El. 43. .. in which is not involved. Goth. from piS-. ?. longer Examples are most frequent Sopevai. Lat. iaoae etc. which have in their later forms.

Ion. etc. Sevpapeop <. . the vowel was not affected. .. 54. . Lut see a)... Ion. Ion. 5eii/i<?. Cret. [) Ther. In most dialects 7€<. owing to the influence of has the simplex or of the forms without augment or reduplication. Boeot. f in even no. p. it may appear in compounds or in augmented or reduplicated forms. . (cf. Locr. .g. Thera.ev- Ion. as in Attic. . eveKa. . Postconsonantal and also / of (in some see /) are preserved in the earliest inscriptions loss of some dialects. - f€{a)aav. . The also use of to indicate the natural glide before or after (see 32. where and late Hence survived as initial. etvaro^i. as Cret. B. h. 16). Arc. \p. in any dialect such forms are not necessarily evidence of the survival of true . Cos. El. . Ion. etc. 46 . Corcyr. /309 Boeot. Ion. Pihod. There are no examples of intervocalic the earliest inscriptions of Arcadian . Central Ionic (in part see a) and Eastern Doric (Crete. e. Cormth..) ()). . phopalai. -. Ion. GKEEK DIALECTS elsewhere contracted to late (51). /. . Cret. . pp. The was accompanied by lengthening Ehodes and colonies). . Corinth. Arg. Cyren. 36) is no evidence for the survival of the inherited intervocalic p. etc. . Ion. . Aifi.. . * Ion. cases .. while in the other dialects.. YlorehavL... of the preceding vowel in East Ionic. Cret. Corcyr. (alei. Even where intervocalic f is regularly lost. or Cretan except in compounds a. YlorehapovL beside Corcyr. *€ * . Cret. Ion. intervocalic p. Cret. Arc. The combinations vp. [53 eTToifehe (also TrehapoLKoi. * Cret. Aifovvaio. €. (a). *€€.

are probably . Hesych. Ilvp/rtas. To the lengthening tions. we have . * * (like <.with Aeolic (also . is Corinth. elsewhere va^os whence vaos. €. Thus Lesb. or In West Greek Cf. hyper-Aeolic.. is to be the treatment of which Dor. catrarasy or is due to the analogy of was expelled between the conso- . in East Ionic there are possibly and especially are due to has survived only Attic influence. asscmJ////. 77. but.. and o. vecj? (41. before consonants. . ^. Lesb. G). Lat. later wholly (cf.1). From many of the islands. b.d. see 19. (35). (74. <.4). (cf. 76. ppera (70. also w from vt. etc. both Ionic and Doi-ic. quattuor. . 5). (61. • also spelled 35. e.in . cf. etc. /.3. also rtropes the other forms such as nants. where is far more common in proper names. (76). . c. riaaepe^. etc. ). ?. decisive material is lacking. probably standing for lation of d. probably of secondary origin. probably come from first comes (like a/x€). verhuni) beside pep. Tp yields (81). eupperaaarv indicating an anticipation a and So also Kevevpov from Kevepov). with Ion.. which from in distinguished from that of original intervocalic is apparently parallel to that of etc.. appeTeve (with prothetic El. . An example of for ihfuatv- before f). Corinth. 47 local excep- <:. and aeWrj<i (a-peX-). Lat.g. etc. which cf. (Hdt. livp- . . (from (15). etc. - Corresponding to Att. for Boeot. eweKa. in Lesbian be- Cypr. in general. Arg. (from of vfith early assimi- most dialects. related to from apaX-. crv. some Arg. also vjas sjwkesman. . but it is uncertain how far west this extended. (cf. due to the frequency of Cf. The history of . (-. Dor. and in late Cretan where In Central Ionic the lengthening is attested for Paros and than Thasos. 55. . Afevid = Cf Horn. • €€4. aXia. Different from opfo<. . ). Ion. p. Delph. . etc. ^eWos. -). Similarly in Rhodian etc. /xe). . Ion. . premled.3) with its denominative {ippiof the Cf. whence the f after a mute ^ * 92 is For Thess. ). in grammarians and late inscriptions.* in with the same distribution as for original instead of etc. Att. (cf. El. c. Aetvtov. Skt. hence *vavpos. is from -\-. . in an inscription of 2-14 a.55] PHONOLOGY forms like . a).) d from apa as in .

Consonantal (l) Original almost wholly disappeared from Greek in prehis' toric times. as in Attic. (Herodian) from *i-fp. as Att. the simplex (or form without augment or reduplication) was retained (i. as in rpel<i from *€€ in But between l and a following vowel. in Lesbian Lesbian at of the etc.g. pp (from *L-fpv. it Pamphylian. etc. though there no example in Lesbian. rarely. initial p. . <. In the case of medial fp. f(. in and sometimes elsewhere. like and from 76 -. -<. also Ion. fp Avith the following vowel). early Arg. (Lat. also Boeot. e. 76 h). and being always (Skt. Ileracl. Cf. as Att. yas). as existed as a natural glide in pronunciation. above). 84). -. as hua. cf. yielding various results in (71. as Cf.g. The development -). j. also ^ was probably 56. (Skt. giving or. 81.. Bpavi8a<i beside In most dialects f was lost before the time of our earliest inand we find. though not . h. e. the spelling. . medial pp or p. . Arg. and later this fp became pp or sometimes In Attic and most dialects p.2). El. Delph. -. from *TaXa-fpLvo<i. . So. . afpircvc. . initially. <. a. (Priene) (37. d/rXaveos etc. etc. m Ion. later is formed augmented and reduplicated forms have pp. ^^. 82. trayas).).fplh>a. forms like under the while compounds also usually have pp but sometimes but also continued influence of the simplex.48 GREEK DIALECTS [55 vr. See a. as in 09 (Skt. but of medial is parallel (cf. e. after the analogy of €pprjya. indicating a pronunciation fp appears as words quoted by grammarians and in our texts poets the time of our earliest inscriptions. iecur). the f unites with the preceding wel to form a diphthong in Lesbian (cf.. 35). acter. hiiapoiai. scriptions . But elsewhere the syllabification of llom. *a-fpTqKTO<i (Att. . and in a few dialects this is expressed . . ". {. /^.. combination with a preceding consonant dropped between vowels. though this has become simply Cf. In Cyprian a special char- which we transcribe is generally employed. (. yugam).. etc. Hom. by the repetition of l. Arg. which would occur only in compounds and augmented or reduplicated forms of words with initial fp.

and Cretan Psilosis is Central Cretan). . etc. partly in special words.. simplex.. Mod. e. ":7709. only by the analogical influence of the El. equus part of compounds. see 4. a. as in the Idalium bronze (no. 58. but in some words (cf. - the loss of the Even in those dialects which generally preserve the psilosis. in distinction from those with we may caU the A-dialects. 1 In quoting forms from inscriptions.g. regularly as the second etc.7. i). or due to an actual loss of the sound. like accent marks. after which it was generally left unduction of the Ionic designated. is characteristic of East Ionic (whence the sign was left free for (i. t Psilosis The spiritus asper generally represents is an original (59) or (56). (irk. . and the employment of which is. Ijarepav but lepepljav.^ But see 4. which is supplied as a purely diacritical sign. /€5. 19) regularly before but not before or o.g. of secondary. in many special cases. use as .58] PHONOLOGY e 49 uniformly. as Cret. or the loss of the spiritus asper. Cf.. in spite of . . asviuii) after the analogy of v/xet? (with The sound was denoted by (earlier B) until the intro= . Cyprian. Tliat is. not only by the absence of = A. air ov. the evidence is often insufficient to determine whether the omission of the sign of the asper is merely graphic. wherever the sign for the spiritus asper appears in the original it is transcribed . Hence East Ion. origin. to be distinguished from '. in which case we should transcribe the form with '. As a workfrom inscriptions which ing rule we employ the lenis in quoting forms without have the character or are of a period when it was certainly in common use. (cf. not changed El. with ' "). e. a. no bar to the retention of aspirated mutes in phrases and compounds which were formed prior to the loss of the asper. and wliich. East Ion. by Cret. of doubtful propriety. but by the presis . Elean. there are many irregularities. e. from Psilosis. '? and sometimes obscure. Lesbian. For they would be affected. etc. The Spiritus Asper. . 'But psilosis is shown."'770'?. e. ence of phrases and compounds in which a preceding mnte to the aspirate.g. /£' . spiritus asper.. Lat.6). 57. . . spiritus asper. Skt. in which case we should transcribe with '.. feirija but . if at all.

Theran). dialects). Other forms which regularly have the spiritus asper. Corcyr. Kol = ol (no. or . iir' €. 5 late inscriptions of various dialects (really .14. fern. but for which but even in Attic by-forms with the lenis are to be recognized. (of. but with (nos. 92. sometimes Amorg.. tapeos (beside 6 oIkos. ). vice (no. Troez.50 GKEEK DIALECTS existed. Several words which regularly have the with the asper in various dialects. 83. but also as Thess. are of the relative inscriptions frequently lenis in . hoaris. Pamphylia. 55. : Ther. 26). Mod.). etc. Mess. d. huipo<i. larly or frequently . but Ileracl. 51) In several dialects the forms of the article. still further extension of the asper = (no. with The same is probably to be inferred for Arcadian from the omission of h in the 05 (no. but demonstrative ho (B 53).. hpo<i. ' <. Aegin.. /€'? (Lac. C 19). which compare Boeot. due to the weak pronun- sound in general the variations in Latin spelling).). b. likewise in some early inscriptions of Boeotia. 107). etc. c. 16. So probably by a Ther. 77. Thess.). Ther.). is (?uo. . 76. So iir' ^ is in the Megarian inscription no. ). a and Aa once each. os = beside usual ho. similar phrases. (e. Syracuse. after haKpoaKipia^. in and so often in probably after Ileracl. see d. . after Delph.. . and Sybaris. €' . € ]\Iess. probably due to the for Avhich. TTO^' Thess. in contrast to hvapov at Selinus. (from and frequently probably after the analogy of but Thess. Epid. . 33). in the (cf. ) . ). ' <in but Delph.. " and but Ileracl. appear regushowing that in these piOclitic forms it was either wholly lost or more weakly sounded than elsewhere. with ho etc. Metapontum. as = u A 28) (no. (hLep. as llhod. Epidaurian graver. without A. beside Locr. . = Delph.. (no. . in numerous Arg. (Coan /€' etc. the versa. never ho (cf.. 40) and Delph. (nos. (beside iStos . 17. in as article (A 30. but also (cf. So in Locrian (nos. Rhodian and Argolic. in Doric dialects Aa/i-e's). Epid. also frequent in the a contamination of . (see 57). hoKTtii (also all after (from f ). hevrt. [58 where by-forms e\ddently ciation of the a. ). Avith Ao/xovoiot? etc. '. '). haKpo^. = ). and perhaps Delph. ?.7). .Grk.pha. Delphian (no. though in most dialects the A is uniformly retained. 38. partly (cf. 51 i-elative. Locr. 56) always 6. -. • but ). lenis show secondary forms ^€va-h. '. ctos etc. = Heracl. 51 D47). For Alant. also 6). Thus . . <.g. (from probably after Ileracl.

17 has / beside 'OttOvtlol. and c. and the very early Mantinean inscription. besides the cases and hoi- At Epidaurus. mentioned under for c. Lys. etc. ^FiXevhvvia. in Laconian. . 1. (-). Elean. Original initial s became the spiritus asper in proethnic (Lat. . while Delph. 83 has always arepos not Loss of Intervocalic . later lost. either retained as by analogy as in the aorist. or of secondary origin from (61). beside hopKov. janasas. . d. This Greek intervocalic was subjected namely became h and was and Cyprian. Skt. and. vice versa. as in sac-). . Examples and is omitted are also in Ar. In Arcadian. Nevertheless there are many Greek words with intervocalic . to a similar process. AvhiTTTTOv. as well as the v. €<. €<.. (^) in PHONOLOGY from tlie is 51 obscure. shows no example of . asper. In Thess. though even some of these may possibly be due to Locrian has . and in glosses. . generis). and once hav for no. — Lesb. etc. sedeo. . in / was changed in the (Skt. Early iiroiehe. no. Lat.. later Tlah.. as intervocalic s same way and then etc. (Tieiai-). no. . earliest of This was a characteristic of Laconian speech from the period. ^. b. Besides such special cases as have been noted in a. beside . TlohoiBavi. But of it was a provincialinscriptions ism and ignored in the spelling some few early . felt as (€<. Laconian. vLKaha<i. spe- and for aycv (cf €').). is probably due to contamination with some other word. Skt. sad-).. . IleuKXeiSa of . sequor. once . though containing not only (see a) but and for which Atepo? is fully attested in the other Arcadian and among the brief archaic inscriptions there is a inscrif^tions as no. Greek. etc. there are in some dialects irregularities which seem to be due to confusion in spelling consequent upon the asper being weakly sounded or on the verge of total disappearance. Cf. faithfully represented in the spelling known most of the early inscriptions.59] and avypiiu . also 97 a. 16 . eVAe/SoAat?. cial causes.. . 59. . vBptav (A before ). where we expect Heraclean has. At the same time lost. Argolic. notable lack of agreement in this matter. . 16. '? (Lat.

which is . ). in forms of the op. [59 though (no. From Mycenae. usually 2. late At ?.g. and Eretrian. 'yveaioL. e. Argolic. 65. Final 9 {) ( ). rarely elsewhere. fifth century). But there are some traces of it at Epidaurus. This inconsistency in the spelling. has the same explanation. -9 show and . 78. 52 wliich were set GREEK DIALECTS up outside of Laconia (no. But generally Rhotacism Ehotacism. - {%-). or change of Laconian. ent system. is 1. subj. (cf. even greater than in and a. ).. anyway the kter inscriptions. Alexander) etc. early . ().. is found in Elean. (). Cyprian. a.. etc. Elean. (). subj. eiroipehe. fifth cen- tury). e. appears uniforudy as tions. and the absence of other examples may be due to external influence. the retention of no. Nearly all the examples are from Argos and vicinity. which Laconian. Elean. same inscription with See ?. In no. also in sentence combination (' 60. later <. earlier inscriptions . 60 (middle fourth century) aheakrahaie. (no. Rhotacism of intervocalic is is unknown In the earlier inscriptions relatively most frequent article and the indefinite or the relative pronoun. .).. . show . natural 275. e.g. (197 etc. 97 a). not general Argolic. @\<{ in the ().). '.. [^. 61 (after (aor. as is ^beside is In no.) from Argos. early TeXetTTTTo? (-). from which one might conclude that the change was specifically Argive. 59. 3. {-). in this non-Laconian name and in See 275. nos. But forms with are also frequent at all periods. and . 75.3). 61. B. beside (slot. -p side to p... 60. 1. 64. 4. late in the later inscrip- by side without Most of the any appar(cf. In all the earlier inscriptions intervocalic unchanged. written.C.g.

. is seen only in very late inscrip- etc.g. for . . etc. <? great fluctuation in the spelling. in all dialects. some words But . to Orop. being retained in and in some words becoming in all dialects. Pharsalus) in this position was pronounced often indicated by .2. late (Matropolis. as . -. Eretr. ga-ti-s). seen in Eretr. and sometimes and the change before is The more precise conditions are uncertain. e.g. in which Boeotian -vrt. also share. ful in all the € . Rhotacism of ])efore a voiced consonant is Ml/5709 = 10-709.'. of for final 9 except once . no inscrip- for which see 97 4. is v. . is Ehotacism of intervocalic e. {) — . continued by numerous glosses. here there 2. e. {-tl. in a consideral)le class of words there a distinct dialectic distribution of the r- -forms. is 9. is Lacouian. e. 3. Change ^€ Cretan (Gortyna) = €'9. most words and like (Skt. Thess. there is . The numerals (Arc. €78€'- example it. frequent in inscrip- e^ovptv. = In most dialects . ".g. . remarks that the Eretrians say tional for .. ' and = are plenti- West Greek for dialects and Boeotian -). 1. -rt. Lesb. (z). Eretria and Oropus. 20 and the hundreds.. changed to very frequently before t. . Examples See 139. Cratyhts 434 c. and the use of is gradually given up under Attic influence. as a sonant and in late times of 61. . Verb forms with the endings (Arc. West Greek dialects. in part independent of dialectic variation. 2. as . tions of 'piv. Although Plato.61] PHONOLOGY 53 But even possibly the rhotacism began in such enclitic and proclitic forms.g. Ehutacism of final Eretriau. the retention of being a nota- ble characteristic of the and Thessalian '. Thessalian are indirectly evidenced by -= -. But there are many exceptions. tions.

.<. 6. Meg. -. spirant). = = — this class Dut numerous West Greek dialects. from . Thess. ToSe (no. ' Lesb. with Epid. which eventually prevailed even in Attic th. suffix -. .. ^. : []-€. TV in literary Doric and an inscription of Epidaurus.. (cf. late Cret. Cret.-Cypr. 1. But Homer has 5. Lesb. GEEEK DIALECTS Some nouns and have adjectives in in all dialects. in all other IVest Greek with = Att.-Ion.54 3. the forms with ttotl. of following what was the usual spelling '= 7 . '. €. in late inscriptions of . -. but Att. . = "soft" = guttural 2. . remained simple mediae.1) = .g. See 135. . .. though the others have elsewhere.G Woreihav. Pamph.< beside with --. or substitution of i. - in some later Doric inscriptions is probably due to the influ- ence of the usual TloaetScov. . Aeolic form in Homer). in Cretan. etc. Elean inscriptions. attested for Thessalian. suffix ... Boeot. {^}).. with the Laconian change to h. and early Arg. iviavTLO<i 4.-Ion.. = being numerous West Greek is with Boeotian and Lac. The use of liy in three of the very The representation of e. Arc.. = r. . earliest \\\ (^). *<. Boeot. which we find Arc. = Att. '?. -. in (the etc. Corinna) = '.Grk. Delph. see 89. In general .-Ion. form (cf. dialects. he^iTeta. 93). Arc. as in Boeot.. 3. ^. Epid.. [61 Most words of Boeotian and Thessalian.. Lesb. as well as irpo^. Mod. and ? (9) Arc. liohoihav a relic of the Pre-Doric (Achaean) of Arc. a. also early Rliod.' dialects. but in some dia- lects there are indications of their pronunciation as spirants. (for Cf. various places. Such are for f in later Laconian etc. Arc. See 51. /'?.. . 62. Coan. Delph.). The occasional omission (Ar. .

and in the earliest type of the alphabet. in contrast. Cyprian. most plausibly explained as due had become a spirant in other positions. Spell- SeSoK^Oat are mostly (no. its . with hallowed pronunciation . but none two were represented by and Kh. Delphian epithet nunciation of V as 64. See 89. In general . Laconian =. these Gortynian Law-Code ings like (e. •. not yet fully identical with themselves retained the spelling but inscription. was denoted by r. 51 Attic. . PHONOLOGY The occasional representation of 55 by . Such a pronunciation (64). etc. (81 a. where a sign for h was not in use. ch)./. (66). simply by and . which eventually prevailed even in hard Germ. . Elean. which had a sign for for or. as at Thera. (^<?). () beside and in very late inscriptions . = ^€'7. early example being Delph. may have existed at a is much earlier period in some dialects. The use this by Aristophanes in the is Lysistrata to indicate the sound of the Laconian (and there no good reason to doubt that shows that nian ear as it belongs to the original text) strike the Athe- had become a spirant which would even if . of But the pronunciation as spirants (Engl. = in Locrian. remained true aspirated mutes. and Cret. ol to it. and The Laconians () in all the earlier inscriptions. 63. the originally re- tained (also sometimes spelled u. airofSSav. ). i.64] 4.3. but remained an aspirated mute after and so. 5. etc. as (yd). as Cret. sg. certainly presupposed by Lac. of Apollo. ).e. 85. D 13 " . \\\\ being u of denote the pro- Cretan see 24). ?. of " th. = (85. = late. So too = and probably by to the fact that Cret. ()^ etc. Cret. as in the or . occur in a fourth century '. an exceptionally dat.g.1) is etc. A similar explanation probably holds for some other cases where is used for .3).

dialectic. For Att. whether the preceding IjOCy. . = = as in ).4). and sonant. also = it is uncertain or the following is the more important obscure. '. whence El. cf. = = = = is is becomes regularly (^) ( not written. early Att. 69. iv- Ion. and influence also 66). (Chios) from from In Pamphylian as Pamph. ).. = . ^'^. Lac. aspirate. El. logical. ^ '. '-. . *'. ^.'. (^ . assiiuila(i. 66.) after . factor. . So Ion. '' -. '. Ther. . (cf.. Dissimilation and assimilation of aspirates. beside = = Epid. = usual Att..-Ion. (but (68. etc. (Cumae) sixth century Attic inscriptions). this ). Att.2). surd Ion.. and Aspirates from *. especially before a nasal.. (cf. Locr. ^t^e'/xefo? of later. = In Cret. .e. Cf. Cret. tion. Cf. (inscr. to etc. Sonants.< . The dissimilation seen in etc. (also in belongs to the proethnic But there are some examples Cret. Locr. El. etc. .. = €6<. '.) Att. (from ration (124). cf. West (in part ana- Arc. verbs in - probably due to the influence of other (but possibly like (to with analogical . . = \<. For transposition Cret. * . from . 63). *-. 8'. . Locr. beside Eretr. from period. is the more original form of the aspi- Att. = = proljably contain the suffix Cf. Epid. There are scattered examples of variation between surd and = . (So perhaps Delph. etc. of through transposition Eub. or transposition of the aspiration.. = Tliess.). = = Heracl. also like is from through influence of also Ion.) from *'. Interchange of Surds.2).56 GKEEK DIALECTS [66 65. ^^. to Aetol. = ^) = '. (164. cf.

. and Gutturals 68. as Lesb. in later Attic and elsewhere. . Many Instead of v. e. . 88). several dialects have forms irpecyv^ etc. cf. 'yvvq usually = reiaet with analogical v. Cret. 6€<.? ^ /. .3) = 2. . Interchange of 67. and Osc. gV'.68] PHONOLOGY other dialects (and Ionic in part) have the original Att. Dentals. e. and in many dialects as the second member of proper names. Cret. qiiod. 7\€< is found in Cyprian .. Thus . from a.. . TroOev (Lat. iVtt. ^. vlvus). 8. before consonants. of confusion.' = Lac.g. e. not = and is ( from (gloss) and Cretan (rare). (but is analogical. re (Lat.2). which . . Thess. gl^li. — 57 (cf. e. 1. . ^ after (Eng. with 7. Examples = West Greek Delph.g. (75) = if from the rare early Boeot. of the normal relation are Arc. Of the Homeric by -forms found also in Cyprian. . < . o. 86. = are replaced by ' . wolf). Those sounds of tlie parent speech which are called labioas qV. regular before vpiayeie^ (see 86. as in may belong under below).g. the spiritus asper of eh. t. Cypr. oSeXo^ (49. etc. = etc. . quis). ? . quinque).. Interchange of Labials.. rarely in Arcadian and Cretan. . as 7. queen) beside Boeot. but (Lat.3). — But before only in Heracl. + Very . with late inscriptions show numerous examples confined to any special conditions. (Eng... qtie). Boeot. exceptions are due to leveling between related forms. ^^ and of . velars and are commonly designated (1) labials before appear m (3) Greek regularly as the back vowels a. . 76/709. irevTe (Lat. (2) dentals before the front vowels gutturals before and after pod). and in Thessalian after a vowel. with after is . . but (Lat.—.

4) in though all other Arca- etc. ^Aw not gUh). ' ( unexplained). etc. usual the character transcribed . *€. Thess. Boeot. = = .. Cf. [). after in etc. dian inscriptions have beside SepeOpov '. place of the (but only in Thess. El. to is ^-/'? Att. &€ is regular elsewhere. texts of Ionic authors. beside inscriptional to no. Thess. = el're an early inscription of jMantinea (no. etc.2). to rrjXe. . ireiaat. at least under certain conditions. Boeot. ' = Horn. The influence. Boeot. = (Hesych. SeTTaX6<. 1). = = €<. There are some pronominal forms with usual 7 or . = Lesb. = Att. 16). — and see note . (65) 3.58 2. Thus Lesb. Lesb. and see 275. is . Boeot.. Thess. and Arc. . Boeot. . identical with the before a front vowel was not. . Trer- Thess. '-. (no. = Thus Cypr. (gloss). where the dental TreVre. but. owing to external Cf. (Sapplio). 4. ' .g. ^ = only in the earliest inscriptions (62. Boeot. cf. = . etae ?=9 (for tlie 19). Be'X^ot (gloss). but not usually followed in the spelling. Lesb. e. . also the glosses - and 65 2. GREEK DIALECTS But it is [68 a notable characteristic of the Aeolic dialects that they very frequently show a lahial even before a front vowel. Lesb. .. have the dental. inscriptions always showing the usual forms). . Possibly such forms arose (above.. as ordinary dental. etc. &8<. . XoTK. in phrases like with regular . etc. Thus Ion. fact that in Ai-cadian only the one inscription named shows anything but the dental spelling need not indicate that the peculiar pronunciation was locally restricted. Lesb. Boeot.). = West Greek = Thess. In Arcado-Cyprian there evidence that the sound arising elsewhere. (though this a case of original whence Thess. = Boeot. vas a lant. (Hesycli. irtavpe^).. = Cret.. sibi- - with transposition of the aspiration Yet some words always the reason for this being obscure. It was probably colloquial throughout the dialect. see 4. Ion. '. re. = .

. Delph. = in the . Thess. as occasional. '?. 8) A Puzzling tion of the u element of the consonant. Boeot. though not regusometimes occurred in careless pronunciation. and the lects. is from original in which simplified initially to -. ). in all dia- Complete assimilation to a following mute. to the character of the following consonant. is an inscription found at Nasals and Liquids 69. Thess. i. The letter is freely used for the guttural as well as for the dental. The nasal is omitted in the spelling. = Dodona. sounded than in the intervocalic nected the following 1. spellings. . Att. as = and the assimilated form town Lappa. 'to be read Jiij. . A This as in 17709). = PHONOLOGY (cf. (uniformly so spelled) from *€-7< tlie root being is - (cf. From Crete. Unless due to contamination cf.g. €()(^8)8€.69] a. change of to . there are several examples. ?. -). . In some cases the dissimilative influence of a preceding was probably a (papyr. of . name and mostly (late late. perhaps belongs here rather than under ^ 2. (witli . .e. . also Hesych. beside usual assimdation was usual nasal . 4. . of spirant th to /. inscription). factor.g. "A ^/3/39 = where in general consonant most extensive of the (86). occasionally and regularly in Cyprian and Pamphylian.g.) = ^. e. ^. = = labial nasal.g. is . of another root (e. 3. special case is is Boeot. is '/^ ". (-. but The nasal was always assimilated was less distinctly position. e. e. there seen in . '. as etc. 2. whose coins show Delph. that is. lar in shown by XeaOai. as in 5. (49..5). Nasal before consonant. any dialect. Witli this are con- facts. Ilesycli. that is ^ 59 evKav- an anticipa- doubtless. .

Cf. in Theocritus. delv) occurs in .. and late Delphian.1. French anf7X from Gortyn.. and the () Alcman.. . Ilarvos from ^<. JNlod. and must be a. 60 GREEK DIALECTS . ahevinai and was so There are e. ) and Italiot colonies. in Epicharmus. 73.g. . e. = = (Hesych. 2. Chios. Cretan from . per a Epid. for = <. . (). Syrac. or loss by dissimilation. { in in Sicilian (). . . Epicharmus. *. ? . = = per- Cri^t.Grk. = <:.g. etc. = from in various at Naples. Alcman. Bap^fxa. Cretan due to some kind of dissimilation between the two p's of -. 70.). Amorg. etc. Theocritus.2 a. —.. vice versa 71. In Cretan the was a deep guttural alter. have in part a connnon history.. Transposition within the same syllable.. Double Liquids and Nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian The combinations treated 74-76. (- Corcyra also in an Arcadian (Lycosura). . 79. ^5 and Cret. also 77. l)ut in other dialects a single . inscription. Mess. Cypr.). ^. 3. = (but usually = /reX/xeW"?. numerous Cretan . = from in is without parallel. Trausposition of a liquid.). . = Transposition between different syllables. which see from '. etc. Loss by dissimilation. Heracl. . from . 8 ^. since they all become double licjuids and nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian. Syrac. written occasionally.g. <. dialects (Delphi.. = glosses in Hesychius with — \. Several examples of in Peloponnesian Doric Meg. a and a late Cretan. e.). also etc. Heracl. Assimilation of a nasal to the charaetcr of the preceding nuite [69 is liaps to be seen in Coan A^ttrrai^iO? = 49. Cos. 72.() = ivdelv at are found Arg. etc. 8^.. 1. I closely resembling u (cf.

pass. *.g. *\.^ *€ . Thess. . etc. Delph.. from *<. aeXavva. *\ (*8€\. e. is *). Lesb. to ei. Att. +.*€. But Cyj^rian has ai\o<s (beside ()). elsewhere aeXavd. (In these forms the meaning root. see 25). Forms from the same with but meaning assembled. . Thess. Lesb. Eretrian). *( v. *\. .. *. from EL. . Lesb. ipos-is from *- (13. = peXpevwi like and are perf.). From From . From *€). 'Cret. Att.) of h. (with V restored by analogy of from a form without in Ionic beside 76. i. . '.. . Thess. in all dialects. prevent. Thess. Lesb. '). ^^/. gives in nearly all dialects. . *€ Ion. Att... ySeXXo/xat.-Ion. asmi). other vowel than a or Arc. . . -eoiav. From Thess. liquid or nasal accompanied (if e or 0.1). etc. epenthesis takes place. (18). Arcado-Cyprian. Att. .). Skt. g. From *€€.-Ion. For no example of Lesb. alius). (gram.3. (gram. debar.-Ion. in all dialects represent a later treatment (Homer and Intervocalic + li(piid From sa-hasra-). . 68. .... or . Coan. Lesi). Hom. Lac. (gram.-Ion. to that of assuming that Lesb. etc. El. Att. Locr. Heracl. etc. according to the dialect 74. the result being the same b. But or precedes. . From (cf. etc. o.76] PHONOLOGY by lengthening of the Gl preceding vowel .. From \v. X'iXtoL . (beside 75. is '/ etc. a. Delph. . asmdii). elsewhere (?). Heracl. etc. . Skt. \. .2). from But there from cf Horn a. from (Lat. Dor. Boeot. Lesb. /reu/LieW? . . 9 from *.. is and Elean once .).). Thess. participles. (25). Lesb. From Att. *4. 49. e. Att. . Ther. *€ '. or nasal. *. From if p. or elsewhere €. *. etXetu. from Thess. (gloss). pp\ and the development was not 2)arallel . and occurs also.. V.^. Lesb. Lesb. . (Att. when preceded by any Lesb. Ion. (Skt. airofeXeoL. like a. (cf.

e.. -. in preceding vowel. etc. Lesb. From Dor. etc. e. though here there is considerable variation. Aegin.-Ion. Thus from ^. 2. Thessalian. cf. later simple The earlier stage . [76 etc. Lesbian .. is etc. 55 . (under the Cf pp from fp. later simplex. . Thess. Att. From from . *€€. -. -. *€.).. had an entirely different history from that of which was changed before the new came into is existence. 251).. of v-stems. * ^ *€ *€6 Greek without (cf. Similarly not formed from -evat.17. This retained in Cretan cf. . dental effect from = (but Secondary intervocalic before l. wliile in other dialects it loses the witli diphthongization. of the witli lengthening. *€. Att.g. a. 1. ^'. from = <. -eppvd. . etc. Dor.* etc. Att.g. VS pounds (Att. (i. -. from the retained + consonant lost its in proethnic on the preceding vowel. etc. as. The dat. Delph. (gram. *-. but from the other cases. etc. etc. €€. ). is represented by occasional early spellings with Corcyr. From '. /}^9). (cf. and Arcadian. as other cases. So also Epid. Central Cretan. 3. Pindar) with substitution of the vowel of the also is introduced (cf. e. Att.) a. especially in com- . . Lat. perhaps from see no. is long). (also /xeiw?). '. But pp usually remained. Lesb. as Att. Att. Original intervocalic (also Lesb. 273). Bvit in Arc.. or original . Tliess. - rarely Compounds and augmented or reduplicated forms show the development proper to intervocalic of siich words only from *€. from etc. Horn.g. and this secondary . Att. . phof . pi. + . (in this word the vowel was already e/cpivva. Usually this was checked by the analogical influence of the etc.62 h.g. initial e-pptov. e. in comes from tl. and the subsequent development Avas to continued influence of the simplex and of words with original simply later beside eXa^e.. e. etc. 53. etc. note). 3). . GKEEK DIALECTS Initial etc. and 77. became hX MAetJios• etc. etc.). From (cf. e-vveov. 7nensis). Argolic (mainly Argive.

Att. etc. . etc. Arg.. etc. pres. -. Thess. From 3 pi. etc. Arc. is from kept in but Att. From nom. + consonant lost its in proetlmic Greek in close combination (77./. or (Arc. all dialects. fem.g. 77.). * ... where Att. etc. . Cret. aTreXevde- or -. the Gorty- nian Law-Code still adhering very closely to the original distribution in the case of the article. - cf. .g.. '. and the -. = Since owing to the influence of the A'erbs.. 78. Arcadian in (so probal)ly C}-priau -). etc. e. but not . are frequent Coan {and beside -). . . Lesbian . . Other have development as that seen in the case of secondary intervocalic etc. { -. -. etc. - is the only dia(61) groups. . Lesb. Final . or forms coming therefrom by the same 251). Hence there arose doublets such as 1) before vowel 2) before con- sonants T09. . or (Arc. Such doublets are found in Cretan. . PHONOLOGY Att. Xetropevaavaa. Arg. in (for Argolic in general. Lesb. . dialects dialects in literary Doric frequent in Theocritus). . . .2).g. €7€. . etc. (so also Chian pi. Arg. and are occasionally found in other Doric (e. else- From aor.. -.78] where pres. elsewhere Cret. Accusatives in .. etc. examples lacking etc.. -? from verbs in not only Cret. the same would be true of final with a following word beginning with a consonant. sg. But elsewhere the use of one or the other set of forms has ceased to depend at all upon the initial of the following word.. Cret. Lesb. Thess. -). g. '. . (not yet quotable). . e. examples lacking). ^^ ^^. - are the regular forms in Thessalian. . see or (25). --. Epid. .. pi. e.. Observe is exclusively Arcadian. . --. Arg. . most dialects . . From else- Cret. . 184). etc.. -. Theran. part. . . -vtl (West Greek Arc.. From dat. since this to the which belongs both In derivatives in . Lesb. . that 3 lect a. . etc. part. 63 Cret.:>). Lesb. *. Thess.

(note that Lesb. (so in (partly in j)roper names only). like Arcafor which would be and Travayopai^ (in later to Theran as [a](p)p€va. At the time of the early Elean inscriptions the diph-a*?. influence). }€€. Att. (cf. while in several this per eKepaev. is The as assimilation to pp . *€ Lesb. etc... From €€. sg. part. whence rotV. -09 beside -. grip) Lesb. eareWa. also and so differs from the ek nom. eareiXa.g. ajappL<i (Naples). From *€/?- ^. is due . . appevrepov (but also f)€paia<i. in corresponding to Lycophron. Attic as earliest inscriptions in early Attic writers . e. Thess..). not to which see below. a). Att. Coan most dialects etc. like Cret. .. Lesbian. - Skt.. -oip. Cret. -o'•? thong was not yet fully developed (pronounced incipient diphthongs) with * and we find the spelling -a?. (cf. (cf. and did not have this development. e?) (there happen to be no o-stem accusatives in those inscrip- tions which show -).. 80. Latos). ?. [78 has here a development similar to later. alpedei. Ion. or is in the (Cumae).. et<? has a genuine diphthong.. Elean. Ther. etc. Cret. . Lac.?. . Lesb. . West etc.64 GREEK DIALECTS in spite of Only Elean. but remained unchanged in most dialects. Att. . . ^-. haras. Ionic). etV or e? Similarly the preposition ivi in Cretan (beside more usual and Argive dialects). But in another set of words to pp. . ?. Cf. 251). Arc. ^. Lesb. Cypr. yielding -at? and with the rhotacism (60. From *€€. €\. Epid..(»'? (but see 25 b). etc.. Thess. '. . Heracl. reppat = relpai). (for dian as in Arcadian). Epid. Hom. as fappevop. . was assimilated and Cf.1). etc. Att.. <. Tlieocr. [ej/cepaei^. Lesb. 79. the -aip. Ionic '. . of other the treatment of final (also from --<...

. 61. Inscriptions show that Attic had of the early writers being TT from the earliest times. . sometimes assimilation. as Att. probably (later pp).81] ®a(p)prj<i. the to Ionic influence. (. Some of the also for and for (85. (). of But even words there Ion. and Sophron.g. is Most of the dialects agree found also in Boeotian = Arg. see 82) - due mtli Ionic. (Cret. and (apparently. as for original . Att. and the development 79.. in feminines like (). as ieeavT€<i. after these also late inscriptions have in those belonging under 82.). Xeppia^. but as^iven in 79 and 80. . inscriptions Miore connnon than the strictly Attic ). after The divergent development 8. is %{)'<. = Ion. /ci. b. after analogy. . <8>8. in these etc. So Arc. and. TeVrape?. %€- etc. 81). (from is 7€€<. ).g. being . aorists there would usually that given in Arc. 114.. . e. Amphiss. (8). for earlier otto? (82). a. ^. but the from *). ().4). and comes from cliiefly Ti. as . (. a. (54 e. to due influence). (all PHONOLOGY archaic . Oropus words of this . l)ut %<). For it is earlier . class. (). Att. also in Phocian (Delph.. in Alcmau. and Euboean. beside more usual etc. in later Proper names with pp . West . also Epicharmus. etc. *<. may be retained by is other datives in -. * . In be leveling in both directions. at least in Styra. is sometimes that of 80 (Horn. ^ ^.3). usual) and Megarian from Cf.g. in Boeotian (e. 65 = occur . . Eretria. other nouns in -?. and in comparatives like gives the same result.g. but . .. usual). (e. e. as KOLvi] is due to influence (in . ^^^.6). the retention of normal when they immediately followed the accent. depended originally on the accent. from . . is seen in presents like (kl). Even in dialects which regularly have etc. in late Cretan. as . ). Attic TT Cretan ( .. ayappL<i. . (kl). or Ot. . 81. pp.

Lesb. and . . and + In (*€<.. is also in the majority of other dialate inscrip- found in our literary texts and in a few tions. . madhyas). Original retained. all such cases most dialects have or (for Lesb.. . GREEK DIALECTS Although the Thessaliau inscriptions usually have [81 evidence that the dialect had Aside from names . which Avas pronounced zd and comes from zd Ast. €\€. Lesb. Thess.. see 81 a. .3). pi. Heracl. Delph. Germ. (cf. Ther. EL. ). but never in inscriptions) in ^ give Att.. and especially IleT^aAos from . After a consonant in all dialects. Boeot. Lesb. etc.. cf. '. Argol. find there is some the proper (65). (. .. ^).. in Attic (. etc. as in e.. East Cret. I)el})h. Lesb. e. not .g. etc. originally.1). due to gives from *.-eaat.. or at least in certain localities. more often. . dat. ehUaaa. YA. 84. cf.. which becomes Thess.. Heracl.66 b. . The diffei-ent result seen in the classes of words mentioned in 81 the influence of the forms containing gutturals. Attic-Ionic {. Heracl. 4<.. Boeot. (143). 8. . e. (107. poetry. €. A .g. Thess. from jt ^ (). 8. .g. This is to be recognized as the normal development of and is Ol. adopted perhaps because was used with the value of in = ... is Homer in several dialects etc. etc.. .. . (early often in dental gives precisely the same result.. eV- Boeot. . Original .. Argol. . . cf. . ^. lects. which are quoted as Thessalian. 82). . . . Skt.g. e. 82. Heracl. but Boeotian and Cretan have Cret. etc. €. ) . or from -()-€) or. (19.. ?. Ion.. € (). 83. as In some very early Cretan inscriptions we Note. is only another spelling of the same sound. - For late Cret.

. later . Stir.i. = of Greece. and twice Larissa). ==. ' Thess. . ' Att. xVtt. 60). (no. Lac.. . Cret. . . Thessalian. even at Athens.. and dian. It is the regular spelling in Locrian. It occurs mainly charac- Orchomenus (aTroXoyirTaBut there are where in Thessalian (^. 1. - and in late times it is found in many = . but there is Cretan. the occasional assimilation of is perhaps genuine Eho- in external combination in Ehodian. etc. etc. Boeot. ^ = . 6'()[€]. (). evidence against its being general Thessalian). initial . . . is in inscriptions. and early Elean. in in inscriptions). owing to the identity of tlieir future and .. 61). as Delph. {)€ 33 no 8(). ('^). Lac. . the only example. occurs with some frequency in Phocian. Meg. (). Boeot. 2. also in Boeotian.. €88. as (no. . (no. ^. 67 in Ar... some parts early examples in other dialects. as '. so possibly only in Thessa- . is Boeotian. (). . (A^axos).= = . liotis.8] But assimilation to PHONOLOGY .^(. is also found. Thess. Thus Att. . 88. occurs also on a vase from Ehodes. Cf. Cret. . ?. 85. it is perhaps due to Aetolian influence. 97. and teristic of as /€\€. . ^. In Cretan and Elean the spelling {'). ^ersa. only . (?). and Megarian '. -. . 888. as Cret. in late inscriptions of etc. and. Att. Lys.^. There is some interchange between presents in -^ or -. El. . but - and those -. ^{). . or aorist forms. Elean. The use of for (see 63) is Northwest Greek. Ach. as Cret. This is found in late Elean. {). Laconian.. doubtful (Ar.). .

to TT in Cretan 9. 74-77. 96- 100. 67).. 79. 84. in = ye'ypaexternal from 7rpeiytaT0<. 69. and Thessalian. found in most very earliest inscriptions. But is [85 €{). much of the lack of uniformity in the evidence as regards some of the changes mentioned in this and the other sections. etc. eyparrai ' = Trpeiyv? probably . and in the latest (here influence). (also. but evidently existed colloquially in others also and only sporadically made 1. as is .1).g. others remain colloquial only.2). 3. ().' Cret. This class of phenomena colloquial one in which the difference between is and careful speech Wliile most noticeable. is common to all etc. In some cases the spelling varies greatly even in the dialects where the uniform in change is best attested. see 100.g. 2. the unassimilated form This accounts being for still preferred in careful speech and writing. €() Cumae. Sometimes the assimilation is certain dialects. '^ (.. ycaro^ (^ 77 (7) in Cretan. Assimilation. Cf. (Boeot. 80.68 3. No notice is taken of assimilation wliich to dialects and presumably proethnic. Cf. . as e. rarely. also = SiaXeXerraL in an inscription of . form as may readily be observed in Enghsh. some assimilations are is so uniformly effected that the unassimilated completely displaced and forgotten. 85. ^). its appearance in the spelling. and Transposition of Consonants 86. under See also under external combination. Thess. '^. late also Coan). Dissimilation. also Thess. Tliis is usual at Gortyna and some of the other . 7rpia<yete<. 7 coml)inatiun to . 68. . belonging under this head have been given already.. A parallel cliange of seen in Laconian glosses. changes 55. GREEK DIALECTS = of cities central Crete. Assimilation in consonant groups. as = <. . is . ^. also = Locr. to For = (99. . ^ -^ '. KT to TT in Cretan. Many of the e. of the etc.

. or as . Plato). hi 69 are formed from as in Att. late. ^v appears as late). . by Assimilation. Boeot. beside ^?/. Doric inscriptions. in Cretan.88] PHONOLOGY Note that the forms (cf. Transposition in consonant groups. in the case of 87. eVre *€ = '. supported. also . 88. Cret. As character. from vhereas . Mod. This ini- by the to of other tenses. in Cretan. or less {kk from as in Thess. from would be contrary to aU analogy. phenomena are of the same They are most freits quently observable in the case of aspirates. = to to ^. dissimilation. or sometimes.^^ doubt. dress. €. or of liquids. ( first ' = to class. Laconian. TrpeyyevTas a hybrid form. between non- contiguous consonants.Grk. Magn. Cret. cf. inscriptions = ''^. = (65). as also Thess. (Ar. name of . without . majority of Attic (here also. in Cretan. 86. '^.g. € (Etym. 4. 7. A nasal may interchange with a mute of own by assimilation or dissimilation with another nasal. to Late Cret. Abases).. late). Cret. = = ejpa-^ev (often on assimilation).. = = and Boeotian. Lesb. aspirates in proethnic Except for the regular dissimilation of Greek these occasional character as the preceding (87). but = '^^ ^ery is occurs in Lesbian and in Ionic prose writers (Att. ^ cited. *'. tto/c which points Boeot. so probably 8\' from .6=/€most dialects except (Thess. but loss of 7 by dissimilation from the tial .). Thus from Attic (-). gi'eat But in the remains in the spelling of inscriptions. 70. Lac. vvva- = (cf. = not - . . and transposition. V. beside is ). and in some not really assimilation. from *. e. But most examples are of colloquial and transitory more frequently repeated slips of the tongue.-Ion. pi' to i^y 0evvaco<i 6. . for which see 65.). Boeot.1). beside = cases 5. only graphic.

7. though <. ' \ €< . Delph. also 69. . A few dialectic examples of liaplology. 83). Arg. and Dodon. ?. . Osc. ^ -^. especially liquids thong. (no. from beside Cypr. beside Att. veoras. . This confined to continuous sounds. . or syllabic loss tion. .. '.. *€ . El. Cret. . Epid. geu. in Latin inscriptions). etc. 70 GREEK DIALECTS or. 88. is airophhav (spirant ). veoras from i'eora(To)s. ^. (). '. mentioned Ion. 8. are frequent. 2. Boeot. A single consonant is sometimes written double. (nos. etc. nasals. etc.. by dissimila- as Att. alttram frattre etc. [88 vice versa. Cret. usually 8<.. Thess. Lesb.3.. See aud = which occurs in certain inscrip- and 86. Epid.g. Among examples of transposition Delph.at the this indiof end one and not confined Arg. e. Such spellings as . shows that it was felt as -'^. 90). to dialect. here. may be added from ()8. . . any particular 101. . l in Thessalian. also 101. . veora from Doubling of Consonants 89. syllable 1. vaKa(h)hev.2. Att. mostly after a long vowel or diphEhod. Rhod. 3.. cating a syllabic division by which it was heard .. Cf. from (()8. 4. Before consonantal Between vowels. Delph. For examples in external combination. See 19. with assimilation. Delph.). ^- Cret. also.3. ace. ^ 8 . Corcyra. hodi/ of youny men. be a. .1. tions in epic style from Athens. Thess. as is etc. . Thess. Locr. may = = (Att. Boeot. from Meg.. (cf. Cret. end. Epid.the monastery on Mt. Pentelicus).. see z-zd) Similarly (= and (= ks-s). and the beginning of the next.

e.. or particle and the noun with which it agrees 8e. espe- cially a labial. 4. and the prefrequently between particles like . are least While the less radical changes. tion. <. though found elsewhere. the partial assimilation of a nasal to a following mute. in the matter of consonant assimila- and of consonant assimilation are the most infrequent and the soonest given up. verb.1). etc. in formal speech written form. less often between the subject or object such as the ehsion of a short and the following 2. as in . and very rarely in looser combinations. 96. Mevvei. the uucombined forms. But in Greek. and sometimes observed even but examples like ^. adjective. differ greatly in this respect according to their time and character. consonant assimilation.g. are compara- tively infrequent and practically restricted to early inscriptions. The changes occur mainly between words standing in close logical relation. ceding or following word .. there of a tendency to limit more and more the scope and its such changes. ^ of external combination. CHANGES IN EXTERNAL COMBINATION The phenomena such as elision. 1 Some matters which strictly belong niider this head have been discussed s. elsewhere. most frequent in Boeotian. is very common to a late period (cf. as in most other languages. The mscriptions. in all dialects down in loose combinations etc. and to prefer. Thus oftenest in prepositional phrases. far Examples. . as the rhotacism of iiual treatment of final etc. of vowel or the simpler forms restricted in scope of crasis and survive the longest. are found is in all dialects. 1. or sentence pho- consonant assimilation. or between the article. where it 71 originates in the voca- tive and is due to the emphatic utterance in calling. 90. netics. etc. the more violent forms Thus. The following general observations may be made. etc. are by ^'. vs. Attic as well as those of other dialects. . crasis. PHONOLOGY In hypocoristic proper names.90] 5. .

and particles such as (oSe. Locr. . Meg. GREEK DIALECTS Although the dialects differ in the in [90 extent to which they exhibit these phenomena and some details (e. the differences depend more upon the time and character of the inscription. found in the early inscriptions . . /*€ ( ). etc. is among case-forms. Examples '?. the like Bei- etc. '. subject to great inconsistency as regards the written form. . .. and. no. lowing word. comparatively For elision in place of usual Aphaeresis '' '.g. iireiSe Cypr.so The shortening of a final long is vowel before an well kno\vn in poetry. evhiKov. e EL /xe Lesb. vowel.g. Crasis 94. ( Crasis.). in stereotyped phrases The ehsion of a dipththong. very often not in accord with the demands is In general elision most frequent in the conjunc- tions prepositions. are e initial Vi. (Chios. '. rare. '' Xer 92. e. Elision is common is to all dialects. So e (9. 4). crasis. There is no consistency in the spelling. \\\'\ '.72 3. Cretan shows the most extensive and radical series of consonant assimilations). € ^. Cret. e|) from . re.3). mostly is of or forms of the article with tlie folof all dialects. combined and uncombined forms often standing side by side in the same inscription. e.g. crasis. which even in metrical inscriptions of the meter. ov8e. Shortening of a Final Long Vowel 93. etc.. which ^vttol. Elision 91. see 94. Locr. 4. of aphaeresis. is only a form of rare. even as regards the milder changes. as in Attic. ayaOa Ion. etc. the degree to which the language has been formalized. with occasionally seen in inscriptions. but.

). €. + (lit. 1. ^ ( ( ).. to transcribe in the form of crasis where the combination belongs to those whicli commonly suffer crasis. Delph. ( 7€). . Elision.). ( Att. predominant outside (cf. in Theocritus. iiri).4).2). See also under 7. ( (( almost. Lesb. ( ( etymological principle. iv). (6 'AyeXaiSa +e (cf. literary Doric. Att. the former is = of Attic. . Dor.-\. (no. + € (cf.) poets have mostly in .1). probably to be assumed ^ ( ( 'Apyeloi).. 41. As between the "phonetic principle. 2. with lengthening of the second vowel as in Att. Lesb. pov). as a matter of convention. (6 3. For it is impossible to draw the line between crasis and elision with certainty. ^( ). Tapyeiot 'Apjetov).-Ion. " Boeot. 4. ). /). AVest Greek . (). 33) ). though the texts of the Aeolic and Arcadian has Keiri. Att. () ( ). Kardppevrepov ( 7€() ( Meg. 9. 6). Ion.. 44. 8€). 41. eV). 41. like ( Cf. ayouvo'. + e (cf. 8.94] PHONOLOGY 73 though the uncombined forms are more frequent. + (cf. ). Cret.) ). () - ( (( iv. and the " etymological principle." like Corinth.3). . ( OXvv7rta<. rather than crasis is according to the in the few examples Arg. ( . 0. eVt'). 5. if not wholly. 44. ( and re? etc. . Meg. ) ( ') 6 ).1). ^). . .( ^ ( ). (6 Locr. ^ ). ^^ Corinth. Ion.3). even in cases where we believe the phenomenon is elision." where the result of crasis is in accordance with the regular laws of contraction. (lit.) (cf. ( 6. etc.). 41. Cypr. Locr. (of).-Ion. with double crasis. where Attic has Arc. ^. Aegin. and so regularly in ). Lesbian has 1 We continue. ^." .a with the regular contraction to Similarly Lesb.. etc. So also in Thessalian an early inscription.

( (6 Thess. Attic and Ionic literature (also and in Theocritus. aphaeresis. of forms in ( sometimes uncertain. This is ( ). ( ).). as Delph. But the proper transcription e. (6 in Epicharmus. ' ). Rhod. e. eu-. Forms Theocritus.g. [94 Inscriptions some- times show the regular crasis with €). the pre-Ionic alphabet jeTav ). 73. ( ). t 8. Kevfep- or Cret. but an extension of the principle of in elision. uiee?). Boeot. Cf. ( or v. Similarly ). ). . is.74 7. evepjeTav) or KevfepyeTav. is of ( )( ^. sometimes even the vowel Thus ( €7). that Thess. (? ). ( ^ Delph. crasis. as usually in Attic-Ionic. with. in ev-).^ an Attic inscription. but probably we have here simply 9. ( ( (6 ) ol. GREEK DIALECTS AVith words beginning with a diphLhong. usual in other dialects for at least some of the 6v. ( what Ion. elision. Once El. .g. -= (etc. . p. In such cases there or course no evidence as to whether the was lengthened. <. but otherwise the diphthong probably elision rather than unchanged. =6 ? or ) like is ( ( = ovre). consonant. Apocope 95. are rarely attested in inscriptions (once Ion. Aegin. AVith words beginning with El. ( and even '). Delph. ( ' ^) and in inscriptions). and in Herodotus and ovSev) in Theocritus. >8). clearly not crasis proper. tlie final In Elean in the forms of the article vowel or diphfinal thong disappears. -). is ol). All of them have av (or (even Ionic has av in literature and a few cases of 1 See footnote. Apocope but of prepositions is is almost unknown in Attic-Ionic inscriptions. vv) prepositions.

An apocopated av..96] PHONOLOGY 75 and 70 are found in nearly all the AVest Greek dialects (but not in Cretan. and in a few proper names in Locrian (TleppoOapiavj. due in jiart to actual simplification of the double consonants. and rarely in Argolic). But these are mostly confined cially to the position before dentals. but also in the later inscriptions of some dialects. beginning with the of course. 1.. later expand the forms of the student. . in Thessalian and sometimes in Boeotian and article.4). only for the convenience Consonant Assimilation 96. . like . class of a following labial cr guttural. espe- Before other consonants they occur. Cases like are frequent in Attic inscriptions. etc. . . occur not only in where double consonants are not written. The Thessalian genitive singular in -ol is also arising from -old by apocope. partly due to iufluence. to instead of . are Thessalian only. which has . in j)art from to syllabic dissimilation or haplology. . (cf. Assimilation of final To the likewise in the other dialects. as in later Attic early inscriptions .. in better to . (in Arcadian Delphian . when Forms is a tendency. . most extensive in Thessalian. . otherwise icarv formed after irep occurs in also = /?). {) € it is almost uniformly In doubtful cases if (early is KaKup-ivav).. best exi)lained as article. eV. . also in Lesbian and Arcado-Cyprian airv). form of is is seen in Arc. and in Boeotian and Thessalian. 7re(S) . proclitic like the prepositions which was. Elean (). a. and Laconian. with assimilation. and Thessalian also in Lesbian (Alcaeus). () our texts. to employ the full forms. and So also between object and verb as . For the most part the matter is one of spelling only. . (cf. but in some cases such forms represent the actual pronunciation. later only before the article. Cretan. Apocope irep. v. there Apocopated forms are more common in early inscriptions than later. So in Arcadian the spelling etc. 45. forms of the Laconian . before all consonants in early inscriptions. . . i. except for two examples of in Boeotian before ire e.

irepi. /3. but {) ?. 4. . To .. iv . So Rhod. Assimilation of final Delph. Att. <?. Arc. Cf. [96 in looser combina- Arg.. Assimilation in the oppo- site direction is seen in Arg.. €. it is also frequently () 1.. To Att. also Delph. iX Epid. €{<. Cretan only.) (? To beside Before re aTeXev. . To To V.. 8. / ^'^. '. . 59. = Att. <). Before a word beginning Avith a vowel Lac. (' = <?). 4'{) Cret. '() = ' {no.. Ion. These do not See 77. .g. e? = ). and f ()<. . . So . Att. () fa- = /ca? (/cat) Xrjt). tions as Att. as intervo- 05 iXeveepiov (cf. (85. loss of v. . where before a consonant is always omitted in the inte- omitted in sentence combination as 97. (59. aevTepa<. Cret. . Cret. . AioAev^e/aio calic. iroioley Delph. = in Cypr. 2. Xojov. e etc. 4. . €' final may be treated (60. as duyaTepa^.1). .3). e. . ' and but oftener El. .. e. 78. (no. Rarely elsewhere. 8. afaXav. Cf.3). Cypr.. (8) 5. . ''. Cjiirian. medially a. Arc. and Lesb. ('). . . ia e etc. ///? ('? Cypr. Ei'etr. Cf.1). €( () €8<. + consonant. Cf. . ' . Att. cf. = Rhod. . . arise 3.2.g. 2. /^ = In the same way arose Arc. 81). . To by assimilation but by regular . .76 Delph. ep ''. 8<. . <. rior of a word. . 3. regularly in Cretan.. Lac. ? Epicl. 93). Ion. Cf.<. Lac. GREEK DIALECTS '/ Ion. . .

g. Arc. € .. ?.. Assimilation of a final mute. . 1. . .the simplification of . Final . — . this appearing often as before sonant mutes before an aspirate. Thess. = lated (sometimes with further simplification. Arc. . ). so far as 95). . 3. dialects. (<. e<? . Boeot. as in Attic. €9 . So Lac. €() i(v) also iairepaaaL. simply as e. err {). . etc. . e. Lesb. . El. . rpa [ ). as e| tol etc. Boeot. 86. Final See 100. a). i(X) In Thessalian. . double consonants in the spelling. ). e| 100. . eayovo^ appears an early inscription. Arcadian. . . i. eVt are assimilated iu Cf. In most becomes before a consonant. . Boeotian.. 07<. Cret.. where nantal form in an intermediate stage of . m This All these dialects have e| before vowels except Boeotian. ey) before consonants. (Alcaeus). and iy until late times rule is. e(p) appears e^). from . i etc. e^ before e/c (. (Alcman). ( .g. () 8. e<?.g. 2.g. e<? whence. is (Sappho). . is Thess.e. = eV<? Thess. and Final 7raTe{S) Sdei.'. in compounds. e '^. Cf. is usual before vowels. But the antevocalic form ef occasionally appears before consonants in various dialects (so regularly in Cyprian. as probably a transfer of the anteconsoits development (e|. In Locrian it is fuUy assimilated to all consonants. So regularly in Cretan.100] 98. The apocopated forms of (cf.. and 95 they occur otherwise than before . 85c. 7() ^^ Thess. 99. . e/c and . is e. when etc. with it . eV €<. Cnid. and Cretan the regular form before consonants (cf. Lesb. e. . PHONOLOGY Assimilation of final Soei to 77 e. {8)8\€. are generally assimicf. Boeot. .g.. e.). . (Alcaeus). but usually eV?. 7() . {) . ). . The general then. But often unassimilated. and all consonants.2. Cret.

(89. after the analogy of forms withl sg. after dat. . also 0\•&. is {). -. -a. Lesb. according to some ^? e? of e? in other dialects which generally have 7. €() After the dat. eV? . Another source 1 sg. 3 sg.5). which are not found in the earliest inscriptions. pi.3) to ^a.[. Delph. St- then also 3 sg. The where movable in the dative plural in -{) and in the verb forms in Ionic. or (Ilesych. 1. it is and also than elsewhere. in -ov. compare Att.) dialects.). ]»1. V and the examples. e.\. (originally 3 pi.3). are mostly earlier (89.-. as /. c? [loo e/c €^. . is -4€.. e(s) SiKeAcias. those for the similar With etc. Consonant Doubling 101. and even here only in Thessalian etc. Epid. (In Attic its use becomes gradually more and more uniform before vowels. 51. and = Tos (Syracuse. -(). 163. (). no. '^. . and where found sign of influence. . as cAcyev. GREEK DIALECTS There are some traces Cypr. 3 pi. Heraclean the older inscriptions of other dialects. in a inscrip- This a compromise between phonetic and etymological syllabification. (? no...).. Arg. a^/xiv and . Sicil. rjtv -() arose the 3 pi. analogy of pronominal in which is in- herited (beside a form without v). /? (but see note to no. with 1 sg. or Epid. movable 102.. Att. which arose -£(v) to from which it extended later to tXafiev.78 a.1). e. it is rare. ro 9€\. llhegium). somewhat more common before a pause in the sense Only in the dative plural does it appear in other (^. - the is due to the Dor.. Before vowels.g. 33) and In verb forms wholly unknown in is a sure Note. etc.g. In the datives like Att. { t^tc. Coan . forms with . . pi. part. (). -{) and -e{v) is a marked characteristic of Attic- it appears from the earliest inscriptions on with in- creasing frequency and before both vowels and consonants. etymological all v. dat. C 45). than 2. though doubling in internal combination etc. tion.

and we adopt in -u.some cases. (cf. edge.. and followed in this book. . though ) etc. ^. ace. .g. or Kpivev. . . Att.g. ^. . and that we should write e. .. from the correthe Attic forms or to or or The a comjjlicated one.. t^oi. ). .. But it is far from certain that the accent was as we do. 103. in the case of tional forms which differ in their quantitative relations change the accent to accord with the Attic system. not. touching which there of practice among editors of dialect texts. olku. '. pi. like like . nor Doric dialects had these peculiarities. infin. and etc. the only- to be processive in '? = to is it Att. the cases mentioned. . The Doric accent ^€<.. This was characterized by the recessive accent.g. doubt. dialect forms can be little In general our accentuation of of convenience. .). sponding Attic forms. with some. like be defended. Lesbian is one whose accentual peculiarities we have any adequate knowle. We may accent also ...103] PHONOLOGY ACCEI^T 79 eralization as to the all . known whether Hence the practice now frequently adopted. «. e. ». about which the grammarians And as between and e. question of the true accentuation . Kpivev like ('ret.. The pronominal adverbs this affords a convenient and following here what the grammarians laid working rule. But the statements .g. as in the accusative plural to distinguish in all from the nominative. since and. differing in each and impossible it of any certain answer.. .. is -at. a. to adopt the actual accent of ^. of gen- meager admit system as a whole. wcic oiKOL.g. .. etc. for -. (cf. is said by the grammarians are too certain classes of forms. serves to distinguish . e. from gen. like Att. and uniform.spomena. whether. we definitely prefer in spite of cVSot etc. like Att. down as the Doric accent..we accent as peri. But practical conventhis alternative ience favors the use of the Attic accent in . class of forms. Kptvuv. of Of the dialects outside of Attic-Ionic. is .. in beside . of giving Doric forms with the ordinary Attic accent. considerable difference inflec- more than a matter is A question of detail.

6. -a. Scx. -<. 26). assumed in the other dialects wliich 4. . — In Ionic.. elsewhere. Coan -. -. rarely. — In Lesbian. -. -{). namely -.C. and this is to be -. -. -.4..-Ion. 1. -dai{v). Att. . 39. Att. See 41. and here -a? beside -dv in early inscriptions. Pl. Sg. See 38. — Most - -at<i (but always ). 26). NoM. Pl. 104. Thess. -ai {-ae. In early Attic. and always -. - -. -aip -. Elean Most Lesbian - . -dv after the masculine. Ace. -. Sg. Gen. -. Att. . rare 420 -. 2.?). whence also -a. 5. -() regularly. Ace. -. — Arc. (Cypr. Dat.or dialects 80 -. Cret. Pl.. -dv. -at (Boeot. -"?. Cret. from from dialects have -at? the earliest times. Gen. -ae. — 3. as but only at Tegea. Dat. -ei. Ther. Boeot. Sg.-Ion. have -ol (106. 7. -at. sometimes -(). *-. Pl. -(). and this occurs.: INFLECTION NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES Feminine a. B. -09 Arg. -. -.. being and probably Attic.Stems .-Ion.2). -. -.. Arc.. -. 8. after -. with the same development as has (see also 78) - o-stems. Att.-Ion.

but also . /.). Scx. 88. But in Thessalian it also occurs in a few prose ingenitiA'e in scriptions. AeaSeos. Ion. (. . 1 a). either representing a glide sound before the following no. in imitation of the epic. e. as . -ov is (22). whence. lows a. p. . 2. (from *-oaio. -. -do (with o. Gen. (25). -). 88. Cf. (after etc. f. -.-Cypr. Thess. e.. -a? (with secondary . . 85) with the introduction of a non -etymological (cf. etc. frequently form the genitive after the analogy of -stems. makes the derivation of the usual . is a reminiscence of the epic -do (the spoken which appears in other equally early inscrijitions. Ion. Sg. This type spreads to other 106. See 32). 88. Forms in -. / -d. Cyprian -ov beside etc. ? 0-Stems cf. £- Gen. -oio. form was already no.. not from -do. occur in scattered examples in INIegarian and from various parts of Northwest Greece. Att. -.-Ion. -a . several in Boeotian and a few from other parts of Northwest Greece. -o (at . '?-oto . -ov or Idalium apjvpov. - . -oto is often employed in metrical inscriptions.106] INFLECTIOK Masculine d-Stems 81 105.-Ion. 92) nominatives in with the old ending unchanged and belonging with the (above. also though this is possibly a form in like Hom. of two metrical inscriptions from Corcyra (no. 87) and Gela. e. after the analogy of Att. togetlior with the fact that apocojte more extensive in Thes- salian than in any other dialect (see 95). 1. nos. in -tt/ro. m place of ?. /. and always to). elsewhere -d. See 41. whether vowel or consonant . and the grammarians often refer to the Thessalian is This. Skt.). (no. hut the o-stem form taken over as a whole. NoM. from the fourth century on.4. «. or due to a false extension from forms with etymological = Hom. after that of o-stems). -dv Att. before a consonant. -asj/a) as in -oi.g. (Pelasgiotis) Elsewhere. dialects.g. — In fol- Homer.g. with apocope. c. Forms without occur. witli loss of and contraction.. a. whence Arc. . 87. Sg. and so usually -ov in nouns. '. 1. as no. El. Att. proper names in -<. . as h. Rhod. s also etc.

. -v. -€t. and in later inscriptions from various parts of Northern Greece (Delphi. -oiiv as in Homer. as in is Hom. Epirus. 2.2 probably an extension of bian. (^ is also found in . tlian other explanations which sepaand so from the forms of all the other dialects. Gen. whence at all. Pl. Les- . -. occurs in late Cretan. having a. characteristic of the Aeolic dialects. 4. as 107. a. Arcadian. In some dialects the history of the dative obscure. . Elean.and may be -ot is derived from it. -olv in most Consonant Stems in General -av in place of the usual with added after El. See 119. -e? originated in pronominal forms. ). and Boeotian. 01 in -ot in most dialects. But in general rather the original locative o'lkol) in use as the dative. no. -ol (Boeot. the form of -stems. -et In Euboea replaces earlier . Thess. . dialects in after the analogy of the dative plural. -. Elean -). . the analogy of vowel stems.— 82 Thess. where somewhat longer than in Attic (but some early examples especially in West Ionic). -oto far more probable this Dat. Sg. Dat. Aetolia. 3. Acc. it lasts -oL'i. . owing to the lack of early material or the ambiguity of -01 in the pre-Ionic alphabets. whence also - (38 . in early Attic. Cierium in Thessaly. Pl. 104. 1. Ionic. Thessalian (Pelasgiotis). Dat. -ev for usual Dat. 23). ijarepav. Sg. 60 elsewhere and in inscriptions of various Corinthian colonies (Corcyra. -01^9. — Elsewhere only 5. -oe. rate it GREEK DIALECTS -01 [i06 from entirely from For the added 2. See 78. Pl. (but possibly from inscriptions of various dialects. East Locrian. in Cyprian no explanation that has been offered is adequate. of in Homer. Dual. and early Delphian. -v. and among late Nom. Thess. as (Boeot. with the same development as -. Acaruania. 3. Euboea). and Lesbian (but here always -oi<? -{). 6. like (cf. -. NoM. -. '^. a(v)8pija(v)- nom. occurs in Cypr. Pl. 30). 30). is from - (see 39).8. -). Boeotian (-oe.. Pl. Ace. which the form occurs — Elean -. -a. Elean -oip).

etc. a. Pl. masc. and ace.). ' -Stems INFLECTIOE" 83 in pres. whence (beside -kXyjs). is the indeclinable Trevre seen in Delph.= — Dat. in later Ionic. Boeot. whence -ta (9). cf. this. (9). Gen. -. in .5). Ehodian. etc. 'etc. satsu. sg. and Achaean {iXaaaov€<. first * . but also in the other -dv: -). no.108] Epidamnus. Att.was Thus Arc. early fifth century). occasionally Proper names in (gen. in Cretan. for the ace. -ea. All dialects except Attic have the uncontracted forms.. Att. (e. etc. and this not only in Attic-Ionic Eretr. till - (42. even Attic. gen. Boeot. after the analogy of o-stems. -. and the Northwest Greek Ace. the nom. 2). -. Cretan.) in the \'ery late inscri2)tions of various dialects. (-'?. is characteristic of Locrian. -. see 166. etc. -e? in place of -. . -KXeios (= Horn. etc.1). sg. appellatives in Lesl). especially favorable to dialects.).{-: . instead of -'» -^. . fourth century . and regularly but in the other dialects regularly -/£?. -stems. perof" haps used in the numeral r£Tope<i owing to the influence etc. -£?) - in Attic about 400 B. Syracuse). . areXev. part. and etc. etc. . and even in Cypr. ace. Gen. sg. Ovyarepav'. . -. Euboean Cypr. an inscription of early etc. where the agreement in the nom.. analogy of the masc. 4. Cvpr. {perhaps origmally — Heraclean has = with ivT- of eVre? etc. -<. by fusion as whence i. Elean. also after the analogy of etc. .. neut. e. whence -io? in Boeotian.g. e. pl.g. Boeotian in sg. 108. in -eu<? most dialects -. ' . but Proper names often have forms which are modeled after the -stems.C.. sixth century. then oi9... — Ace. . in most dialects For names in 2. Skt..e.g. sg. it finds its way into various dialects in later times.. ).). -. 61. 16). but otlierwise in Delphian only regularly in Elean ([reVoioJe?. Terope<i. -. (in (no. irXeiovep. /res. <. 1. 49. (42. in .1.

In Ionic '? scriptions of Chios (no. 84 Lesb. ?). and always in other -eai. ace. (like -d) in Arc.-. is -t9. sg. \\€. -eLv). the regular type of declension that with l throughout.2 in Thess. Cyprian has such forms as gen. no. the Attic datives. by mistake in -r. -t9. pi. In all dialects except Attic-Ionic. The numerous Boeotian hypocoristic names in "Bevvet. 4. i-Stems 109. 7€9 of various dialects. 1.. and is -t"/ro9). many dialects common A gen. are € Homer). sg. . sg. as frequently in Attic. 5. perhaps the ac- cusative used as nominative. pi. in - (like -d) in Lesb. GREEK DIALECTS — Gen. as in is almost exclusively Attic.-acc. — for gen. (no. is found in the . -ie<. perhaps due A transfer to the type -t?. perhaps. \^oc. in . Delph. -et.?. ?). T€{o)<. ?^ . -ei the first to be adopted. 21). -tw) or The type in -i<?. -ei. . in later inscriptions dat. -et?. -io<i. next the and lastly the gen. -Lo<i. nom. -i? ('?.. sg. and. . (like sg.. dialects. pi. -. it is -. characteristic of Euboean proper names as 8. 3). -. -<. are also best -ec as Mevvet. . 105. for the most is part. 3. (or etc. and But otherwise in Ionic. sg. namely -ia? (rare). nom. 4) and Thasos. In general. and (from -'. They correspond names in -. -? (Cret. The f is certainly not original here. but in Boeotian sg. forms of this type are late and to be attributed to Attic influence. sg. -I. . -. to the analogy of v- and ?7U-stems (gen. but Lesbian has a nom. sg. follow the analogy of -stems (gen. and Thus in the later inscriptions of dat. -tSo^. sg. in Ionic too. occurs in early inin Teos (no. to find gen. etc.? -. l•) also. -lv. -. in other dialects. understood as vocatives of to tills type used as nominatives. 2. -ei<?. -. 33 ^ [i08 @'^4 or etc.

). owing to the confusion with the nominative. The without the bian (\<. . Boeot. Meg. Nouns in -€US is see 112. -^. -€a in Ionic. throughout. no. -. find Coan later leprji. salian 2. (from -^. 43) is the regular form. Tlepai (no. fifth century). as also in Homer. f ot/ceo? etc. The stem . and Arcadian ().). 111. Doric dialects Lac. tape?. /^/? (cf. Sg. but namely Ionic and the West Greek dialects exetc. 9) agrees with the €09 of non-Attic literature. (no.1). Coan (). Nearly all the inscriptional forms occurring are the usual ones of the type -?. of are preserved. Cretan. Upi). in early Attic. etc. 101. Mess. etc. Lesetc. rence.). ( . Generally these are the forms of even the earliest inscriptions (Cret.). sg. ^ original forms in p. in Cyprian etc.. Attic only are But from the beginning the Attic forms most widely adopted by other dialects. Boeotian (TlrdLept. '. Also -779 (in and elsewhere. . •^^.Ill] INFLECTION -Stems 85 110. . (e. is \<. -.1..2.. 37. with quantitative metatheone of influence Most dialects. At Cyrene occurs nom. .. etc. sis. 64). pL . and due Nom. gen. have '.. .g. and acc.). Delph. Ehod.as ^' ^<. In these dialects -ea is of later occur- to influence. and once (cf. 3. this spelling is far less common than in the genitive of -stems. Arg. nom. [/]09 For ( from e.g. ') But in Delphian and - (see 42.). most of the ieprj. with or /€<?). . Beside -eo? sometimes -eu? Meg. -ee? in Cretan ally contracted to -. -ev<. Coan Pl. Thes- etc. -77/09. always lepel etc. Locrian. 1. and Elean (/3€<?). also etc. (. e. . but usupart at least directly from -) Laconian (Meyape'i etc. Acc. 76. . etc. sg. . we which has Ehod. cf. with shortening of the .5). 42. but.. Mycen. cept Elean.

-: Coan. -. 108.4). (as in Horn. tive beside 9 6 ?.. ? Nouns Ai(/r)o'?.. whence The nom. . ilation of medial Heracl. sg. (^)' (also nom. ace... Phoc.. (cf. replaced by of the Arcadian has nom.. becomHence in geni- » of 6 (Soph. etc. in an inscription of Corey ra and one of cf. lep-q<. -et? sg. fiVo? Cret. Arc... became Meg. than the assimCorcyr. €€<. etc.. . 37. likewise at Ephesus gen. .. later + cons. Cret.. Pl. Att. belonging to Irregular (84). . vlei Argol... hiepev (cf. in most dialects. . 5. as in Late forms with 2. cf. In Attic. Homer. \.) Att. (Cyprian sg. Att. Cypr. Att. are also found elsewhere. (vowel-shortening before . Att. but * (77. Some 112. vleU.. as . Dat. Thess. Ther. 3. East (Cret. 669 Cret. Att. Cret. etc. after . (Att. mostly from a stem Sg. Some proper names -'. (above. Ion. <. Pl. also once ^. was replaced by the analog}' of original i/-stems in due to the analogy 4. No^i. €. *4<. In Miletus and colonies occurs nom. after the analogy also Att. . Pl. 33). Ace. etc. Att. 1).. . in -.. Zev9 or uncertain origin. ZeU9. 1. (no. occurrences are as follows. gen. Cret. Sg.. the inscriptional Lac. ijepe<. Hom. Pl. (as in Horn. Sg.. -. Aside from the o-stem forms. Cret. Stem Thess. .1) Lesb. *). Ace. 8€<. also in A'arious dialects (attested for EL). Lat. 86 Ace. . Dodona Ai{f)a. pl. are hyper-Doric. .1). Sg.). ing 6 . ). mensis). . sg. . .. also Gen. = -<.). ).. ''.2). when not 4. formed after is Elean perhaps of Zeu?. -ea9 GREEK DIALECTS in [ill louic and Doric (Cret. . of But Cret. .. but usually -eii?). Arg. analogy of etc. whence regularly (78) Ion. Dat. /iei9.. Cret. 107.. . ovt<. Locr. . sg. Originally a neuter -stem \.

= consonant stems. 1. both with anomalous in Ionic normal (from ros.. () = 1.g. (from formed NUMERALS Cardinals and Ordinals ). 21) and Cretan Cf. . Law-Code IX.1 a). cf. like )?. 50 see 97. from which in Attic is declined as a consonant stem (gen. -) gen... like Hom. 3. 78. .. EL.) (also in = from the compar. Beside irXeove^. 1-10. ace. Thess. sg. = irXdov. = [Boeot. . Arc. .2 with a. vith the and . is uncertain (not (Boeot.. *eV'?. Lac. 79. . once in late Att. pi. *€-) For Dor. now in Corinna. etc. - 2. etc. is -. as in Homer. ). 42. occur in Lesbian no.g. . Lesb. The source of . (both from see 49. we and Arcadian. 27 h. . find the Beside /''^ and (from /cpetTTwy. . 77. Lac. is Heracl. <. TrXee•?. sg. but with pronominal force Att. and Cret.114] 5.-acc. Lac. (e.4). eV? Cf. sg. 87 sg. 44. sg. — . sg. Heracl. (? . . -. *8. nom. 81.] West Greek and Boeot. . formed directly from Aesch. Comparison of Adjectives 113. . properly a contracted o-stem (from in Ionic. . *€) pi. from but. cf. ( Nom. (this regularly from ^''). - . 80. Att. So also Cret. 114. neut. sg. = a stem in but gen. -= ev<. 6. eh. INFLECTION Cret. la. . i^ee and remains so 7• ^. beside Dre- a y-stem form. but gen. el/xa. 2. ornament ). — Fem. 24) in all dialects. cf. is in origin *) . e.5 d) adv. to9 (cf. €i. of different origin. ) in Cretan. in Ionic. Cret. Hom. (cf. also Gortyn. . Also masc. . *7€. -stem forms. masc. dat. ending of *76. is (cf.1).

7€7. Ther.3). Arc. (Boeotian etc. Lesb. See 49. (68. hevvea. See 25.. Delph. See 52 h. From *qVetuer- Lat. Cret. ivvea. . with introduced anew from etc.. Thess. . ). . also . in Attic and elsewhere. . Lesb. (cf. Heracl. r". . Boeot. Boeot. Ion. Tliess. etc. Chian. Att. Lesb. . Att. in Att.g. and perhaps in Lesbian. [).. Hom. /^ (86. Att. Teaaepe•. and [) (for e.2). .. . rpl'i. T/3ee<?. in Ionic and West (Horn. — but Delph. Delphian. . Cret.). etc. — and but in most dialects Delph. cf. For Boeot. o/cto (like Epid. from i *Tpae<. Ther. ). . 3. Heraclean... (also late Attic).). €€. see 58 Lesb.* . tnr). See 6. Heracl. 115. 6e/co — see 6. . rarely (e. '.2 a. used for both cases in some namely nom. . is the nominative or the accvisative dialects.. Boeotian. «. rarely . 7€€<. 300 B. 116 Arc. .2). rpel^.g. 6. from (with ). . Under the influence of the indeclinable numerals. iriavpe'i).— 88 GREEK DIALECTS [114 — Plural forms Cret. 5. •? (18). 81). — Ace. <. Arc.. also indecl. 8va<i. 4€<. '' 6€<. Ther. . €€<. Delph. qU . Greek the differences being due to inherited variations in the second syllable {tner... (e. 11—19. tur. (cf. See 54.. Troezenian. Ion.) especially . But Cret. Lesb. (also Lesb. €. Cret.. . 10.. and (68) to the divergent development of and tu (54 e. Heracl. f e|. and Hom. (Attic after 114. Skt. 4.5. 7. ).g. «.1). Heracl. tuor. Boeot. and in <..C. TreWe. . quattuor. iii various dialects. ace. 116 Elean 9. 8. Heracl. . Heracl.. Heracl. Boeot. Delph. 8. in late ALLic and 45.. Cret. Delph. see 100. ). Cret. . eVi^j} (42. catvdras). -(58 c).

in Lesbian. .. — etc. Heracl. in is Chios. (so doubtless in all AVest Attic influence). 13th^l9t]i.. etc. Att... . See 114. etc. the same analogy after To (e. .. . . 20-90. extension of this analogical heKOTov. Heracl. doubtless Thess.. Arc. cf. Ion. (with East Greek . 2. in all dialects (but Ion. is Lat.'.7-9. .. '. Corey r. -. . Ther.4). Similar variations for 14-19.. with Delph.-.. in Attic. cf. Arcadian (no occurrence in Cyprian). (.-Ion. Boeotian. 107. vKjinll). . the <jf became whence in Attic etc. is It is possible that a still further Arc. West Greek a. .. -^. — of Att. 200-900. Heracl. — Lesb. tvoro^.in Hesiod). Under the (cf. . but no.. '. for h see 58 c) Att.. — (see above). centum). West Greek. with not ei. 1. Lat. more Skt. Boeot. .. nnder the same influence. — of CJen.etc. Lesb. (from *€-) in (-). .. Thessalian. 116 . Delph. . and Lesbian 116. a). and retained (61). J5oeot. West Greek with Boeotian and The ei of Heracl. etc. in East Ionic. SeKoros. -. doubtless in all (from -hiit-to-. ). to a. Lesb.. ). is The earliest form of the ordinals tliat iu Skt. 100. — Greek dialects previous 44. Att.. trUi(. . . instead of the (cf. (Skt. be assumed in exjilanation of Arc.. -. 117] INFLECTIOK 89 when the substantive precedes (so Attic even in fifth century). Lesb. influence of the cardinals in . . Ionic. See 6. but West Greek See 61. hoiyhorj inflected genitives dialect (cf.g. 116 a. Lesbian.). Att. (). also etc.2). 117. feUaTi beside is due to the influence Ion. . {). Ave.2. but or etc.-(tl-tama. (alscj ) .) . . -<.. (and Arc. in and of the hundreds in original 78). to etc. []. due this *-'. where the use such one of the Aeolic features of the in Alcaeus. Att. — (see 114. dialects also but Thess.

-01.. — . -iv in AVest Greek (where also never poi.— e Dor. ). The forms tain. €€. (nom. . Dor. lit. -Oev. and occurs f. some . . Att. -eio . 5.). as Cret. especially in the singular. . € original whence 2. (Cret.. Teiv are from the possessive stem — Horn. (). . . Kuluier-lilass I. Lesb. and Epid. a. lit. lit. l•. But enclitic rot is from a form without u 1. 4. - of the first (cf. and Epid. as -01.. e7w.) and Skt. TV.2). Delph. 580 . also Dor. — — (Hom. except in the nominative. etc. 90 GREEK DIALECTS (Ion. — Skt. .:5). .). Dur.. original tu. Att. - (cf. . begin 2. are of comparatively rare occurrence in inscriptions. . €•. Locr.. etc. Gen. '^ (Boeot. Dat.. *'. asman etc. Plural. fiv. See 61. Cypr. -ev. 1000. lit. feo<i. Ion. -. ). ol. but Ion. Lesb. . foi. 119. and second persons con- Skt. later Vest Greek. for which see pp. (but Lesb. PRONOUNS Personal Pronouns 118.. Dor. See Lac. though lit. c. Dor. 1.(120. lihod. otherwise 62. 3. ^eWioi. apart from the endings.-Ion. dialects {€. . and su. elsewhere As the personal pronouns.. edev. — . from literary sources. e/zeZo -eo? in lit. '. ). Dor. wlience -eo. West re). Ion.in also in Ionic (Hom. and Ace. a. like 3. Dor. whence East Greek -. as and lit. — as Att.-Ion. teuo. from Lesb. (lit. as e/Aoi.).. piv). 3. also lit. written used as ace). 2. 1 yimndn whence Lesb. T/re. Delph.. etc. . te). 1. Lesb.. .. oi (Arg. Cret. Thess. e'/x- with : or Greek (cf. ol. Boeot. in Hesych. some forms are added which are quotable only of the great variety. ). 76.. .. . ^ Singular. - (reo?. -ov. also Dor. poi).. h. 1. Arc.. viv. The stems. of extended to and the a of to 3. . from *'€.. Hdt. . a-.G. but mostly in the enclitic forms.). Thess. — but only a few out ff. NoM. Lesb. Calymn. TOi). is [117 The d (Ion. Epid. Cret. . Att. -.

Ace. .. . Avhere etc. (9). = own €. See 76. as etc. l•.. Att. €09. So Cret. -e in all dialects except Attic-Ionic. < (Lesb.. Dor. . That io. — and (lit. later 4.specially that of the third person pronouns as given in which is itself a reflexive in origin. riviv. ) PI. Possessives 120. ^.2. €€<. — PL seuo-. . DaT.-Ion.: 121] INFLECTION (Att. and 6€<. . . it was . Lesb. fa = . .). Dor. Lesb. all replaced by a. 58 -e? -ei?.. the where it was re- Thess. Both forms in Homer. 91 . a. /Aes €<. etc. <?. -) in or -. -. Cret. but Att. Lesb. eacli keep- etc. whence -. as follows 1. or leuis in the first person. 5.-Ion. reo?. Att.. Combinations its of the personal pronouns with ing . Arc. 119. Cret. inflection. -^ Avas often replaced by the kolvtj for a/xe's after for -(. '. Tliess. Boeot. etc. dialects except Attic-Ionic. Dor. Both forms in Homer.. b.. . Dor.. Reflexive Pronouns 121. -€. was frequently replaced by under the influence of 1 pi. In late Cretan 3. -. . — €'€. Dor. Homer ( . fur the spiritus asper h.-Ion. etc. 3.. -t-{v). (Horn. flv with the possessive. .. Lesb.). also.. 2.. . PI.-a9. El. e.). Gex. 09. Att. . placed by-ea9. teuo-. various forms of expression are employed. . (Cret. as in Cf. . Dor.). etc. in literature only). aud. So Dor. /erbal forms in which Dor. (Lesb.. Dor. Lesb.).. etc. Thess. (all a. 57. tuo-. . 1. suo-. fo?. e'/uo'?. latter not satisfactorily explained. . and €€<.-Ion. Att. From -ev was extended to other pronouns and to participles. Aside from the reflexive use of the forms of the personal 118. .

are dialects which in general see 58 a. Lac. 05 ?. e. -) . Cret. . GREEK DIALECTS Compounds or of the only the second part declined. either with each declined separately. Nom. . Boeot. The forms found in Ionic inscriptions are like the Attic.4). Aegin. in the oi. ai. . ? . 5). etc. . above. (Thermae). etc. It is most frequent Delphian and dialects. 2).) etc. (no. (late).. alone. . late. Delph. see 126. {-. 61. [121 same elements. etc. Boeot. (also late .. gen. Demonstrative Pronouns 122. but and 3. Cret. Argol. Thus Delph. of merged into compounds This combination is 1 somewhat varying form.17). t. (lit. See 33 a. 66). with Att. with transposition of the last two syllables. -).. is 2501. sg. <• in Attic (Kuhner-Blass ttotl found in several of the other West Greek I. use. 600. . oftener. ably from '. 3. = €<. Forms with added and Boeotian For the relative used like found in Elean {-. vvep lU'i'acl. etc. as sometimes in Homer. Prob- g. . some ohe. with from ea Thess. . Coan Ion. c. Sicil. leaving or )... or. (Calauria) (/. )• . . contraction. El. anm. p. the analogy of '. -. (no. Att. with from . and probably even a. comparatively replacing the earlier in types mentioned under Boeotian. Boeot.92 2. West after Greek have dialects except Cretan. . f. and in Boe(jtian. = (SGDI. o. ). (as in Sophron and Ejucharmus). . . Delph. Boeot. etc. . gen. For pi.. o. (cf. late eurov. ' (= Delpli.. = 4. and probably are Attic. The article. I)el])h. . (Segesta). pi. in as in Homer. Ileracl.

also also (late) 124. never in the For the demonstrative use (L33). . Ehod. as sometimes in Attic inscrip- tions. sg. (gen. see 34 Lesb. Cf. — Horn. Boeot. of The relative o? occurs in all dialects. . Relative. . etc. Ehodes. (cf. Arc. . Heracl.1). pi.^— ^. is due to etc. Att. 25 with . (but a.. usual in Lesbian (so always in the earlier inscriptions and nearly always in Alcaeus influence. Cypr. Boeot. . 125. scription (no. pi. from *€-€. as (. 6-vl. Arc. Selinus). . it ..)...-Cypr. Sophron. . sg.. neut. Delphian and Cretan. etc. {. Se . 1. and etc. = ). o? in later inscriptions shown by the oirep. av. Thess. ot). Interchange of av and . Neut. . at all. a. and Sappho .. after . throughout. Thessalian but also 09 in an early metrical inscription). Arc. Nom. and. rolaheai).. neut.. Arc.. gen.. so often in Epicharmus). Coan <. Arcado-Cyprian (Arc. . Horn. etc.. spiritus asper.. Cret. ' Cf. but in if most West Greek late dialects occurs. but later only 09 clean . only in later inscriptions (so in earlier period)... and Indefinite Pronouns 126. . masc. But the relative use is forms of the frequent in Homer and Herodotus. is throughout also ). Cf. . rove. both (*€-€<. 93 . mfluence of due to and Euboean [. Boeotian (. ovv.126] 123. but also in- So also in Boeotian in a fourth-century (cf. o-vv. Epicharmus). with replaced by after . . Delphi. Megarian.. in Cretan. Cypr. . 01. Heraclean. gen. It is also Hera- etc. rovvveovv. Arc. Lesbian). '. . = oSe. €€. of different origin in Delphian. article. with both parts mflected gen. of 0?. (136. like in West Greek (examples from Cos. ) Att. pi. 41). instead of OV. INFLECTION Thess. also vice versa El. tolvl..). cf. — So also Delph. For the spelling with Ion. Boeotian. 6-ve. . o. etc. rave. Interrogative. as well as in Sicilian Doric writers (Theocr.. ai ^ . Argolic (Aegina). vv. fern. — Cypr.). 2. etc. Cypr.

' -.) = rtVa from *. from *The Cret. . see 68. hasmin. regularly from etc.. . (also . has Hotl). Locr. usual oirorepo'i as oto9 to 128. reiov • 131. . Cf. .g. For the form etc. jvvaiKi) . |)€<?). in ore to '. is the only example of a form with (even the other early Locrian inscription. e. Cret. Arc. pusme. In Cypr. Cret. ivhosoever (Old Eng. . eXXee = = is. 8. with e. Interrogative pronouns used as indefinite relatives.94 127. from *. . in various dialects. ?. etc. /ct? ().4. art = artva. yataras beside kataras). otlvl. <^. first part declined. also Lesb. form use of Se (sc. Lesb. in various Boeot. = orivi.. Neuter forms in tan. e. (Ar. cf. 9. ya-'). . Hesych. hoLTtv€<. found . Ke = the indefinite rela- an adverbial form obscure formation. (in Elsewhere the only in late Greek. account of Locr. cf. Att. presum- .e. € yivveiTei = ') = hioTi.3. /xt. 9. indefinite relative •. in Cre- = = but used hke adjectival €8.(Skt. swd liwa swa). dat. 56) it is generally assumed that the first which part of OTIS is not from a form of the relative stem seen in os. . ?. . = l-asmdi. € €€. whoso. <. e. () (in form with some rare exceptions in literature. tive force is given by the . Delph.g. no. In all other dialects the double consonants are simplified. (128). etc. but a generalizing particle and use to the so in Eng. with only the i. <.g. 1. as in Skt. only the second part declined. om. Cypr. Cret. — Meg. there is decidedly a possibility that this is only an error. which of two.. s?/^ aud so related to the <. sg. dialects. Cret. GREEK DIALECTS [127 6€. So regu- larly in Thessalian. 3. 129. 2. of )=. . Hom. 6€ 130. Ti<?.. and with the same pronominal esmei. hie as ehoKe.g. 55. see 68. with both parts declined. related in form "was originally 10. (no. is the true relative correlative of Skt. yvva reo. octlv€<. Umbr.-Ion. and by analogy oTTLve'i etc. Thess. ably under the influence of the simple a. On ^. (cf. But so long as the one occurrence of Locr. *oh-Ti. «iV.

-?.-Ion. also Cret. -CLL (I. -). Delph. whence. is numer- ous dialects. This ending. (Boeot. at. in whatever ivay. Heracl. whither. Tret (Cret. aXXac any other used in Cyprian as a strengthening particle. Delph. Tret. and Delph.-Ion. no. With -9. where). oTrat are used in the sense of as. These are the West Greek equivalents the Attic-Ionic adverbs in dialects. in all direcin The indefinite Corcyr. . is also used as a temporal conjunction. . . also Orop. 3.2). Cret. Osc. even in Attic-Ionic in . - 4. is how and where in various Doric dialects. 0Tru9. . Here also. is of 70€€ = irpoaeand occurs etc.. cf. eVe^ei. (5 ). Place ivhither (also where). 19. Cf. ner. oTTet.-Ion. indeed •. but also as final con- junctions. . e'/cet - 1). Dor. formed from gin. Att. ku-tas. as in Attic.. origin. Time. ). ?. Heracl. occurring in various Doric Tret Delphian. and at a. and indeed.. 1. Corcyr. see 38). . and Manner 132. 8€. probably of instrumental origin. also eVei). giving Dor. m such a way as (no. Cret. of Place where. = The ending (cf. in oirira where.Rhod. and in Boeotian. where. otherwise. where (Etym. -ut. lit. ihe . Thus . way) from the stem 5. qihi-. by analogy. to which belong = tixvt-q fjTi. Place where. -OL. or -. 60). and are (above. This type originated in *. (Att. tions.132] INFLECTION 95 ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place. ( then indeed. of locative ori- but in these pronominal adverbs the prevailing force is ivhither. Place where. in et TTOL»). Lesb.. -at Reside these dative-locative forms in there existed a type with original - Lac. Rhod. locative origin. with lit. Arg. Lesb. 113. (to Cf. specifically Attic-Ionic.g. 1^9. . dXXa elsewhere (a from -di. . Cret. oh.. etc. e.12). in . ' (Att. ?. -77). at. . Place whither (also where). eVSi»?.. These are of genitive 2. . relSe. -ei. . oIkol. pu-f. . aXXec. like -et.4. anyhotv. -. ). and means simply ^/ace wliere (cf. and especially man- Delphian whither. el.E. (cf. Skt. vl. ? (for whatever purpose). rviSe..

-7/ . 6). hoiro. and is by far the more frequent. e. bian. once. 07. . . Temporal conjunctions. and vjhen. 2). we find . ai (above.-. El. Skt. Even Attic has also a. forms like being late. is . of these ? are the usual final conjunctions. or. is for (. Cypr. . ). elsewhere. etc. e = el (134. niay ecpially well belong (as such we have reckoned In Attic-Ionic there tional spelling A'arying a given form (e. . ore etc. and literary Doric. -. Cret. 6€.1. the appears in adverbs derived from place names. Arcado-Cyprian (Arc. in this place. until. These adverbs are not to be confounded with another class. West Greek (and presumably Lac. . -od. Cret. rj. etc. Coan Although probably all adverbs of place whence iu Cf. as. Locr. is 9£. rj. oire.g.. f . To this belong Delph. For so long as. . cohere. Meg. also 133. Ionic also. . 9. ). with the added possibility that may belong under 6. and . a. Besides ai. mostly from prepositions. in [i32 for the . -. rihe. with particle tlie --^l. when. Dor. to which many forms Lesb. . -5d. early Lat. . the house.).-Ion. Mess. but usually El. iirei (above. 6. meaning p/ace where or whither and occurring in Attic- . Boeotian). ivhere [rJti'Se. -T€. Similarly Delph. -dd). etc. . These are of ablative origin (I. occurring in Khodian. ho. -. = Of this same formation are whether.. here. . Coan. as on each side of(ci. . within. El. etc. though not uncommon. Early Cretan uses neither. Cret. 5). as Arg. Ilepaeo^ev. - and in some words. But most part it is impossible to distinguish this from commoner type in original -dt. -Oev).). etc. 7. except in very late times. aXXe. Hesych. . the West Greek dialects formed the pronominal -. Cypr. but rather rare. . cf. hoire.1). below.E. ^. Delph. a. . especially in the earlier inscriptions. owl (above.g. . and as €. Trore in Attic-Ionic and in Les- . in all dialects. iu Time when. -.. Place whence (Att. -. Lac.) (Ion. -5. Final conjunctions. eVe = eVet'. Lit.96 Magn. rore. o. Manner. between ichei-e') is the same ambiguity (the tradiand -). - Corinth.) GREEK DIALECTS — Horn. -. note the temporal use of Cret..5. from h. Place where and tvme when. Laconian.. 8.. .

) = <. ate?. Delph. Epid.. (after 5. cf. Delph. sometimes -Kt. Here also (all from *alfi.. Syrac. . Delph. Delph. Argol. 4) (cf.. Syrac. = . beside Lesb.. see 66. -. IIoin.). . l)ut also etc. Dor.7 a) and -ot (132. Hence. . . usually - -Oev.). a combination like Att. e|o9 (after e/cro? -9. Epid. after the analogy of other Cret. cf. tion.. adverbs. - Cf.).1). evre (cf Arc. all related. 2.. Att.1).. show . G) Boeot. .. -t9 is .... . -klv. Delph. In adverbs like . - is seen in (no.3). . 16. Cret. Likewise -lv in . ^' -. . Forms with adverbial change with each other and with forms without either the numeral adverbs in -. Cret. 6. 5) ets o.-Ion.. Lesb. fak. etc. For Delph. e|ot. = e/cro?. <. ). *aip€<i. as (41. Prepositional and Other Adverbs 133. (85. Dor. -i. <). ^. Heracl. . but -klv in Lac. as -kl. *ai- while a corresponding form to be seen in Cypr. (nearly always in inscriptions and -).. . 4.. Syrac. From Cretan).7 a) are formed.. but of obscure forma- with and without ov. and probably 3. .3). (Hesych..4). Cret. Beside . . = 6<}. ali (also lease) . El. are Ion. (-'). at (also aliv Hdn. formed — besides Att. ^ . ev 136. (also (Ceos) — Cret. Lesb. '4vhv<.133] 1) ews.4). -9 -? or -y sometimes interor -v. also Arc. Eheg. Thess. Cret. after the anal- ogy of other adverbs in - (132. .) € while the AVest Greek dialects etc. other adverbs of time (Hdn. Cypr. -3) 97 (also prep. -. Lac. . 6<.17) is . . etc. (85. Cret. Ion. -ii'. 2) eare. Thess. ). Attic in . Delph.. . Thus in most dialects -/ci?. but also Meg. . Epid.. (132. Lesbian has in the lyric also also (which is -. Meg. (gram. 1. piv..) = Cf.8. forever. . )... as Cret. -. (cf.. varaptv = under jJ^rpetual in = usual Phoc. Locr. Arc. INFLECTION 135. es .

4 is . for he. dialects the unrelated is — In all other fcev). 1. the relation obscure.6. without where em. L . where there would otherwise be hiatus. he.— in Attic to eav or dv. av. Thus regularly el since has become a mere by-form of el (like or better ei/c beside oi). subjunctive clauses without (174). e. c. . . dialects () in Cyprian. almost wholly tions of . ) . also Epid. . 3. . . and Cyprian.125. The substitution of el for al belongs to the earliest stage of Attic dialects. 74) 1. 7). in Lesbian (also dialects Thessalian. Thessalian. for to which is see 97. but rather a temporal 2. . after ^?). Mantinean related to inscription. but best classed with the some assume a significant in place of usual in the . = . In Arcadian this occurs only in the early where 4. Boeotian (). is only Attic-Ionic and Arcadian. as avL<i is The conditional conjunction. ei . Heracl. being rarely found except where the dialect . else- See 275. in other dialects than Cyprian is simply tchether. /ce. €. Rhod. Arc. In Attic-Ionic. no. . (no. h. be seen Arcadian once had . (koivt. (no. between tl which had regularly replaced and a following as a significant element (probably through prehistoric Ionic influence.-Cypr. = eiri and 53). due to influence). In Cretan there no true conditional beside Mas once supposed. from *alfi<} (omission of f pecu- Cf. Coan. 8 . Hence the hybrid combination d most AVest Greek dialects. cf. 28. . 16. (as of /ca<? is the rule in the later inscrip- (also of which the rare Cypr. K€. al. e. . e el in Attic-Ionic and Ar- cadian at in Lesbian. for which used.g. aVef? = avev (Meg. in Ionic to ^v.98 et<? GREEK DIALECTS aei.) influence in the West Greek but that of is for only to the latest.2). is (Pindar) beside = . Dor.22. El. he . . see 132. /ca in the a. West Greek and a and Boeotian. like Cj^rian. liar. [i83 containiug cf. relic of this is to which appears. p. and all the West Greek a. formed 134. and late lit.. . Tlier. . Thessalian uses . avevv. Tab.g. combines with . but . but el ' Once.

19. occurs in Cyprian introducing the conclusion of a condition {iheirai then indeed. in and Lesbian (gram. — = see 6. ireSafoiKoi = = Argol. . of these dialects is . ovv = oSe (123). the (El. Sokol . as Boeot.25).12..2G). See 78. 2. . Boeotian (probably in Thessalian too. g. ISe. unrelated to in spite of iv. in form = Horn. 22. veBexeiv. vvp. Arg. Iv = ev. .135] 5. names. no.. and Theran. For assimilation For 6v 22. 95). <^? . - iu Arc. €. 3. see 96. identical with Horn. 97. Phoc. has erre in origin. 1. Cretan.-Cypr. see 95.). month . 99. show also €. (^) 100. Boeotian. . in) is retained in the Locr. 10. or (by fusion of The name of the and Mera-) Xleraiu (or -to?) = Att. . For apocope of the final vowel. use of Lat.^(Most {ire.— =. and the But Boeotian. \\4ience £9..) So also in compounds. occurs Rhodes. . Delphian (hevTe. as Cret. i8e then no. is used in its place in Lesbian. Cos. Elean 4. 5. Boeot. INFLECTION ' 99 . or a new sentence (ISe and no. tSe. — = . Cypr. etV. 58 c). — — e? = = formed after the analogy of etc. The inherited use but once in with the accusative (cf. Similarly eVre = eVre Northwest Greek = '. but Trehiov at a time when and proper probable. 19... Arcadian influence TreSayayov. 6.. Argolic. . .. PREPOSITIONS Peculiarities in Form 135. though not yet quotable). and with occurs as an independent particle in Cyprian and e. Northwest Greek dialects e<? an early Delphian inscription. and in Arcado-Cyprian Elsewhere this was replaced by an extended form iv-. 50) (Iv). of iv iv. of final consonants. together with Boeotian and Thessalian. ek. in Locrian. hvpavoL .

dialects (except Cretan) with Thessalian can hardly be the are to .). (gram. the distribution of the same . = = Skt.— . and beside indeed is far from clear. (133. <. See 61. epyot. '. larly before dentals. Cypr.'^ Arc.g. There are also several examples in Delphian. as in Homer. 2) (cf. . is . — Cypr. .). — : . a. Arc. *-.1). . alone is . Arc. (sc. = 1. There are two independent p. Att. . and moreover the assumption of apocope is unlikely for Att. not attested.-Cypr. one with and one without the 1) each with -ariation between final -9 and -tl. Painph. yet.-Ion. Lesb. in Homer. Dative instead of the usual genitive construction in 1) Arcado-Cyprian. (?. 'Ski. of to (70. irepr. Cretan. e? irepl rot-vt. [135 and Magna Graecia. Cf. Megara. A vest.1). became before dentals. ovt There are traces of the same prefix in a few ^ ^^. Boeotian arose is vmcertain.< is universal in most frequent in Argolic. where series of forms. . toll Arc. Just how this the most plausible is perhaps.— 4) virep. taras). 3) irepi. Lesb. Corinthian.^ . 7/9. Another form.g. toll ).' (. and except very likely an alien). Cret. .-Ion. .100 Calymna. iXeuOepiai. Of the various suggestions offered. 6. it But note that l•. 2) €. Trept 5) '. Although the relation in origin as that of unknown. . . ). also (cf. that 7. Ion. barring the appearance of and forms is the same. virep ' Cypr. nt- Ehodian and Boeotian proper names. e. But 8. Engl. etc. = ^].. elsewhere • from Cypr. since with but few exceptions Trot'occurs only through loss of by dissimilation. . Horn.) paHi) in the West Greek and Boeotian. (Hesych. GKEEK DIALECTS Sicily. Arc. pirUi). Probably cognate with Skt. Arc. e. all before dentals and one each in Locrian. . where . . occurs regu- (but ^. (cf. in early Attic. Peculiarities in Meaning and Construction 136. ^ iid.

in relation with accusative. i. 76() is . eV . M. (Iv)• at. This Elean use to. instead of gen. IhiaL — 8) with dative occurs also in Pamphylian formerly. 3. a ' " '. '.vaai^€Vov. etc. in the sight of. 43. This dialects. a. as eral confusion . . according Locrian. no. sc. wo(r) ()€ -^ in Elean. Thess. with = 5. <^< ¥8. of the most frequent locative construction. no. hy. at the expense of the genitive. Thess. with genitive instead of accusative. Boeot. ^^•hich in the case of most of the above-mentioned prepositions was also .136] — 7) Boeot. Se later. including Thessalian in the Northwest Greek 28 € and in (no. El. . . e.g. .'. inscription the use of . 4. that with iv 2./ €[ their eirl . with. and the final supremacy of the accusative construction. = avev. . - . . ' 4. sc.43.. of Philip's is found Delph. — () . he shall he judged guilty in the eyes of Zeus. and Boeotian. nntil.^ 9 <. and rarely seen in dialect inscriptions. . with dative in Cf. In a later Elean same idea expressed by 7{) are concessions where both the genitive construction and the only a step removed from that of instead of the genuine Elean to Attic usage. . of the dative (locative) an inherited one (cf. with accusative instead of dative. just jJreviously.. and Boeot. and was probably furthered by the influence construction. This growth. — .49). '. " to.e. 28. ace. with dative). Much . in a.. corresponding to letter in the ). /roiA:taTat[<?]. El. as avev<i . is deov — feppev . 7/09. ]9. is the more genbetween the dative with verbs of rest and the accusative with verbs of motion. — () . ^ 6) INFLECTION Arc. with accusative instead of genitive. 101 city. e/x£ivav ei? Megarian and Baconian. its extension even to and e^. avevf. = —' 7() € . (sc.

yearly though generally taken Hesych. ) ) ^. (cf. used freely in the meaning with dative or accusative. < 68e\o<i fine of three obols for each (loagon). . the following uses are worthy Attic and in a Delphian inscription. . with verbs of buying. misia drachmas a medimnus. eVt 'O/ci- In most dialects the name of the deceased appears in the nominative.g. e. of note. 2) concerning (as in Homer). 7. An extension of the regular use of e| (or genitive to denote material and source. occurs in So frequently Cret. 1) The original local meaning. 9.g. ac Se . 1 A 4) ). • ' perhaps of the same Si 4. and with the — fifty darics. in front of. occurs in a few early epitaphs in Lesbian.' € ivith amount or value. which are found everywhere. (no. From etc. hapeiKOiV crown Maussolus with a crown worth one worth thirty. selling. In Cretan if they Besides the usual meanings instead in return for. ahoiit.. e. tive use. Att. in the 101. return for.g.102 6. origin.in an arose a freer distribu- one shall pay a (no. . . . sions of with a crown worth 1000 drachmas. In the phrase oi occurs in Argive which survives . but is especially common in Boeotian. TLva. In most dialects is obsolete. (cf. GREEK DIALECTS eiri [3 This with the dative of the deceased person. 8. of the year. . ^ seen in certain expres- — Ion. in the presence of witnesses. Arte- Att. e. before. also in Attic prose. during the though without distributive force Hesych. in epitaphs. the use of . iy . Arc. of. explained otherwise. €8€ it e/it.43). ' same year night. eirl €.g. Phocian. and Ehodian it is in Argive also once in purely local force. barley 2^U7rhased at three freely Ther. . and even more . €<. * as in course ) is Hesych. contend about a slave. Cf. . — e. is . hk €. . 8\ about the division. is probably /or each year. and Locrian.. Coan ^ So Delph.

.. as in etc. .' .. . Third singular. in all dialects. so perhaps regularly in of the West Greek . €769 from eVt and e? = e^ . rare). after XeXonra .. 10. The original primary ending also in Epid. Homer (.). where 3 sg. but there in ^^. = <ye- in all dialects. (cf.. ^.. became nearly all (61. widely used in literary Lesbian and Doric. 25). but Att. naturally. -. Arg. hence emphatic just for. (Skt. . . -ti some Cyprian with the original perfect The original 8. Thematic evidence of €€<. after forms like like Ion. Syrac. Cret. 1.138] INFLECTION iy 8 two of harley. . or in Phoc. . VERBS Augment and Reduplication 137. -ti) is whence East Greek Thematic etc. 103 Noteworthy combinations are Thess. in iiarticular for. were employed. ^ is with secondary ending. El. cf.1. from etc. -si (Skt.1). the retention of But in the East etc. the treatment of consonant groups. Note also Cret.. . 2. . and gram. the secondary . Greek dialects. or (76 h). . as Att. in dialects. preserved in Hom. and dialects (inscriptional examples second singular are. ). .. Most peculiarities are such as are due to divergence in the form of contraction where a consonant has been *€ ^. Epid. probably due to starting is (glosses of Hesych. -si) is Second singular. (55 a). = Att. very intervocalic being due to the analogy of .. preserved in AVest Greek See 61. and meaning /or and on occasion of. etc. primary ending etc.. from and Doric (Theocr. 88. with original initial lou.). Arc. lost medimnus of wheat and just lefore. .- but Ion. { €\. with which compare Active Personal Endings 138.) Also ending -.

. Likewise lar shortening). also once even in a thematic form. and. whence Delph.. and in Thessalian -ev (an inherited 27). SiSovrc. avedtav (from KareOeav. below. But Attic-Ionic has eOeaav. 77. secondary. cf.. perf. by -av. Epir. ^. = .. eSov. etc. primary. a.. 5. with or -aorist. . Arc.. . . avedeiav. . eSoaav. Third plural. Third plural. with regu- Hom. ^. ending seen in Hom..-Ion. iXvOev.. €€ ().. as Delph. /it-verbs. ^. with -avn stem. See 61. i8(t)Kaiv. eXeyev (from but also sometimes - -. hi thematic verbs. taken over from the (163.:}. Att.-Ion. avedeav. hehoavdi. West Greek Lesl). . (. . .i-forms. -. as also is Similarly -v or forms like (9. -.added is . .2). originally the primary ending. -vtl (Skt. So also which are retained in most dialects. . represent of the 5. where most dialects have replaced by -av (also mainly after aorist in Boeot. 104 3. [fo'\Xea. in the /u.1).2). pres. But in most as Cret. .3) perhaps from oveOeLKav). etc. cf. (and Chian) ivri. . (with from the other per- Corcyr. oveOeUaev (beside (cf. 9. .. Lat. GREEK DIALECTS First plural. to the final Cf. In the perfect the earliest type redupl. -vias. Att. Thus Phoc. East Greek Boeot. So also in Att. that in -. -ati in Hom. {-nti. — East Greek -€. dadhati). -mtis from originally the secondary ending.3. Avheuce also dialects this is replaced Late inscriptions of various dialects have also the secondary -av. as Cret. - Weav etc. (cf. probably due to Thessalian influence. -(). -nti). 8kt.. . sons). with diphthongal ai from ae. . Bt8ovai. in a l)el])hian inscrip- tion). as also in Boeot. Boeot. as )] Cypr. [l38 West Greek See 223 -€<. pass. West Greek Thus. 7. as in Homer. Arc. Ion. Cret. Thess. Trapeiav (). 4. Skt.-Ion. by West Greek But Att. -??i06•). etVt.1. as eOev. see 160) a later formation. (with the accent of contract forms. -v (from -nt) in etc. (139.

. and ). optative. mostly (e. the ending Delph. . of TtOeuTai to Boeotian and Thessalian liave to the influence of to the third plural active endings. (-. . and such forms occur in late inscriptions of various dialects. contracted . e. . also : -. • . -. iyevovOo. -vto. ^. Thess. . e.g. = (27) and an added (perhaps the active secondary end- the double pluralization in the imv. -. € from at . elsewhere sg. So also from the Phocian .g. -. -). -. weak va). subj. cf. . Indicative and subjunctive. heaTOi. But in the perfect and pluperfect after a consonant but also after a vowel in Boeotian {-. 8. also 2 . Active.. Att. and e. -. Cyprian. (-). (witli suffix vd. and so reguin unthe- see below) later elpeaTui. . H(. and in tliese endings..g.g. Arcadian has -tol (perhaps also able). due to the influence of the to -Tv).)m. and 3 2. elsewhere -. 1. . Boeot. after the analogy owing from these the was extended Thus etc. . - (26). Thess.. -vtol is to be assumed. aTreypa^avOo. -. Boeot. etc.g. .g. etc. but not quot- secondary - (before its sg. Boeot. though not quotable. with Secondary Cypr. pluperfect. -.-Ion. Keioi = change Cf. - spread even to thematic forms and to the Att. e. eiXovOo.. Primary -T€t (27).139] a. and even matic presents and imperfects. . Third dual. — Imperative. Boeot. Middle. Third plural. . Epid. 6. (22). Boeot. Thess. doubtless . pi. Usually -vtul.-Ion. Boeot. •^). 159). ing near the Boeotian frontier. INFLECTION In the 105 optative. to 8. Similarly 1 mid. Middle Personal Endings Third singular. (pres. '^. = and also 8vveaTai. 139. Stiris. secondary. larly in Ionic in the perfect (e. -.

etc. But Corcyr.^. indie. Del- Early Att. in Ionic only. o8v . likewise early Att. dialects except Cretan.2). El. l•. etc. the usual form in most dialects. . Thas. probably of Phaselis through Pampliylian is influence. (rather than under 1) Heracl. Boeotian {-. Coan 2. h. 3.. and in a Rhodian decree at Seleucia in Cdicia. 3. as in is Rare.g. l•. 139.. a and 4 a are of from the third singular by the addition Homer. Lac.. 5). formed after the analogy of 3 pi. etc. in an inscription which PJiodian dialect. In the third plural tlie dialects exhibit the following types. probably from (4 a). and the middle. -().lOG GREEK DIALECTS Imperative Active and Middle [uo 140. Avhere the corresponding 3 h and 4 l• are rare. .. -.. -. -. e. (4 with double pluralization. tlie later Delphian inscriptions often have the general Doric which is the form of the earliest Deljihian..3. 3 Observe the divergence between the active. . - beside -. Coan of later origin possible to read a.2. the usual type being 2 1. it is -(). -v. Lesb. 4. 5. from €. €7€€.. in Arcadian. Lesbian. h.. middle. as the third singular. . 78). ). see 77. This is the regular type in and Pamphylian otherwise in the and also appears. the secondary ending . and phian. Cretan. . -. where the usual types. a. etc. a. For and so probably hero (cf. - comes from and l•). and with later treatment of (77. A corresponding thematic 4\€ -. -. in Attic-Ionic. and only in the Calymn. . -. Note. (e. = ovTov).. etc. (cf. after the analogy of 3 pi. Epid. Later Doric Conversely beside inscriptions often -. (2 h) with -ov etc. The same form Corcyr. unknown. show the Att.g. formed '. a combination of types 2 as in Homer. and the Doric . Elean. -. -. .

this con- most of the and Elean no futures ^. .. irape- . occur). probably influ- (Locr. " Doric future " in -. 142] 6.5). etc. enced by . dialects (examples in and in Delphian from in Locrian Thus. a).). . in the future is and aorist of verbs in -. The extension is . type . Att. Delph. €. Except later inscriptions of various for a few middle forms in type is etc. Att. Delph. .). . . and Arcadian. Ther. seen in some as a general In all other Doric dialects. . to other verbs in -. SetTrviCoan Ehod. (8. however. of Doric as often in the ipja^rjrai. (with Att. (). €. but in the (cf. Ehod. Ther. . (the active forms are eaaovrai. Corcyr. from the very numerous examples. Thus. as.C.. after about hence in ). from the countless examples. Future and Aorist 141. Thess. ). Heraclean has ambiguous. see 278). . . Epid. . ^). Meg. apparently of the ordinary type.. Doric . Attic-Ionic fined to the dialects (Hom. forms of the ordinary type are clearly late. we should expect influence.^ (cf. Cnid. El.. Homer and Hesiod characteristic of the almost universal except in Argolic. which regularly have beside isolated examples even in phenomenon it is part). . conversely. Coan. see below. but also ). and due to 142. dialects. . aeOvTi. -. {. West Greek . ( Thessalian. which regular in the case of guttural stems. 300 INFLECTION with - replaced by (more rarely B. where (in Ileracl. Arc. 9). it is ) from . KOLvrj. . iaaeirai. . €<. 107 138. But West Greek dialects.^. ' . but probably to be accented third plural since from the . . (t e. etc. Cret. -. in forms of 12 verbs. together with Boeotian Cret. - etc.

Corcyr. as eriXeaaa or ehUaaaa (Boeot. the -. both eireaKeva^e. as yet. and and especially the frequent abstracts in (89.€. . with the Archimedes. (82. In late times this type is extended e. ipyaaaaOai. {{/ . (Cret. fi'om different localities..g. ceded. or . ' a. or but always . to many other verbs. (Chios). in latter showing a fusion of ^ ( probably Future passive with active endings. Ion.. as Aetol. €<. and 3 . A'owel. ending in or a dental. . '). .. <^\\.. original. ^veiKa (Ilom. Delph. 83). in various Lesb.. .. (e. from stems from ireXea-aa to €\€). 82). ^. gen. . iapeid^aaa.. Ileracl. Arg.). Theocr. = = = -^is = -. confined to the Doric islands. .108 But in Argolic the . cliaracteristic. is e. Aorist in -a. Argol. also not yjvtyKa. '. . . Lesb.). Arc.g. dialects. [^\€]. is sometimes seen in other = lit. 6pvi$. Ehod. (= . Calymn.g.g.. (as in Locr. Cret. <. Ion. in the future and aorist of verb-stems of ending in a short The Homeric extension an Aeolic Boeot. = ?. 145. Epid. ^. and ^Att. . Other dialects may have . elira and ^. is forms. part. the form of most dialects except Attic. e. Argol. Ildt. €. Lesb. it is not improbable that this was a general Doric or West Greek characteristic. < 143.. Cret. Although the inscrip- tional examples are. ).g. Cret. (Ceos). Boeotian has. (also . = Lac.g.1). e. 2). \€€<. not = et) usual aorist forms in and . e. Dor. ^. .. beside . later with one 144. Ther. formation is GREEK DIALECTS avoided [i42 a guttural pre- ipydaaavro. €€. similar extension of guttaral stems . . Boeot. ]\Iess.. . elsewhere no. . Lesb. 6€<.

also Dor.. Thematic forms in the perfect. €8[€]. in various dialects. aor. is seen in Arg. Cf. (so . So The gradual extension of the /c-type to other than original vowel stems is by no means confined to Attic (cf. which regularly have thematic we find: .). This is usual for vowel stems in all dialects. . €<. Heracl. g.. . 147. .4. quent. see 137 for the third plural ending. . 1. 4. with (cf. from 5. the strong perfect show dialectic forms with a vowel stem and . and 3 pi. ). . but Locr. also. Boeot. ? from (to *'8-. without . (cf. ('). . . pepvKovo Arc. Aside from the subjunctive. 8. € (Hom. . is . in the middle. the aspirate 3. see above). etc. Examples occur where it is Even in the case of the /c-perfect. are some few forms without beside Hom. e. indie. present in many but - formed from rerv- Usual in Boeot.. ['\\€ (but .). 2.. beside €<.g. €^ from '. see 138. Dor. and imperative. e. whence an indie. verbs in pepaheKora. ). optative. Aspirated perfect. Dialectic variations in the grade of the root (49) are not infree. [^]?. due ultimately to the influence of the 3 after the analogy of 3 pi. ippijyela (cf. perf. in Sophron. and some verbs which usually have but also Att. ). unknown in Attic-Ionic. outside the indicative sin- ?. ^^. the vowel stem which etc. Hdt. For the reduplication. Heracl. Arc.).^ . ?). pluperf. probably 3 pi..g. «-perfect. to the fut. part. subj.147] INFLECTION Perfect 109 146. . perf. In Heraclean occur 3 pi. Epid. = Att.' . with usual eaha. pi. = Att. = Att. . (also in Archim. Ion. ). But there gular. inflection. Arc. = = . like etc. hiea- aeiXOeiKe (part. *elxa Or formed Cret.

(146.. The subjunctive of thematic forms. occa- instead of -evaL dialects. ). in ArcadoXe<ye. a.g.).g. dialects. e. \€. E})id. e. Coan \. Epich. e. as in Attic. Infinitive. The mood-sign is everywhere ^^. ^. and some €€. '. etc. <).g. but these represent a more restricted phenomenon. from tlie earliest times. KeKXr}yovre<i. SeSvKeiv. . 22 (324 Cf. . 21 (first half etc. Cyprian. . not -. 15). '^xq-ij))^ without the which the endings i. Lesb. but / a. 2. 3. €^. Forms .g. also Hom. -- instead of simply inflection is regular in the Aeolic 8€8 Att. The thematic Boeot. Arc. from /^. form usually has late Attic found in Subjunctive 149.1). ^eyddeL.g. Calymn. . and -) [TreTrovdei^. Nisyr. as Phoc... B. Doric writers. Epid. Theocr. e. Cf. in no. in no. Cypr. and 148. dar €\8€. Delph. Hom. .110 1. Sicilian [i47 Forms inflected like presents are often by the K€L. which is due to . Theocr. but from the last quarter of the fourth etc. . also Heracl. e. e. ^. '. in later Deljiliian (e. Arcliim.) occur in inscriptions yeyovei. Cnidus and Carpathus. in -ela are Ther. g. .. The participle in its regular (unthematic) the feminine in -.g. sionally elsewhere. more -. Participle. e. €. fourth century). So PinThess. Cf. employed etc. also El. -€€. (also 2 sg. fei- Lesbian has earlier century on nearly always -. There are some feminine forms in elsewhere. Cf. But forms and elsewhere. \€\€. (=. Cret. in Attic. GKEEK DIALECTS Indicative. €7€. in ~.g. - quite independent of the preceding. Ehod. but represent the were added directly to the («X^-s. in -eiv in are found in Lesbian and some AVest Greek <y€yoveLv. €. But the third singular sometimes ends So uniformly. {-ev.C. Heracl. of . e/c- It is the prevailing \\a\\ that these forms are not equivalent to the original formation. Lesb.

to ). forms there is nothing decisive against this. short-vowel forms are found in East Ionic. . 150. beside (hence also. which the corresponding indicative has the short vowel. Cret. = e\y]pvaL to indie. Cliian transcribed beside 151. Mess. coming from -. Epid. . Teos). As in the case of other this was originally came to follow the unthematic formations (of. . ^).-Cypr. Cf.g. East Ion. found only in those forms espe- beside (cf.5).comes from the earlier (in the analogy of the indicative forms in as it is -. and occasionally elsewhere. beside indie. etc.. .. (likewise. The subjunctive of the -aorist. to e. Ther. beside etc.g... 22 the t is still written in the datives). (no. subj. ..151] INFLECTION 111 But this is far from cei'tain. Cret. Hom. indie. beside ivTi. Horn. ^. not Lesb. 77. 61). . later a short-vowel subjunctive in more common long-vowel type etc. beside indie. (i. Searoi hearo). (hence the forms of the LawrCode are to be -ei). There are two distinct types. . Lesbian. Even in the case of the Arc.e. is With very few of cially in the indie. further -). . Cret. After the relation of . Further. (with Lesb. extension to the thematic aorist) reKotai. The endings are added directly to the long vowel of the stem. with loss of (no. there arose also an Arc. from . from the etc. Cretan. also Coan The subjunctive of unthematic vowel stems. See 38. Mess. this type Cret.. .3). Arc. -et. likewise in Elean. So middle. . Aside from Hom.. . when the indicative also has a. -aorist. in the active. but also. but also Calymn. = Del[)h. beside indie. . . not etc. 3. 1. and it is distinctly more probable that the later Lesbian . €7€) beside . quite possible to view the - as - spite of the fact that in no. (59. (with beside Astyp. -. 86^ei. aor. exceptions. - (no. . -et %. e. 60). and only in ''^/^. . rat.

Thess. Corintli. common have But most Arc. of the long stem vowel before the following Aowel €).). 150). The infinitive of thematic forms. Rhod. Locr.. Lesb. . Argol. and Coan. with shortening Ion. '. Heracl. . 2. . etc.... etc.-Ion.112 GREEK DIALECTS [151 2. . ... (of. due to the shortening. {Oeio- (from Att. Similarly in the aorist passive. Arc. but So in Arcadian (but Delphian. ?). -eiv. -eiv or -. . . Infinitive 153. . -eie. as often in Ionic and late Attic. ^. .. Thematic. Kariapavaeie. See 157 4. Lac. -ev. Ther. with doubtless Unthematic type in contract verbs. from Boeot. . Att. many . Cret. 1. -ecav. - at Lycosura. '^. . -ev replaced 2. by -v after the analogy of of Unthematic. . (43). Delph.. -ai). The is so-called in Attic-Ionic. dialects etc. Thess. dee. The usual type is that in which the long vowel of the stem was followed by the short vowel subjunctive sign %.). . near Elis). Cret. Cyprian (or -ev of the Doric dialects (Heracl. Late Delph. h. 1. 3 pi. -aorist. deXotv. Horn.. Heracl. (Thessaliotis). .... but (i Cret. *). Boeot. So Att. )'. due to 3. . . or e -|- dialect has e (25). influence. this being generally replaced by the more usual ^^ (ef. seen in late Delph. AeoHc type in -. The extension is to the plural. seen in El. Swaerat. from etc. in the majority of dialects. etc. Optative 152. ei. e). the usual Locr. Rhod. ^. 8]. but with shortening Ion.. Further change is etc. later aheaXrahaie with (as in a from the indicative at throughout. Hom. according as the -. as Cret. Att. EL.

. 5. aorist passive infinitive. Arc. 100). -ev even from verbs in . . dialects. The infinitive of unthematic forms. Rhegium is no. -mi.with complete assimilation to 3. as matic type . y ). e.. Lesb. etc. in Cf. as e. intin. also aor. . as in Homer. 1.155] 3. which is regularly unthematic the thematic type in Lesetc. or e. also Cret. 5. 155. .e. Att. . (157). 154. which otherwise follow the unthe- not -.g. e.. follows etc. So in Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian. hopevaL (probably -fevai.€ 2. Gela and Agrigentum. (). -. Boeot. Arg. and ). . Telos) and the PJiodian colonies (Phaselis in also at Pamphylia . (but usually as 4.g.. e. both types at Gortyna). bian and Arcadian. '. 2. elvuL. ^. Att. and even beside . . infinitive. Cret. So in Lesbian. -- with . Arc. in Sicily . (probably formed from - after the analogy of -eiv) in Ehodes and vicinity (Carpathus. Ther.g. ). Boeotian. INFLECTION 113 Cret. pass. see 160.g.. Once .g. 1.-Ion. e.2. -v. Coan . Some of these dialects have evpoiKev (but also tyna). etc. to the aor. Homer (cf. . Cypr. Dor. . in Thessalian. henrvev.g. . (Att. sometimes in Thess. etc. For the tliematic forms For Euboean of the perfect infinitive in various dialects see 147. stem.). (i. The Interchange of thematic and unthematic types of extended to thematic forms in Boeotian and Thessalian (Pelasgiotis). . like -). unthematic vowel stems. Calymn. -. or . . Siolkcv.. -.-. (but also . both types at Gor- elvai. In Lesbian the present ends in infinitive of weU as of the contract verbs. -€. etc. added an early inscription of Lyttus. and nearly all the West Greek 4.. 3. '. -€.

of the long vowel ^. luit is otherwise retained throughout.. Cf. (26).. BeSoadeiv. so perhaps always in Thessaliotis). [7']\'\. Lesb. see 85. Lesb. GREEK DIALECTS [156 The infinitives in - and -. Kokevrov. regularly shortened before in contrast to usual tvcp- with analogical . . 18. but reading active. then. . -) beside 8.i-inflection to etc. (Sappho). evepyevreaai. Unthematic Inflection of Contract Verbs the Aeolic inflection. The middle if participle in -ei/ievo? (or -) is from verbs in -€. show only the usual type (though {^ which is yut-forms are in a long vowel. €- (no. Tat..). with -et from -at (27). ^'. hiepoOvre^i (78). Thessalian (Larissa) has etc. But even the VA. .€ . . in contrast to Thess. The more beside limited extension of the . This type. . '' . . as from -€-€€<. and added after the analogy of other infinitives. Arc. . The with from ai For = . /it-infiection of is contract verbs. the optative of con- . -. 8. instead -€-€<}.g. 157. an inscription of . 8. €). []€€'. 8€€.114 156. Arcado-Cyprian. evepyere^ (78). ^. . e. Cyrene is and = aht- Cypr. Boeot. Kvevaav. of yu. sometimes known as characteristic of Lesbian. I). Thess. . with vowel-gradation. is occasioually found (>lsewliere. . Karaypevrov. follows the analogy of that seen in etc. '? e. . .8 .g. ^. The stem ends also.. latter sometimes shows an extension . Ion. rather than that of Tt^e/ACj/os. in .. and like Att. Middle Participle in -€ 158. a. vcVreaCTt I'tc. . e. . Lesb. eaaeadeiv. uncertain). Thessalian. as in Att. probably a relic of the pre-Doric (Achaean) element in Thera. like Horn. from the singular tract verbs. also quoted as Boeotian by the grammarians. characteristic of the . 33. . but the inscriptions etc. kXeareiv. .28. TreTrelaretv.g. also tlie iniinitives El.1. (but hv\opeovTO<i in no. (= Cret. and Kevra. (78).. . Thess. Arc. Lesb.

8€ . but contraction Ther. e. as Att.g.. and probably due Calymu. . also (with a after [€]. few exceptions. . A^erbs in = . 12 a) phonetic development from 8 . KXapoieLv. compare 8i8ot (Miletus) infinitives and even elv be- System form their present in beside aor. inscriptions of Orchomenus.). 8. . the other ^t-forms of these dialects. . Verbs in - show forms in - in various dialects. KaXr//i. Transfer of - Verbs to the Type of Contract Verbs 160. = and = = So also an inscription of Dodoiia. is . 8.evo5. -...g.. = formed a. are found in various dialects. etc.) Tliis is due to the analogy as the infinitive after of forms which regularly had Cf. 8c8eovaa. Homer and Herodotus. etc. iStSov. ^/. Type 159. but. do not belong here. 2. . e. dialects and Boeotian. The transfer of certain forms of /Ai-verbs to the inflection of contract verbs is Delph. from e-e. Lesb. €. Forms in -. Locr. ^.g. with e. Ka(S)8a\eet 115 Boeot. El. . dialects. 8\. See 157 (only in late to Aetolian influ- may be from -. €<. the long-vowel stem of the other (3 pi. . 161] INFLECTION Northwest Greek Delpli. -e/ri&).. Eliod. in and the Euboean side elvat. . This represents the normal the usual - Ijeing due to the influence of the other tenses. . and so belong 25 a). in Elean. as beside aor. p. ence). found in various . Some Other Interchanges in the Present 161. Lesh.. Arc. here. Phoc. . Delph. but among a. with tenses extended to the present. Thess. etc. subj. Phoc. but most wide-spread in Ionic. With Tidet etc. from -oet is also possible (cf. .. 1. (or 7.. Boeot. . only where the e is followed by an o-vowel.

€<. . {) *7.). Thess. . and rests upon an actual phonetic change But we may have to .. ... it Locr. '. ^ for usual the ov is an Attic substitution seen in Meg. (158).. type. Among other. ^ Lac. 1225). aireXevOe- (but also Ionic and Attic Ar. (Att. as beside other tenses from . .. but ee contracted in forms like Ehod. .(. Cret. Cret. = (140. from . Aetol. 5. -8 . .. 3. Mess. ^. El. Cret.<:. . Cret. may be mentioned : cases of variation in the = -00). Phoc. Heracl. Ion. ).3 Sicil. Meg.4) . Ion. ao to the ao () in Attic and elsewhere being a restoration due to leveling with the ae forms. Delph. Cf. Theocr. = Att. 162. l)ut mostly in the perfect. a.. Locr. probably belongs with transfer to the I'u-class.. Alcm. .= -. = 159) = h). . ( . here. . . 1. SieyeXa. late). . '. for eo). = 4. Eq. Lac. though Boeot. (also Att. Dor.. ^)... ^^^. {. (subj. ). . Phoc. more individual. Thess. (in all do simply with a transfer to the -€ . 4[i61 (as Horn. also (Agrig. . ). Cret. Delph. Ther. Arg. (Att. Thess. (l)ut Aetol. Aetol. = . 9. of According to some this eo. '. present stem. El. (with t from e. -. = = Heracl.. Delph.. (Delph. etc. = = could be from . Boeot. most which was mainly favored where it offered uncontracted forms dialects eo was uncontracted until late. is . Delph. = in Coan Arg. .. Heracl. Rhod.. sometimes). . 2. 6.. Locr.. [^). Boeot. Heracl. lihod. Cret. ^.. Delph. Conversely Delph. Lesb. in Epid. Att. Boeot. Rliod. especially in AVest Greek. Dor..116 GREEK DIALECTS aside from literary examples ). intrans. .

77.. etc.. /. ereiaa = = >. see 138. dsan). '-). will bring as sometimes in Homer. but also a). .163] 7. like ^. it cf.). (cf. Skt. *€. Skt. . ). To 7€.. . saoiti. Cret. Delph. The Verb 163. (Hom. 14. lit. See ^evri Third plural present indicative. = . and Cyprian. (ovev. '. the old .. . formed to (cf..5. (139. with the analogy of to '. Boeotian (irapeh). ev. . €() ^•?. aor. Third singular imperfect. For Boeot. €. 11. Hom. • Xajaaaat inform.9. after . But late El.-Ion. 8. Hesych. eVrw. Att. e after the analogy of the 61.1. See cf. was replaced by Skt. Att. Cretan has the active forms eireXevaei. as) is attested for various Epid. Boeot. also with analogical but with retention of Arg. Doric). (cf. Cret. of etc. Osc- Umbr. ^]^<. 3. whence. 55. or €. '. . (cf.g.. see no. . ) from as in * 117 most dialects etc. Corcyr. of the root. West Greek . .. (from . Ion. Arcadian.3). examples crian. indie. note) except Attic-Ionic. 9. which are found in literary Doric. Third singular imperative. and is probably the form in all dialects (for Locr.5). dialects. (Boeot.2). e.g. . (also Delph. have Homer. 12. like Cret. of Most dialects (see above. whence 76. Cypr. release (cf. Arc. formed from 3 Delphian.). *-. to be First singular present indicative. with substitution of other forms. in Third plural imperative. 10. West Greek dialects (Acarii. 6. These are from inherited by-forms Xa'yaaai. Third plural imperfect.. aor. INFLECTION For Att. '. had ). pi. . ). aor. 142 etc. 1. Cret. Delphian. evri Also thematic Attic and late . aor.. irapelav. A'\^d. where third plural (from 4.3. elsewhere 2. 5. €. 8 . (cf. ' in and Lo- most e. Thess. sell. sent). Lesb. *€. . 7€.-Ion..

But there are also unthematic forms. eh. man Arc. as Heracl. Mess. 401 C). subj. 113) Dreros we find 4\ . are late. with e as in ivri. . as imperf. (also in some Doric writers. Present participle. . 160). + nasal (76) explains the "West Greek and Boeotian et/iey Rhod.. Middle forms.. from *€VTe<. = at above. etc. 2). with the substitution or prefixing of e after the analogy of the other forms). at Delplii. . in most dialects. or (25). development Thess. Lesb. namely in (^) = €. . Att. Cf. Lesb.118 7.('). sail. Arc. . 9. Cret. '. cf. (from -n(-h) is seen also Cret. 3 pi. . = '. (no. . GREEK DIALECTS Tresent iufinitive. a. Arg. [l63 The difference in the form of the ending of (154) and also in the great variety of forms. eWe? (also quoted from AlePlato Crat. subj.. of () . 10. In a Cretan inscription ^. 3 sg. Attic-Ionic ehai (also Eiib. This unthematic feminine formation in some forms quoted by Hesychius. ' = (all from *aria = Skt. 8. Andania. Epid. = . fem. Cret..

. On the ac- from -pevr- (Skt.).g. . of places in relic of A (cf. ^. 3. Cret. ayopaaaLv. -ei09 is in part derived Boeot. . €). in / -o'ei?. . Ion.. -ovvtlol. first Troez. '. For -|t9 see 142 a.4. cf. in forms like are<yaaTO<i. Cf. Cret. . -Ti9 See 61. which the is due to the influence .5. with substitution from the analogy -[p)eaaa or pe{a)aav. 2.8). . originally -farux (like Skt. again in part from cf. those with being and Most adjectives of this type are poetical only. tained in various dialects. Boeot. Ion. from of For convenience the form stem. -vatl. Delph. of usual -9 in Arg. Delph. -.2. (81). <... except in substantive use especially the names a. origin Ionic. . from the weak of e for a Corcyr. e. Boeot. Avayvpovs) . -. wdience. ratlier tlian that of tlie 119 . 37. the or weak stem o). Att. Cret.). Ion. in /:€{). Adjectives of the type are The feminine was stem -uni. Ion. from -{) or (with contrast to the nsual -ovrtoi. as poetical of the forms in -pevT-. as ^ -far- (cf. arose peTUi. hyphaeresis of -opivTtoi. Pamph. Lesb. numerous for which is see also 44. of the nominative is cited. 163. . centuation of these forms. Composition ^ = Att. ) -9. see . seen in a few derivatives.. -vant-). this yielding -[) (Ar. from - which is re- Lesb.WORD-FORMATION On the Form and Use of Certain Suflixes and Certain Peculiarities of 164. The genuine Attic forms have (inscr. We find -< instead Epid.. Ion. (this 1. 1 ^. '. . -eio?.

Tliess. . Epid. ). )) . -. as 7€8. *.= -. . Locr. Hom.may be (cf. like adjectives of material Lesbian and Thessalian . (l)ut also = Boeot. = usual . In most words is earlier dental. Locr. Thessalian. 1/ instead of the usual are very frequent in the Corinthian colonies of are occasionally found elsewhere.. a productive suffix of nouns of agency has been very largely displaced by most fully in Attic are not infrec^uent in poetry.. Tliess. so they occur also sometimes in the dialects. al)ove.g. As prose. T€ia. El. most . 9. -8 is attested for Boeo- tian.. .120 4.. .). Hypocoristic proper names in -. In is = usual ^ Pamph. (stem ---. [i64 -. etc. and Euboean. =^78. as Lesb. for example. an sometimes preserved. = de- Locr. The parallel. like Epid. dialects has replaced. Corcyr. = (also Sicil. while elsewhere they are rare and probably im- but less common. -also Delph. .. also Cypr. (-8). e. by analogy.. cf. ^. .) Cret. see 142 a.).• we find Dor. Cret. as in Horn. . Cf. in the sense of Cret. e. . ApoUonia and Epidamnus. ..(-) like Att. 78 . Delph. = Thess. '. Patronymics in -8. (which not from -eo? Boeot. in are most common in Boeotian. as 8. 5. = (cf. or -eo?).g. GREEK DIALECTS -/109. (65). but are not infrequent Phocian and Euboean ported. \€.-Ion. -€. Individual cases of dialectic variation in suffix are of course So. 8. which (Pindar especially the older . and . Ion. . '. but in most dialects 7. (after = Thess. (from formed . . So for Att.^ (-). < . 8. 6). (but in As forms with Hom. Hom. used. have -= - . -8. ). . -. Boeot. After the analogy of forms in arose Arg. -8. 6. frequent. Hes. Locrian. . Eor but = = - (-). . Att. Epir. and Lac.

-€ but Dor. . <. }? jtyvo . (evBodtSiav entrails . Ion. the influence of hypocoristics in (i. and Aetolian. 9. ?). 8€\^ -). hence ranbe used freely in words denoting reward like amount reward of victory. -) -ea?. as (Ion. . cow-shed. (cf. ridge. as Ion. -. €7\8. but 165. -. the suffix came to or means of release. Cret. so Arist. of earth . -. Noteworthy examples denote contrasted relations (not merely those of degree as comparatives). From words paid. ^. as in he^Lrepo^. -. Epid. siod). -. and (60.166] WORD-FORMATION from Att. a(y)Bpuov). -. Proper names in are most common Phocian. -' and Thessalian Elsewhere such forms are rare and doubtless imported.. instead of -<. instead of (formed after usual Alo8oto<.. €8 in Thessalian. ( 2. in He- are frequent in P)oeotian. 166. -. is . as Ion. ^ 121 evdeo^. . jepairepo'i. 4. Delph. -Tepof. epaevairepo^i (for ai as . 7\€<.. ®€<. 1. . Dor..4). per- quisites (of for healing. Coan reXearpa expenses of inatujuration inaugurate). . = 8€\€0 in other dialects. <. So . also has -. -8 forming adjectives from adverbs or adverbial phrases. €. 7<. even from a numeral. To this large class (i = €. Cret. Cret. €8 cf. Coan (more specific fold amount. 2.0) = hurial-jjlace. som. ' and. 8o\av household slave). Epid. belong Heracl. etc.4. . = 3. Cf.. as a modification of - under and cf. heap from Halaesa).). . after the analogy of ^^) = '. gifts the three- the priest.). . m are Arc. in nouns denoting Pamph. This class is not to be confused with nouns of agency in Ion. Hipp. of the use of this sufhx to the El. . El. (cf. ^ See 41.e. . place. (). 1. cf. but also occur in P)oeotian. Cret.

. . Thess. ^ ^. like 8€<.) Use and Horn.. cf... . in most dialects. etc. . 7<?. Arc.. ?. <. and so related to (* -()). from (hvXo peovTO^i) from as \. with inscriptions). from ? Cret. sometimes dia- Thus etc. .lectic. avepWevTo<. for usual in an Attic inscription.). \<.. Phoc. mem- seen in Ton. . but = Meve/c/oa- ^^. some Mess.. Carpath. (Epic). Cf.^ .. After the analogy of names containing inherited t-stems arose also forms like various dialects.. *\to for usual from is the form used in Cretan. . patronymic adjective instead of the genitive sinin literature. (:<. = = = 'AyeXao^.. . ... . from instead of usual *-<. '. likewise Ehod. = are To the analogy of forms like €<. .. Locr. Cnid. 168. -- <. as sometimes in Homer). Heracl. [* -(^)) Thess. in Coan. (also Pindar). is due the €. (cf. Ehod. Cret.. •. . etc. . conversely Astyp. as in as in Att. < ( . Epid. gular of the fatlier's name. Late Att. as (cf. Locr. Cret. of tlie ^/. Att. etc. Nisyr.<. ber of compounds.. ).. Though occasionally found Hom. '^. . Ilesych.. a. Meg. for usual Ion. (also in (but Att.. Iihod. Ehod. which same kind. Lac.. 7€. \<.€7] So Cret. Mel. BiexTO?) Ehod. Tlie well-known lengthening of the initial -owel of the second is -. Cret. Ion..of share (cf.. . Lesb. this is the regular practice in prose . Nisyr. Cret. . 122 GREEK DIALECTS of diiferent [i67 167. (or poLKiaras:) . or before a derivative suffix. The interchange vowel stems in the is first mem- ber of a compound. in Euripides. (cf. = €<. Arc. Cyren. Chalced. but Ion. El. of a €<.^) ..

Ni/coXao? 123 Boeot. 42. in Boeotian the genitive is usual after about 250 b. Thus Lesb. . genitive may be used in apposition to that implied by the adjecipl (sc. Tt/Aowt8aios are usual. €<. e/xi . When the genitiA'e the father's is a patronymic form in -8as or . ) ^.^ /^• /^?. c. HoXvievata d. .only in the three Aeolic dialects. no. See the following. regularly employed in Boeotian but later the adjective forms like b. A ).c. (sc. Thess.) is also a i)atronymic adjective. \^]. Thess. some See evidence that the Plataeans adopted the Attic usage at an early date.. '8. and occasionally found earlier. as in Vt 2^£V£tat (gen. tive. name is itself ^. Under influence the use of the adjective was given up There in favor is of the ordinary genitive construction. etc. There are also examples in Thessalian and Boeotian of adjectives in agreement with appellatives. . where Avith the genitive implied in NtKiatot. . the son NtKtatoi (dat. Thus so also in early Thessalian. ()[] Lesb. in place of a genitive of possession. 168] WORD-FORMATION 'AvTijoveio<. Boeot.) tJie son of Nicias. . '7€-los. 6 Hom. '^'. but in apposition of Caucus.

although ev is with the dative the article is already the more usual expression.g. but without the povT Aside from the adverbial phrases tive of time is . is Genitive of Time. 131). € '< as is beside ev rpta- . Law-Code. have already been mentioned in conin the use of certain nection with the forms. (-) eny decrees of various dialects. add here only moods.6 ev So in Locriau. etc. usual expression in most dialects. we find only ev 1. CASES The Genitive 170. though eventually replaced in by ev . In both cases used. of usage. yet syntactical differences between less striking much than those of phonology and inflec- tion in To a considerable extent they consist merely in the conservasome dialects of early forms of expression which have become and in a less strict formalization rare or obsolete in literary Greek. and in the meaning and It is necessary to tlie construction of prepositions (136). release witltin five days. Some peculiarities e. gation than dialects are tion. a few comments on certain uses of the cases and other. has received. peculiarities are observed in the notes to the inscriptions. pronouns (121- adverbs and conjunctions (132-134). but <. 1.25 the dative and without the Cf. article... Some more isolated. while in late inscriptions article. etc.SYNTAX 169. Although the syntax it of the dialects deserves fuller investithe. with the use of the genithe More noteworthy connnon is the phrase (-?) which in the prox- many 124 . most persistent in dating. as also in early Attic inscriptions. The genitive of the 'time within wliich' especially frequent in the early Cretan inscriptions.

<' ^/. Greek. e. common to all dia- the genitive nowhere else used so freely as in Cretan to eXevdepo heKa €. as is .174] SYNTAX 125 The genitive also in Attic.g. el . Cf. as uv daily. . . Genitive of the flatter involved. . The Dative 172. 8\ irevre shall condcm. . e.g. Locr. of the charge or penalty is Al- though the genitive lects. El. The Accusative A noteworthy accusative absolute construction e seen in unless Arc. Att. scribed denote the matter involved. 173. where the particle in conditional. five staters in the decide as to the time. is Nt/ca/jerr/. . see 136. beside ^ 171. as Arc. The adnominal is '. is regularly employed in . - prescribed in the case of those who conspire. For the dative instead of the genitive construction with various prepositions in Arcado-Cyprian.n hirji to in the case of a freeman.g. This is an extension from instances where the participle agrees with the accusative of a pre- ceding clause. in legal phraseology. el € Three the Fifty or the Hundred /xe approve. .1. also Arc. at a fine of ten staters case of a slave. a PIioc. 8. dative is more common than in literary paXeioL'^. of ? is time is used distributively iu various dialects. relative. and especially frequent in the introduction to inscriptions or their separate sections. and temporal The subjunctive without av or clauses. THE MOODS The Subjunctive 174. e. he eypaTTat as is ^:)re- for each case. Boeot.

19. 17. Ehodian. and indeed is almost wholly eliminated in favor of the subjunctive in Attic-Ionic inscriptions. offers the fullest material. king shall give. e. it is much less frequent than the subjunctive. others as I. hut if one should mere variants of the subjunctive for parallel or opt. it to the daugh- (Law-Code Examples are not infrequent in later Locrian.g. 8 contrast to usual (no.21) in ot . ter (see 134. Coan. Thessalian. et Se and probably. at in the so. Phocian.30). Arc. €• let (no. the Similarly in Cyprian. is attested for ? eU common construction. though frequently omitted in elsewhere (Kiilmer-Gerth several dialects. Cypr. — in fact in the majority of dialects. hnt if there should not he any free persons. 474).ll. Theran. but oftener without such. tlie Some of these occur contingency is obviously one more remotely anticipated VII. In the Gortynian Law-Code. . even identical contingencies (e.32. . although.2). (no. it is sometimes used with a still recognizable differentiation from the subjunctive.g. ^ The Optative is the usual form of prescriplet there he alliance for a f each pay a fine of ten minae. pp. dvyarpl VI. Boeotian.l). though always as the less Locr. 449. hundred years. 175. 426. used in the same sense in a late' (no. 1. . . as contem- plated in the precedmg subjunctive clauses deny). In . Where the optative survives.25). The optative in conditional clauses survives in several dialects. 61. but without €.25. 8 when one gives . Arc. there are in conditional clauses about 50 optatives to about 80 subjunctives. e. 55. which where (e.81).26 ten exam(Co- inscription). IX. Heraclean.18 = subj. except in Elean. same av et/c Homer and sometimes II.126 GREEK DIALECTS [174 Attic prose.9. e Cret. Cyprian. VI. is The subjunctive without Elean inscription 176.g. In Elean the optative with ea tions.7. and in Lesbian. . and Delphian inscriptions. al SeiXer ples with tilum).g.

3. optative Noteworthy is is the used in the curse proper. . no. But in Elean the optative is uniformly employed in condi- tional. 16 and 17 have the subjunctive only. Dl7. eae< . . see nos. . . For examples in conditional In the later no. i€voLev. the predomiof the subjunctive is . There are a few examples of the optative in Cretan (Law-Code IV. 22. in 8' whereas no.g. 3. A Locrian. (. we find 09 av with the subjunctive.5-40. . 62). 56 and no.53 h<. 3. and elsewhere (see 177). Corcyraean. In final clauses . and this occurs in some of the later inscriptions (but in no. 18. no. Heracl. Lesb. and a few others). Co (here indirect discourse). 56 only. of subjunctive el 8e See also no. but in no. . <? Ke . . 76 and 78 have the optative only. In Arcadian. and temporal clauses.6. and in the Northwest Greek In Argolic. 81 the opta- tives are in indirect discourse). the stele on which the curse inscribed. 11. but with future perfect force. no. CoO. 8fC. beside the subjunctive. and optative 2. 57-59. and in the numerous Phocian very frequent and Delphian manumission decrees the optative The optative. the optative occurs. not infrecpient. 127 also the relative clause / ). nance Tean curse. . 1-34. . e. 4. also at € €€ A 17. relative. Delphian. while in the postscript warning against harming 11. 60 the sub- and relative clauses. where Attic also would have the optative. or sometimes the future . . 51 has the subjunctive usually. no. 1.176] SYNTAX has the optative only (cf. the archaic nos. and al is of Se tl - 02. Locrian (see above). and most dialects have only the subjunctive with or without av indicative. no. Delph. ^€<. occurrence. fi'. But it is very rare. note. but ai '- an oath. .g. . junctive also occurs. . Achaean.g. nos. where 6< with the is even more marked. 18 there are some examples of the optative.13 €7n€XeaL KUTaypevTov . or el In relative and temporal clauses of future time. Ke). occurs also in (e. 55 have the subjunctive In Delphian. Tab.14. . Even is in the same clause the alternation e. .

Cypr. ei ye- airoSotev. as pp. () . eirei ^. Both the imperative and the by side in the infinitive are freely used in prescriptions. Boeot. Ach. '€ . Thess. al he ['9] VOLTO. the West Greek order . rt?. more frequent in early. etc. 84. Locr. at (no. Cret.eai^ e . Epid. . Infinitive ^ Delph. as contrasted et but with Arc. A peculiarity of word order which in the phrase is worthy the position of <? before <. ' Corcyr. . though less frequently. . 453). 128 177. is This is the regular order in the West Greek not only with Att... GREEK DIALECTS There are some examples of [177 tlie with optative in conII. . of mention Se . Lesb. In general the infinitive scriptions. e.4). . . inof the optative For the Elean use with the same force. . The Imperative and the 178. Boeotian has also. ditional clauses. the imperative in later. B'av <.g. is sometimes in vyu) vlv Homer (Kuhner-Gerth (no. AVORD ORDER 179.60). see 175. often side same insciiption.-Ion. Se . dialects. 50. . 482.

e.7 = 66 = 22 h aLop'y6<. 14. . ^. 41. 19. ae. always is by a mere example. . To avoid needless liar many phenomena which but are are pecu- from the standpoint of Attic or Attic-Ionic. Apocope Absence of z^-movable. 44. etc. to call attention to the The following summaries. list 10 with Arc. while not exhaustive. are intended most important characteristics of each group These are indicated in the briefest and the dialect.1 4. 13.. 95 TTo'Xios. '€<. 11.. 8 from from . 3 ^9 pi. 15. 18. ^= 3. -/Aet*..2. = — = •. 129 .9 = ei 134.5 20.^ repetition..^^. 5. common to all or 1. sufficient to identify. = LopJ. .- lon.5 154. 16. names which are peculiar to.g.4 . eOev. 163. 8.") li^a r}i'. sometimes always to define.1 acc. and these brief indications are to be interpreted in the light of the sections to which reference made of the in each case. etc. 6. . Important characteristics of Attic-Ionic (1-7 specific Att. .1 12. 138. .. or especially frequent a given dialect. but not phenomenon in question.: SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL GROUPS AND DIALECTS 180. etc. ehov. a (xlossary EAST GEEEK Attic-Ionic 181. are usually omitted. €. Original d unchanged. most of the other dialects. 9.3 21. 17.) 1 exhaustive of peculiarities Avould also iuolude proper in. 102 of prepositions.-Cypr.1 — 13 = 11 — 86. 49. 109. 10. Of peculiarities in vocabulary only some few most striking are mentioned. . 8-9 in common with Arc. 163. 2. 7. 119. manner.. = .} Infin. 41.

). even after eot e. €. p.1 125. A few peculiarities which common to all branches except West 1. pp. 9.4. 81 = Att. are not general Ionic.2 -eos. ' 8€ t'po? = {<. Crasis of tracted. -- 19. 182. sg. 132. . 80 = Att. are as follows. 163. meaning = Glossary . 8 14. 138.1 20. 23.6 = Att. Conjunction Particle ai^. 113. .5 10. fit-verbs inflected like contracts. = Att. 154. . of .5. . 8. 10. as . = Att. 6. el. all but most are indeed to except Attic.2 te/jo'?.. -mi. 13.5 7. e^eaav. 42. 135. 5. 102 134. + = . 14.1 h = Att. t^u<> Biop'y=Att.1.3 43 8.1 = €0. . TToXios.-opy. p. 7. . GREEK DIALECTS from [181 . as compared with only (notably Attic.5 o.2 4.8 etc. from ea. sg. iav. 144 « ^.1 in 49. '. 8 6. 8. = Att.2 .. 22. 134. on. Iniin. . . gen.2. 104. as 17. 42. = Att. 134. 9. v-movable. but are Ionic.3 .4. ev 4. iniperf. 2. 54 with a 21. etc. 1 6. 3 pi. 111. . = Att. 41. l. ear 27. -. 22). . common to various other dialects. 15. 164.1 49. from IV cent. -. ace. usually uncon- = Att. -. etc. ?7/€§. 24.1 . 109. pi. 41.1 Very early loss of 50 Ionic The chief characteristics of Ionic.1 3. Suffix -?709 . 139.1 11. -€. 108. -ea<?. etc.130 1. pi. -. (»). = Att. 11. 12. m. 5. 18. 9. eo. 163. 94.) beside = Att. Ait.7 7roXt9.4: () = Att. 25. etc. 26.'4i. some bemg repeated here from 180 to bring out the contrast with Attic more fully. Some few of these are Ipnic also 20. Quantitative metathesis etc. are included. -€<. . dat. -. 3. . 160 -stems. 119.1 75 h 13. (? '. 11 = Glossary . gen. etc.1. ^ . 1. 3 2. -ew. -{).7 ^.

= 124 108. teristics. -ei. as in The Aeolic doubling of nasals (73 IleXivvatov in mountain Chios and the promontory "Apyewov opposite Chios. Short-vowel subj. 19. only = from a. TT as in Attic.: : : 188] SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS is 131 183. . -49. not -'. 185. further characterized by ao. 5. 150.C.. -<?. seen in inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus. ^ . iav (Eretria) dialects to yield to Attic influence. Eretrian. also in the personal name wise Aeolic of a is the Phocaean Ztovv(atos). The use of av (Oropus).3. ^ 81 Homer. or Euboean. 80 ^ei6. 2.1. 39 a 8.. from East Ionic in the absence i. 2.. 4. West Ionic. not 5i . by the rhotacism of intervocalic . -aorist.) is names of the Like- All these features are relics time when the line bet\Aeen the Aeolic and the Ionic colonies was far- ther south than in the historical period. 4. = av. also Note a. . 3.3. rovrei.5 elv beside elvai.. . as in Attic. -oi from -coi (in Ere- as often in Attic (East and tria about 400 B. which are 3 pL• 2. etc. in an inscription of Erythrae. East Ionic 1. etc. . 33. 3.. and after the fifth century there are few inscrip- tions that are wholly free from Attic forms. 57. In addition to the other Euboean peculiarities. 109. 160 187. Attic influence. 1. Chian. 116. eo Psilosis. -. etc. etc. in the early inscriptions of some of tlie islands.e. due to Attic influence. with from . ev from fourth ceutury ou. -). as is 60.6. seen in the ff.1 « 7. differs from the other divisions of Ionic as follows 1. -j]l. Inflected cardinals. Ionic was the first of all . is the dialect of Eretria. . call aloud. not pp as in Attic. 186. of 184. 77. Proper names in Central Ion. See 277. of psi- Note also the restricted use of H. (183). gen. gen. The dialect of Chios contains a few special charac- of Aeolic origin 8. .). specifically characterized = 188. Central Ionic differs losis. .

etc. = rt? (but Arc. 7. 136 49. 3-0 9. In Cyprian. Some few peculiarities of Avhicli occasional examples are found elsewhere are included. on (Hom. 1. /Lti-inilect. sttmmon. ^ .')). (l)ut 75 h 10. but of which there are a few examples elsewhere. 5 of contract vbs. . 6. Some of the most strikmg examples are is the considerable are otherwise share (also Lac).3 7. -stems.1 common to Arcado-Cyprian and AeoL. sg.-Ion. for wliich corresponding forms are kicking or ambiguous in tlie otlier dialect. -. Dat. as mainly Homeric. te/3i^9 108. Cyprian. Infin.. 157 = ie/3eU9. - 4. (Arc. 134.2 op = ap.. o2(f)o^ temple.) i : Att. = spurious .. - road. only in Arc). 149 8. 8. probably are also Arcado-Cyprian. sg. note). ?= «= 190. See also 199. (but Arc.-?. 126 Noteworthy ings which poetical. .special" is not to be taken too rigorou.. -. - hoi'der 1 Several of the characteristics cited below under the head of Arcadian or of Cyprian. 135. -€< = e? . in this section.3 7/>'?. 2. 3) (but see no. 3. 2) In Arcadian. = cons.. or with rare exceptions. Iv = which is regularly found only in Arcado- . W. ally ). jn^aye?' or imprecation. g. (but usual -779. Article as relative. 7 N. 25 13. usu- 2.Grk. . 135. 123 before e|. .2 \'arious Characteristics (1 other dialects 1.. -'. meadow. Gen. 68. . <^< (also Lesb. usually 134.). 1) In Arcadian and Cyprian. vv (also Boeot. also voc. 22 6. 191.. with ). 2 Ion.sly. etc. e.4 12.' possibly Thess. alone. 4. = am.4 ec. 5. graze). 6. ace. 2 In this and sindlar captions ".: 132 GREEK DIALECTS Arcado-Cyprian 1 [189 189. \^'\). Special characteristics of Arcado-Cyprian iv. 16. cBe. ^ypi"• ^^^o e|). = 6v (uv) . — .21. 22 11. 3. 100 22 Masc. iv {iv) = ek. m -. sg. ^ number of words or meanknown only. Subj. Ijarrjp. ^ : iv = 10 5. 154.6 Off = ohe. 111.

= -. = -/co- 11. building inscription (no.. Special Arcadian sg. The Tegean sg. 77. 142 16. 3. when the chief Arca- cities belonged to the Achaean. Dat.2 -.2 77. 16). ' . 3. = 22.1 . In common with 6. 10.9 17. 7. pi. 3 pL fem.1 tillaboutoOOB.1 153. 106.2 tween vowels Subj. ^ = Pass. etc. etc. are found only in one early inscription (no. 12. 140.2 134. ternal influence. -.: : 195] SUMMARIES OF CHAEACTEKISTICS Arcadian 133 192. = 139. while all others have and . Gen. 13. -09. From dian the latter part of the third century on. 9. though not specifically Attic. Infin.-au(Tegea). various other dialects 2 Att. = 68. Conjunction 2. el... Se/co. .2 135. 52. (1. 5.2 3 pi.1.C. 144 49. imv. 113.G 15.1 elK 6 10. once gen. 15 West Greek) 12. inscr. . 132. -j the latter). 9. is probably due to exSee 275.3 until. is League. 117. 4 AeoL. 6. Lesb. -ev. 1. 134. -ot.-Ion. mid. 195. 4. Ace. 193. sg. External influence in the dialect. 7. after cons. 5. 8. 151.d initially and lost beinitially €€<}. € = . heKOTov 3 sg. = Se/ca. . nom. Peculiarities in the use of 8. infin.2 a .5 . -Tot Numerals 6.53. 61. the language employed in most of the inscriptions neither . = in . (but also 49. 14. '. and for a time to the Aetolian.3 2. 18) of the third century shows some few Attic forms. 3.3 the spiritus asper. = 155. 11. etc. 61.2 123 ^. -.54 194. = . as irXe'ov instead of . but . () = 80 . Arcado-Cyprian characteristics. 4. -. 95 = irXeov. The fact that and agreeing with Cyprian. / in early 5Sa. 104. See 189-191. Sedrot etc. 5 1. Particle av. 134. part. sg.3 a 6 14. 78 18.

198. 197. e 132.C.. i See 189-191. is mainly in the native Cyprian 196.-at. althougli this phenomenon head because of the agreement with Thcssalian and Boeoagreement is accidental. 55 162.4). we assume -cv and agreement with Ar- But the dative singular is to be transcribed -01. and final .1 6. this . 200. Cyprian not shariuj. from before vowels. inscriptions in The the Greek alphabet. 111. 59.1.3 Dat. 5. 68. 1.5 av. 109. 6. Syll. -/. 9. 56 3.. 11. 57 -TL» t expressed. 62. B.1 -epos.8 134. GREEK DIALECTS of [i95 but the Doric.: : 184 Arcadian nor Attic Kotvrj. All dialectic inscriptions are in the Cyprian syllabary. in spite of Arc. 9. -01. -os. kc = = reiaei. t/are/aav etc.-o. But the decree dialect. etc. in spite of Arc. 4.2 .-abeside-oi. Megalopolis (I)itt. /care^ijav. 22 8. = Psilosis. sg. 258) of about 200 though showing a remarkable mixture of forms. or -o(v)?. on account of the frequent omission of the final (38).2 12.1 -os in ppera. 135. 7. = ya. \€. Ace.4 = eVi'. 8. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics. -ov. 3.1 74 i 10. on account of (59.11 uncertain whether the infinitive should be transcribed with -05. mid. 3 sg. Trettrei ^ . 138. the accusative plural with to the contrary. and the third plural ending is transcril)ed with -. Gen. Given under to tian. 38 2. 134. 3 pi.4 Special Cyprian sg. or in part Northwest Greek.5 2. Glide sound after as Ijarepav. wai indeed. Suf 4. in the general wliich tlie Thessalian and Boeotian forms belong. 106.8 199. etc. 107. 52-55 Occasional omission of intervoc. It is . 9. = 88. . . In the absence of any evidence cadian. See 279. are all in the 1 . 5. = -TO. beginning with the Macedonian period. sg.4 = et. -ev or -€v. f in all positions. In e common with various other dialects 7. not -(v)at. 1.

-vQt etc. 8. 155.3 Dat. '€ ('€)=€. common in to Lesbian and Thessalian Double liquids and nasals etc. part. 19 common to Lesbian and Boeotian (2 Cret. eXef e 166. Glos77.2 203. . 139. = irevre. belongs to the Aeolic elements of these dialects) 1. ^ 135. et 4.2 2.5 204. /At-inflection of contract verbs. .) 143 2. Perf. 68. common to Lesbian. 7 also Arc.. 6. 2. only which Homeric.2 pe = = pi. . 168 = pa. 3.1 5. Labial instead of dental in 4. instead of gen.) 1. -/. 114. 3 from before vowels. 1 See 201-203. language 162. Sepa. etc. 7.: : : 205] SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS Aeolic 135 201. 147. Aeolic characteristics. also 1. pi. ^ <^. (4-7 also Arc.2 ^ 202. Infin. Characteristics {of common 1. etc. po name. €€€ 16 etc. Aeolic characteristics. In some cases only East Thessalian (Pelasgiotis).-Cypr.. etc. Patron. 5 49. Aeolic characteristics.) 1. act. Aeolic characteristics in common with one or both of the other Aeolic dialects. -01^x09. 107. of father's sg.•") of decrees.-Cypr. 79 . to Thessalian is and Boeotian only which. ^€<. 5.2 = elire in the official =. 2. etc. 5. €.. 134. See 214.3 etc. 157 6= /ce = = . 8 also Arc. Thessalian. 7. 6. 74-76.= ' -.. 3. = Lesbian 205. i . Arc. = . however.1.1 18 etc. 6 22 sary 3. adj. pi. 6. •: 4.i and Boeotian (6 also Delpli.

-.. 38 10. 142 13.-. beside .3.3 140. 111. 1.7. Infin.C.2. 6. -. forms. -. no.= 57 -di.4. etc. 5. Aeolic characteristics in common with other Aeolic dialects. Thessalian 209. infin. 6. 136. 35 ore. f. = 153. period on — and very few ore beside in inscriptions From the Macedonian of the inscriptions are earlier — there is usually some admixture of side . other dialects 7. 132. -^. 106. from end IV cent. 24) represents an artificial revival. at.8): 223. sg.1.2 10. 104. 17 3 imv. 3 pi. . . 77. Glossary 208. 11.1 Early loss of etc. 103 (rarely Att.4 (rare). '= OTTC. '. /ce/9i/ai'.1. Retention of (-Tt 2. ace. 154. 155. till about the middle of the second cen- Its use in inscriptions of Roman imperial times (cf. 108. 77. -. 12. be- But main the dialect is employed tury B. 126 Infin. 8. 9 common with various ei.78 7. sg. not quotable. . -stems. 9. West Greek and Northwest Greek and 226. 3.2 etc.-^. -.1 3.5 etc. 25 Article as relative. 2. -. Special Lesbian i. See 280. 6. . 129. ^ pi. etc. 5. in part Elean) as ace. beside 6v. = etc. -. ^. 9. Pass. 85. vi. in 3. (1 pi. . . infin. .4. See 201. 1. . 4. . as etc. GREEK DIALECTS In [20 (8. from -VTi). 202. . ov. pi. gen. 5.4 Dat.3 .9 etc. Perf. '? in the Recessive accent.. . with Arcadian) = spurious -d.1 135. 8.2 etc.) = 7r/3v- ravif.2 155. . Psilosis. but . 207. etc. 147. from 2.: : 13G 206. 210. -.0. Final -.2 50 Masc.1 61 = 116 7. -. Infin. ?. 4. toith with ace. ^ = = one or both of the characteristics (cf. External influence in the dialect. . on. 4.

27. '? = = 7. 41. = €. mid. e? = e| before cons.4 pi. ". usually (from 3. 134. 3 pi.213] 211. 22. 7. 139. etc.7 10.3 = . -09. 106. \€. etc. . = etc.6. -ov (from -). 213. . More extensive apocope than in any other dialect. 8. 3. Trep. 9. usually -av.. Ni/co/cXcas etc. = 164. €78 68. 14.0 4. 137 1.1 .1 Ace. 8. etc.4 Relative use of 131 . 6. Article as relative. -. . 7 17. 5.. Larissa only. 68. Larissa only. . Infin. 138. TT 7. -aovv. 23 11. 27. 68. common with Boeotian only. pi. Gen. 41. 156 ^ ' ehovKtiiM.) 123 12. 19. 14.2 15. as 114. 86. 6. -ctos.4 oftener 2.C. €7. 27 9. 126 . 13.1 Sl€ — 7. mid. Plural inflection of . 1. 100 etc.4 = = = 65. 16. etc. Sta. 5.sg. 18. 2. -. 78 38 12. 15. often used in place of Larissa 23. 8<. = hav'xya = 20. namely in ov. . 49. Gen.-do. -ei about 400 Final -a. 132. ^? .2 10. ' () as title of a state or official municipal . only. 21. 09. = etc.2 beside .2 . L from ' 67 various other dialects (but 9. sg.9 €) etc.1 16.5 8. : Psilosis in article. . 84 In 212. 58 iuit. 19. 95 13. a. 77. Gen. 3 sg. . ) = -de. = (but see 214). till a B.9 = ajopa onarket-place {d'yopa being = .3 . 3 pi. 11. 166. 75 164. Special Thessalian: ov =.3 4. See 204. Consonant-doubling in . 6v€ (rove. 111. In SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS common with e Ijefore e).-oi(butsee214).

it is to be as- sumed provisionally that they are general Thessalian. of o-stems in -eiv. of consonant stems in - (xpe- not -eaat (as at Pharsalus as well as in Pelasgiotis). but in the part near Pelasgiotis. in -ao. From Magnesia there are a few fragmentary archaic inscriptions. uncontracted gen. Occasional appear in the inscriptions of the third and second centuries especially irepi. which show some special local peculiarities dialect of Thessaliotis.l99) shows con- Many of the characteristics cited in the preceding sections are as yet attested only in the inscriptions of Pelasgiotis. -. gen. but. 33. in addition to these two points ) find of difference. (.€<. beside . The not not -ol. . on -a. instead of patronymic 1 Keally in Perrhaebia. what was only natural to expect. that its dialect was also Thessalian. . of thematic verbs in -ev. IX. 1) gen. pi. no. from Thetonium in the neighborhood of Cierium. except where there is evidence to the contrary as stated. -. On see 81 . early inscription. (213. But nearly all the inscriptions date from the period of Aetolian domination and are in the Northwest Greek (279). For the forms B. of Thessaliotis m two important respects. 215.. . Differences GREEK DIALECTS within Thessalian. gen. -ai. note). . 33. differs from that not -e^ev. sg. just as in Pelasgiotis. Crannon. points of agreement are more pronounced than the differences. represented mainly by inscriptions of Larissa. see From Histiaeotis and Perrhaebia the material is very scanty. -. infin. so far as tliis was recognized as a distinct division of Thessaly.C. Late inscriptions of Cierium have dat. xi? /ci<?.1. dat. sg. " early inscription of IG. but most are late and in the Attic Phthiotis clusively. thougli at Pharsalus we -. sg. -ot. 33 iu raya beside iv no..ii. External influence in the dialect. -ai.8-10). and Phalanna. is [214 of The form Thessalian which is best known that of Pelasgiotis. hvX5- not -. sg.138 214. An no.^ The represented mainly by inscriptions of Pharsalus and Cierium.. = ()8€. sg. 33. shows. and in * in points to 84 . 2) pres. of father's name instead of patronymic adjective (?see no.

in inscriptions until about the later. 9.1 16.. 13.€^09. initial till 200B.€ = = €. etc.2.1 132. ace. etc.53 18. (but coristics. 146. 1. 104. 13.1 21. fLKaTL. 121.{. 106. 11. of the second century and occasionally Boeotian 216. 6. - m. till . sg. . 25 9. . €9 = C 84 initial = e'f before cons.2 135. See 201. 60..2 11. t 142 =^ ol. 10. 50. 3. . common with e various other dialects mainly Boeotian) 1. eireaKevai^e etc. . rr in TT in etc.. 3.C. with a 8. 158 '/9• 218. in . etc.: 219] adjective. Gen. €<. Consonant-doubling in hypo]>1.3 about about 17.-(-).2 (20. 61 ecKoai. 136. sg. 41. 82 5.6 19. 122 (see also 3 pi.1). with- 163. Perf. 220. etc. 89. 223. 15. 166. (but oftener 10. 13. But the end whole is employed B..4 122 12. 6. al. 164. -a beside -. 450 9. 81 12.3 13.€$ 138. 116 etc.3. . 139 dialect as a '^ (nut ^). . 68. sg.1. ".1-10.C.2 5. -ol (-v).. etc.8 See 204. = spurious ov. iv = .4 14. etc.5 140. . 13. 219. 21 114.2 etc. irptayev'i — 8. m. -ai (-). aveOeav. Patronymics in -^?.1 etc. characteristics (cf. -do. € () out . = el<i. 100 7. SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS (not ei). from before 2. In common with Thessalian only. 111. .") ). 217. = €0/. and gen. 117 4.1 with w. f between vowels . B. 2.. avSiav. etc. 116 a.C.1 105.1 = Nom. = In ie/009. Dat. ="€. 203.8): 7. ^. fiKOLTi '.1 a 20. -€ios. at.= tt). West Greek and Northwest Greek and 226. Aeolic characteristics in common with one or both of the other Aeolic dialects. 4.

B. in the Aetolian League. The other ties consist in of diphthongs to monophthongs and of more as eventually prevailed open to closer vowels..C. -et. 8€€. (in the epichoric alphabet €. = . ia<.1) ^ 8€<. 26. (in B.C. See 24. 16. of Although Boeotia was are for a short time no Boeotian inscriptions in the But there some and the dative plural of consonant stems in -. 01» = V. Most of the peculiarities of the 4. used to indicate approximately the sound. l•) = =. h) About 400 " " 24. and the appearance (159) in = (85. The chief orthographical peculiarities.. et.. probably oi was which the peculiari- had come changes to have. becomes con- some inscrip- e. ei. The most striking and obvious peculiarity characteristic of Boeotian lies in its vowel-system. But even this led to a change in spelling to Attic value of ii while on the other hand the diphthong with its as a basis o.) etc. as is scattered examples of (atyoi'.C. \175 108. =v till and oi = ol also fre- quent (rare) near end of III cent. Special Boeotian. such led to the everywhere and Modern Greek pronunciation. 30. 100 69. lov = v. the epichoric alphabet i. 8. 6.2. The Boeotian vowel-system. L 29.) II cent. The influence of the Attic tlie siderable toward the end of third century B.g. 9. and in tions or portions of inscriptions are wholly . External influence. 144 a = 124 Hypocoristics in . = before vowels. are as follows L =e €L. €=.1 etc.: : 140 GREEK DIALECTS (221) also belong here [220 220. namely that ov. 2. before vowels. some late inscriptions of Orchomenos also probably due to Aetolian influence.2 221. " 222. = rjveyKav. et = OL. 30. . 5. with the approximate date of their introduction. '? <. 30. One consists merely in the retention of the original sound. there are Northwest Greek .C. 350 300 250 " " " (but great inconsistency in the spelling. Accent. v = OL. L. of V as u. system 1. " " " " B. 24. the formal . V cent.

WEST GREEK etc. but there is no occurrence of a first plural form in Lo- €<. = = etc.. 117. 9. 13. 224.Tropri). 223.1 20.3 22. Rhodian only from the time when had been introduced from the just as it was at Delphi before the end of the fourth century b. endings. 142 . - The first also Thessaliun (210). = .2 etc. in pi- = Fut. YloreLand the hundreds in in hav. (Cret.3 4. . 116 with etc. = Cretan (') = 8. oTTCi 11. Fut. pass.3 5 = 61. probable that.2 ya. some indeed from only a few. 3. 141 145 act. .. But IS. but are not confined to them even in the widest appHcatiou of the term. 13. 15. 17.6 = 49. . . 5. ' ot.: 224] SUMMAKIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS But most 141 of the contract in the Nicareta inscription (no. "<. inscriptions are substantially dialectic until the second half of the second century B. General West Greek characteristics Retention of 2.4:h = e/^oi). forms like are attested for Phocian and most of the Doric dialects. 10. in the verb-endings -tl. But with restricted in But restricted in Argolic. several and a few also Arcadian. .2 = €. There are various other phenomena wliich are common to the West Greek dialects. they were common to all. 179 . = -. e/xe'o? 114. it is Although only a part of these characteristics are actually quotable from every one of the West Greek dialects.. ten of these characteristics are also Boeotian (217). 13. 118. and some other words which show the change to in the East Greek dialects.3 19. 3.VI). 132. TV. 132. .1 6. But Cretan 16. 114. account for the incomplete rei)resentation of 2.6 "Apre/ii?. . -'. 116 "A/are/it?. 132. . c. 16-19. = 116 fi. 1. Heraclean. 61 12. llS.7 etc. 43. € €. 21. crian and Elean. . -. and that the absence of examples in any dialect is accidental. except for the divergence of Cretan in 5 and 7.4 rerope<i <. etc. 14. -vtl. 122 =: lepo<^. etc. etc. Thus. () = €. and in 1). 138.C. 13. Several of those mentioned in 180 are often . etc. Word-order . 7. The early substitution of the forms of the numerals and the rare occurrence of the personal pronouns in inscriptions.

= €<. eOev. ai . 136. dat.g. and rare in Deli)h. im^ - all.. [224 a).g. only late and due to the N. .^ = in certain verbs (162. (49. but how wide-spread . 135.Grk. Meg. (72). (121. . ottcl. Also Thess. The 3 pi. but not Locr. etc. 135. But in 2. all with the East and West Greek divisions. .1). (133...3).4 at. - West Greek. (tV). ttuvtois etc.3.3 reVopes etc. e.1 rare in Delph. is The declension to of nouns in -eu? with gen.= -' '. and Arc. See 113. iv = ek. Thess. use of of (125.1). (El.4 . sg. from ae (41.. are Boeot.4).3. 7. datives like € and still existed in East Greek in the his- torical period is may prove to shown by their appearance in Homer. that . ace. be of wider scojje. Also Boeot. only Attic-Ionic. NoRTH^vEST Greek 226. - common Delphian and the majority.4 6. €VT€." e.1).3. since But so far as the present evidence of inscriptions goes. 107... pi. Doric does not coincide at 140. . The and is not yet clear. to all the dialects of this group and some wliich are not strictly confined to them.AV. chief characteristics of Northwest Greek as distin- guished from Doric.-Cypr. but demonstrably not general West Greek.. -^). Tttt'or hich must have been universal at one time pron. But 85. . 158 3. Delpli. . € The = (162. but the distribution of = = to all the Doric and e. but not dialects. of the is common dialects except Cretan.4) is (Glossary). hevre = '. the peculiarities given in 223 are distinctly characteristic of 225. 5.4. including however some which are not com- mon 1. Some others also is. El. ?}? = casually referred to as " Doric. sg. 12 4. with w. Lac. pi.2 example in El. of AVest Greek.. ace.. See There are various peculiarities wdiich are AVest Greek in a limited sense. No 8. so far as we know.g. with the possible exception of a.: 142 GREEK DIALECTS = el.Ach. ace. Also Booot. = . but none of them has any claim to be regarded as specifically AVest Greek.1.. 107. .1 with Even of the peculiarities cited in 223 some consist merely in the reten\\ tion of the original forms Tot. etc. Delph.

-? Phocian (Delphian) 227.4 = Intin.3 17..2 161. show plain evidences of Attic influence.. 11. . = ivvea. perhaps. = Horn. . poetical). 42.g. -ev. but the spread of vhich in the northern part of Greece is noticeable. ... AeoHc elements in Here also. -stems with nom.1 ^. . .3 133. resulting in the striking seen in the numerous .C. 158 121. masc. eVSo?.c 96. See 226. . the words (also Horn. 132.1). B. 229. (see 279). 58 3.5 6 he = 114. {€) = = € common with various other 125. 159 (?.1 19. 163. 8. sg. 4. = etc. - . dat..4 \ = 89.. intervocalic only in a cent. See 223-225. 7. . e. External influence in the dialect.4 22.: 231] a. West Greek characteristics. spir... 6. Note also the peculiarities common to Boeotian and Thessalian only (204). 164. 16.4 (beside ') = . 52. (also Thess. f initial till about 400 B.) AVith the a new element added. (late). gen. -as (105.) Sect). that Northwest Greek (e.3. 9. 42. .1 20. . VI Pecuhaiities in use of asper. all ? the earlier inscriptions. 15.8). most of which are not Aeolic. Other characteristics. 107. Cypr.) = . '. ..) 135. and and 230. 12. -d.C.7 21. perf.6 h '^. proper names in (166. 2 i) patronymics in or-ov8as (164.C. 153. sg. Northwest Greek : characteristics. 138. SUMMAKIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS 143 less definitely There are various other peculiarities the scope of which coincides even with the Northwest Greek dialects proper. 353-325 of the Aetolian domination (278-178 mixture . 5. 231. 14. (also Boeot. 3 pi. 228.97 13.53 2. mostly in dialects 1.9 = 124 The temple accounts is of B. 10. 75 18. . .7 133. . pi.g.2 etc.1«. in -an. inscr.

See 279.(). some of them as late as the A.:5) is at least in western Locris. = d vocalic. . i(X) '. (107. 238. = 236. SeiXopai Peculiarities in use of spiritus asper. 1. All other material from a much when the Northwest was used. See 226. 133. 8. West Greek In characteristics. 135. 239.eVo?. In the few inscriptions from eastern Locris the appearance noteworthy. decrees. Elean of datives like West Greek In characteristics. 1^^. 233.4 inter- / initial and sometimes 7. 6. common with various other dialects 6 5. . century and from western Locris. near the Boeotian boundary. 5. 129. .^ . Special Locrian Assim. 55. common with various other dialects . later period. 4. 1. in the mixed form it . and the si)eUings in a decree of the Phocians.2 a The only is inscriptions in the pure dialect (nos.53 4. gen. 58 a. 2. . The Amphictionic decrees which shows in the other classes of inscriptions. 7() . 52. See 223-225.{) 100 . €^< = = 44. Northwest Greek characteristics. 234. 95 once. There are even some few traces of (t = eZ) (= from• ). Northwest Greek characteristics.: : 144 proxeny and first GREEK DIALECTS iiianuniissioii [231 aud second centuries Boeotian influence. etc. See 223-225. = Xi/u. as in Stiris.3 etc. 3. () . . . immediately following the Aetolian conquest are in the pure Attic but the dialect was gradually resumed. .. of € in 66 . G ?> 75 235. Locrian 232. D. 12 fOTt beside hoTi. See 226. 56) are fifth both from the early ' Greek 237. accordiiuj tow. : 2.

175 14. . 135. 3. 11. Ace. as in . etc. 84 16.3 122 133. Special Elean 10. opt. pi. -ai<i. 5. 25 60. 94. yey 66 240. 8. . pi. Infiu. 14.9 = afeu. l)ut v. f 8. is. -aip. — . . ypa- epaevairepo^. only before p. 137 avXait 157 i = 13. init.2 112. 8. 2. pp . )=. . Tot. = 241. "= 62. 176 106. 85. 19. 1. in (late).late 21.1 9. 9.(). TToXep = 4. (//). 88 (also 4. 15.4 18 ?. influence. Loss of intervocalic 18. S£i. In the amnesty decree B. . conditions etc. 17. 163.1 31 24. Dat. see.3 8. a/3 second half of the fourth century tion (). given up. . after p. /xi-forms -€€ (-hate). (late).). .2 . in Omission of etc. ^. -.: G 241] 1. 105. . ). = = spurious et. Ehotacism 59. 149 151. = . SUMMAEIES OF CHARACTERISTICS 145 . 60). 13. = /tieji? 6. -. . in Glo. naiits. = Dual A'^erbs . 15 = not e.4 . 8. in commands. reXeara. = 153 111. -. 3 sg.ssary. (^. i in ea = ... /ca and used w. 12.5 Opt.0 161.. 11.2 26. Opt. 3 sg. 7. from the from ep with one excep- ipaevairepav (note also . . d 2. 23. = = 51-55 74 ? 22. (only in earliest inscr. 5. <6 .3 -$. also subj.3 of final ?. 107.rarelyintervoc. . subj. w. sg. For peculiar words and meanings.3 7. Dat. 80 57 15. ace. 136.1 113. . (-) = -. (no. .. = = roSe.1 106. . 152. . Psilosis. regularly in fut. 133. 6. -eiw 12.1 (late). -oip. . even before conso- 20. before final 12 with a 3. subj.C. = aveu? etc. €'()€ 8€. 25. 8\ . 10. . 78 (but usu- ally -069). — = 5 75 ft Nom. .

3.: . intervocalic . in both influence in the On sist. . 61 subj. imv. [). 121.3 « = 49.g. € ^ < ^. Infin.2 U2. 5. . seen in has usual form in its the characteristic Elean words = and have given place to has never hnrXaaiov. 133.") 10. from e before vowels. intervocalic in early inscriptions 50-53 sometimes . 25 9. but impossible with the present material to define their scope. Other characteristics. pi.:h(. . 2. from the ap. not .. West Greek characteristics.1. 164 49. in no. = -. Even in the earlier inscriptions there are some indications of local differences. 243. the rhotacism of final 9 of the differences uniformly observed. Adv. in prescriptions. 140. half of the third century ep. 153 113. dialects 1.0 haT. not . and first The Damocrates decree B. in contrast to earlier inscriptions. belongs to the end of the third century Doric Laconian 242. technical sense. [241 witli its apocope).=. in no. 7. e. 12. . 14.C. is the other hand most of the characteristics of the dialect per- and. it is loss of dat. = spurious €i. between these two inscriptions and the earlier ones are due to chronological and local variation within the dialect.C. ) 8 ().5 9. 61). g. .3 initial till later about 400 B.).8 3 pi.{] (late in inscr.. mostly in common with various reflex. Some ^. /. See 223-225. h from intervoc. 59.C. etc. 11. not . e.^.3 other .. 60 . = = 61. . The of Elis definite substitution of the Attic in public inscriptions B. is though pa from pe (earlier . . (not -) .1 Pdiotacismof final? 4.. 6.. aud irepi (earlier . (late). 8. the usual (no. -^. 13.=. 60. and shows considerable vocabulary. 146 ipaev- GREEK DIALECTS = earlier pappev-).

1. = 7. 146. -eu. . . . Peculiarities in use of spiritus asper. Heraclean 245. — 148 eWe? = ovre'i. nos. 9. but witli many irreg- 3 pi.8 ^. . is very little material) and later in the Attic (278). i . €€€. imv. 6 49. Inscriptions from the second century B. for from eiKoai. 8.1 initial. especially in T/049 — numerals.4 16. 125. 163. -. 9. Thus ^. 113. common with et. D. 147.d 247.. . \"arious other dialects 1. Special Heraclean 1. Heraclean Tables. (from the fourth and third there are not even in the Doric . beside — el beside al — — — et with hoi beside roi. /€. = 12. 50 l• 14.6€2. but substantially with but slight dialectic coloring. . . .. Infin. beside — beside r€Top€<i. 126 eppijyeia 6. prob- ably representing crudely what still survived as a patois.:) 5. ?. beside re'aaape^.1 133. .• ^ .. 7€€€. West Greek In characteristics. 7.C. KOLvrj iiifluence. = . 248.'3. On the revival of the use of the dialect in some inscriptions of the second century A. 153.4 11.2 13. 114. .2 2.0 5 • . 142 a rpei<i 146. See 223-225. 25 from before vowels. = spurious e . yeypayjraTaL. Article as relative. — nom. 4.1. '^.: : 248] SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS 147 244. 6.')1> influence. b%c.. 2. '^. 4. 246. 140.8 146. ^ 107. see notes to 70-73.2 forms appear tlie now and tlien in the .0 75 = €€.8 ularities. 15.

. Other characteristics. eV?. 21.2 imv. -ev. with lenis. 164. 10. B. -?. Attic forms are frequent in Epi- daurian inscri})tions of the fourth century and Early inscriptions of Mycenae have in contrast to Arg. 58 ^ 4. = 135. . <. characteristics.1 evhoi. if not wholly.1 Iniin. pron. 52-55 . . mostly in common with various 2. 3. all positions . In general. ace. iu<. But 8.6 7/?9. i . 153. some- times. 14. -. 13. GREEK DIALECTS Argolic [249 not 8.2. 78. some- 17.5 vlv ace. but of which there are only a few exam- due to the ples from Epidaurus. other 250. 19. 5.3 ei. 20. 118. But these are mainly.. . ta/jo? Intervoc.3. Fi'om Hermione in -. 118. 9. ) probably 78. i = avev.5 <€<. 15. 16. = spurious times. e? and (less Cf. . 7. 25 e .4 = preside. cities of Epidaurus the Acte.: us 249. 9. in earliest initial till inscriptions 23. 12.8 164. 135.C. See 223-225. note official title. There are some differences between the dialect of the inscriptions of of Argos and that which appears in most and other the east. ^'. IZZ.3 = 163. 78 . No.. 18. toA. avevv = 125. '. = f in .5 etc. 59.andlost. 133. from before vowels. sg. 77.C. sg. are also fmuid genitive singular and accusative plural .C. Cret. 5 22. 3 pi. fact that Attic influence was earlier and stronger in and the retention of Thus the loss of intervocalic are characteristics which persist in Argive inscriptions till within the second century B. about 400 251. 3 pers. 11.5. West Greek 142. 140. before dentals. B. dialects 1.. etc. l)eside . 78.Q 138. {)€ € = <^ note . . 6..2 etc. later. 55 he banished.7 8. No.

Apart from the difference of vowel.. See 223-225. and shows influence. ? '?. Megarian 256. 28. 3.3 various other dialects 4. 34 Very early monophthongization of et and 255. etc..7 sometimes . 51-55 in various colonies. when ] forms is considerable. ov. AVest Greek characteristics.2 h 112. ev 2. 105. 3 pi. = 4\.3 Special Corinthian. evdeiv = eXOelv. 7. till about 400 165. . .5 f initial in V cent. 257. \\€<^.3 Glossary Glossary etc. 48. 2. m. \=\. late. there is but scanty material until the third and second centhe admixture of turies B. 258. Except for the early inscriptions of Selinus and a few others.5 140. . '.'. In common with 12 various other dialects: 7.3 8. 107. 259. 3. a 49. = Hypocoristics in -.. 1. = eo. in early iuscr. '. Gen. 42. . init. 6. etc.. the material is from the end of the fourth century or later.C. sg.4. in all posi- tions B. ^==. See 223-225. ^.3 €<.. common with 89. 133. between vowels. 3. 7€ 254. 5. 4. . Syrac. After the early but brief inscriptions in the epichoric alpha- bet. 1. the words are peculiar to Megarian and Ionic.. 5. 253. 2.3 9. Glossary = 112. -. Special Megarian .C. imv.5 d — 128 = 20. West Greek In characteristics. but lost 6. 1.: : 259] SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS Corinthian 149 252. .

.3. ]\Iost of the material is from the third century or and in the Doric ?] (278).C.6 150 also in contract = 49. is found only in lihodes and Carpathus. .. 8\ . common with various other dialects 7. = 133. . as the highest officers of the state are influence shows itself to a slight extent in the fourth B. Aor. coiiiiiKHi with various other dialects 6. 132. = 42. \.2 etc. 42. . 8. the . 9. In this mixed form peculiarities still a. . 265. 4.5 ei. iinv. 5. ui9. 133. = €0. 10. suhj. is century later. Ace. characteristics. -.. 4. €V ?. oTTU?.3 161. ei."). denoting a territorial division like the Attic denae. ^ 113.. though with frequent reten- tion of the characteristic infinitive in -. 261. = in some 8.: 150 GREEK DIALECTS Rhodian [260 260.s.. = €]. -09 heside -.3 -t'TO). 1.d. West Greek In characteristics. imv.3 Glossary 266. .1 = 75 10.. . in some 7. 5.2. vord. hut early -.-r\.3 verbs. from the fourth century The most important of these. -ev. first many appearing in inscriptions of the and second centuries Coan 264. . pi. pi. There are no very early inscriptions. 154.5 = 2. the dialect is one of the longest to survive. 6. Infin. 78 11. = spurious . See 223-225. -io<i.6 -. 25 = spurious ei.C. 2. 140. 58 b 9. West Greek lu €0. 3 1. Special lihodian: Infinitive in /crotW. . 167 = Glossary 132. and only a few even B. 153. See 223-225.1 = 262. words. 263. . peculiar to lihodes.9 -fteii^. 1. 140. . 25 a 3. lepo^ with leuis.

( = spurious words. 50-54 etc. 7. ' sometimes . 50 pp = . pi. 151. \\T.5 et. But ol. 25 a 3. 4706). B. in some 8. 5. 9. WiU ov. 2.1 49. special peculiarities. al. . Except for the numerous. but preserves some forms which are never found later (later as leprjL.3 8. pi. but brief. = spurious from e ei. of 270..C. the material and second Theran centuries.2. 5. .3 . 1.. = nom. and show some (111. rpeU. as iepev<. .. beside <.2 49. always -et. exhibits most characteristics of the dialect. 268. -.3 75 the material is all from the period of Epicteta of influence.1 11.. = eo. The longest of the inscription. -09. In ev common various other dialects: 7.-3 10. 4. 54 . West Greek and In 271. 6. already shows some ecKa<. though have regularly .). 77.th See 223-225. Infin. beside etc. 2. 6. not ".(3 beside There are also some Most of and in the Doric as described in 278. 151 forms.. 78 133. archaic inscriptions. 42. €1. 80 = 269. also in contract verbs. only in cpds. . . 101-103). pi. 7€^=7'. . ace. TO/'. 135. in- tervoc. not various other dialects: Psilosis. 9. 1. See 223-225. etc. the {SGDI. . 271] sacrificial SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS calendar (nos. as (157). common with ov. West Greek characteristics.3). spurious ov. from before vowel. = = Subj. . forms. but also many late. specific Ionic forms in use in Cos. 3. " Cretan characteristics. . 54 f init. . as is of the third ?. III cent. ... 267. 153. from / 4. Ace. ace. lost in the earliest times. -ev. 25 57 till etc. . The and inscriptions of Gyrene. etc.

152 9. GREEK DIALECTS [271 .

is to be recognized in the treatment of eo. are comparatively late. lo. as Hierapytna. Praesos. e. is is the dialect of the inscriptions of CJortyna (which fully represented) Cnossos. Vaxos. etc. to external influence.. it is we had ample material from highly probable that we should find that in But. syllables d). as Central Cretan.273] 273. Oleros). partly Attic. There are also a few other the early local variations. many of the most striking Cretan character- wholly lacking. Cydonia. at Hierapytna.0 c. and AYest Cretan. period. an actual divergence of development. fundamental divisions of the dialect. at Olus. wdiich. lect is This is also known more specifically Eastward. or that degree the various constituent elements in the population. which external causes are in close. and again istics are in those from the the western extremity. at appears as in open.. are sometimes employed. which was felt earlier more strongly than in Central Crete. especially at Gortyna. Dreros. instead of becondng (42. The and absence of many due of the Cretan characteristics may well be.g. most of the peculiarities persisted until Eoman times. However. ground for the belief that the East. usually But there is no sufficient and Central Cretan are they reflect to any reckoned from Hierapytna eastward. the latter very meager. from Lappa westW'ard. The East and West Cretan inscriptions. nia ('. Cydo- also at Aptera. and show a large degree of obvious influence. . Hence the terms East Cretan. Latos. for least not apparent. as Aptera. as 153 commonly understood and as described above. where. . SUMMARIES OF CHARACTEEISTICS Cretan. if the main the characteristics of Central Cretan were also general Cretan. and Itanos. and probably is. AVest. . the dia- much less uniform and in the inscriptions cities of of cities of the eastern extremity of the island. by far the most the and the other cities of great central portion of Crete. etc. Allaria. partly the Doric of the other islands. Lyttos.

SURVR^AL OF THE DIALECTS. inscribed in this form by the states involved in the dispute. the monetary agreement between Mvtilene and Phocaea in the Lesbian version found at Mytilene (no. Alexandria. or Tarentum. 21). Delphi. but sometimes also in one of the great religious centers. but also. treaties. decisions of interstate arbitration. is And so in general such deci- sions were regularly rendered in the dialect of the arbitrators. an honorary decree of a Boeo- tian city is is in the Boeotian dialect. Thus. 61). such as decrees in honor of foreigners. usually at home. the decree is set Lesbian and a copy in this form usual practice. and in those of a more external or interstate 274. the decree the time (no. in most parts of Greece. GROWTH OF VARIOUS FORMS OF Not only in earlier times. 58). for example. For example. and the dialect it is to be assumed that the version inscribed by the other party in its home was likewise in its dialect. 81). A lus decision of the Argives in a dispute between Melos in the Argive dialect (no. If in the Elean of is in is Mytilene honors Erythrae. commuuication>s between different states. character. Thus. long after Attic had become the norm of literary prose. is the Eleans honor Damocrates of Tenedos. and Cimoand and any departure from which the exception. both in private and public monuments of internal concern. The extant texts of treaties are. for example. and. as a rule. examples of up at Erythrae. Such the which could be is cited by the hundred. in of that party in whose territory the text was found. the treaty of alliance between Elis and Heraea (in Arcadia) in the Elean version found at Olympia (no. no matter whether the recipient If a citizen of Athens. when Philip 154 V of Macedon . In communications between states using different dialects each party employs its own. each state employed its own dialect. as Delos or Olympia. in general.

to be exploited in may have was a writing. There was no lack of intercourse to awaken consciousness of the peculiarities of one's dialect as compared with those of others. or pronounced as a mere breathing. what was a felt in the speech of most other Greeks. an Amphictionic known to us only in the copy set up at Athens is in the Delphian dialect. nian court. 275. See 59. in its original Aetolian (Northwest Greek ) My tilene. In the period before the rise of Attic as the language of literary prose. sanctuaries of Greece are The regulations of the religious drawn up in the dialect of the state which has direct charge of them. no less in the great Hellenic centers than in those of local fame. might come to be regarded with disfavor as provincialisms. followed by a decree of Mytilene in Lesbian. which had long been the language of the Macedobut the decrees which the city passes in response are in the Thessalian dialect (no.1. agreeing with Cyprian < and The fact that Arcadian ? and . and be avoided in writing.275] VARIOUS FOEMS OF 155 sends certain recommendations to the city of Larissa. Yet it is probable that even then external influence was not wholly absent. he writes in the Attic . /ca?. who were well aware that under certain conditions they omitted. contains form. and even in speech. for example. the Laconians and the Argives. no one dialect was in a position even to influence other dialects except witliin narrow geographical limits. 28). that this. a copy of which had been brought back by the Mytileuaean envoys. are found only in one early .2. quoting from the former decree and ordering the inscription of both. decree wdiich is So. An inscription of the text of a decree of the Aetolian league in favor of Mytilene. or at least less consistently observed. which did not deserve is This would explain the inconsistency in the treatment of (A or intervocalic ) which to be observed even in the early l)efore inscriptions of Laconia and Argolis. sort of weakness. especially all or such as were at variance with the practice of nearly all other dialects. any specific Attic influ- ence is possible. Some of tliese peculiarities. For example. unlike some of their other peculiarities.

Through the medium of the other islands (278). tlie Some traces of this fifth influence are seen even in especially in the islands. as is likely. is Rhodian acy of Attic century B. when specific Attic influence is was replaced by the usual equally marked peculiarities of other dialects. it is none the 276. Even of mainly found.C. Ionic inscriptions of the century. and Attic the recognized language of literary It is within the sphere of influence represented by the conits first federacy of Delos and the Athenian empire that Attic made advance as an ordinary medium it is of connnunication. Ionic practically ceased to exist as a distinct dialect. of the Ionic = (4. Thera. namely the spread eo. is though occasionally found in contiof Ionic. ^ '. though peculiarities are occasionally some Ionic found in much later times. even After from the early part of the century. e. to Crete. was a concession in spelling only. In Cos occur such specific Ionic forms as ? and in the fifth century the coins of the lalysus show have even spread 277. in the Doric ^. though the earliest evidence of this belongs rather to tlie history of the alphabet. ? in spite of the fact that other iv = iv were unaffected. Of all dialects Ionic which shows the first signs of Attic influence and the first to lose its identity as a distinct dialect. uthers have tlie rU and . just as in more probable. important as that in this period Athens became the intellec- tual center of Greece prose. this less in point. while all [275 inscription (no. like other dialects. . and in the fourtli century the majority of of Attic forms. outside Ehodes. are this. €o = ev.g. some Ionic peculiarities beside = eo. . may also be ascribed to the combined influence of a later period. etc.6). at Itanos ev The Attic is .15(3 GREEK DIALECTS 1). Traces of Ionic influence are seen in the Doric islands. su])stautiaily Attic. inscriptions show at least a mixture and some. The Eleans gave up even in the sixth century their use of for the and if. Cos. . to be sought in the political conditions of the fifth In this we refer to something more than the it is. and The foundation of the ultimate supremfact. It is not accidental that ev for nental Greece.

C. 278. West Greek but In spite of of some variety some is local peculiari- Rhodes. which ancient Laconian. distinct type of . that the Macedonians took up or. already well-nigh established in Ionic territory. marking neither the beginning. even in the fourth century B.g. In most of the Doric dialects Attic influ- ence shows to some extent. and from it is descended Modern Greek. for example. henceforth termed the . The only imone to upwards of three centuries portant exception is the present Tsakonian dialect. of modified and there was gradually evolved a type conveniently Doric which prevails in the inscriptions of the last three centuries B. resulting in the hybrid eX . characteristics. the Attic . of which we later record. It is in some respects modified and spread. ties.. have no though showing more or use in inscriptions from less KOLvrj influence. nor.278] VAEIOUS FORMS OF this Attic. forms the principal landmark in the Attic the evolution of a standard language in Greece. still less. the other dialects. Excepting Ionic. But eventually the attained complete supremacy both as the written and the spoken language. For in places this was spread over a vast territory and permanently established which were to become leading centers of Greek life.C. remained in common later. indeed. and the retention at the infinitive in siderable unity. 157 mostly iu proper names and certain conventional words or phrases. known as the Doric retaining a majority of the general with a tendency to eliminate local peculiarities. and which specifically. and Cyprian. while the . as we have seen. . and is This is substantially Doric. . e. is shown.. is - . the end. side is by side with the very general. spoken in a is small portion of Laconia. in re- the fact that the substitution of . in part the offspring of the The Doric itself. Yet is only a stage. is by Ionic. in it and more The Macedonian KOLvr) period. and with a strong admixture of forms from the Attic in the degree of mixture. there yet a very con- amply sufficient to justify us in speaking of a That the mixture tention of not a haphazard one ei for at.

in what is otherwise the Attic The Northvest Greek This is very similar to the showing about the same mixture of Attic with West . (or €€<. Nouns follow the Attic nom. future and aorist verb-forms like are almost unknown except whole is .. quent. is replaced by but '. e. . = Att. The numerfor . e.g. sg. more common or than in nouns.. €<.g. pi. al for is frequent. . '•? there The substitution of ol. rirrape^.g. €) . €. but much imperative ending beside . In dialects etc. <. for type except in the accusative singular. 7€<. especially in the case of -fte? is '. as far apart as Rhodes and Corcyra. e.g.. . less common than the dialect forms. we usually find '?. /€9 as a . . is usual. The first plural generally replaced by -€. especially in verbs in from eo is fre- -. but etc. . the dialectic peculiarities persist with scarcely .. from by the ending places. fur retained. 1. but great variation in this respect. perhaps 279. and Doric future. also wliich have <. beside -.. So Att. we uniformly in -eu9. ^.-acc. late as llie third century a. such forms are often replaced Attic. in of the corresponding Attic forms. iy/caXoOvTaf etc. for In -stems aec. (54). is beside .g. In some places. •?. though it persists in some There are various other Attic forms which are not infrequent. e. beside Many of any intrusion . Rhod. is unknown.. 3206).when the in the very last stages Attic practically established. and Attic oi occurring not infrequently even in the same inscription. ace. but the genitive singular of etc. lepo^. but rare. . Doric .8 . but only as a bit of local .d. (. find inscriptions which have the verb-forms -stems in -eo? or etc. show the forms of the Attic [278 6/3€9 etc. in . Att. . . e.158 opposite. . ace.-Ion. verb forms like (142). (SGDI. etc. but Att. al als GREEK DIALECTS civ. Attic Core. sometimes found as color. is -. artificial. is but in verbs (SGDI. 3758).) not .

namely eV -oi<?. . as Achaea.. of about 200 B. Parts of the Peloponnesus were dative plural in -oi? There is one example even as far away as Crete 159-138 B. Epirus. from which we have no material.). which became Aetolian Without doubt it was also used in Doris.C. .C.279] VARIOUS FOEMS OF But it differs 159 it Greek forms. it was never employed. Malis and Phthiotis.4942 Aetolians had taken part in the internal wars of Crete. leagues (Polyb. are in this same Northwest Greek reminding us that Cephallenia. though there are some few traces of its influence (222). and the characteristic is found in Arcadia.C. and the dative plural of con- The use of this type is closely connected wath it the political power of the Aetolian league.C. also for a time 4.C. 4. in Western Locris (Naupactus B. or the dative plural of consonant stems in -oi?). of w^liich Ithaca was a dependency. w^as incor- porated in the league in 338 the rest of IVestern Locris some- what all of later). Epirotan. In Boeotia.53). and Acarnanian. 1)ut in the Doi'ic . and Cretans had served in the armies of both the Aetolian and the Achaean and Laconia. and later. are not in the Northwest Greek fined above (they do not have ev = eh. in Aetolia and in all decrees of the Aetolian league. = eh. At this time at least the speech of Acarnania and Epirus was not essentially of from that of Corcyra. Messenia (also iv = eh). nor that Achaea from that of Corinth and Sicyon. SGDI. but clearly an importation. We find employed. . was allied with the Aetolians (Polyb.C. in the course of the third century B. in the third century B. inscriptions of this period of from Acarnania.C. at least 290 the land of the Aenianes. from it in that retains two of the most characteristic features sonant stems in of the Northwest Greek dialects as compared with Doric.). The only extant decrees of Cephallenia and Ithaca.. including decrees the and de- Achaean leagues.6).). ( The different under Aetolian domination. which was in the Aetolian league but a short time (245-234 B. Phocis (Delphi was in the hands of the Aetolians by B. and in Eastern Locris.

160

GKEEK DIALECTS

[280

In the Arcadian inscriptions of this period the native Arcadian

forms are wholly or in part replaced by West Greek forms, and
this
is

probably due in large part to the influence of the Doric
of the

Achaean

league.

But the Aetolians

also held parts

of

Arcadia for a time, and, as noted above, there are some exam-

ples of the dative

Greek
280.
of

.

plural in -ot? borrowed from the

Northwest

Some more

detailed observations

upon the time and extent

influence in the various dialects have been

made

in connec-

tion with the

Summaries

of Characteristics (180-273),

and

in the

notes to some of the late inscriptions.

What
given up

has just been noted in the case of the Doric

is

true

in all dialects,

namely, that
earlier

of the dialectic peculiarities

much

than others.

Furthermore

usual to find hybrid forms, part dialectic, part
future with Attic

contamination of

and

,

, and ?, — —
as

etc.

frequently,

, —
it is

some are
e.g.

nothing unDoric

Boeot.

?, a

Heracl. peiKari, a contamination of

Boeot.

with dialectic present stem and

personal ending, but Attic

(pure Boeot.
e/c-

with dialectic case-ending, but Attic
Thess. ace.
pi.

,

Boeot.

(pure Boeot.

^?), —
-ae,

€'^<

'^,4<;

(pure Thess. ^ivv

but Attic stem

-

), —
from

with dialectic case-ending, but Attic stem
Epid.

with Doric ending-•/; from

*-.

Besides such hybrids, hyper-Doric or hyper-Aeolic forms are
occasionally

met with in late inscriptions, though less often than in Thus the Attic term (with original , when adopted in other dialects, was sometimes given cf. Dor. the pseudo-dialectic form e.g. in some late Doric and Lesour literary texts.

),

bian inscriptions, in imitation of the frequent equivalence of dialectic

a

retained in opposition to
lent, as in

Doric

on

Cret.

, , . ,
to Attic

.

Conversely the Attic form was sometimes

what would

lie its

true dialectic equiva-

Boeotian usually

rarely

Similarly the
Cf. also

and

its

derivatives keep

in Boeotian.

63.

280]

VARIOUS FORMS OF
Eoman

161

In

imperial times the antiquarian interest in local dia-

lects is reflected in the revival of their use in parts of

Greece vhere
in gen-

for

some two centuries previously the Attic
no. 24), Laconian
of
(cf.

had been

eral use, at least in inscriptions.

So, for example, in the case of

Lesbian

(cf.

nos. 70-73),

and

to

some extent
first

in Elean,

where examples
It is

rhotacism reappear in the

and

second centuries a.d.

impossible to determine in every case
artificial revival of

whether

this

was a wholly

a dialect which had

long ceased to be spoken, or was an

artificial elevation to

written

use of a dialect which had survived throughout the interval as a
patois.

The

latter is true of

Laconian

(see 277, end,

and note

to

nos. 70-73).

But

for

most

dialects

we have no adequate

evidence

as to the length of their survival in spoken form.

PART
The brief
lections.

:

SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS
its

introductory statement to each inscription gives
to several of the

provenance
col-

and approximate date, with references

most important

The

extensive bibliographies in these collections

make

it

unneces-

sary to cite the

numerous

special discussions in periodicals etc., except

in the case of a few recently discovered inscriptions.

For the abbreviations

employed, see pp. 281 ff. References to the collections are by the numbers of the inscriptions, unless otherwise stated, while those to periodicals are

by

pages.
It

has seemed unnecessary to state in the case of every inscription whether
is

the alphabet

the epichoric or the ordinary Ionic, since this

is

generally
It

obvious from the date given, as well as from the transcription.

may be

taken for granted, unless otherwise stated, that inscriptions of the
tury B.C. or later in the Ionic.

fifth cen-

tury B.C. or earlier are in the epichoric alphabet, those of the fourth cen-

Hence comments on the form of the alphabet employed are added only in special cases. The transcription of texts in the older alphabet is such as to give the student some assistance, without confusing what is in the original and what is a matter of editing. The signs and 0, when representing long vowels, are transcribed simply no matter whether the later spelling is , or ei,

,

e, 0.

The

spiritus asper,
*

when

expressed in the original,

is

transcribed

A,

leaving the use of
tli(!

as a matter of editing.
is

See p. 49, footnote.

The use

of

following signs
[ ] ( > ( )

to be noted.

for restorations of letters

for letters inscribed

by mistake, and

no longer legible. to be ignored by

tlie

reader.

for 1) expansion of abbreviations, 2) letters omitted

by mistake,

3) corrected letters. Obvious corrections are given thus, without adding the original reading. Less certain corrections are sometimes

commented on
often this
is

in the notes,

with citation of the original reading, as

are also obscure readings due to the mutilation of the letters.

But

not done,

it

being thought unnecessary in a work of this
apparatus of other collections.
is

kind to repeat the
- - - -

full critical

for a lacuna,

where no restoration
103

attempted.

16^
....

GKEEK DIALECTS
for a similar lacuna

[No.

1

where

it is

desired to show, at least approxi-

mately, the
ter.
I

number

of missing letters, each dot standing for a let-

In general, these are employed only for short lacunae.

for the beginning of each
for the
II

new

line in the original.

begimiing of every

fifth line in

the original.
sides, or

for the division between the obverse
II

and reverse
is

between

col-

umns. Used only where the text

printed continuously.

Ionic
East Ionic

Sigeum, Early VI cent. b.c. SGDI.5531. Hicks 8. Hoifmannlll. 130. Michel 1313. Roberts 42 and pp.334ff. The second version (B) is
1.

in Attic.
_

10

5
10

repa

^€()\€,
aev

^ \€< ^^ \ ^^. 8 ,^ ?.
I

^

|

|

iav Se

7|,

\^

€€ ()\€•
11

'

he

^\^L<ye\€UaL]v.

Kayo

e\hoKa

i-

,

e7ro||(ie)-

1,

Monument of Phanodicus of Procit,

ences are due merely to the absence of
signs for

onnesus, recording his gift of a mix-

and

in the Attic alphabet,

and a winestrainer, to the Sigean prytaneum. The pillar was prepared and furnished with
ing bowl, a stand for
its

or are accidental, as

in

A,

«

in B,

where the spelling
date
is

ei

at such

an early

as exceptional in Attic as

Ionic inscription at Proconnesus,

which was a colony of Miletus. The Attic version was added at Sigeum, which was already at this time occupied by Athenians. The divergence between A and the
corresponding i)ortion of
lect, e. g. Ion.
is

would be in Ionic, or dat. pi. A, in B, where the use of
ble
is

-

-

it

in

mova-

variable in both dialects.

2.

Decree of the council of Halicar-

naseians and Salmacitians and Lygda-

partly

Lygdamis

mis regarding disputes over real estate. is the tyrant wlio drove Herodotus into exile and
tion eventually expelled
It
is

due to the normal differences of dia-

a revolu-

=
crasis

Att. irpvTo.veiov^

to

with psilosis and consequent and uncontracted -eos in contrast Att. TO 'lifpop5s. So
is

in contrast to Att.

form found elsewhere.

,,
with
after
p,

and

-

from the

city.

probable that this inscription dates

an Ionic
differ-

Other

from a period when the citizens had ari.sen and restored the exiles, but had come to terms temporarily with Lygdamis. The disputes would then be concerning the property of the former

No. 2]
2. Ilalicarnassus.

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS
Before 454 B.C.

165

SGDI.5726. Ditt.Syll.lO. Greek Hicks 27. Hoffmann III. 171. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp. Iff. Michel 451. Roberts 145 and pp. 339 ff. Solmsen45. For the character T, see 4.4. Letters which, though now lacking, are found in Lord Charlemont's copy, are printed without the marks of restoration.
Inscr. Brit. Mus.R'ii. 886.

\€
\[1]

7€\\7

'7\88[^

? \
yrj<;

aho^

[]
evaL
exiles

" \€ , ^ /
eirl
ot«:[i'ja]

, '[]

[7]?

/?

[€]
ayopiji,
|

ev

tep)}[i]

7\^\€]<;

^ €\< ' '/xi09
7\'^
[]|^9.

6\[7^0[. ]<;

€7/3€

\\
(cf.

, <
iv
is
'

8e

?

' ' ^
iirl

,5

10

/3|15

'||09
\.6\
8e
|

[e]||jO

6{){) ?
evaL.
|

68€ ,
he

ot«:|[i]a,

8
suits,

20

25

no. 22),

although this

be only tentative and subject to further litigation.
1.

nowhere
partially

stated.

Salmacis was a town

merged with Halicarnassus, and represented with it by a common council, though still retaining its own officials. Halicarnassus was originally Doric, but had already become Ionic in speech. Many of the proper names are
of Carian origin. 8
ff.
'

30
'

'

The phrase used in when A. and P. were commissionand

ers
is

has reference to future

not inconsistent with the view that

men constituted the incoming board at the time of the decree. 16 ff. 'Any one wishing to bring suit
these

The mnemones or commission-

must prefer his claim within eighteen months of the time of the decree. The
dicasts shall administer the oath (to

ers are not to transfer lands or houses

incoming board consisting of Apollonides and his colleagues. That is, apparently, property which had been in the hands of the commissionto the
ers for settlement, or

the one bringing suit) in accordance

perhaps in seques-

with the present law. Whatever the commissioners have knowledge of (e.g. through their records) shall be valid.' 22 ff. If one prefers a claim after

'

tration,

was now

to be turned over to

the prescribed period, the one in possession of the property sliall take the

the presumptive owners instead of to

the

new board,

in order to secure

an

oath (that

is,

he shall have the prefer;

immediate disposal of these matters, even though this might in many cases

ence in taking the oath

6€$

cf

.

the use of

in the

Gortynian Law-Code).

— —
166

30

, 1\ ,' ^7<; .
GREEK DIALECTS
8e
7'?'?
'<^<^'•

[No. 2

\\] 6<;

eT^v\aL irapeovTO^
oirtve^
el
||

'

elvat

ore

.30

40

45

, '^ \ ^/ [^ \ 8, ^. \\\ , ', [']

elvai

\\
^

Tt<i

7r/30^/'}Ta|[t]

elvaL lepa

alei

eV

eivac e?

iXevOepov

eivai,

iiriKaXev

3. Teos. About 475 B.C. SGDI..56.32. Hicks 23. Michel 1318. Roberts 112 and pp.336 ff. Solmsen42.

A
5

'

10

5

, )
"? ^
[1,

'^ ^ ,'
yevo^

? '^'^^ iv

Hoffmann III. 105.

\

iaayeaOai

€'

.

|

2 fragmentary] oVrt?
(rj
II

. ^ €[']

^

\), ['\ [| |

The

dicasts shall administer the oath,

receiving a twelfth of a stater as fee,

allowed to return.' 41 ff, 'Of all the Halicarnassians any one who does not
transgress these things such as they have sworn to and as is recorded in the temple of Apollo, shall be at liberty
to prefer claims.'

and the oath

shall be taken in the

presence of the plaintiff.

Those who

held the property

and Panamyes were
have disposed of
it

shall be the legal possessors, unless they
later.'

(: —

.32 ff.

,
'

when Apollonides
commissioners

d-ircir^pa-

3.

. (
:

:

96.2.

Imprecations against evil-doers.

not found elsewhere.
to

A

1 ff.

Against those

who manufac,

If

any one wishes

annul this

law or proposes a vote
to Apollo,

to this effect, his

property shall be sold and dedicated

and he himself
If his

shall be
is

an
not

exile forever.

property

adv. ace. as a community. 6 ff Against those who interfei-e with the importation of grain, contrasted with 1.2. See 42. G, 157 6.
ture poisons.

.

€(

:

worth ten

staters,

he himself shall be

B3ff. Againstthosewhoresisttheau-

gold for transportation and never be

thority of the magistrates.

The

ei/ewot

• | 8€ yevo^ "/? \^. V cent. B. ' . /^] eV ^^ «^? }? <. ioova \\ eV 815 must have been a superior is official to the ordinary evdwoi or auditors. 11.st purchasers. '^^.2. see 1 For the Lesliian elements in the Chian 84 with references. The 35 assembly at the Anthesteria. \ .2. For is vroXews. . y'€vo<. '\\ . €0 dialect. Chios. 109. Solmsen 41.: 'during the = (33).. 4] y€vo<i TO Keiv\o. ably the regular annual magistrates. Michel 1383. subj. [^6 () ^?. \ • Hoffmann III. — 29 Again.5653. .: aor.343 ff. €< '^^ /cjja/coz/ | ^ .— No. followed by provisions for its sale and a list of the possibly a regular magistrate at Teos. 80. . For short-vowel subj. etc' ff. 150.8-18 is uncertain.] ['] \oLVO ']|[. The restoration of ff. see also 150. [| [^<] etjSa)? [ irepl Aiotatv. like -. official like the Roman dictator. .?»: archons elsewhere. like the : — .20 [. Roberts 149 and pp. 4. }^ . €'pt . 5 €] • \. \ — 8ff. . Against those who damage the — often an extraordinary stele. see see 109. []!€/>€. ' 30 35 40 4. 167 ^] [etSjIa? 10 irepl 15 ti7ro||Se. €€'^.C. — The — pronounce the are prob- •€- .\^^. ^ «[%]'/)* e<? [] AijXio | . . but 176. 31. (C 8) the earliest example of .2. '<? | \'%) <.]()<? ^'()[]9 . iv ^^^ ^ ^. IONIC INSCRIPTIONS iv Tecot a[7ro/c]T[eyei[e] . Against unfaithful and treason- able magistrates. Decree fixing the boundaries of a district called Lophitis.] [\] 7\^ \\' | 7ro\^X[tv [^][7/9 '? 7[/309] ^^ iv ve\a<i eVt . '78[ [ey . -09 Tpe<i • SGDI. . ?. — etc. 25 yeyp\a7rTai. magistrates who fail to imprecations.

eWt €\\ ' ? 11 ?. . LOV 10 T[r/]]i' 15 [^ 8€ ' 7/709 .t] 5 6[9] ft[a]|ta9 10 15 ^ . Whoever makesthe sales invalid. ^^ 7€ '^^ 7[€• • ^^?. The purchaser shall be free . the property in Eua- dae for 2700. etc. son of Herodotus. taking up the — 10 There purchased lands and houses: cesiiis. — 19. Ilison of Ilegepolis. from Thargeleus. []|9 '^• []|7€/7' ^ \_^ | '7€79 7'^€'€ ['\\ €[/9][/>'](7 €<'[][ 1 ot«:t'<e>a[9] • 7ra[t']-| /3€6[9] 20 /cat 25 5 ^ . shall sustain the suit. ^ €\ ^ " \^^\8 | \'^^'[^[^ [€7]| • 8^€ [€][/ (H)eo- €07/30709 :[4]||747/9 7^09 e'/x Me\at'i'7.:|[]4/ eVo9. son of Zenodotus. [7]['.' C 1-8.168 20 CxREEK DIALECTS . the ciistomar>/ impreca- lic announcement of it in the villages and in the city. from cause of those that are excluded. ?}? 7€€\8€ <. for 5340 [staAthenagoras. if it loses. the case of a lawsuit from litigation. /}? 8 ? /cat .[t] 'A/CTi}t Bta[9] ' 7[€^\ [4[]9 it [ -^ (^). . 20 oTt 25 / €'\\ C ^ \\ ]? 09 7r[o]Xt9 7rpta[/u-] • BiaTrel^yjravTe^ e? ^ ^ ^^ • | . before the \ |j ^^ 8 ^8 8^€ ITf • || • 'I|ke- TOCK\^o]7re8ov 7. ' .4. )€\\. ters). ' ev ol 5 [^\ |6? [771^ [ . 11 Be [No. 4 [er] []''- €- iovTe<. makes ff. the city. If any one excludes the purchasers from possession or brings suit against them. €7 .. the sons of Annices. Zi\^: bursethem. 6:['7. reim- for 1700. . . a7ro/cX7^t||?. 20. [9 ^<. council within five days and make pub- ivhcn he tions. hivi shall the the Fifteen are to bring \€$ curse. Philocles. e? 7r\\e']vTeKa\_iSeK]\a 10 15 ... and.

(^. ' 7. the and transcribe satrap of Caria. have the value of one syllable. — 15 On I the base of a colossal statue ff. ][2^ Trje/ot • || 'E]/caT[o- eirei [[^€0 | elvac )^ 7\[^ <'[ ev [7]? \_\ 5 • «at] aarrovhei. With two exceptions ) 8 a. 30. and for .0. A and Ae. 1(39 Ilicks 134. »- used only for the . cent.[\^ . dedicated ians. Roberts 27 [t]o 5. to "wliose memory tlie famous Mausoleum was erected by his widow Artemisia. See 4. 7. In travagance in the funeral like and £()7. S(iDI. For but not for AetwSi/cTjo tlie Burial law directed against exrites. off Xaxos. -^ '. elvai eK'yovoi'i.ted form of B. ^. though some take it / and at Sparta under Lycurgus.5423. Michel 501. Decree in honorofMaussolus.4. Roberts ^ ^. SGDI. Michelll50. 6. Naxos. '. The character which appears before in etc.C. 8 a. Erythrae.c. ["E5o|^ey] . | [ 20 6. by Nax- Inscribed on an archaic statue of is a. used as pedestal. Solmsen46.107. See 41. 9] \7] Found . 8. as a sign for etc. is D. am of the same stone.c. Artemis found at Delos. /' ().from original ). of Apollo at Delos. \[~\ . statue and see 32. B. . Homer. || \ 15 jpayjr^ai €(•) [e7rtfieXi.5421. ' ^ •^ ] ' [^ ^ ^. Ditt.6^ (or from ea. aj[7opi}]i || ^ e? [1 | 8e 10 [6| | iv [^^. Found at Delos. Central Ionic YI cent. VII or Hoffmann III. 9G.' the endings. or early ^ m an 33 .. " -^ [^.9. probably only a different!3. n.^](i'})yai ^?]. No. '^ Hoffmann III.Syll. ).^ ' ^^^. as is '. I IT at Delos. ^ • | ]. ' early 25.from See 4. 7] 5. as like €w in meter those enacted at Athens under Solon. shows. See 136.5087. SGDI. IONIC INSCRIPTIONS About 357 ]5.^.

15 f. Solnisen47. . [] [^€ a^yyeta []/?^6 [^\^ 15 ahr'\opaiv€V [^€[ €'\\ 20 :7}[?] TTjy [^ / . perform according to the ancestral custom. ij. 588. []^77[ ^iijSJai'ra is uncertain. they are not to use a special cov- ering for the bier. ' ? .pp.Jurid. [? ? e ()8 [] / € '^ ['\\ || . 8 V cent.LegesSacrae93. of the third. Inscr. instead of being left at the tomb.sacrifice of an ox — 13 f. \_ 25 7[/30]? €7[€ € : ^^ . and thirtieth days. Hoffmann III.' By the law of Solon sacrifice The bier (1. €[ 8. : [^ . neath the corpse. with the cloths before mentioned. eireiTa . then Avith hyssop by a slave. forbidden here. I)itt. he 67 /3[]]/^. ^^^ ['\ - <<. — 27. in -aij like the vessels 10). .] a cloth under3. and one over it.42.c.G. but cover bier and the corpse. be brought tious practices. lulis in Ceos. GREEK DIALECTS Last quarter [No.. [€]\ - levai yvvaiKat \'\1 \_ ]^[ \]€. — — € -all. i^evai || . . 'The house is to be purified first with sea-water by a free man. : — 20. []\ [^(\^ ]/7 iXevOepov '[|. the significance of which is not clear. ' ^] 7€ • Zieheu. [.: 9.I. Michel398.lOff. The last are expressly 21. ' llic 7[']^ ' . vas forbidden.Syll. home. \^] €^7\€. one wrapped about it. ? ? ivSoae. [/] \ ]€ \7]€ irXeovo^ €[][4. and the coverings.— 170 8. Directed against certain supersti- the . At Athens ceremonies see 112... ' \_\. are to due to Attic influence. evai [] ? €]\€'€. 'they are to in honor dead were performed on the ninth. € eXaiov '\. ' 6[]€/[] [<. But the resto- — the ration — . Tcoy [€][.877.)93. ^ [ • • /Lt[|e] €'\\. : dat. [t]ou<T[a]? [e]7rt 7]^'. 12. -^^ | ^.]| T0t9 € 10 [ ^ \\6 € 7r\eO[l•'] €7 . ev 5 [ 7[] iv €[^<. SGDI.' 7.

eiroieaev 'AfyaatXefd. Hoff49. Hoffmann Roberts 177 III. 1902 1.but the population was mixed. SGDI. B. Rev. VII cent. — hiw: When Philip 347 P.5292.£ . 3. — €: see 124. Amphipolis.4. IG. Diod.C.41 ff.4. : cf. SGDI.102ff. Among against number were this decree the two men of which is not stated. mann III. 1.XIV. | Be rt? €'\ 7\< | 15 20 | 9. . for .] [^Ji^fi [{. rovrei AetO? hvTTV ret 12. ' ' i7r\i8e- '\^'.. Solmsen 48.C. he caused tlie In of the tomb rests Le- 12. B.. Cumae III.Olynth. These captured Anipliip- are the only West Ion. the provenance ment of his opponents. 39 a.10. Ditt. ^? ^\ ' ^ e(<?) ^' ^ ^ elvai. 357b. or at least the one of them. VI cent.Arch. of intervocalic in the proper (which later became in this niche though not nos. mann Tarat'e? 11. SGDI. this Cf.No. . 6. '^ |9 ? . ^ . Note the retention -/ ). factured in Boeotia by a Chalcidian potter. At this time evidently the Chalcidian element predominated. now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. € ^? a.8. Amphipolis was a colony of Athens. examples of eo = ei banish- €i. Hoff- Cnmae in Italy. Hicksl2o. Stratocles. VI cent. » name Thuc. 12] IONIC INSCRIPTIONS yLt[e]8eW. Dem. Chalcidian dialect. </)7^. being known as one of the two envoys who were sent Cf. Probably manuinscribed in whom was enacted.(33).c. 171 30 . 14. . • ' \\.5269.5282. c.XIV. : 1..() ' 10. Cf. to Atliens for aid. Solmsen "^ 8•\\7\€ €<^\ '^ /< ^ <^ ^ \. b. aWov [€\\'\ \€[<. — 19.]9 I ^^^ evai West Ionic (^Euboean^ 9.\.Syll. SGDT. Roberts 173. On a lecythus..865. Michel 324.5267.871. in Italy.113. IG. . 5 | || .C.^. olis in . 11.8.24.

but expected to go to the temple regularly. . €\ <. ^. Oropus.c. 13 b.172 13. \ (B) middle of TV cent.91. Ditt. lie was to see to that the custodian took proper care Regulations of the temple of Amphiaraus at Oropus. \ . If such a one offers the .LegesSacrae65. and preto and its visitors.19. in Attic. 9ff. Cf. Michel 341. nian domination. SohiisenoO. stone. it was inscribed on the same Tarentum. 1 ff .ssion it passed into the hands of the Thebans in the sixth centuiy.48. Hoffmann III. Seoi. when became more frecjuent.8. . ^ '^ Ditt. A 5 10 €9 5 '^ .2o. Syll.c.<».')339. • .Syll. If any one commits sacrilege in the temple. 10 13. lepea lepo^v. or 386-377 B. Oropus seems before have been an Eretrian posse. so led to Athenian loss of Eretria. SGDT.^ . 14. . HoffmannIII. and the . iireihav I hiaXeiirovTa iv iepoi || \ ' €() € . the priest shall have the right to impo.' ' ^ "^ € \€ \ €<. SGDI. b. GREEK DIALECTS (A) End of [No. Thuc.3).se a fine up to the sum of five draclimas and take pledges of the one of the temple ' — served the Eretrian dialect throughout penalized.C. eiri- | 77/||7. 14 are in the Ere- the Boeotian trian variety of Euboean. IG. be- cause both recipients of honor are from relatives.589. It is in gratitnde for this that Hegelochus of Tarentum visitors But with the end of winter.47. Ziehen.subsequent AtheBut from the end of the fourth century the inscriptions are A. Ships of Tarentum formed part of the Peloponnesian fleet wliicli defeated tlie The priest evidently pas. Eretria.o308. and tlie winters in the town.. ret V cent. 5 €«:[]. is B. This decree later than A. 0€Oi. Michel 698. ' . never missing more than three days at a time and remaining there at least ten days each month.c. 6 This and no.23o. and possibly 14. leaving the temple entirely in the charge of the custodian.0o.^^ I "^^ euepj€T7]V || /c[a]t 7ral8a<i eivalt ttoXlv 11 | 'Hpa/cXetrof | elvat eivai he |[ | 411-402.sed the Atlieniansoff Eretria in 411 b. for wliich see 187 (60.VII. he was and his sons are lionored in this decree.

but the priest shall make the prayers for the sacriis not present. If any one suffers a private wrong in the temple.shoulder of each . and at the same time another provision. The summons for wrongs done in the temjjle shall be made on the same day. but. 14] — 173 IONIC INSCEIPTIONS irevre • [ . 134. ? | ()\€ lepol .p<yvpLOV. such as flesh often made not off) le. € SO. 8 :«€ go over : till next day..' is shorter ably .— treated 34a. he must deposit it in the treasury in the presence of the priest. and erased. —2 24. but the more important cases shall be tried before the proper courts. \^ ^ . \ amount had 30 | money. .— No. ^ . 820 he ) - ^ ______ 11 25 | .which never has — 32 is = ff. lepea. crowded into a space where a word had been erased. is — in : there was no 21 ff. by the god 'The one who is to be shall pay a fee of restriction as to the kind of victims to be offered. .- IhieL €<. : ' the priest to have the . and he shall : see receive the skin of all the victims. (. fices in : — — behalf of the state. but if of no had been abrogated 'The priest shall make the prayers and place the victims on the altar. the priest shall decide matters inscribed. = 30 ff.ss than nine obols of current temple regulations. which followed after more than three drachmas. 8\ . if he is present. the case may 16. but in any case the money (no bad coin was to be palmed and put it in the treasury in the presence of the custodian. et<? • h' e/CTiWi a. the one offering.' 19. not Eretrian inscription of later date. ^ ^^ . \. was not : to be carried off. — 31. . i)resumSince the law was first -.' who gives the At the festival each shall make his own prayer. . off. for an . if he in 1. iv lepol. the \\ • [^. . £ . the opponent does not agree. — 17. . reads Si Upei .\ 8 8 . . the of the fee been raised. see 43. . . 15 iv jive- irepl ei<. for the several offenses.

<^ leprjov. 1893. Gott.240fe. later as elsewhere. .B-C. Mantinea. the men to the east of the altar. 7€€ \7€ 45 ^ . ) VI X\o'yov ^ Iv : .93 ff Keil. /. Dedication inscribed on a bronze to inscribe the cymbal. 39 ff.' \ ^ . according to the more probable of two varying reports.568f¥. . \.523 ff For v\.' that any one who : wishes — sleep in a may . only from the victims offered for the state. as found near the modern Dimitzana in edvae Arcadia. A. . . Ditt. 'The custodian €. = is But the use of - confirmed by a later aas .1. dream. was name of each one wlio consults the oracle. .. .G25. || [ . which the earlier (6. ^. Fougeres. c. .4 — €-7'[8 — see Ae designated by €-.stival. Danielsson. Homolle.C.. 'AXeav [11. : the women 6. Ber. H. iv^aehova Arcadian 15. B. 7€^€ ev < '? (><.9 . which.XVI. Roberts 237a. . 1895. \ [€]46.Ges. Judgment against certain persons guilty of sacrilege toward Athena Alea. ' : 41.Nachr. — 30. . ' iv iv . } I or early cent. and place it on a tablet in tlie shrine so see it. 2-12 proper names]. as in no.8 ff. " cent..n. 14 el " _ 6 . iyKaOevSetv \ __ .- iv lepol iv || <. Formerly read and ascribed to Thessalian. 22) is replaced by 10.373.— 35 8 174 €\ . a7r||o ______ 40 ^^. Up-(\ov•.319 ff. victim. when he lias paid his money. iv S( .ibid. — 33.4.Mantinoe.65. whose temple had been made the €. see 4. those wishing to consult the oracle went to room the of the temple assigned dedication reading in for this purpose (see following).. 580 ff.XXI. 7|[/97. GREEK DIALECTS [No. XXX.Eranos 11.Syll. 9. Baimack. is •. which is tran- scribed 15 [/] ' 8 ['\ tlien ' .Siichs. . except wlien there and 38. 37. 8<. to the west. Fougeres.M. 16. and ' received oracle in a 43 ff. is a fe. : — the men and women are to lie in separate places. SGDI. 15. .

: — no. acre/Seias aorist. 1 46. but points are 1 .281. Att. aor. \ . in the male line.2 151. referring to coun- try houses in the mountains?). pass. The following are adjudged guilty towards Alea.' evai. Horn. (^a|0^eV[o] . As such. shows oracle.— No. : see 17- : 30). imprecation. difficulties in the Most of the iav. and the deed of that time loas not inscription. 94. tation have been cleared up. [^ 81^ /^e. IG. inread stead of €[]€ from 30 ff.8^ €(). — form of the name was a foreigner from Attic or Ionic territory. — 22. 1. Iv . contrary to these things. 58 a. and judgment upon the guilty parties as follows. et'cre a^Xtrepioi^ e'cae | • \ < evai. retained here in the the ordi- nary prose word for day in Arcadian (cf. although as elsewhere lepbs Iv -. they shall forever be excluded from the temple. Apparently a]v: uncertain. 1. this together with the slaves shall belong to the goddess. 1-5 ff. — []€( no.' Cf . and because his guilt was in question. reading and interpre- — 18 ': ff. having given up their inheritance. but more likely than Phemander had set up an alibi . ' e[-v//']eTOt 175 | ivai. '^\4€ 9.814. namely that. anything it else. it shall be well {propitious). 149. 1. — 24. tepoi ] ' [€<? evuL €[ ] . But if any one permits the goddess the judges. shall be impious. subj. et re . — «[i of prior date. in Similarly - If to condemned by divine judgment forfeit his property. We should (134. '.1. his case is treated separately.2. sesses {on the heights. | ^ (<.[| '20 - • et || ? () 25 elae iajo- et 30 || rore iepoT\ «? fe[p<yov expect eU ]\ a). — 22. ivai.II.p. : with the more usual .4. — AECADIAN INSCRIPTIONS . 17). scene of a bloody fray. If Phemander €[a]eTOL shall be ? is a murderer of either the men or the maiden who perished at that time in the temple. Or. ? ire [ lepol. — aor. still uncertain. 10. 10] . : — '[]€£[8].) ^. 17. . 95. have passed Inasmuch as we. and his penalty depends upon the decision of the as (cf. subj. some and for the whole 4 the iepoO 9jyov tovs '. epi. . — . he is : a &v.3 f.S0de. f [eVjet 7[8]€8[] <yevo^ [e'Jaroi [] el ['] TOT^e :]| '^ rot' eiae . and one shall divide (between the goddess and the state ?) the houses which he pos- a Tegean The following imprecation shall pursue the sinner. is a formulaic expression. ? ? .\ . in that case he shall be punished as an impious person.

the priest.Z. l(s) — € 14-15 the seizure of small animals. Ziehen. and that the tax of one drachma for the larger animals was in excess of strange. From this 2. up.29.ssion in 14-15 Athena Alea. but in took place before he entered the temthe reading is ple. and from this again. civic bodies. Cf. 5 . <. Ion. the chief by apparent lack of contrast.K. The with 18-19. B = A. Alphabet transitional. 4 critical wise beyond the number allowed.C. 0=5. etc. 16 Tore f€p'y[ov ].f . feed. espe- contrasted with a tax of a drachma for large cially in connection TOTEE. that goes — ff. . The are nected with der. a minor official charged with the technical details of the sacrifice. But ^e = Ilom. The Fifty and the Three Hundred were. the district in which the temple was situated and which was included in the temple property. Solmsenl. el || Be irpoaaOa'yeve'i ivat. [No. doubtless. first five para- 1-20. this. IIesychiushas^yii0o|Oj3tov which is parallel to house-rent. The graphs. though by is this too the expre. fodtlie . Michel695. and the hierothijtes. B. alya el ala/ce^e? to the effect that the deed of violence may II. ^ 8' 17. E = e. Early IV cent. Solmsen. ff. 17. 11. ^ is harhor-dues.176 35 GEEEK DIALECTS e(?). : and difficult Avords {. halter. Tegea. deal with the rights of pasturage in Alea. 3. yu. would be derived impose a pasture tax. The is form though unfortunately we can get this only by assuming that has been omitted by mistake. Starting from derived meaning seen in . . —5 : the hierothijtes may pasture in Alea animals loithout blemish one (and so suitable for the sacrifice). uieixmngivittingli/. €'(-€: if he acts other- intrans. €vaL• \ ]? tie -^ translate 8 seize. hut . Regulations of the temple of to be expected is ^s.. 34. animals. which some transcribe ^e. as if from -'. One must assume that the pasture tax was a fixed and merely nominal sum. hiepev TreVre el ' XeVTOV evai.LegesSacrae62. the inij^osition of a pasture tax. seems extreme. . ^ev is impossible. — : € \€. Hoffmannl. tlie board of administrators). €[€]. is administrator of the affairs of the temple (also. XXXIV. The temple officials mentioned are the hieromnemon.). Tov probably an adv. in the plural. intentionally. 11. 437 though in some places this title came to be one of high rank. interpretation impose a pasture tax on the whole more satisfactory. plainly con- but there no certain etymon. or a part. 11.

5 (. are to — with mid: — 2(3 ff. to offer sacrifice. 11 . ff. \^ — < [^ '^ 8'^/[. That is. Ildt. — 2y For abMeanin<i uncertain (sale- . el ' iarrepaae. &: — . hvoheK\p Tpnravayopato^ Iv € ^€ €€ ee |? varepwi rph el ' ^ '^' [ eairepdaa^L Trap Iv > 8. and taken as an adjective agreeing with but the meaning able ?). — aor. — \\ . .09ff.(]r. — 28. 95. struction..— 8 ]|09 ' \ ] [ in a . market. : aor. 8 | Et'/c . 58. \.8 — ARCADIAN IE"SCE1PTI0NS 177 No. con- — €iroi<re: Horn. his official statement as to the condition of the ani- pay afine of three obolsfor each (wagon). cf. etc.'\ . sence of &v . €5. is -]: temple. ^ .sec 174. '. Ace. . < 88 —^. : mals 9. . :. 8'\\'\ left. subj.Syll. probably to be restored thus. 157.— • 6\\. . . . all & () 6. 15 hiepa ' | • el ' . 8\ . el lvo\pev. 17] e• • 8^ • /xeS' ? '^ ' \<. one shall beyond what he declares in his function of hierothytes.3. but probably If one drives wagon to the sacrifice off the high impose a pasture tax.] 20 25 30 Uavajopaiov [31—35 only a few words for those not unblemished (and so suitable only for personal use) one shall uncertain. — hicpoOvTc's . He shall not go road leading through Alea. — Et/c eirl .] ^ \ ^' . : — os 21. Unless the Fifty or the Three Hundred approve. infin. — ? — ? Xe'ye tiLepo- otl hav || Trepi^dpoi. — 7. abs.. is final. ee eVt • el ' . I)itt. i^ass. to fut. Cf. [ . 173. make arrangements for the used like 20. dle force. [~\\ ? 6[ . The officials : 78. which was held at ancient festivals as at our modern fairs.

€l St Tis. Thuc. — 11. ^ 1 II €pyv 18.g. Att. ff. see 80.' — 12 Hut if any one who has made a contract has not begun on the boon shown to be the correct reading. <€| • 15 . irepl epyov • 6 • otl ay — '^ | €8€. 7. 32. war shall interrupt — introduce the matter. Tegea. : Regulations governing building- lohatever money he may have received contracts. 14 etc. 6 ei [[ epya. as is sometimes et Tis in Attic (e. : 15 ff. ^ 18. | ' [/] €1 20 yv . Att. if those giv- . .1222. b. Note the change of mood. . ' any of the works conany of those completed. he shall return than two . form — 20. || lyKe^riprjKoi apyvpiov. yii>j]roi \ epyoi. •— 21 to suit the : amount of not this. '. [ '. If tracted for.— 178 GREEK DIALECTS [No. detached from verbal phra. Ill cent. 1. Solm2. SaDT. | | €pyo. /. which is constituted the penalty. has come to be used independently in the sense of a simple indefinite. der. or should destroy . as in — 4. If any one makes opposition to the allotments of the works or does an injury in d any ivay. • ei . o<rai . — . loork. 7j-e . \o . — has recently worksand war interrupts. — and withdraw from if any trouble arises between the work. — 6ff. ing out the contracts so order. | epyv | .5). ff. () epyva [] epy. 18. to the court of gen. Michel 585. relative use of the article. the contractors on the same gards the work.— — ^. as re: yev€a | | .21.ses. 18 sen 5 TOL. For 9. 10 ' ^ \€ ^ ^ ^. : ttoc- with tohatever penalty seems best to them. Seel2"6.30.c. ing. Cf tl ri 1. Instead of sale of plunder the word must mean here simply jdunderthe city being subjected to plunff.. 'No more than two partners for any one piece of work. Iloffmannl. from the time when. 6 — yap[v^ yvevov €8€. and no contractor to have more . etc.

' — 45 ff. | <. 8[^ [1] ''^ []^ ' 8)(<.^. 37 ff. Owing is preceding lacuna. andDelpli. workman may be trial expelled from the payment. € vSticos. Be | | • Se he [rjt? el oirep . ^ ^. | € iepcov irepl • Se | | . : 1£ be in: Mlkos. Otherwi. — 28. receiving half the fine as a re- ward. or disobedient to those in charge. man seems to be abusing the works. And the same person who was {the subjected to suit. So — 24. et ' | eVt j — Et the ' '^ epyoL^ ' rt? <^used imper- virepa- 45 BeaTOi epya | work without unanimous consent of the heliasts. fourth letter from the end . he shall surety) for the work. 43. — || || . the for its refers back to . 18] AKCADIAN INSCEIPTIONS 179 €7€\ • epya .ose'a^o^stheUtigants SGDI. like Cret. But if due. . [ ' [ | €0^ 6 35 Lyyvo<. • €7€. the ocOtherwise he {the con- put casion and intent of this prescription not clear.No. — 33 ing works contraiy to the terms of the ff. or disregardful of the established fines. .se he must pay the same penalties that are in as tractor) shall not be liable to suit anyhe is fixed for other pieces of work over- where than in Tegea. shall be surety for this fine. not ) . . ^ ^^ . must at his own expense good condition as it was at the time of the contract. ej/St/cafo/xeiOi?/ subjected to suit . €<. — 'If the a contractor injures any of contract.Aemn. is sonally with the dative of the person : any one who loishes may former. (11. 'If a contractor or work- pay double the amount for which the suit is brought. . ^.' ^. but probably o. [<] . eirl 11 irXeop 25 epya wXeova. Et ' ^ epjov et're etVe lepov etVe 40 | <. for who is liable to suit. ' [^ . See 157. and fined in the same way as is .1432 •. For ci. he it tlie exist- is uncertain.' ' . — Et || 30 ['] Tt[? epya el et Teye'aL • et ' ' ^<? I ' '. to the else — 2. . Iv not to work. Att. and the contractor brought to -. pieces of •.

se. and = Exam- 1 In the Greek transcription the mutes are distinguished and the nasal before are used. Xasals before consonants are not written. 11 1 4<- epyov etVe lepov etVe — The giving out of the contracts and acis 50. tij^etera.= . in force in addition to the . that is initially and for the second and signs for each combination of consonant and element of diphthongs — following vowel. But land . -. consonant euve re (a sa tu = ples of other groups are rare. in accordconsonants is supplied in parentheses. = sc la se -. its vowel is determined by the following in the case of initial groups and con- = . (cf. . .^ For a final consonant the sign containing the vow'el e is used..' 180 7. wels. kase For groups of consonants the first is indicated by the sign containing the vowel of the syllable to which this consonant belongs. t is a matter of conven- tion) may re.same thing. - .— ma me nose = se = -fduaKTos. abs. a r<i in the case of licpiid \\\ In ro pntoUne — apyvpo. in the case of mutes. 'This general contract shall be — Tos 173. This consists of signs for eacli of the five vowels these being used where — no consonant immediately j^recedes." . or . li = (). not r. me. But there is no distinction between long and short aspirate. ff.1). — io-8oKais 51. sonant. Cyprian The Cijprkin Si/lhihdrij Nearly all the Cyprian inscrijitions are written in a special syllabary.sed expression Cf. e? [n. 8[].special con- : acc. 7< ? ^ epyoi. IG. 2 We find me ma na me not = but i ki ka si ke ne to i se = na koto terekinija — ripxvija. etc.some uncertainties in regard to the proper transcription. — 53 the . e. sonant also + + licpiid . tract for the particular piece of work. •. . as 7na.g.. (.' : for 11.^^ . That is. 18 ' Tay kolvclv yypaov ^^^ prescribed for those sition to the allotments. nor.17-10. patiri consonant..see 199. 6€^ | yeypajr^T^OL. ceptance of proposals conden.g. + . e. €7€ Tis Iv 1 ^ ^ — | GREEK DIALECTS ^'^? | '..^ -? who make oppo- epyoi yeypa€v\aL av^yy \\. ance with the practice adopted for other inscriptions where the signs and are jiot in u. by the preceding 89. $. •• in 1. .>. For . ie and Hence the sign stand for <t (the transcription with ?. between surd.

185. Idalium. is • -.c 1». hence tapotoUne — (/) . 8 10 Agreement of the king and city between the withdrawal nian expedition of 449 Athe- of Idalium with tlie physician Onasikis and liis brothers for the care of the the siege of the city tlie wounded during by the Persians and This siege is inhabitants of and the union of Idalium and Citium under the Phoenician king Melekyathon. In this only are given in the more exact syllabic trandenotes the word separator.60. to be placed : cf. not the line division. ^ • \€ ^ .(^)' {) 19. I etc. perei ro ijuTepav ^\. i?. \^ cent. The is first five lines scription.c.sych. Probably SGDI. 10] CYPRIAN INSCRIPTIONS are separated 181 Words by a special sign. about 3!)1 n. He. the Phoenician city of Citium. <. omitted after the article. but this is is commonly. Solm- sen3. which indicated by numerals.c.No. e ^ {) 1{) 1{) 4 {) \ '^ 6 . | 1 ote tapo toll nee tali one kate vorokonematoi kaseke tievese itoi pilokuporone vete itoonasako 2 ran pasile u se sa ta si ku po ro se ka se a po to li se e ta li e ve se a no ko ne na si lo ne to no na si kn po 3 ro ne to ni j a te ra ne ka se to se kasikenetose ijasatai tose tose itai a to ro pose ma iki 4 ma me nose mi si tone kasapai euvereta kai aneu ka se a po to li se sa tu pa si le u se na si 5 lo i ka se to i ka si ke ne to i se a ti to mi si to ne ka a ti ta u ke ro ne se to | I | | | | I | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | I | | [ | | I | | I | | venai "Ore | e xe toi | etc. Kaai'jp'Toi'i ' | () eXei () || "0(y)Ka(v)TO<i Tep-^vija €76() ^^ {) of the i$. (\) (\)• <. « '? /? {)0< {) tttoXlv ^FjSUXlov Karepopyov Kerie/re? 2 avuyov ijaaOai avev «? | rot? KaaiyveTOt^ ri^Se.'Xjrov here not identical with . \€<. somewhere Put S. 19. In such groups a final consonant often treated as medial. though not uniformly. Hoffmann 1. () ' < '• '0^/|] ? () <. Sofevai {). and sometimes in other groups of words.

is For the force of 6. 20). pi. () (^) is 8 ] 11. see 131. 1() {) voja . Whoever impiety violates these agreements. See . < <. 19 € | (). son of ^. {) Kaaiyverov ' () ireSijac Kaacyveroi^f e (). — 10. — plantation or orchard. 21) and probably iravoviov : but tlii. Nicias and grandson of Caucus. '/? 7\1- e%ey TO{v)he. with ing all agreeing with not coordinate. ' | poL < ^. salable products (wtos). So in ace.8 <8 {). '{) () () < (^) €7() 7(). () i.'i <. ' e e (/) iepe- 1() \ At/ret'^e/xi? ^ (). possibly connected with live. -^ ^^ \ I8e Treiaet .? «? 8 . But it and d% may 20.s (cf.s very uncertain.< /^ | {) (). TatSe e Tep^vLja e v\fal<i ctTeXija 09 apyvpdlv 7re(XeK€fa^) () 28 30 09 ? 8. [/ . . vfaU forever. may the interven- 22 () afl is 18. «? 11 ]? \.) peinja ()8€. € <.182 iravovLov 12 e 14 ! 18 20 22 24 26 ^ ^ ^. also be taken as a conjunction vifals {6?). that is he an impious act. Treiaet ' 7€(€<. /3€|? Sofevat 7re(X€Kefa<i) 7re(X€K€fa<i) \\\ {)\ ^iaXavija\i {) '^ 8() ()• Tep\^^VLja ^ ^ | | ^€<. m. rest adj. 6() being disregarded. 8€ () K^evija 6() To. 168f?. agreeing with ] (11. e 4 ai<i ^ /ca? [No. 20. ^av and on the basis of a third by-form {?). to Stheneias. as 1. () €{) 7() . < ^ ufal<i fa-. — 6{) ^ : shall be held guilty of upon him. ^ Monument and 38. the formation of which is wholly obscure.C). ? . (/) pijav < ? () <' ^ GEEEK DIALECTS areXev. 29.

taken. alloy. the court shall decide the penalty or fine. []||? • [^^ ^~ 5 10 €[^^ € \{). into effect trum. . a compound of gold and silver. not an artificial. Simi- larly at Phocaea.' [ ']: ^. .e. The city is not liable. ^.7-8. 21. the magistrates of Mytilene are to con_ stitute the majority of the judges. [^. were issued by Mytilene and Phocaea. and is thesethat the inscription refers. IV cent. •. \ € - ____ <. ' 7r\[e]|a9 . The agreement goes tilene under the prytanis succeeding Colonus at 4-5. Solnisen 4. Coins of elec- The Mytilenians first (the cities are to issue the coins alternating eacli year).simply coin. SGDI.ii. make i. \av 8e [^[€ __-_---____|_-__J '^ \\'\.213. The trial falls within sixmonthsof the expiration of the year. Hicks94. Cebrene.No. If one if is convicted of intentional adulis is and in 11.. SGDI.32.l. Hoffmann 11. First half of IG.324. The arrangements for trial im_ mediately following show that the meaning required here is debase. Accent. 8. it is to and Aristarchus at Phocaea. though the term used of them 'Any one debasing the coinage . is re- sponsible to both cities. ^. not correctly supplied here [ ] the alloy. Mytilene.^ ^^ \€^ v[^p^^Lov ^1\^] \\ [] to • '^.132.c. Monetary agreement between Mytilene and Pliocaea.}07. as often But he acquitted of intentional wrong-doing.C.XII. ' | €]€ . Myif down about 3. 7-8. I _______ ^oTTi Se K€ at] '•? eh Se \_€\\ ev '' 8[^. Michel 8olmsen5. € € '['\€7] • /? ^. 21. Roberts p. Hoffmann 11. . 13-14. If at Mytilene. ^^raXXja 'irl . B. Moreover the electrum coinage of tins time and place was based upon a natural. [] teration.50 b. ' 15 v8apeaTe[p]o[v'\ ' 6 7['\< [] \{) ^^^. he to be punished with death. Another restoration is here and in 11. 21] LESBIAN INSCRIPTIONS Lesbian 183 20. has the same meaning which is more forcibly expressed by in 11.

or any other magistrate. ^^^ Solm- iv • irrl iv . [No. Iuscr.shall zens of Mytilene.2. €')^^€^^ i'^v € '^^\ ' ' 7[€ €€. S()(mafter. guilty of fraud. and the generals erty to the one exile has not shall return the prop- Most of the restorations adopted are by Dittenberger I.184 8e TTo'Xt? 20 € .II.3iii¥. But if any one of the returned exiles does not abide by these terms of settlement.pp.XII. introduce it. 1 ff.C. . . ^'^ [] ^ ''. 21 .83.' 13 ff. dered it . Sr.. ? ^[ [^.Jurid.DT.\ | GREEK DIALECTS [']. and the remaining citi23.e.Orient. on the ground that the returned conformed The shall favor the And the one who remained ment. ment of disputes arising any of the property which those who remained in the city have surrendered to him. iv | \^\ | [ iv iv 7€]8 \' '^ [] ^^ \^. if to the agree- shall favor the in residence on the returned exile on the ground that the ground that the returned exile has been who remained in residence lias been guilty of fraud. [^^ ol ^\\€<.O. IG. \$ Nor.\ e[/x ^ 35(J.session of one any one brings court and inspectors of justice.ii. | ]^^ ] ] ]9 Measures taken for the settlebetween the exiles who returned under Alexander's edict of 324 B. nor shall he enter into pos. But in many cases others are equally those preferred possible. 6 || 5 1^09 10 ^^^ ^ '^ ^^ ' 22.. . he shall not receive any property from the city. IIicksl(34. but rather those who surrenenter into possession of it. Ditt.shall the clerks of the — officials are to intervene tlie if all tilings prescribed in decree are not carried . Michel sen6. 'The suit. '^ ^\. ^ 7'^\^\€<.214. ' who remained in resi- dence. Iloffmaim 11. Mytileiic. '^ \ '^ irrl ^8€ ^^ € rat] eirl [^.'i24 -^ \^]\^.

[ | ]9.^ ^ /' irepi 30 irepl ] Ke 35 out. or. . ae\vv. the report to the people. [ j ev ~\ '\ ^ irepl ev . . They are to see to it that no disagreement ari. [ ^ \\€ €\\ 8 ^ ]\ . If the people approve the mattersagreed . and condemn any one who dis- ciled.ses. \[.' questions of money. j Ke [ 6[^ \\ €7 \[6 . \[. 'Twenty men are to be chosen as mediators. in harmony. [ ot] 6 Ke 6 . and dwell Kegarding 30-31 ff. j jeypaTTT^at. [€ 20 he ev irpoaOe €\\ \\[ \ovTOi he ev [ ] re Kpivve. \[. € | ' - 25 avvaXXay^ai Taj Ke Trepl ^ . after the terms of settlement have been accepted as far as possible. ten from each party. € || [ '^.' 21 ff. ^ 6] [ ^ No. and regarding the oath and just as possible. 22] LESBIAN INSCEIPTIONS '[aWa'\i'i 070<. and in Ww. ^] eovTeaai.. KaraypevTOV €'^\€. if not. 7]/?09 [ aOerevra ^ 185 15 € 3\[€ ev toll hid'yoiev ^\€\\6 ev ] €€€ ev |[9 | [vrpo'cr^e eov- ev \\[7 [ ' eXeaO^ai eiKoai. case of disputed property they are to bring it about that the parties shall be recon- — and abide by the terms which the king decided upon and the agreement. so that there may be no disagreement between the two parties and they may live amicably and abide by the decision of the king arid the settlement reached in this decree. men selected who shall shall take such measures as . [ . that they shall be as regards them. of settlement — ' other matters.[ .seem advantageous. ev <.

ssengers. TG. ]\Iichel3G3. as side -^. ' ^ [eju^aro. Ditt. .186 ivSem] \ai. . Only A is given here. e|j[[e7reyLci^e .4. donians in behalf of the forms.ii. € 8]e ' GREEK DIALECTS [vre/at a <.G45. j . ^' [ ^^ ]\] ] . | 7] the /^ . SGDI. the text of side Between 319 and 317 B. 40 ev OeoiaL iirl 45 f> 10 •yap 15 ] — . oei'yTjV eovTeaat \_1^ [ . || \ ^ eVjt ev [No. Hicksi 138.C. SolmsenT. There are some for using his influence with the city. [^\7] ^ | [\ ] [ p'y i^l'y] ' for same privi- leges for the exiles returning in the prytanyof Smitliinas as for the others. the people are to pray that the settlement welfare. Hoffmann II.304. 22 \- <yeve- /cat] [ yeveexioiat [rjot? 09 ^^ \_ | ^ ] ^ Ma/ceKXe[i-|[ • a^yye- 23.3.XII. Decree in honor of Thersippus confirmed. I.e. The sac riflees wliich were promised when the messengers were sent to the king are to MaceFor the historical referencessee Hicksand Dittcnbcrger. [\ [ ] [ ^ || aTpoT[ajoiai] upon. they may decree [] . 129. be- . ']1 | Trap 6 . Nesos. ^ \[<.Orient. €^[ ] €\\[€ [ [? \ ^ \'\. 2. to may be for the general The priests and priestesses are throw open the temples. the more fragmentary being omitted.' 38-30 ff. When the decree has been ' be made annually on the anniversary of the king's birthday in the presence of the twenty men and the me.

[]- 40 )[/[7^']9 €<. et = (21). TrXd^eoj (words with original with and examples of (36). [^^. ' [7]7 € lene. 'Thersip- ^. ? || €[€\ \['\.-. <. ' ^ he ^• ' ? [ 6 :]1 [eK^'yov^oiai. : site of the Roman imperial times With the geni. Labeo. from — 48 ff. Trepi anoheiav | [ \€€. . avva^yaje | \^\ €[^ <.| apj][p aja- 20 et9 7]|[ rrape. I 187 [iyever^o Sk ^09] Trap 11 < €'\< || [? ]€ [-^^ Tcoy ei<.ine dialect forms are Lesb.. Karear '\^\. Decree iu honor of L. any of his other benefactions. the epithet being derived IBoeot. lectin €8 in (5).eVo]i<> ^ ^[^ ^ < \<. 23] LESBIAN INSCRIPTIONS avvajaje. av8paj[a'P ^<. . 280). late . . 4. 77. \\^ ? 47. . ^ ^^ ] . <. interspersed etc. . — not a). ' \\ ^^ Ta|[7yU. ~\ Trpoehpiav ^ ^ ^.. Therma.25 re- evvoia<i ' [^]' . 35 e'\v 7[[/]).No. € • || euayjeXia | € (^€<. ^'[]| [] Kev 45 50 '\^'^<^. (cf.[ '^^ | €'^\ et<. . with . .'^'\. Vaccius -.spelling as ?.'^' '^'^ 6 [/3]|77 .7[| [^ '^[\'\.' 84. forms as pus may also have the decree set up elsewhere in any sanctuary that he chooses and add to it a statement of hyper-Aeolic forms as . 8\^\8^ 6 €<. [/c]al <. 30 €<.: . a place — \^ of marble from Lesbos near Myti: This is a characteristic exam- pie of the artificial revival of the dia- ITopvoirias temple of Apolio I'arnopius.

ehvoav -\ <.:311.c.d. ' \€.8) are probably (1... ' ^ \ . if correct. etc. the normal Mt-forins \• . ' . al. Tie deprecated excessive of the relative. 280). €-| < €\^ re rrpovTrap'y < 6 | 20 < <^ ' <.s•. GREEK DIALECTS Between 2 n. and moreover by this time little. is (155. transcription cho. . with Att. SG1)I.).sequence.. e infin. of dedicating a temple and naminghim founder. being bor- fi-om the (126). But it is to determine whether in form was adopted such cases the as a whole or only in part (cf. was left of the sound of the So the s])iritus asper even in the with ' impossible /? . Be ei<i | | • || - • beside artificial. . r/od. the (perhaps only by the ento psilosis.so al. but the honors suitable . \ 7roXio<i \\ 7< '. thinking it to be enough to have observed the judgment and good honor. 10 '.so ^' fer and one might pre- and deini-. 8[/] - 9 and ev ^[) [eya\o]7pe7e()aL re re ^^ ^ ^ '. if anything. - '^ - [/][9| || 5 <. \. is of small con- With regard we but 15 ff.). Hoffmann IT. fj). like -from the 30-37) an aor.seu . indicative graver). a contaminapass. '^< - ev '. ev re € <. 9 ^ <? evep- 25 ' '^ | (66). tion of (1.^ . find The forms rowed . (iiiiin. ev - - | \[<. < '?* 15 . is . with carried over and Lesbian accent).scribed . ^. Cyme. . • . ' throughout (cf. suitable only to gods will and (instead of of the people.188 24. [No. 24 1!) a. are trail- with etc. 173.

Kev iv €- -^^ 30 ' 6 AevKiov evepyeTav. | -^ ^. '?. . | <. iirl '. ^^ . || ^. sg. iirl | LESBIAN IKSCKIPTIONS eh 189 8\€ iv • je '^.!^ iv € I I .\ ? 45 | 8 avaypa-yp-ai ^/ || ^ ] .. ayopav p'y'av. .' \- iv 50 55 r.^ . name of the tribe of Rome and in tlie nom. irpoehpiav. . .. — 47. ^ . ? ^. ^. €\ 8 . • <.o to good tion.. eh - et||/coya'?. .No. '' ^ \ ' '^ \ ^. accepted tvith gratifica: \. i'y^pv iv i' i'€fpv • «? | i^LXava '^. men (( fie tioiis. || 8 ivv \^<^/ iv . ". '^ . ttoXlv SiaOeaiv. as in Latin inscrip- . 24] et? . . ' 'wlionPolemon was priest Augustus. — 5Gf. 6 11 '^- 35 40 Kopayilav /-^?.

.238239 (only the letters of Philip). dated 219 and 214 B.\€ 6^ KXea/a^etot. Roberts 240. ii. poi set late inscription of Tpos 6-[1][] \. Hoff- identity. 8[^\ \[7'\€<. TroXet ^/?. B. IG.c. SGDI.IX. whose letters.ii. month in Thessalian 6 made '? the and A Cretan.IX.l()27. Nd/xo?. Hoffmann II. 343-344. 28. southeast of Larissa. 1234) reads I " \\ 5 Apollo of the Aristion and his fellow . About 214 b. j(^aipeLV. 25. 26.517. and ^.^ . l•. curs in IMiUarcli.Syll. 2 mann a. V cent. oveOe/ce Yipovo<i 27. The .345. IG. I At Ke | | /|. [][]. IG. h. — €( €$ up to : i'yevovTO. riialanna. Kep8[o]iov | cordance with recommendations of the ie- or 6[] — 38)? Macedonian king I'hilip V.ii.5. unknown . a.C. : see 46. Larissa.[] | 10 '[]]/ ^] €[~\\\ a7r7re[ia|at] . [No. name of a an epithet of Apollo.C. • 4 •^ €7 '' "? 3. 168 f. 5 V cent.IX. Larissa. and written in the are included. V cent. c.5.C. • SGDI. 586. 2 \ aj^euovrovv 'AvayKiTrTrot 'Kiriyeueo^ 'laaoveioi. 11 : sc.IX. ocis 52 b. ^. lG.l22f).190 GREEK DIALECTS Thessalian Pelnsgiotis .0G2-6G:5. Site of ii.ii. /ci? | Hoffmann . . (cf. "^. Ditt. \ '' ]€. 6See . Michel 41.IX. Decrees of Larissa in ac- Phalanna (IG.c. II.IG. 42. SolmsenO. B. %[/']k- 28. b.

'< <. (167. sg.7r).0) is :. '. Sie | 8 erof? 'AvajKiTr- Xocira by at- 10 12 €€ Tro'^TeSeeTO € € 14 o(v)<i € ^^ 6 irep ToDvveovv 6 Thessaliansatthistime were nominally independent. ( he ivishes to belong. ? <> . ' () Ta<i 7roXt<i • "8 €<€<. : eavToO. 18 €€-\\ 20 ovypayjreiv Cf. • \ ' . ^ . traction to woias. sg. | THESSALIAN INSCEIPTIONS 191 '? ' 7\€<. \. - two ? ]^ understood. 8 ere-l eVt .No. '' €<€. used. specially summoned assembly. but actually subject to Macedonia. gen.'^ '^'. 10 -^ eypa-ijre. . — 19. Ilesych. . . in other Inscriptions 19f.4.2. Cf. . Att. . • || . ' € €€ €^[]|[^ yap €€€ ' \ €€ : €. «-/ . Polyb. ^ But Cf.. 28] 7\€ pov<i %\ Tayovv 7€7€ €€ 7[] re evTO<i '€€€ ' < err \ ^''. like Att. 10. 709 ^<. only Aapto-aor (later) : /• — - choosing each the tribe to lohich Troias of a tv- — ItJ.. with So also in Other inscriptions of Larissa. ^ TrpoahelraL . gen.

Both word and ending are classical.s like etc.s. . " ^. '['\ || ' ' [ei*? | !]^ ()6 [^ ] 7pya 3(> . :.s probably due to the analogyof a<lverb.. — 38. et^irep < ) yap 'o'ye'ypaevav Toh Tayol^ eyeyovei .^ € he ypaa \[^6 " '." - now attested from . ].. ev lepov \•< ^FjTrtyeveo^ 'Jaaoveiot. 3 pi. CLvWeLTrelv. ^' | ^ 8. ly . '^€< [ iroXei eh | €<. (€• 28. [ '\ 38 [^ ayopv hv iyo) . '^. -^ ! elvai.8 ^. 28 ' €' ev Tave. vcpUpouv: apparently equivalent.'50 32 34 . . This | [^ ' : [^ . . plpf. of — 4. 'yavveiTei TayevovTovv .stis '. [ . 28 <€ JvepSoiot.' . . .some half dozen It i. ' — [No. po. ' .source.. fail. . . 40.192 iv 22 <' " \ GREEK DIALECTS 8va<i " ev 24 2() peLV./. iniss the viark. . . || ?.

same phraseology. ' {) ^. . Boeot. bill <( \.. ' .IX. to wip ing not (cf . • '^ 6< '^ < ^^. . yioXOTOL [] ? | 20 apyv- ' ''^. \<. 1. \. ously passed and the present one. inf\n. | 44 •" ' "|. .)12. with €$.pavvovvtot • ^<. ^ \ 29.c. ever of those ihat have been enrolled any meanpersons accuse.. . Cf. 38) and Toj. <. .ii.scription of Larissa (1(}. in the .. 8 -<09> €7\^'^\ " 18. ev <^ \< ? /. 79—92]. — 43. u. ^. . 8<. all in . the decrees.779 }\.20] ^|raLae'ua'i 'AXe|t7r7roi <. 20. both the one just previ- . '79 II cent. <. aireiXevGepovo-Oiiv: perf.1. Larissa.'33. ' '. \ \< v7OJ€\\['y'\paepov irkp lepovv. declared free. IG. : the . m 29. 136.30). so. • | TvpTOvvioc ^^? [. The whole list inscription of 44 lines contains a of manumissions.. tSs in 24 apyvpioL language of adulation. Hoffmann < ? 6 46 48 [. \4[~^^0^ Kive^ THESSALIAN INSCKIPTIONS 193 " €•\€ iv '^^ ^' . ^ .o. ' • " '^'. vol Similarly "- : lohorn- another in- . | - 40 €[^''\-\ /] 42 \_'\ | 11 8 iravTO'i 49-78]. € ' <. <.— 41. vwirpb = €5 \(. .

4GL SGDI. secrated places of the heights in But Larissa. ^^. ". - [^€]. — 24. | ev re roi? TrpOTepo\v -^ Ihhiav Stere'jXet evepyere^ /cat e]y j^peiav '? ']^ [^. the it is called in another inscription of ^^ ^' .7[ T€v[vaoi rayevo^VTOVP ? \ 'AvTijeveioL /i]at /ca^' €\\ '?] ]<.8yn. kolvov \ra^ eV | [eTraijveaai] 7[^' '] () iayovoi^ || XoiJTra \TOve 30. '^.< [^^ ^'' . .\\'.361B. IIoffmannII. Late II or early I cent. ^ || XeiTopevovro'i 'Ayeilaia '3e[ • Et/Ja/cXei8ai09.ii. IIcent. Larissa. | ^ TevvaoL ' | - A^vri^oveioL. ||']4. one suspects .IX. Michel 302. '[€.671. SGDL1330.IX.il. . . oc ove^OeiKav \ • | | 31.B. ^ | \ [No. [Nt/co]«:Xea[? I IG.. . Michel 11-2 .| rovv 5 - AvTLjeveioL. Craunou. ^ ^[ ?]. \ ?] [ |[ ^ ']^£ | \ eaVTol | ^] ev T]e[^ei] ev [^6 | / ]^'/ \ev ev Ill cent.ii. 7\[. HoffmannII.c. 5 ] [ [€€ '^\ [] . • \€[^^ | 20 /[]^ 25 32. IG. Phalanna. ttJot \ ?' )« ' hehoa\eai.\ \ ''' 86€[ .l233.194 GREEK DIALECTS 5 ^ vovveiGi oi II 30. «.ii. [\.' ^^ €€'.some error of the enaraver. Decree in honor of Leon of Ma- tropolis.'\ 7]? 15 ^. | 77€<?. Ditt.IX.54. ^.536. : in the con(?). . 30 | 31. IG. ^ [^' . 10-19]. Kefers to the Thessalian bullor as fight. ]/3[)]€[9]. 10 [<.c.

floiKLUTaL^ . the rayos was the military head of the united Thessalians. 20). was added bottom.).8. For the special dialectic peculiarities. the . 1.Ditt. of vlos instead of the gen. (Xeii. Thetonium. Decree of the Tlietouians in honor of Sotaerus the Corinthian. -^ it 9 \ raybv apyvpia || <? € iire- eJTrot'e. B. instead of the patronymic ad- would be only another instance in office) were times of war and peace respectively. the bronze to indicate that 1 did not ov Kevfepyirav? See belong with the following.see ?. but not unno. war footing. 5.se (cf. 28. in any case. as seems on the Avhole more likely.e. at the only in time of war.\ \\\ tol yevet Kevpepyerav e\^^avaKa(h)h€v. 33] THESSALIAN INSCRIPTIONS Tliesscdiods 195 33.. 6 .sarily .1. : beginning and the end.show that the institution under which originated name is unusual.SGDI. is Either this G. 1.478. ' in is .sed in Lesbian the TayoL of no. Jason of Pherae. and ex- while the present decree was concluded plained by the fact that in early times. tion.g. son of Philonicus. as also later in the time of Jason of Pherae.1183. Tayia) and was /7( So (cf . .so u. 10. although the bronze tablet on which is it is intact. this was in vogue at the time of inscription and.. e. in boasting of the military strength of . ex- by raybs ^ found that no space was In this case (cf. IG. Kiv war plainly the '- equivalent of the usual (or \4 is one of a connected series of tablets. But the 214) of divergence from the u.C. 8 is the municipal official.9.Hell. -€9 Cieriuiii. A horizontal line was cut 1. appointed on the following tablet or.Arc. with correc- when Orestes. — and peace. son of Pherecrates ^ read top when it was left at the 0. 108.g. in which case 1. alone (cf. not far froni Solmsen 10.sual Thessalian. . Ta70sof 1. \.5 10 33. 1 is the conclusion of the present decree. It is is obvious that the text as stands incomplete both at the inscribed in 94. 1 forms the conclusion of a decree given on a preceding tablet. The use would expect time tohcn of the gen. and . ^' | hv\opeovTO<i SeTOVtot ehoKav K€v rayd ^'\.12). who had recovered the gold and silver objects that had been lost from the temple of Apollo.€€$ 6()5 hmos. vXiopos occurs in Arist. irals often .Syll. ^ no it the Thessalians on a press this last 8> 8 -.No. 257. V cent.7. and Cyprian). .ii.2) or. The phrase ': see 214. Xll. likewise precedented the u. like Stratus . was jective (. The addition of the grandfather's use of the phrase does not neces.

8.234.5507.ii. war. 180. G as the title of lar to the woifeae ^ '^^. '^ cent. 2. and have zealously assisted in to those should read some such name as (AVilamowitz). Ill cent. SGI)I. <. VIII. just as to those citizens of Pharsalus ning.I.)2. 65.p. Hoffmann ^^. broken at the bottom. 35. \ who Boeotian ^ AttOQCjXovl -^. 6. . CIG. B. Class. fheKa- no.syllable from the beginit is.c. M. : ' to those [€]: Vs. 1 ff.' with those — « 3. IV. already. . — f[hea6\o]. 34. and gives epigram of four hexameter on asmall tile.IX. near Acraephia.326.7. Buck. Pharsalus grants citizenship to those who have Tois assisted it. serving just as aipreseui. ? : form is in agreement with and is either an epic patronymic or a designation of the gens or phratry to (a Boeotian. known as the Pop^iy -. 1. in which case we have already enjoyed citizenship).^. SGl)I. j - - 35.S.196 GREEK DIALECTS [No.C. ibid.21i)0 5 are of cour. pleasing gift. b. Temple of Apollo Ptous. ^ In 5) belonged. which : or Cf. Holleaux. () ' in . .. €[ ^^ ^<} e^o/LteW? \'•^€'\ (Four columns of names follow.ssible. about = verses inscribed An land to each youth. ois . SGDI. cf. Vs. associated oil's : . Br^al.437. an official simibut nowhere else than in this inscription as an eponymous officer. ]€6. IG.) /' ^^.18. SGI)I. Phil.11 €. <. £]The eitlier case va- note . not siaiwe. — even as Cf. €• € {'y)a[<.' have been rious restorations of the first . 34 5 . '^ ?/]'9 KaX/rol•» Pol. It is (non-technical possible that the second not those who letter is not but p. riiarsalus. 76ff. but used in its earlier and more general sense of ornament.448. the district Fields. 38 (526).L. already chosen. ^ || ] 7\[€€€^ | ^ . [< ^ 7€€ 34.VII.se equally po. have already from the beginning been politically use of \€.

compare h. SGDI. see 136. Thebes. Dem. €. €€{)€ 37. or a noun Vs. town which apCf. Hcapov TO 38-39. 26. of. Urdiefi. A'ase from hiapov Tlielies.VIL2418. ' {) 'jop 36. IG.see \vith dat. (cf. cent. and. contributions for the 41.1. Examples of the early spelland ae. Vs.1900. 41. A^ase probably from Tanagra. 526. of uncertain origin. VII. as in a later iv - See 61.c. Hicks 135. n. See 94..1()7. 58. pLOv\ 6[ may €. Hom. part of the name -.606. n. and is formed.7): The identical with that of the Boeotian addition of a particle pears in Homer as ^. .20. oe ing — 40. 39. .). and in another Boeotian and a Corinthian inscription. Here stood the subject of ? 7€[/31 in : €\ ? e'yu. Tanagra. SGDI. 40. et. 4. -^.120. Syll.3. ment with. | IG. first daughter of .9. -? is -d. Byzantium Note the retene But here the epithet found ^) is is applied to Apollo. '^. B.885. Probably M. ' ev || ^ cent. in (or which occurs in Pindar. .1!)()(). epi. which the final ov is preaiaposition read.c. / £— : be an adjective in agreeunderstood. Cf. $.VII. For the whole verse ending. 3467. For fhcKa. For 38-39. List sacred war (355-346 u. (\) VI cent. € : masc. Michel 617.3 vaypg.6.1a.^ . . 105. n. and Callim. IG. Ditt. /. \l 38./3. . 30.l5and20.9.1133.^.oy€a ?' ^ 3. the dedicator was an Athenian or Euboean.No.96. 6po% \iyova-i.c.876. - was at this time allied with the Boeo- tians (cf. a rare imperative form .7. ^ ¥€€ Trie.34). . ' cent. b.593. like by the ? -. names of the donors. if the correctly The form served with.(.Hom. [re . 65. 36.. ^' is e7ro[Xe- elsewhere. Vase SGDI. etc. —: of Boeotian inscription.705.. the same tion of the older spelling beside .c. [Toil 6]/ the of Middle IV cent. . | '\ ttJot ]'^.c).C. . 41] BOEOTIAN INSCKIPTIONS 197 ^ TO<i TO. Paus.

]09 eZo9.€<. [^'^ || 7€'<. jiot official representatives at accidental. Observe that in the case of the representative of Plataea the gen. '^..570. 41 irpiayee^: ^apoyjr 7/04[€9] 10 [€^ /3]'/? SeKue^ • | 15 €6[]9 [/9]. as in the case of the others. 2723. sg. This is one of a series of four belonging to the father's name is used. See 126. Solmsen 13. . same i)enod *€5. ^ \ '' | GREEK DIALECTS • | [. sg. • | 'AvaKTopte€<. VII. : those ivho . Cf. 0eicr7rie[tO9].^crve as The same holds true in the other tliree dedications. . Between 312 and SGDI. ' ^ [^'[€€'\ | ^^^. | \\ oySoeKOVja avveSpoi '7 ------ Teve\Pio<i\. 42. not the patron. Attic in the dedication.198 5 ^?. beside and Attic Att. . near Acraephia. in -ov beside -. /[]€€[] 30-1 n. article. apyvpta • [^ • €['\ \\['\. '^ || \\\\'^. VII.. From used like used of a gen. Roberts II. Att. 13). Temple of Apollo Ptous.c. and it is jjrobable that this is adj. 22. <. 7rpt(r7«s beside npiffyeies. a. '^ . }\. : [']['\<. 06. Dedication of a tripod to Apollo rtous by the Boeotian league. <. 8. ^ ' ." . '77<.]]'9 • | avvehpoi etvi^av IG. £8£ or (IG. .. \\^ ^^.. of the relative use of the unknown in tlie later Boeotian one at Epidaurus inscriptions. \^ [] ^\< | . [] €47€9. 42. • | 20 25 ^ <' [^' <9 ^9^-. MichelllOo. as that of Asclepius modeled after the (cf. but that the Tlataeans. 2723-27246). [7€ -^^ \\\\ ------• -]| Trpiayeie<i || ['AJXe^ay- | [^€\] iv irev- ] /3. . | M^'^ ('^..s [/c]XeZo9 ^ <. <. /. . shrine made after the model of another.

in settlement of the notes which she held sum which the city payment. IS. Orchoiuenos. Solmsenl5. had lent various city of sums of money to the Orchomenus. reta. : that he had a probouleiaua to present to the peo2)le. the city was unable to meet them. Nt/ca- . and since the jwlemarchs the city (maturing) in the archonship had arranged these matters and th§ . and an agreement was entered into according to which the city was to pay her the sum of 18. for which she held it against certain notes. \ Between 222 and 200 ^6\<. 43. When this had been accomplished it passed a her to accept. of Thespiae. Whereasthe people had voted that the treasurer in charge for the third period of four months should pay against the city. .585 dr. 833 drach- written in the . 11. "/? €.<> | '^'\ ^^ 6 ! ^' \€\<. 43. the t > Nicareta. .VH. which serves as a heading to the whole to ments IV. cf. 488. and that the polemarchs should take up the contract they gave for the treasurer in VI. Jfor the phrase - money against themselves.276 i¥.44ff. 1.c. 43] BOEOTIAN INSCKIPTIONS 199 is.pp. adopted the Attic usage at an early date. €€€ \.No. SGDI.sed a vote (III) to pay the amount and take up the notes and the contract. Finally the city pas. implies further vote (II) ordering all the docu- 55 f. 1.I. Xicareta ajjpeared at Or- inscription. Inscr. 1(5). they and the and the ten whom Nicareta selected. When € some concession on her part. 135. 1" ^^^ '?. and of the contract () (--). The sections of the text are gh'en in the order in which they were inscribed (cf. ave^ -..833 drachmas is more than the total of the notes re- corded in IV (17. Tot ypayjrav € .509 ?. chomenus to collect these {11. These are recorded in be inscribed in a specified order. but probably less than they amounted to with the normal penalties for delayed payment. generally re(once.sociated politically with the (1. of 18. and cancel the notes against of Xenocritus.). ferred to as as ? ). The text of the agreement is given in YII. ^^ ® €< || ^ . f.. 30 ff.. ivhich they persuaded Athenians..:3172. The sum persuaded her (to accept). The Nicareta inscription. This was done as stated in I. so long as. but the numbering• of the original publication is added in paientheses.Jiirid. (Met)f(o)? fiKaaTr] || :/3€7. mas.). 2 obols). IG. Nica- daughter of Theon.833 drachmas within a certain time and the polemarchs were to give her a personal contract for the 10 ff.

' €€ 11 | €7€8€ • []9 el- 7rpo/3e|[/3]wXei. \^'\ '. (VI) /cr/ Te^eWo? | €< ^'^ '^ (^ { ^) Be | ^.. until. " ^. — 49. <. though one difficulty remains. of the singular ff. agreement deposited with Theovoted by the people. where we iv 59. ^ ^'' -/? GEEEK DIALECTS •^. jj ouirep [\ | \_'\ 6 | 7€€<. 60. see etc. \'\ ^/ it '^ ? <. — this purpose. 11. . ivevixdeiei. is declared should be made and the amount agreed certain by Baunack.5. rhilol. | 67\_'\\_^. oiiginating in iv urer were obliged. \\ (^) [']/ | ? (11) (V) :^ €- (VII) (VIII).200 -"re avvypacpov. : On from i-eo-. . with the assent of the people. €( 40-41. be — 40 . — Iv for : . This the only satisof phestus.43. | [No. factory interpretation the troublesome passage in the inscription.)^y^P^i\^^ ev () '^ ^. ? '? € ? \€^ 8 | (^^ <? ^'^ € ' ^ • '^. '^^^''. the use 42. ['\'[] eiriBel./xeVoi' j| []^ 6 <. | yov av. The polemarchs and the treas- should expect theplural. ^•^ ^^ \<. /iey *'g 7r€[/9]ja/xe/5ta[?] ' '? ^ ?^ ^ '^^ ''"^ ^ ^ ^ . to give a contract against them- .- 11 • (III). . €\7€ . []: Cf. 43 <> eirl .XLVIII. | eV ®€7. | Ni/capeVa? ^^'09 Baveiov - [:] )[)] i\_v Ls | ?) oU7re[p] /. ^most treasurer had paid the to the money according upon provided. a^ujTU Se/c[a]. 6 28. 1 and note on Cf. not ivevixdei. selves in addition to the existing until the levy for this purpose - 136. () 40 ^^^ III ''.

€vevL')(^deiei. month of Alalcomenius. No.— ''' ^?^' '6'8€ ' ? ?/ ^] ^? '^'^ -? € (" •7\. 50. Woch.. expression throughout []. a | 8' \_^ '^\^ ['\ < ^' e[/u. — 50. while the though dialect forms are retained in some of the proper names. [€]. @€]. Thal- ( \\•).267. | ^ [^ ^ <.[] • vo<i • • \ . 1893.2).. . 130.''.^ i'yyv • <. [. ff. Phil. ^ | . The condensed. | iv }? .s found elsewhere. Ko/xir* \\ the time gQ ['\\.e. .. • | j (^. • 6 aovvctXXay <^^ ^ • • [ iyyo 0*} • '^ \\ [] €[\'\(^.— ' ^. j | ^€4 \^[^^^ /^ ^ [^^'^^ ^^^^ 201 || ^ [^] iv <. • 7\^]. archonship of (cf. 43] BOEOTIAis^ IKSCRIPTIONS iv ovro. . 61 also after ff.]|7rpa^t? • iv '? . (151. '^. [^^ . ^^ "^ Cf.. is The text of the contract in .. The first date. Baunack and fell is not heim. . 78 23. () (/uetvos) rSs ?. '? 8\[^] ? | \\' e^t [' €]€ ^ ^ ]^'^. '. I. " —^ ^ . . applies to all the following notes 11. 7[] Xio•? Vf. .€['\\ &€7<. and agrees with uncontracted as date given at the end of each of the loan form. ^^ [] j iv <? -.^^^^ 413. . the {&$). Xenocritus.^.^^^. Bed. is is . '^. 151) probably the time at which they due. -'^|„ i'y'yo • [ \ [] — \ ' || ^^^ i'y'yo -^'„^. []\8.

^€• T/>[ta]|[«oi'Ta T/3t9. . '^ et9 . ^/ \ • [?. | | 8e ^lp\pe ^€7. € ?. ^^' -^ ^ ^ ^'€ . ^.|^ . € . e/c e/c ^ . — 113-lU..'^. « | | . '^'^ The €')^ [']'/ j| ev XaX[^o^evoL j <> [ «^ ^ ^4.g^ 7[4./g> . rpeZ<i e|7r' ! ®€'€<. is : ee'y'y[^ov | o^e[]\ iijistakt. [€] 4 ^ ' . | | \ ptoyev 'E/J^o/>tei^[t']|ft)y • irapelav ohirep 7ro\[i]||o9 "\''\ ev '7€ oinrep / 'F^^oevv o^epaepLv ""^'^^^ || '^evop\ ^)eL^n. .] € €7\€ xjirep ^ % | .] re I ^^ ]^^ (38) \€. [No. 202 (m) Ni/co/cXet 6\'^€' Be 1^ ?.. /cat '^. 43 | GREEK DIALECTS "^. 8 [\ ? ' ^. ^ [<?. ITe- TeXe- ^'' <^\ ^\ 6< ^^ [9]. haveiov - || etV j M-eKjao. €8 . . iied. 6<^ || . ^ ^' . ^ ^.~\ eK ^^. \ \ } \ ^ '. haveLOV ot e<yyv\oc | ^tKaperai ev eav he ev || 8€€ . presents . Seeo ^. ?. \. ^.] | &€[]\7€.^. '€' j^ () i^g'' J^i^ ^m ™^ Jjr 1^3^ ' . j| €recti- '76 Dailies of the first two sun-ties are but with the tiiird the error giveu by io the uomiuative. ' e'/c kvo\<.. '^€ 4.

<. So bank of Pistocles there Nicareta by Polycritus gen. '^ ^ . she forfeits find sum agreed upon of the notes {\). %€€ \€ '^ € ^ € €€. 172 ff. ff. No. ^ -/ 1. is that substantially double the amount loaned. But if Nicareta refuses to ac- cept the amount tract. If the city fails to the time specified. % . 1()5 (88) o\_\e\o'\. named in the con- as she might do in order to the treasurer in behalf of the city the secure the exorbitant penalty for delay. ^ ^'. 11. ''- ^. - @eL7tee(^t'). . 43] BOEOTIAN INSCEIPTIONS 203 ^LKapera ' ev • ^'^ -] eVt [<'\ ev iyiyovoL<. ^^^ ev ('^)€\ [| 'apepeL <evop 154 reta to ill -€[^. ^ /? ^ ^ €.'•"' '^.^^. eVt Tlo\eo | 7€'^ 1G9-170. of paijintnt Nkareta (cf (adnom. ^ ^'^€ ^^. '7€ | XaXoe\v Ni- eirl «L .. II o^epaep €. ev ©et- 170 . | . 11. 6[^\'^€<. dat. ev ) ^4\\ (] he apyovpiov /[] [ yeypap\ixe- ev '€<^/€ eOeXei [o']88[e]-\\ 1()0 (83) apjovpiov. cf. 172) through the hank of cancellation 22).. ' }? ' ^. . . ^. tract pay the amount stated in the conand the sum of the notes besides.. was paid over to 14-15). %eL^nea. . both contract and notes pays a heavy penalty.. : pay Nicawill it have memorandum Pistocles.. at the and so payment. &. To\ep^oL 'Jp^o\evv iy\<yovo ^evaLovpa. • evep ovirep ^^.^ }?.

48).3080. .VII. ^. irap- | Trarelp | ' peria [] [?}] || iv \ • []74 || ||/30? /[] | 76'[£']:' ^! | »}? <. of which there are over one hundred examples from Chaeronea alone. 44). | [/c]a^' [- €\€<. 5 10 15 20 25 . some in the and some in a mixture of nos. 44 p. 46. 44).VII. no. ^^'[]. no. 46 = 66€ € rdu no.. ( ei no. SGDI. rbv 48. '\ .4 ' . . vavra no. ^ .5.3303.Jurid.C. both. no.c. • () 45. Lebadea.II. Chaeronea.sual no. . II cent. luscr.238. 45 (cf. 24. no. 40. 47 (cf. ' . 44. II cent. see in no. ^? '.385.c. 46. nos.430. $ 48 influ- Note 4. 47 (cf. . in In those given here itself in ence shows the f of no. in 47 (see 30). IG. {No. 4G). /? ^^ 9 ^. SGDI. ^ 44.. 44). :^<? '^ avTiOeiTL f Oepainjl^va^v no. no. ^ ? | €€ aWei '^ - [ Michel 1394.. 4(5.308:]. no. u. [ 44-48. SGDI. €^. Michel 1:5 'Jl\ IG.ei^. see 22.'? | | iv AeySa-ll | | f ei|iyu. for u. '' '^^ ^ . 47 (cf. Manumission decrees.Aai. in no. B.. . from oi in nos. ^ } <? \^^€€ € 11 f | ' 9 .204 GREEK DIALECTS li. 47 (cf. € [' 5 . €[<] ^ ? ?. Vor = For and ^ 5%. . IG.425. all of about the same period. Even from the same year some are in dialect. Ill cent.2. 44. y)! . Lebadea.

63.237. eVt T/3i^a []\\' . Tot I . II cent.3352. the act of manumission takes the sale ditions. SGDI... Delphi. /. .39.C. Cf. . @ .". V cent. avTe\i'i [][. B. @ ^^] ' ^'/^ [] Early \.VII. 5 from other ate effect. etc. no. 7€€€[] .' 205 ? 5 7ra/9a^/3e[t]/ia.Jurid. II cent. thus during the lifetime of tlie master (nos. . 229.No. I I i . . "^ .C. . 51. Michel 1393. Chaeronea.722). 53) to the divinity of the local shrine.g. | || ".J. Often the manumission does not go into immedi- the Labyadae. 47. B. Inscr. 44). SGDI. . 47) or for a term of years (no. Roberts [-rrep] (^)[] [] As in similar decrees [«:a]jl 8<. €' \ | ^] -| || 5 | 5 | Se 6 lapev<. • ''. 49] PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS ".C.3200. 40. €\€ ?] [ ^^^ [cJttI ^^ '. payment of an annuity. 48. .p. but is subject to various con- parts of Greece. such as remaining in service (' form of a dedication or at Delphi. ' €<.1683 (with II.497. fihiav €\7. Orchomenus.p. .no. B. aovveSpv - Phocian 49. € . e. Delphian SGDI. IG. whose proceedings form the subject of no. 49. []\< 8€€7€[€'\\€ . Statement of the disbursement of funds securing religious sanction and protaction of tlie rights of the slave who by the officials of the phratry of has purcliased his freedom. • fiSiov \'€ .^€/9 II..

25). disburse. 110 d. . 114b cites a meaning unleavened wine.1. ilated. The inscription is on a wall con- into the phratries offerings for the occasion were 5. 819f. for the dyev is trast to is the . []|/' SGDI.]|.Leges = (in contrast to Sacrae 74 (c and d). . '[9 Atjjo? • . — cakes. Ziehen. ^ Note (12).. in where render account for.C. the Labyadae. but usually 4.3." and ayada 50. Hence the interdiction of bread and says the word was used by the The. ! 5 7€\\€ ' folvov . 44-4() used with with name of the Delphian festival corresponding to the Attic at which children were introduced . and as in Homer.).4). s uuassim- — victims duced into the plinitryhy their parents.pp.II. (— €al- where• we The at the Delphian festival were of two kinds (cf. Ionic alphabet. ^ • ^^ <^€\\4 hL\a^ aah[^av^ /? 7ohee ^h\t^a /' \ [/8][-^]6 Aaahv ]^]\ hopKov [ev v]e'[^\a 6\• '^. SolmsenSG. /cjlara . : by and the of- fered for the children that were intro- toUs So l(i. Delphi. 97. nected with the stadium. Ath. as 1.Syll. [No. [\ \ \ : | hapaTav € /'[||] ' | Aahat [. made by the parents. 49.c. elsewhere una. was probably a sort of guardian hero of athletes. / will collect and disburse.27. but sometimes 0. (>.ssiniilated.XXIII. B. like Att. .206 50. expect )= : . . . e<? B. though otherwise unknown. GREEK DIALECTS V cent. ( £6 . 4Q. Ditt. 96. About 400b. Ziehen. 1.ssalians. — 11. ready appeared A 3. [o Ao/a/co?] I ' [7r]o[Xt]|o? 5 Ta[|y 10 €7]^6| 15 .51. ivill impose the oath upon the rayoi for the next year.C.43S (with Michel995. and Eudro- mus. the •\ or cakes offered begin the sacrifice again. Leges Sacrae 73.. The Labyadae have in no. . 3. : Cf. — '€(: 11. and = j^) lengthened usually OY. no. B. : -. es ^K TO (135. con- Cf. Delphi.Jurid.II. -. • al he hoi Kepaierai he KaTulyopeaavTi €. but with F.l80ff. — I 10. 60 51.2o61. lnscr.3.Oll. in behalf of the newly married wives Regulations of the phratry of that were introduced into the phratiy their husbands. Cf.

but Ao (de- 11-12. the gods of . as also 53. Or him sign a and pay : undertaking.. which was the larger 30.. 51] Tat " 8<. ' ' <^\ 70€\ / ^\ ^. of the See 58 — 38 £f. Cf.^ ?/. \\ 6< 8 \ PHOCIAN INSCKIPTIONS Trap 207 •?. monst. \\ || Tat \\ . C19. : out A. apijroval of the gens in (. C 19. 23ff. ' — 45. the phratry. 38. beside hS haans A4(). ] [ Tlie .^ \ haparau iirl • []|/470' iv 20 rayov^ a7reX|Xata. 6 j f \ \. in the same year. . he \ € cnreWala ayev 'A7reX[Xat? aWat 6 '^ .8. 7[^'][9 -\ )5. - . the [1—4 fragmentary. a. 15 including several gentes. let fi- most Doric dialects) was a body with- during the year.) C 19. 'Any one who wishes nor the to accuse the rayot of having received unless the gens to which one the offering at other tlian the stated belongs approves in full session. 25 /€| \€!\^ • . note (for the twenty drachmas) interest. B30. '\\^6 ]|[ /jellfjo? /]]? [[''\\ 7\. — times shall bring the charge wlien successors are in t€os : as in Elis office. prerequisite to the introduction into See 136. 8e 30 ayev 35 Taycov 40 45 50 55 \ []\ cakes). as A28 jy^omising.2). \ . ' ^ 7||€ 70€^||[ ' / \ [^^ • '. [ 7r]a10 | | | tlieir '' 15 | receive neither. 60 5 ^^ .No. '? The rayoi are to or the in the case of the cakes (lit. They swear by 6 — 5(). ^ ^^ ' • | ^ '.

If the one — Ceos (no.s meaning of not (juotable. and another in his place. — '' '|[?] ^. ^^ 10 15 . 76| : ^ ^ 6'^'||[^. ff. 8e Tayol ' :|[] he 70€|[] \ '^..6$ ordinance. phratry. h€^va\L• aireWala 55 ^)\. instituis bring the case to issue by appointing Whoever convicts one guilty of an unlawful action shall receive half the fine (cf. 19. he shall drachmas. he hapa- ho he || 5 ]< ^^ . 20 ff. to act as judge.€ ^. though tlii. he^\. either by purchase . —. {the rayol) shall probably established rites.sing conclusion Like the law of of must have been the provision for such an appointment. 7\€ 4< . and gens. irep \\ the city. ' 7reW|[e hov \ ^[\ ha 67]€[^| ' \€. ) iirl • at |[] '<. — . tions. One shall not expend more than thirty-five chosen fails to serve as judge. C 1 1. ha^[pee. Law concerning funeral lulis in rites. - pay five drachmas. Cf. ^ ^ \'^ Tayol^iv he '| Aaha he he | _____ C . €€\^^] he || a\[y^eve' he hev- hpWa<i h\aevv €7 ho he ey | Aaahv eVt hevTe | | 7^\. ^• ^ hpa^^.^''. C . 8).. no. this is directed against extravagance.4\ € ^^ ^^ he Tayol • he \ . Oath of the person appointed — 19 — ff. ^ . ' 7€ \ / '. \\[h^ [] TloTeihavo^ hiKa- ^ hevTe irXeov ' he . .50). hiKav 20 70€\. The mis. 8\\ \<^ .20 T0i/[9 25 30 35 40 45 50 \ .24-25. [rjayol |[]? Traihrji^a . 51 ^]eou9 II []|:9. hiKav hiKai [^^^. 18. €€''. \€ ^^ 208 GREEK DIALECTS ai he [No. | KaTayope- hiirXov \['\ '. €.

' : or -^^ See — ff. 879. • 209 at 8e 25 '^- /je|[y 30 hev h'\e ^..4. Ditt. (€ <9 hi on the following day.: . 'HpaiOs. \[ ^^ ..Syll. No. <. . . he shall pay fifty drachmas. but there there shall be a ceremony for the dead til (? cf . 6$ = *— 25ff. on the seventh and the ninth of the ' — the lid (?) is closed (cf month eopas. nor on the anniversary. ff. ? The read- ing is uncertain.. and = If one trangresses anij of these things. see 31. /?7||[]. nor on day. I. ^ . ' ^\\<. ' .). 35 e|7rt - ha [ 1 40 [/cj'al .( ?.- 45 | '^^• 50 | [] — \\[]. The shroud shall a light gray color.' — 7-8. as used of cf. D 1 ff. and the names of the months BovKarios. — See Glossary. see Ditt. 8. variously read and interpreted. 5. ^) unras 5-7. 30. ^ \^ TrXjeof || . ff. no. . ^'^ '.[]..€. () ^' \\'\ — '^ • []' ' ' D ...3-4. except the near relatives. of the regular ff. 7€\ '. at the tomb. There shall be no ivailing or lamentation — 29 — 31 — 33 ff. cf.e.). Tats . [/Ai/yjo? . | ----- \[]. but every one shall go home. apparel. be thick and of — 39 45. nor shall they These are given in the order of their occurrence.: they shall not set the corpse down anywhere at the turns in the road (but carry it straight on to the tomb without interruption). no. But tlie last part.: cf. For . There shall be no mourning for the former dead. and. on. fromTiji-ir . {mourning Polyb. 100. 51] • PHOCIAN IKSCRIPTIONS rav 8e 7€|[] €7 .10- same sense at Ceos. Enumeration feasts. (— For the tions outside the house until they arrive identification of these festivals. Those which occur notes. . and cf. as appears from the correspondence between many of them make lamenta- . « — 46 the tenth : in the . . ' 23-24.etc. is '|[ '| 5 or {in articles taken) from the home.. 8] [ ] .5. : €. unless he denies under oath at the tomb that he has spent more. 8. 8' \\' II '. ) 11. etc.

sc. — 22. . — 29 an assembly. and absent.30-31.(. 30. 37 (shrine of Lycus official appointed to serve see 12). This mythical heroine is mentioned elsewhere (Schol. in the rock inscription just quoted). — depends upon of. . there are strangers with him sacrificing if one is serving as is the name of five theeponymousherogave to his daughter Buzyga. part. — 48 f. — 38. some days is . ajaiav Feasts are also held if one sacri- fices a victim for himself. in advance . cf. raSt quotation from the . (- shall furnish invite the Labyadae to drink together. Tos .Rhod.€< ^^7\\\ Aiap/}[i]W hiaprjia . . ancient rock inscription.. : is to be recognized in AvKelwi ?). The ancient city of Phanoteus (Panopeus) was perhaps the original seat of the phratry of the Labyadae. both private they hold holding office. — 38 . . oheXov. of course ob: ' in case of all undertakings. or wonderful calf (a sort of wondercalf ?). . : — 31 ff. whose name 1. . ff. is (the apparently the admirable more If. 180) as a daughter of Lycus. TOiaSe jeypairTai iv []\ • ^ • | yey At 12 ff. 51 ye- aWot iravTek [1] \ \\^'\ \\ oSe^Xov. \_'\\ • [ ^ 210 GREEK DIALECTS /c]jat Seo^ei^ia | T/oa^tV|]ta 1[1\€[^. scriptions. scure. - the reading being uncertain): the thefirst-fruits.Ap. 49. ' '^ ^.[No.[ €< ^ ] '^] ^.?. Both and 'Pavoreus occur in other inloritten at £: . any official nom. one ff.' sacrificing etc. These things are Phanoteus on the inner side of the rock. \ ' | 7€€ . and public. stating what - See 46. Se ha^Lop\\yol | .— 47. 11. but nothing this office.. for which one fice offers sacri- or consults the oracle in advance. if {in the sacrifices fur the purification of) woman victims.10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0€\ "[] [^]]9 ''^ .l.: — . €[^^\ < «'"||9 "^ \\\ '^" ^ \^8\\ 7\€€ 8\ \\ Ttt9 aj[t . sg. but the allusion €(8£ when is known about : cf no. the one doing so shall furnish to the Labyadae the victims mentioned and (or (i. if one assists a recently delivered of child.e. — 26-27.

show tic pliian. lap6s are replaced hy el.\mv. V0L<. 9 . 5 the combination of Delph. . ?' .C. Michel 274. . roiaSe cnreSoTO ^eoirarpa ' | •yvvat/ceia ah apjvpiov ' e^. whose writings included a prose work on Aetolia. ^ ^ . ^. Between 240 and 200 SGDI. \^ . . 44-48. ^. . areXetav 7€() roi'i 5 '^• euepyerai^ '? <. : the other feasts loith 53. \ . ({) frequently retained in the iepel^ beginning the of Aetol. ^ . ayuvoii. is iovrwv. in this inscription. 53.. iep6s. Note in 1.^ . 211 || <. ^. See 279. e. At this time the Aetolians Si)\..' . typical Delphian one shall carry out in accordance the season. this time. . . with always at though formal witnesses. and elements. 186 B. c. and this shows itself in the language of the inscriptions. decree. [^ ^.^ ^ 52. SGDI. all varieties of They Proxeny decree in honor of the poet Nicander of Colophon. ' . • ' aTrlayeadai.2653. • HeWvo?. Delphi. manumission more than See note to nos. | (viTe €€ €[]\ ' 1^€ ?. Nearly were dominant in Delphi. . 53. . |9.2034.g. 53] PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS To]i"? 8<. mixture of DelNorthwest Greek and At- . •^ \€6 ^. of which there are 1600. Delphi. | ['\ 50 ^Ajadat €7€ oU . 'Ava^ayopov iv iyyovoL'i ^^ . [| 5 aveyKXrj- €1 ' jeypaTTTai | 11 10 49 ff. the older at. by list oi.

^ '. — 18. ? ^ .. A [()]09 TG. About ISO Michel 24.IX. '.^. — 11 ff. "^ ^eoTrarpav el <. || 17. Ditt.Syll. in another of the . ^. 8e iXevdepai Kvpieovaai 6 €\^. ". Boeotian ..s. 5 10 15 '.32. Stiris. . toxis kt\. ^^'^ . origin of ' . 1<«. SGDT. . . weak grade Others conjpare and those ivho have arrived at all proper age shall try before the state. though fr/r^w has 77.. !\'\. Mede- onians shallbe Stirianswithequalrights.c. /? ^'^' /^ ^. ' . not andshnlljoinwith the city of the Stirians inthe assembli/andin appointing niagistrates.i. Agrcementestablishing a The derivation (cf. 8^[] : | []/3• 7roXtj[o]9 | []9 Cf. of wliich the would be llesycli. 212 GREEK DIALECTS [No. || el Trepl Treirolvi] pev ^ ^. 63 <. open : to all (of botli all the towns).426. . is of manumission decrees. ". ^ .1539. IXcvOepa: free. -€{) Neopatra or ]|| [7]9 Xireia or joint-citizenship between tlie *^6 tlie Stirians and IVh'deonian.2) ^ e. '. - ''^. irape- el Se - eVet || oVre? | 7raaa<i 8<. • [rjcoy []6 []? 6[^^ | | | [] | 7ro|[\i]i'. ^ . \1 are convicted of to 54. ^» [\]7 ' [ ^^ ^ . []. 10. from and connection with most attractive. Exclusive of is. Solmsen37. 6< <. ruses ivhich come which is obscure. Del/jJii 54. . . • . having done any ivrong her possessions. original a.]) 20 .

. -. epp^a. .' 138. See 231. \apeLV. ev 5 [|- \1 — 55.: t for ei. [^€^^ /[]]' 7^€ [^y^pa^|rvv ev e[pa'\\yL€'vav. ()\ AXae. ^evohi- TrpaKTrjpe^. in another Stirian inscription. ' \ €[][/]^ eW [. ^.1. ev "'^] ''[]/ | \ lepov [ aO^oXLeaai \\ | €. 32 witli Boeot. 'tliose ..^ . ^ as in 18 ff. 7[\~\. . re- be exempt from compulsory hold- tained its own organization. 42 and 0^- ing in Stiris. " . || 11 30 ?.eevav [[/^] ^\ehevav eiev '^ /'? ^\ee\vL'\v.No. and was . — 4b-41.. 1. €€: -: ^ ^/^ aXeesee = 10 ev 15 85. " • e/c BatopW'^e- 45 Ke- \''\ | 50 {) 55 []' 60 |[[?] eJpa- 7[|] ?. lepel^. p[^pe irevTe ' \^ 6[^'\\^ [^^]]|?.shall The phratry of the Medeo- whohave been officials in Me(U'on office nians. . | AtXaiea. So . . [ . in distinction from the state. ev ^^^- ' e7rava'y\^K\e<i | XeiTovpyelv '^'^ MeSe\vov ev 35 ap\^^ovTe^. XeLTo\p'yv 8e . €<. ^^ ' €[4]69. epe\. . . Cf. |[]^ ev '\\ M.ai.4. Tpeiav. 5. € ' for also ^ . — 34ff. ev €. 54] PHOCIAN mSCEIPTIONS evrl ev ev 213 \\ . . • | 40 el ^leevLv /cjat e/c ev €|['4 i^epa 6 XeeL. ]6 | | - 20 €7[[/]^ ^^\€ \_'\ [ '^^'^ he 6 || []€ 25 [TJcoy ? [^\\ ^€<. | . a^0e\vv oirOTepoL [] eev[v^o € \.

IX. no longer used. . ^ €7r|et ? . stating that simi- ness (e.5.^ . . beginning in 1. The colony to Naupactus on 94. 56 it is as no. Law governing tween the Eastern Locrian colonists at Naupactus and the mother country. since Opus was the seat of government. used for in the in- double consonants. . not only terior of a word. Cf. Oeanthea (Galaxidi). B.Jurid. e.see 1. which is generally though not universally adopted. . from the Colonists are called point of view of the mother country. is and some of 1. which was much earlier. and that the present tablet is still another copy. 55.334. expressed by in the genitive Hypocnemidians (of which Epicnemidians is an equivalent). 55 exhibits repetition (. way to Galaxidi. when he becomes a Naupactian. {!) . note). ^ share in the social and religious privileges (i. correction. Ilypocnemidian Locrian. lengthened e is by always singular. . often in sentence combination. The Eastern Locrians are referred to etlmi- ten out. 56 and 0. SGDI. See No.First half Accent. This does not refer to tlie founding of Naupactus.I. Roberts 231 and jip. Michel 285.5.l80fE. but may as a () etc. But 25 d. being a Naupactian. politically as Opuntians.2). where or it is uniformly employed before po. — : both inscrip- : ha - the . the two terms standing in the same relation as Boeotian and Theban. as . tions cnide and obscure.similarly If he wishes. 55 lengthened El. ^.pp. (once ^ in contrast to which iv with original iv are always writti(s) in view of which the reading h6wo{s) (no. 55. was set up at Chaleion. which with the addition cally as In no. the subject of between colonists from Chaleion and the mother city. is divided into paragraphs by the letters -. of the last sentence. also (in no.see 136. from which place it may easily have found lar relations are to . IG. Inscr. 1478. e(i') '^) iv to I'eceive a subsidy of money and land the relations be- from the Stirians.214 GKEEK DIALECTS Locrian [No.•. Hicks 25. is not a violent inscription has so No other Gi'eek many examples of In no. .g. 346 ff. It is probable that one copy was set up at Opus. \. . 11. but as here (iwifoifoi) from the point of view of their new home. — ()-— 1.subsist its and in general the style of is follotving terms. omission of what essential to clear. \(). {) ^. No. in no. 'Ei' 55. many instances of 3..30). 55. 56) /). In both this and the following inscription a single letter is 5€ .i. with another at Naupactus. () TuvSe yeverai. SolmseD34.C. as So ^() ^() with assimilation of iK (100). in the mother country) when he happens to be present. if he wishes. 55. OV in the accusative plural.

to forsake the alliance If they wish they Opuntians willingly by any may impose 7 ff. and those of the members of the societies. it 11. . - 15 he may share in these privileges. otherwise known only Hence in Attic-Ionic.(5. 8. i(v) ev.3. for subj. : for '- omission. ^v agreeing with the logical subject thougli possible that K€(o) .9 also iv 94. this is the 3 pi. Oveiv yevo'i Xfivy^aveLV /ce(8) Te\o<i [|<> avrov h //? [ heiXe- /ce(p) iv |9 }7<. 3. Cf. tians hundred Naupactians upon the Opunand the Opuntians upon the Nau- vided he leaves behind in his house adult son or brother. those of the people they are not to be subject to any special taxes as colonists. — al 1. They are to from lohich they each pay no taxes except Whoever of the colonists departs from Naupartus ivith unpaid taxes shall lose his rights as a Locrian until he pays . f. ev <. see fjv ev: a 3 sg.. not with the device. Kiihner-Gerth to Oath for the colonists Naupactus. 11.. ' . etc. ff. he may do so tvithout taxes of admission (to citizenship). .28G.p.. — the 11 ff.. or Cretan it is 11. — 11. one loishes to return. ^^ ^ . 55] €. are driven they from Naupactus by return . an pactians. . — If IGf. /xt '- hoppov iTrayeiv — — '? 7^\ in i. without : ^j. 4. 6 \. other dialects retaining the original ^ See 163. . — 14 ff. Locrians are not to pay taxes among the H. similar to haplology (88 may without admission taxes to the town came. The colonists of the H. . ^ ^. Ko SciXirai. Locrinn again. — — 10 ^ 1 '^ e. preceding). Probably here only a graphic a). they (cf. Locrians force. ho-iro (-? (also in 20). is — 9. until one becomes a H. avev i\v€epv. If the H. In there is probably the same contrast as in lepa — both terms refer to religious privileges. Locrians. Horn. himself and his descendants forever. LOCEIAN INSCKIPTIONS Ovuv i^el^ev 215 ^ivov oata \av^^av\etv SeiXerai. 174.No. for the repetition cf. ^'^ ^^ " )7 .. Ki(8) : pro- - '4 6€ I. : 6€ 41 — rayopai 20 100. colonist the oath thirty years after this oath. €7\. '' e 5 ev e^jeZ- • ^. both common with the Western Locrians. '.

they among the II. Locrians inthecityiohencehecomes. his property in Naupactus shall also be subject to the laios in Naupactus. though or priestly families. )? '. '^€\^ ^ eVei' 1^7(<. Locrians.ever shall inherit his share of the property. €. he must have it announced in Naupactus in the market-place. laws. among the II. Note double construction with — 22ff. If there is no family in the home..216 GREEK DIALECTS — — At 1 <pov ei ev ^. The may bring suitbeforethe judges with right of precedence. return. yevo^ ev rat 20 25 T0t9 30 . Locrians shall from xohatever place among crians he comes. sg. man or boy. Locrians to the II. shall inherit tlie what belongs . who goes as a If there are brothers of the one colonist to Naupactus. avep ei e -^ . ev ?< ^ eL e ei. Locrians severally if (one what the law of the (i. '. is. each according ff. ev | TayopaL. . and. may bring suit and submit . €^^^. . according to Otherwise the laws of Naupactus shall 19 ff. TO partitive or as gen. . — — ' (9) — — .se is to him. the becomes a Naupactian himself. — as the law be in the several cities or heir to the property nists among the colo- of the R. 55 ev yeveTa^i Tev ' ev Aoppol<i | '? ||| ^| peKaaTov einpoipov Tleppodapta^v ttoXlv F — feo. to the city of his origin. tjv einlfoi'E(f) [No. . If any of them. If one returns from be followed. and understand herit. ^ ^. /^ ^ . but his property containing 6= first not otherwise attested in Locrian. the colonist Naupactus to the H. . ev ev ev TahopaL. 4 with lating whic?i it is proper for him colonists . this use is transto in- — 32 f. — own laws. under the laws of the colonists. in each city) — of them) dies. ev the 1(5 Naupactians his lawful dues. KpaTelv apevov may — €. — 8€\€ eovTi ' AoppcL• €. <.. if a the Lo- — 29 II. .. But many take in relative sense. ho et. and among the II. they shall be subject to their in Naupactus. ff.e. then.sen. the next of kin inherit. he shall go himself within three months. Locrians. IFAeuobviously and the ^axers(i)robably the names of two noble any of the - according as the not..

83). though someas below.. point . same day.28). Hdt. as here. 1. ev •. — — |69 — — ev | ho(TLve<i 35 pai'i . — 41 ff. is not The customary oath shall be taken.€7 8€. ffTh or iTTieris (intervocalic always written. such as is not infrequent in a clause of this kind (Kiihner-Gerth I. though sometimes the opposite.' . shall be deprived of civil rights applies properly only to the appointment of the for the colonist. to bring suit. Who- of the property with the father. (). this be- have his j)ropeTty confiscated. . Locrians a any device in any point which agreed not One of the Locrians for the colonist.8 Ls (i. left behind a father and his portion times used of a magistrate. 'Owbevn. or simply ellipsis. with days of his magistracy remain.^ No. from firos and iwiaris. 1. to grant trial. If he does not grant trial to the one thirty hyphaeresis where we expect elision. but E^ tended to secure for the colonists the greatest expedition in their litigation at Opus. f.5. Some correct to the This provision in- a by-form with is {) '{). ) — 34 due to dittography (cf. 6€ '$). . tares without cor- who brings ^ and shall see 32. if to be read '. 55] LOCRIAN INSCRIPTIONS ev 217 7() <. cixl. the majority //' of the Thousand in Opus and the majority of the colonists in Naupactus. re '^ 8€ after ^^^. as here. cf. To suit the magistrate Making rection the provision mutual was an afterthought. For . one of the colonists for the LoAoippSv by both parties.\ 7-\\ <€?> /reo? '^. an adv. For the spelling the one ing the important provision in contin- uation of the preceding paragrai^h.41. The real voting shall be by ballot. usually BoKeei. of for which we . 41 f. crian. '.2c). f. g. — ever are in office for the year shall ap- 38 ff. hapiarai = Xa/3etv is (cf. . is — shall grant trial within thirty days. while is (e. usually to Submit to suit A colonist to Naupactus who Thuc. Whoever to violates these statutes by is from among the H. '^.n.p.e. €€ ^ . his real estate together with his servants. possible. the ending of the preceding hoinves. — 36 has The omission of eovn may be the engraver's error. •^ '- \ '? 40 ^ is • to suits against themselves in Opus on -$).should ex^^ect iwi- bringing suit he shall be deprived of civil rights and have his property confiscated. shall inherit his share li'hen {the father) dies. ^' '^/.

. . except from the harbor The first. IG. he shall owe half as much again as the amount of each city. € hayev () /-t'eSe • ^aXeiea () <. he shall be subject the local court. the similar use this Locompact for the crians shall hold good in the same terms for the colonists from Chaleion under 46 f. See introductory note. 1.. But him who ynakes a seiz- Antiphates.1479. Solmsen 35. con- enforcement of claims was freely employed. 9 '? . introductory note. as appears from the forms of the letters. together with the absence of 9. \ €€ 218 GREEK DIALECTS fo\\tKtaTav. nor his property. and if he holds what has been seized for more than ten days. to ing either city from reprisal at the hands of citizens of the other. Second half Roberts 232 and pp. . Iff. An Oeanthcan shall not carry duty one shall fine double (the amount involved in each particular case). StTrXje/ot i^a<i — of heXea^To 6 ^ |[| '^^. treaty.333. The two docu- ments inscribed by different hands. 11. for the protection of foreigners. Michel 3. so far as reprisal or seizure in it one of the two presumably Oeanthea. e at \*|'-'e ] XaXeievi iv Trpo^eveoi. / <. cf. € €7. Oeanthea. that citizens of other If a Chaleian sojourns more than a month in Oeanthea or an Oeanhe seized. nor a Chaleian from Oeanthean territory.lX. . 56. 55. 55.) . 8-18. It If one makes a seizure unlawfully. 88 '^. (the latter in 15). is a treaty between Oeanthea and Chaleion of the kind or is is known as 1. The proxenus who is false to his no. four drachmas {is the penalty). sists of regulations of cities. regarding was not specifically regulated by the legal rights of foreigners. For graphic peculiarities see 8 ff. .45 5 10 8 ^. hayev Ti(?) | €? '^' 111 fOTi 8{) €||- Be irXeov > '^ iv OiavOeai estate. Such The second document.. [No.C..€\€€. B. ^ \ € . 55 hoppov iv vhpiav TeXeov XaXeieot? 56. . that both are later than no.iii. Greek states. cent.] {) ()<. which also show. in case one makes a seizure. visit- thean in Chaleion.354 ff. ending with 8. tablet consists of ure himself one may seizeioith impunity. . The j^roperty of a foreigner one may carry off' from the sea loithoui being subject to reprisal. €() (<. Hicks 44. SGDI. '. And . off a foreigner from Chalcian territory. If .

Roberts 292 and pp. Danielssoa. also to prevent confiscation of liis This covenant for the Eleans. If he (the llelhmodica) does not enforce this. let him be held to a fine often minae. rors shall sworn the quintuple oath by five gods).. ?). Keil. 57. nine in cases involving less. if he who holds the highest office and the do not impose the fines. let him pay double tlie penalty in his — % : is in ori- - in another inscription. see Kuhner1. Gerth I. . Olympia. e. of this. and (An accused man^s) gens and family and his property shall be immune. 6 57] ELEAN INSCEIPTIONS irpo^evd '<. from fear (5^os) It is used persons and things. while yevea Dor.01ympia2. Michel ID"). the ing € tlie . and the According to that preferred here is to do away with the liability which under primitive conditions. such as survived longer in Elis than elsewhere. without fear. SolmsenoS. p. (dwayov ewajwv) shall choose ju- rors from the best citizens.pp. 1899. Before 580 .Nachr. The jutake the same oath. . 597. im- mune. let each of those who fail to impose them pay a penalty of ten mi- to prescribe the alties manner in which pen- were : to be imposed. < = men \ 7€€€ < ] .. Glotz. if he does so loittingly. men in cases involving a mina or more. Cf. This tablet sacred at Olympia. 15 57. inscription tally.80ff. be — -- : — : nae dedicated to the Tlellanodica enforce this.1 oiff. the foreigner tiff plain- accounting (or inthebody of the If any one maltreats one who is accused in a matter involving fines. The numerous interpretations of this have differed fundamenobject of the decree If citizen proceeds against citizen under the terms of the treaty. SGDI. iiri () '^ Elean \<. If any one brings a charge against a male citizen of Elis. €\ . but exclusive And let the scribe of the gens if he of his proxenus and private host (v^ho would be prejudiced in his favor).1152. is the immediate family. 36-4 ff.Solidarit6delafamilleenGrece. e[appos] . just as the Attic gin freedom body of demiurgi enforce the other fines (which they had neglected to impose). ^ 219 vlk€v. the folio wing. who is Oappev jeveav (the judges in cases involv- rights of foreigners) are divided in opinion. FaXelo of the refers to . be secure. = y^os. like Delph. the magistrates shall choose the jurors from the best citi- zens. 709 hekearaL Ta<i. person. after having oath (i. hence. as a technical term in Elean. Inschr.v. ewe' | <^. ' fiSid f\\aaT6v apiarivhav.Erauosin.24:8ff. ^Zteen suffer the same penalty wrongs any one. Olympian Zeus. property and personal violence.Gutt.. c. Let ami let the of good cheer. had attached to the whole gens and f am ily of an accused tlie majority shall decide.

shall be an alliance for one hundred one shall make him expiate it by . fol- If there shall be any need of loord or deed. . '. /'^ ()')^ Michel 196. 9. 2. Olympia.C.. Olympia.362 ff. but meaning tion against first to utter an impreca- some one and then. {) ? and let If viosil- years. simply .Olympia Michel 1 Roberts 291 and pp. VI cent. € /eeO[i].1156. Inschr.v. SGDI. Inschr. See also no. '\<. There commits fornirntion{?) in the sacred precinct. For iwevtroi. scription which begun on another etc. VI cent. 60. . — -€£ (cf. 5 . Like any one violates these writings. . LegesSacrae 61.C. or had been. This covenant between the Eleans If he (some one previously mentioned) and the Ileraeans (of Arcadia).220 at €? 5 TTOi . eVeV • ev 7[']'^ '' [^ '. ). ^ '(). ea f '/3- [€€ . Roberts 296 and pp. — al be held in the penalty here written. titey shall combine loith one another both in other matters in war. ' €€^ . \()€ | jov.Olympia 7. this private citizen. | Til ^0\vi)^ioL. ^ ^ '< ()^' ''.11-49. ev 6 | GEEEK DIALECTS [No. 10 . late {the those who agreement) pay a talent of ver consecrated to Olympian Zens. whether official. the manner of introducing a charge. {)<. . Ziehen. : |[()]. ' . him following clause. If let 7?7^.58. ') . : reflects the essentially religious char- acter of the legal procedure. tablet not preserved. Solmsen 39. . 59. since this was. beginning loith the present year.59. .v. B. 51 C 13-lC. . 57 fdppevop FaXet'o. or the state. . . . TraJjp /ret^O? €|^€[6]. B. SGDI. see the Glossary. (){) /reVo? '^ ' . they do not combine. various other expressions in Elean. This is the conclusion of an in\vas no. 369 ff. [' '\ [']| 58. which logically goes with the preceding as well as the lowing. Ilicks 9.. cf.

241. withdrawing or adding with the approval of the whole council of the Five Hundred and the people in full assem- amount like sent off stele. ipaevairepav \€. is €£( the singular often u. 9 .8).Ges. f^eveaip Solmsen40.c. lect as Olympian Zeus on a capital charge. But one shall not exile the children {of an exile) either male or female. 1898. If any one exiles them or confiscates the property. even in case they have exiled On the diaearlier compared with that of the . as in the first shown by ^ sentence after the introduc- tory formula.shall double the seems desirable in the sight of the god (136. It is were recalled 10.Rev. this judgment the sacrifice of from punishment far as purification.ster. under any circumstances.Oest.Jhrb.l899. {€).Gott. Mei. 1. but the decree of the people shall befinal in deciding. ' .No.197ff.187ff. which must be understood from the preceding. The re. is uncertain. and if one does any of these things contrary to the regulation.EranosIII. . {) . 7() 8(8). ^. tury B.Ber. . on the same subject.1 'HXetot 335 b. and any one loho loishes may Ining the charge against him with impunity.sed any.XVI. with reand recall of exiles.136ff.Sachs. b. Olympia. Second half IV cent.Gr. Several times during the fourth cen- One may make changes three times. the oligarcliy and democracy alternated in sulting banishment It is — ration and interpretation of the last sentence. Szanto. TL evTTOtol e^a<yp€5v fXav€ T/9iV|Of..C. and be free /cjar • . Those next of kin shall not sell or send off the property of the exiles. One may make which any change in the regulations he shall pay sold.c.c. If any one j^^onounces judgment contrary to the regulation. 1. shall be void. Danielssou. ]Srachr. e^a'ypeoL. is probable that this decree belongs 4 the adverb apXavios (see 55) to the Macedonian period and perhaps in we should expect agreement with \ of) refers to the exiles of 336 b. and he defaces the If any one be punished one guilty of sacrilege. Keil. and the use of yevealp before {in the name without modifier.€ • Reinach.Et. to any one who wishes to return collectively in the sense of offspring.129ff. tovs a supplementaiy decree to another is ^ ' Cf. in power in Elis. adding and withdrawing. a 8e iviroLOv • (\)€ {hiva^KOL he a (7)€{e'jV 5 60. ete 221 a 8. In used loosely where an adjective or 60. concerns matters happening later than the time of the clemiurgi under Pyrrhon. who ^. 60] ELEAN INSCRIPTIONS areXef << 8[)8.I.218 ff. .so an ox and by complete and the Oeapos in the same way.stobly. nor confiscate the property. he shall be subject to trial . A nd it shall be permitted. Arrianl.see : inscriptions.

. 8\ aire [No. First half of III cent. . e. [ /xe descendants. Arc. SGDI.1). preventing the relatives from selling the property for meaning would be make the i. ^. rojt/) . cf. According to another view. 39. that the be responsible.'^ . . Xos). ^ '['. see 136. whence — perhaps '.1172. : : (SGI)I. I'roxcny decree in honor of Damocrates of Tenedos. . but this is less likely.se as noble families. from the stele.79). 5). may estate.222 GREEK DIALECTS 5 ' 10 ' () ^. according to the interpretation preferred.66. . 00 \]\€ - aTrohoaaai he hi7r\\_a^atov /cajl 61. Probably an error.. ral cf Mess. For Gl. eTrel [ /. compare 06. rau yvvaiKU re . understanding the. I | ' ^ | i$. is dative of advantage or of disadvantage. yheL\ '^ €7€ '^ 70 6 he. : For the pluras 7ei'eas (SGDI. in S(il)1. al € [^ through the medium from (\) may \— is *. or one directed against them. \6= an inscription of lasus.5517. note. so . 0eo/9.' them or send- pared with that of the earlier inscriptions. refer to the sale of real 1. g.2. 5 .2. tablet (cf. preventing tlieir property being disposed of by relatives.Olympia [ Tevehtop. — 4-5. ' .2 for usual iwl and Lac.v.07)..' he ^. ^. subj. . Cypr. remove the tablet stele see 96. €€^ Michel 197.IV. (cf. vop. — 12-13. in no. ing it to them. ye is movable property for sale abroad. Olympia. Epir. for which the some such form as — 6. In the former case to the sending off With with gen. Some take yeveaip here as members of the yeveai.^ he at Se Tip Troieoi. aTTohbOTai. ^ of a verb — *5eaXros. — . both = usual .see 241. who is mentioned as one of the Olympian victors by I'ausanias (0.Jhrb. \ . It is we expect '57. aor. 17. . existence of (cf. probably from *5ea\os . 151.3 and no.1334). On the dialect as com- .: 5. yivei e. Inschr. ^ . 9-10. yevedi of 4 yeveas yevea (Oest. uncertain whether this a provision in favor of the exiles. with ace.1.c. 4080. tJs lepoffvXos ris ypaa].

^ || TrXeiovep 15 evepyeTuip.190. . but Att. | 40 2 "< 02 ^\ .. in . ^. in el -. which we call the North- eo (e. Note Aetolians and Acarnanians. .g. imv. in aor. ^. 3 pi. 02 6Xoyo.^^ . This the retention of original at this time in various parts of North- -. ^. but a-Tparay^ovros). '^<. ^. . \ yvoip. '^ | || eya | ypaev yyov6p . . . for ov beside west Greece. {). 223 ev cSiav 70€ Tat j <y€Vop.55 ff. . No. a/. | • II € Sia\\Se8€KTat virohe-yerai 10 evvoiav | . ^. About 275 . Thermum. 62. ' \\€ | aX\Xoip - 20 evepyeTaip | yap ey\ | | epyaL• yyovop uycova || > ^ . 25 30 35 || 6 Xoypop. west Greek infln.c.-. 'AyaOai -. Sec 279. <.g. ^^ . '' Treaty of alliance between the is an example of the mixed dialect current 62. e. evepyeTav . | ^. 62] | ' NORTHWEST GREEK INSCRIPTIOX irXeiovep. Northwest Greek b.

'. .' . (. | -. . ^. cf. .g. ' (cis AirwXiau but iv .5 ' 7\ ( . . ' ^ . TT^ois. he ^Aypal^oi W. 112. .2. 224 10 15 20 25 '. . lohaveo. e. he ev ev €7 {)- KaWteo? hee^pov. 10. . | [| beside iv with ace. Olviaha. <^ . Plut. 62 he j| ^' ev eairepav Be hirep he epvv {<.<^ • h Olviaha. probably connected with ?!/. 4\.. el €^ elev he '^\ ev ^ ele\v ev eir <^>^\ ev ev ev ap^ovTe^ ev he %€\ €\.91. ^.. \\^. Aahvo " €. laaha | €. Yihpvo ^ ^\ .Kapvave<i alpedevTa^ he €7< • €€ '. . For the Achaean league..22.95. Polyb.Arat. ' || \\. and so having the same no. beside - used of the citizen levies tlie in contrast to mercenaries. .. he ^ ^^. tary the Aetolian league. '. | — els Olviaha. €^ hcKa irXav TeXetov . re € ^ AKapvdv\e<.32. '.G5. epvt.. ) :^ .^. . ^ el GREEK DIALECTS ei9 [No. ]^\. 5. force as the frequent aVXws 6- $. €6^£ and — 24. : this is tlie first reference to officials in as mili- Dor. . '7[]| /|9 Aaho.

['\\7[] I 7[]. The famous bronze . [] \^^^ 64. ^ .s. Soon after 479 B.. || 5 || eliminating the dialectic peculiarities. [][ ] I 'A^[a]i'[a]t[o]t. ^. Solmsenl6. the Lacedaemonians. 5. ^ ? iv eVt | /?.. SGDI.182.3. | trijiod set nji at Delphi after the battle . | ". arepoi eKarepoL 8. ? . Olympia. ZeO TOis KaUv 64. | 88 '^ 35 ' \_ [] '|[' ]. Roberts 259.Syll. ['^]. . evve^ | Laconian '\ () :/^[?]. ^ 64] LACONIAX INSCRIPTIONS 7re^Ot9 22 TOW ^€< I '?.4406. who reproduces it. The . but the column remained until it vms carried by Constantine to Constantinoplc.serpentcolumn which once supported the gold tripod was destroyed by the Phocians in the Sacred War. fiwl «' /. l^Icent. SGDI. where it still remains. fav\a^ /it\e/ro[i . ' . Hicks 19. Inschr. ev el 8e '^ ev €. | lirirevaL he ei ev . . | :[€][]//[6].. . Ditt. 24. .3) and other. .v. Accordi»S t» Thucydides (1. . || ra<i 8e ^? 8e 30 | [39-42 fragmentary]. Michel 1118. b.4405.7. 63. This is the inscription mentioned by Pans.01ympia2o2.C. Roberts 261. <. &• aea6uL. ^ \ ^^ ^ . as follows ^.. ? ? . '?. Delphi.. after erasing the boastful epigram of Pausanias.c. | 63. ^ . inscribed simply the names of the cities of Plataea.: .

iirei / • et ' which had taken part in the war and had set up the tripod. .II. rot <.. | I . it shall belong to those designated by laio as heirs. of deposit ple of was without doubt the temAthena Alea in Tegea. /ca €. temples often being used for such purBut the dialect is not Arcadian. On the retention of in [^]5[^]'. engraver et is responsible for the use of a/. " . The place good evidence that the perioeci differed in speech from the Spartans at this time. If he lives. partly on account of the B.. 149) . '. FoundatTegea.pp. niau form would be 65. Philachaeus). poses. apyvave- 5 yvt. the Greek See 59.. I '^'. Xote also which the true Laco- Xuthias was not a Spartan proper. but mainly because of the retention of instead of the subj. and we are expressly informed but if he dies. Vcent. | | | | || I Tei^iot. for (cf. which was thereupon canceled. A. The Tegean names (Xuthias. A 5 . Inscr. ^. It has been suggested. € . . | € 09 7[9] () 7{)€ . (cf.233) The Tegeans laio.4o98. The most natural assumption is that Xuthias was from the neighboring Laconia. son for and the conditions their future disbursement. || | | || I noretSiarat. that see 59. and the retention of intervocalic and of antevocalic e (farea) is sufficiently explained by the fact that the document was intended for use outside of Laconia. . 357 if. ave|| \€\ • /c' e/iei^. If there are no children. ). 65. . . as shown by its mutilation. Michel 1343. But there is no two deposits of money made by a of Philachaeus. Solmseu 26. . | | | Ku^ytoi. .10 2Q 25 30 Xetot. . perea Fa| KeirpearaL. | Ketoi. 'EpeT/3ie9.c.. b.GOiT. Roberts 257 and pp. 226 GREEK DIALECTS | [No.1. shall decide ac- that the Spartans used to deposit money cording to the with the Arcadians to evade the law against holding private property. SGDI. | " el ^ <yeveTa\t • | '€ ' t'o • ' {)€ . but an Achaean perioecus. let it him come and take shall belong to his and must therefore represent that of a foreign depositor. For Xuthias the son of Philachaeus (are deposited) tioo hundred minae. This was inscribed later than A. Statements of .aioi. certain Xuthias. Athen.Jurid. 275.^ .. | | | || Mu/cai/e•?.6.. children five years after they reach the age ofpubertij. it. G4 Meyape^. . intervocalic {yuicrioi.1.

(49. || | | | viKaha^. games Eleusinian Demeter. With own blunder in writing was four-horse chariot. viKahas \. But the with pasis foxos in = ITom. Arc. . Roberts 2G4. 24. 6\_'\\'\ /ce/c || € ^\\ ['\ Uohoihaia [/'. tlie omis- ries in such a manner as never any one 58r/). SolmAnnual British School XIII.^ ^. Sparta. Seven times oion mares For 66. SGDI. of A. B. KeXev- tlie (20. with that in 11.1.3). 0i(\)\e7-. | | | TeT[pafciv'\ KeXevhvvia ho ' | 5 • | eviKe HeXei. with- etc. 17. 174 I ^. . — 7. Record of the victories of Damonon and his . 68. iviKahe iv ['\ || har ovhe^ | TeTpaKi\y~\ [.— No. ratlier For the reading than av- 59.3).senia. reflexive as in In the games of Po1. € iviKe || €[ e/c | re. .C. 10-11 we should read. The portion of the stone containing 11. I [^ ft'. It is also possible IG. hvvia: with understood as subject honor of natural than the corrected reading 12. 42-94 was only recently discovered. etc. . — 9. : iv- — 19. Michel946.(}<)\^. cf. ^ ^ \^ .59. ivith colts (bred) from and his oion stallion. /cat | his 30 eviKe | in contrast to sion of A liis ill /. attested in other dialects (89.10 ] | 15 Yiohoihaia eVjAe/So/iai? [i^viKe ray AiV- 20 25 e/c [ KeXe^ eviKe \^\. sen 17.son. — iv : 24.1). and of those noiv living.36. . see 140.1. /35 (cf. 61. {) {) ) et 227 he | rol '9 7ro^i/c||e9 10 Teyedrai hiayvovTo 66. 6(5] LACONIAN INSCEIPTIONS ral Ovyarepe'^ el I yveataiI he /xe el he ()\€'^(^. «( being in the name is name of some — god- 3 ff. hipohais hi-n-irois young mares.] 6<.4416. 18. ^evpiai TTOl•' I /ce/c hvvia . ^' ^ ^'\ /cet' 11 ^'] | . the usual form of the : $ ' $. 11. usually adopted. perhaps due to the Arcadian pronunciation (cf. . the conia and Thuria in Mes. 11.1). 31. — . = -rat (139. : Having won victo- dess or heroine otherwise unknown. out correction. sive less -Toi .5) celebrated at Helos in La- '07-. seidon. elliptical genitive as in eiV So -. : — 15 his — ff.

11. Cf. A^vhnnrov || | the usual form to the . e. Taenarum. || ? | | [] €[. / .). 5 €€€ /coe I 10 /cat . 40). hia games in honor of Apollo Lithesius. 54. 12. — — - : — : of Apollo Maleates. | ivUe | eV evheoha []7709 j ho \ ho ^ \ | evUe. | /cat || iviKe | /cat j ha || . Uapirapos is the e-gi'ade in the first which is seen in some of the cognate forms of other languages. Inscr.Jurid. '? /cat iviKe | ? ? ?? \ ho /ce[\e^] tot' e'f ^ AiOehia | | /ita?] /? €<. haa /09 II Avto? . 49 ff. evidently I)amonon\s son (cf. 75 80 /cat 85 [/c]at 90 . = ^ . .> ^^ . < ^ . I 228 GREEK DIALECTS [No. 79. is due to assimilation vowel of the second syllable. Old Prussian emmens.4o91.[«:/3']<?] | Aide'^hta €\€ [^ €]<. | I /cat | | Victories won by (cf 1. B.35 ^\\ €. PiObably the of name of a mountain in Argolis where games were held. . ^ [\ . (cf. 00. | iv ho \ /cat || evhefio- IV cent. = and once -. 66 40 45 '"""] [ -^ II TaSe evUahe '/. Victories won by Damonon as a boy. 230.72.8. .35 ff. ^ .^ haa iviKe. htTriroc^ | | €<. games in honor 57. \ || ha 67. Paus. || | | ha. ' ^? [/c]at | '^. Roberts 2G5c. evt/ce || ^//'? j | ho 50 55 [/c]at || eviKe iviKe iviKe \ (50 ()5 70 i/oy.C. p. Michell076. . /' . SGDI. | . | 7/[9 7]()'• | AiOthia i'oi^ MaXeareta t'oi^ j] toy 'E^e/^teW | '/[/] evheha evixe.g. Transitional alj)habet. 03. but was hitherto unknown in Greek. | Nt'/cov | [ /'. ./ \ eviKe | || €vh€oha /la/u-a | ha eviice. The name Tos) points to an with an inherited syllable.il. etc.S. || | \ [SiJauXoz/. : — 44.

late gen.: Thalamae. but other 09. Plut.AgisO and Cleom. pi. ff. but [ <€€ \'\. He was carrying out an injunction previously laid upon the grandfather by the goddess.2. in no. ^ '. nom.6). of dedications to Artemis Orthia by the victors in 70-7. . e. These belong to a series. . d. Annual British School Ionic alphabet. ' ^8 » ho 6[e]pa)i. Koos — ivitness. for intervocalic Since Nico- certain juvenile contests. with gen. Taenarum. .with name could not have ' gen. \^4 \eVt 5 — GO and ff . For - infin.de divin.43. Att.356. 6$. possible interpretations are equally dif- ^ The construction is unusual. with ace. c.3. now fifty-odd in number. (Att. and that he would then consult the oracle ivith success. 61. . Victories his son at tlie hvirb won by Damonon same games. Cic. TlohoiSd^^vt | ' 188. 90. for usual .^^- 10 69. SGDI. as El. Sparta. clau. dual forms of eirdKoe. 66. Roberts 265 (/. had declared that Nicosthenidas should set up in the shrine a statue in honor of Andreas his fellow-ephor. = as well as re \ 5 () e[i/] . : since the god- occurs in another inscription of the same class. |o<f Koi \. Ges. of the goddess ' = would depending on = and that he would. . ^. an oracle often consulted by the Spartan oflBcials. . 1. ol 7rpo/3et7r||a/ia9 | . is the con- tracted form. the Manumissions of slaves in form of dedications to Poseidon.4592.c. 70] LACONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 68.4498. like vo6s. Cf.96. of which the uncontracted 4 dess ff . IVcent. sthenidas the dedicator was a father of the same member of the Council of Elders. which for some reason had been unfulfilled. Thalamae. with Lac. 229 5 | [ . | Meister. his grand- 81. Ber. Michel 1077. : - been living at the time. Transitional alphabet. '€6\<. €€. cr. The object . v6es (after .se — hov/crX. — e veiKuavrep («at) :[)]||^.. 4€ is due to the analogy of consonant stems. = A and . . 68. . to which nouns in -oos are not infrequently subject. sg.No. ^. The name ). loho see 85. 73. '' ''.g. Annual British School [ . 07. i$. was whence the contracted Uaand here. | | I ^ II cent. 1905.277 '€8<. IVcent. .Siichs.. /cat 70.^ . SGDI.7. From the shrine of Pasiphae at ficult in this respect.1. xoOs (112.

lirobably from the was of course a The word which is few of the dedications are in the and a few show Doric forms without the specific Laconian coloring.g. Sparta. viKUaas. 368. final leader of hoys to a gio^s . Annual British School XII.. \ 5 ^ '. or even three. that ficial is. | | (') | | ^eirl 11 /3- II cent. [].g. 70 I ^€<. veiKaap rb ning the boys^ contest in music sg. to Herodotus.230 [^\\ 71. . root seen in ?. an actual chase of wild beasts.e.g. SGDI. /cejXoia [ 6 itself. 70.g. i. Cf. represent an artificial revival of the local dialect. 372. }i\€avSpop I 5 ^ ('^) 72. / () \ €8€ . = from a -ikos? while beside called not diminutive in -? (original or for etc. €\^. third year of his training was is called This is from Dor. notes a nuisical contest. ( the form of speech which as a patois ants. among the Laconian peasSome of the peculiarities in spellbut of the for late period. in the use of <r were between boys shown by = )..355. e. . the use of many of the dedi- cations. athletic i. €\. is arti- as regards its use in inscriptions. the Spartan boy in the ^ . d. .. in /3- According . . the prize sickle. one dedicated.. ayop leader of the or '/ in their tenth year. \ | eirl II cent. like those given here. . '^ .. though only crudely and with great inconsistency in spelling (e. ing are not characteristic of Laconian especially. . in game called the hunt. e.^ ^ GEEEK DIALECTS [No. . in ^. for etC. j ^^. variously spelled \rja.). But most of them. Simrta. but some The . Annual British School XII. Of the contests. €. is ^. some with two (as nos. with which each of the stone slabs is provided. and by the appearance of the /3the bands in \vhich the Spartan boys were trained.. e. Annual British School . musical contest. d. . was an iron which was let into a socket. Sparta. d. ^ ^ \\ | €\€. 73). also de- but probably reflecting. 5 ^[() II cent. . ei = in veiKaavrep etc.e. 73. That the contests . 6 I (\) . still survived ivin- dat.4500. A ).

€7 < ^? Toy ? . a statement of the regulaoflist which the lands were fered for rental (11. 179-187). 95-179). with their and the amount of the rental Table II. 74] HEEACLEAN INSCRIPTION Heraclean 231 74. . . \< . . and \. ev € 15 74.645. SGDI. 10 [cojojt^ai^ /cat iv .7/3. Only Table I is given. : €€£5 7''. The groups of letters /re. . . 201 of arable land.. of those sureties 1-7. 1-94). ^? ' ^ \ .€€€<. ? ^ ".' .€ ? . : 66.. given here. \<. 4629. . . two commissions were appointed to define and mark their boundaries.Jurid. II. "? /3£|9 9 fe ^ | I ' <.sed as symbols to denote the tribe and family of the person named. and the names of objects which served as emblems rplirovs.= h. ire. ff. which is not (11. The lands which were the property of the temples of Dionysus and Athena Polias having been encroached upon by private parties. SolmsenlS. are u. End of Recent.C.9. hvirep Tlavho- hiapw^ «at ^ ? Be <.l94ff. survey them.No.. ctyovro'. ''. Ionic alphabet. 646-^ of brushwood. who took leases.I. barren. and a tions under — — 18 11. ?? | /le Hi^/pa/cXet'Sa? ? haipeOevTe'. ^ ^. and divide them into lots. B. contains a report of thecommission on the lands of Athena Polias. • '- | 5 || . with a consequent diminution of their revenue. The Heraclean Tables.p. '.. eirl ? || ? <.8 . etc. Beta | /ca^ | iyevovTO epp-qfyeia^ .. etc. but with ^. ' 11 a/3^a/Ae|iOi ? ? €•. Table I contains the report of the commission dealing with the lands of Dionysus (11.XTY. Inscr. 1\€8<. IG.

s restored to Dionysus. 74 he e? eye- evpo<i ciyovTO^ €- | htapav | yav. hoyoova '^1\.. use as 47 ff. 55. eirl [No. — been 30.20 25 '? 7€ta9 30 35 40 45 yeia^i 50 ^. — . . <. • ^^ ^ -^. iv || 7']9 7^'» ^^^ • iyavo lost. ^ ^..e. '.sioner. : appropriated to private by private encroachment. land. ^ . 8($ This land the cominis.). 7€ ^ . bringing suits against those suits which had to be tried within thirty dai/s. i. 49. -^. yav and wooded. 11 | oyeyevevav <> yav ippyea' <.^ ^ -^ \^ -232 GREEK DIALECTS fk^ || hevrepav €8. : ( ' yav it ipp- who had (11. ^ €€ <.? ^. ^. ^. iyevovTO iv ? ippyea | | |[ ippy€a'i €€ €\€<. i ippyea<.42 and the Attig . . '. ^€^'^. ^ ^. €\\^ '^ ^ . | 1 iv [ • || 8. Cf no. € • | iye^vovTo | iv BeKa Svo ^ .

so that it should not be covered from the springs onto the pri- over with stones (which were vashecl . ^ ^'€€ <. hooX\y | '? hiapov TrXayo^ ftSiai yat ^/' 7\yypa'v hooXy<. haKpoaKipiai^ • '? ? '. pihiav yav. ? "hiapcti^ "? "."^? ?^ ya<i hapv • | <. ? <.. e? || . ?8 <. . " hiapo)^ ? . heva 55 8e hav<i €€<. ^? '. ? ho hiapov '? ? 70 ^yypaev /[^ ^lyypaev ? » h\apv ^[/ yav ary) back . eirl ' || pihiav yav (jav). ^€ € No. ? ^ '? yav. ." hav ? €<. ftSiav yav. 74] HEEACLEAN INSCRIPTION €€<." ' ? »???» ^. ||? htapav | 233 [/']^' []|- . | co ? ho8 ? htapv ^. h pthiav '. . ja ha heKaaTOV." 8'. ? € ^- 65 haKpoaKipiav . ? ? ? • < ? ? . ajovTO<. Be havra [ 7] <^ | . Setting it (the boniid- vaic land. ' ' ya | 75 ' ^ || - hoSov ^ '- 80 — )6.|9 | ha '^€(. € e? eirl ? eirl Tiavhoaiav htapav yav |[ < ?? Xot?.^ '? '.

• [ poyov ' ha ya • | '. ha ire ^ . h\ap \ ^. hoa 105 . . : But to — 104. ' .: they assiyn another the landwhichthey . || eVl '' heiTTa | \<^.. h 111. like the current) and made invisi- the former boundaries. hca he * [No. — 102. 1. 188-139. '^. . 11 'vahpa.' ?. and ff. '. ' ^ . -. down by ble. || / '? ? ^. . — 10") . [| >. but al. . 74 ctti • aveTriypo- ".some correct : iox 4. thresh. .'^ ^^ -^ ^. . 39. . ' .. € . ho heiTTa hoKTOi {). . if So usually.85 ^? ' '? ' ? eVt Se 234 - GREEK DIALECTS hdi /' € '? ho re ) 95 100 h€ov <yv\ .so 11.^ ' . . h ^.

II have leased. hoo-ris 8€ 'whoever fails to fulfill his obligations shall pay not only double the rental for the year.— • rfvpev yij 120. . cf. those who take over re-bargaining. or devise or those to those it by xvill.?111 seems from its and judgments. namely the decrease allowed in re: \. leasing for the first five years. who purchase 155 ff. . ^ . amount involved also 11. II. 74] HERACLEAN INSCRIPTION 8 ha rav ^av. ( ^. deter- . B. is the the Cf. be surety for the rentals. whom it has been willed. hvirep ayovTa iXaidv <^ ^ • 115 • \ \'^. whatever rebate.' ^ € ^ ^. aor.C. but also. € 110 TOi<i 7\<. Se 7'<\< € ^^. 8e /re||Teo9 7€€€ || ha € ael iirl €. ^ ^ '^ . : $ iyyuovs 5k \oiirov. it — 108. rebates. situation. occurs also in Pindar and Alcaeus and . ] . pos. hav hoi 235 hol<i hoi ho € /3? hoaTt<.^ No. 432 ^- eXarrou oi^e/Xet "/.' it To insure leasing neces- the land again was generally sary to offer it at a rental less than that . . shall furnish sureties in the same manin the be- fines. of . ner as the one who leased ginning. The in it. . the harvest rights. from XIV. all together with the first rental. hence concretely the rebate. ». or it sell originally fixed...€. is mined by decree. iv hoTi • ho hav ^. or the harvest rights. a Uelian inscription. ryav 120 h'ap'vv hov. h . position to go with as well as with For the whole 1.

^? ? /^ <. — 128. from 130 ff. ? ' .se be- long ^7). €8€\86. where eneaov shows make a which does not fall under the usual conditions (61) and is a change of not certainly explained. while from The spiritus asper is are *• the ditches found mainly. - (Horn. ' | eXaiav apyv- | ? - 11 a'yypayjrat ' Soy ei • vypev • Tcve^ \ 130 yey ' vypa^frv htapaL ev 9 <? . from f^pyoj. nor shall they dam off the luater. : the. ' 135 ' ??? ^ \? 7() ' ^ . e. '. with the formg . in or [ is probably the form of to all dialects ex- and canals which run through they shall not dig deeper nor the lands cept Attic-Ionic. • 7|7^^'? • . 125 ^ ^^ ^ 7€€ ^^ . KdcrOcv : — dam 122. . -' breach in for the water.•/ — . Att. . 171. \< -.e. — with prothetic -. in hereby condemned 1. etc. i. also etc. €8are Cf. : have been condemned. Be ev rat 236 GREEK DIALECTS [No. . € . 8. ev ''€. 74 ferei KarehLKaadev heicaaTOV.. .. trespasses. as here. — . advance. Ttts $. . ^ yat ho || /? y8a^^a ? '? - . feTeo<.7€€€ /re'lreo? lyeypaylraTaL.

^. TreWe ev ' Se .eL€v '' beside : aTTo\eavei. the . . same type ^ 8c lack of reduplication. as also in Ionic (Hdt. 141. ^ .'^. the lessees shall not For mortgage the lands or make a payment (perhaps jsay afine) eithei• the - he : lands or the buildings 112. out of etc. shall use Note that when a mute is changed to an aspirate by a following A the latter is not written. what €.No. e. hXoyo | € . ' ' €\. Be <. . 10 jiid they wish for the conMrnrtion 152. subj.\ | ovhe aWov eaael • al he . in thereon. aeev ev hol<i e eer|- eyeva <- \^\ . . ^^peiav • ' evpev ev aei. cf. ' . a. : (8^ Att. — 149 ff. . So also ai 1. hoi 150 ovTe ' ' €yfXv KapTreveaOai.g. ^.s ^. etc. 11. perf. ^. in — 137.evo € .) and later Attic. 74] HERACLEAN INSCRIPTION Tat yai hai • hiapai ydt <.. ' € €€ . .e. '? ev ev 145 • hvTToXoyoL '? €<. ^^ <. . of the Cret. ^ ^.8. ^ . of the farm buildings. hvTroXoyo'i htapav yav <\ ev Se/ca | 237 €- iv eupo? 140 TrevTe <. . — 14(5.. | . y^ovTL ' ' . ' . «s But they i. • | - \ vTToypayjrovTat || . (151).

'^ € ha [No. <. ^. hpa hvp-ova . . Ho 8 hoalaci ^' . | . ? ho \^vhXvo hhvp- hav. 74 '€'€.<^ | \ 165 \\ . ha ^ . 170 '^' || ha hvpv ^. • ^ ' < ^ .^ | ^ ''. 6< . € ? heva ^ €. ael 15 8e 8£ € IfK) ^€ ? 7^\ • \// € Se ^ \'\ ^ ] ^. hvap'a<i '].238 GREEK DIALECTS '^'^^. h ^. hu^irep <. ' .' '.' ?} ha ho | . . areXe? AevTepo^ '. ii> .

Locr. of persons. 180 8 irevTe || ha | • Be pe < . — Is and Pyrrhias. Mycenae. Certain citizenshadsenttothesiirineof Athena petltioiiing aid. . and Phrasiaridas returned to them with the reply of the tias ? Ueras : is witli else- ace. Frankel. eV ^^ " ^. 7] ARGOLIC INSCEIPTIONS ev || yjnXaL /^<. ^ .€' ^^ ^ •% '. prets otherwise.175 '^^^. as in Homer.IV. is is by Athena suppliants of the city As the nature of the request unknown. B.492. aei eirl peev eve huTToXoyot €\\ 77 €8\ '^ • ^€\8.IV. ^ e? '' elev 5 Fhrasiaridas ofMycene ions sent to the goddess. 55. Se €€ | jeypaTTTai. SpeoL^ lyejpaTTTai. namely was sent as a suppliant from the citadel. IG.C. pe heheova ^ | ho • ^// IG. the nieaniiig of the reply in the magistracy {or priesthood) of An- obscure.No. Let Antias and Cithius and Aesrhronhe {judges?).492. pahapha eyevTO •^. cf. Probably VI ceut." 75.20. ' '^239 ev '^ 8e ev . and iv where. <}^^ intcr- no. . ^ | 11 ' is5 %.- Argolic 75.'^ho ' • Sev.

240

76. Mycenae. Early

At

sen 21.

' ,
77. Argive Ileraeiun. Early
cent.
ff.

KpLTSpa<i

^ <; .
V cent.
b.c.
eie,

GEEEK DIALECTS
TG.IV.493.

[No. 76

Solmsen 22.
e?

Tlepae

jo-

()

. c.

IG.IV.olT. Michel 801. Solm-

The Argive Heraeum
ho

[H]a

.{)

1,197

\V\apa
appereve,
|

'Ap'ye\[i'\a^.
||

|

?, \\.
roiSe'
|

\\4€<;

7G.

// there

is

no body of demiurgi,
shall

support.

the hieroninemones (appointed) to (the

and
no.

/
S.V.

\['\<;.
here, cf. ai/dpias

For the collocation

63,
of

heroum) of Perseus
decreed.

judge between

7.

the parents according to

what has been

The hieromnemones consist
which the

This

is

only the conclusion of

resentative of each of four tribes, of

an inscription which must have been on the stone which once rested upon the
base containing this line. Pausanias reports a heroum of Perseus on the road

,
Byz.

tive presides, the 'TXXeis,

are the three tribes

all

Doric states, while the

from Mycenae to Argos. It is probable that boys were employed in the cult and that disputes arose among the parents with regard to their appointment.

attested only for Argolis.

Tpeh,

For

Tots

the stone has

.

'Hpa/cX^ofs.

' ' . ',
common
Cf. Steph.

,

of a rep-

whose representaand the

to

are

/;'5
'.

ws
78.

11.

On

the face of the stone, just

An act of indemnity for the manof Athena,
Avith reference to

below the inscription, is a rectangular cutting, with dowel holes, evidently intended for the reception of a tablet. This was the while the
(probably only an error for

agement of the treasury
probably
cific

,
'

irregularity

some spewhich had occurred.

),

"Without such an act, persons

who pro-

properly support, pedestal, refers to the

posed or put to vote a proposition to use sacred funds for public purposes

whole stone in which the was set, and which would itself be called a
in Attic.

In several inscriptions

from the region of the Euxine
of

,
is
ei's

-

actually used as the equivalent
e.g.
Xei/zcoO

were liable to puni.sliment. Cf. Thuc. Hicks 49.45 ff. In the matter of the treasures of Athena, if any magistrate calls to account the council under the presidency or any of Ariston or the body of
2.24, 8.15, Ditt.Syn.21,

treasurer, or if

any one entertains or

eh

Ifpbv

(SGDI.3078,
is
is

brings suit on account of the subinission
(to the assembly) of the proposals or on account of the action of the assembly, he shall be banished and his property

Mesembria).

This use

doubtless of
closely allied

Megarian
complete

origin,

and

to that .seen here at Argos, though with
loss of the original

notion of

be confiscated to the treasury of Athena.

.8]
^']

78. Argos.

[S]eaaup5v

heveKa

€,
631.

"
9.

^ . ., ^
VI
or early

ARGOLIC INSCEIPTIOliS
V cent. B.C.

241

IG.IV.554. Michel 583. Solmsen 19.
<Ti9>
[e
\

'

[]

e

()
e
e

[

? \\€<;
ha

T€Xo<i

hL'^oL\

e

] ]^[e 5

|

8e

79. Olympia. Roberts 81.

^

or early
20.

V cent. B.C.
I

SGDI.3271.

Solmsen

eTToifehe

KapyeidSa^

^
cf.

Inschr.v.Olympia

'.
Hicks 150.

80. Olympia. Early Michel 1087. Roberts 75.
Ta(p)'y[et]oL aveOev
81. Cimolos.

cent. B.C.

SGDI.3263.

Inschr.v.Olympia 250.

,
6

Aifl

IV

cent. B.C.

IG. XII. iii. 1259.

Michel 14.

hpiov

'€ '^\ .\\^^ '^,
| \

Ionic alphabet, but twice

'
=

9€.
SGDI.3277.

.

€5

II

The council which
(tlie

is

in

office shall

en-

immune from
order of words
dalas

prosecution.

force (the confiscation), otherwise they

selves be liable to
1.

(cf.

better to assume simple dittography.
2.
:

of Argive officials

^ -Goodwin
op

(
L. quisquis)

members of

the council)

them-

Athena.
corroborated,
as a
it

-, €$.
'^
see 164.4.

Thuc.1.57 t^s

For

.For the

=

Until the existence of a
is

is

the

body are mentioned by
:

Thuc.5.47.11.

9GG.2.

T^Xos

h€V€Ka KaraGco-ios
dejiosit ion

, «—.
3.

besides, else.
:

79. Atotus made this, an Argive and an Argead, son of Hagelaidas the Argive. Apparently the father of Atotus was of the Macedonian Argeadae but had moved to Argos, and his son proudly joined both titles to his own name. See

€'9

cf.

El.

Roberts

I.e.

Quite otherwise Ditten-

no.

.57.

4

ff.
:

berger (Inschr.v.Olympia) and others,

on

who

take 'Apyeiadas as the

name

of an-

arcountof the
posals,
i.e.

of written prothe formal introduction of

other sculptor.

For the

crasis in this

a measure before the assembly, or (consequent) act of the assembly. This
refers to

and the following inscription, see 94.1. 80. Inscribed on a helmet. The Argives dedicated to Zeus from the spoils
of Corinth.
It is

some measure sanctioning the
Those
or
for

not

known

to

what

irregular use of the treasure.

war

this refers.

responsible

the

introduction

gi. Deci-sion of the Argives in adis-

passage of such a measure are to be

pute between Melos and Cimolos.

,

242
10

GREEK DIALECTS
\

.\
[</)]ey?

at
\

15

\.\\[]^.
82. Argos.

^,

5

10

15

20

,, <\ ^ ^ [^ '^ ,
),
.

'?
7^9

?. ^?, '; ?, '^\\/?, ^,
Ill cent. B.C.


. .

?

[

^Apyeloi

YioXvai'yav,

7;|/3€/, [/3]<?
||

TreStdv.

.^ ,\
7r[e]/3t
11

[Xo. 81

[^'^,
jpo-

B.C.H.XXVII,270ff.; XXXIII,171
|

ff.

avedev

'/[]'?

7po0e[e9]

.

.
^^

[^,
iv

7€\\

^<
[^eta?]
e/c
|

T/ay-

/'-

.

.

.

.

-

\\<;
7€'

686

\\6

jreBaya-

jov

[^']|9

"

"

"

^'^^^ '^^''

"^ ['\<

\^^^,
Wev

\^\
[11.

[7]'9

€7|[]

epaeva

11

evae\

22-25 fragmentary].

cent. B.C. ICt.TV.914. Ditt.Syll.i):i,S. SolmEpidanrus. End of Ziehen, Leges Sacrae 04. Alphabet transitional (form of tlie letters = , ncA^er , no gen. sg. ;ind OV). mostly Ionic, but
8.3.

sen 2o.

[Tot
5

€7
/cajl

'\
(r€VT€'pas

|

<; ^ 7[^9] [] ^^ ' ''

,

, €\
the
etc.:

e\paeva

15.

82.

From

Apollo incntioned by Pans.2.24.
2
ff.

desiiination of
C>

, ?,
:

devripas.

Sec 97.4.

ramp

leading to the shrine,

,
and
the

the temple of the Pythian

area; have rearranged the altars and
the colossi, have leveled the area, built

tiu!

phratry or ^ens.

a stone

loall

by the

.

.

.,

strengthened

the doors of the temple,

ff.

Have had made and put
ivith

in place,

cups and a silver beaker.
uncertain.

and dedicated The re.s-

!).

accordance

the divine oracle,

toratlon of the words following
is

6

the Om}>hnlus of the Earth, the colon-

nade, the enclosing wall, the altar
stone conduit,

.

.

.

83. Regulations for sacrifices in the

and

the ... above it;

Asclepieum. Forthefrequentdoubling
of con.sonants
.see

have had

made

in the oracle chamber a

89.4,
6.

treasury, which can be locked, for the
offerings; have constructed all the road,

see 140. .3

101.2. For For other com-

nients

.see

the Glos.sary.

No. 84]

\

hevTepov

\<;

• 86 €] , '^ 88.^
TJ[oi,]

8,

, , ^ , ', ^ ^ ^ & ^
3

AEGOLIC INSCKIPTIONS

243
10

'

<;

hovTO

88. \
[|

'

:[9
epaeva

15

|

[

20

'8.

OeXetav

eVl

€\
€25

'

^[^€<; [€^'
\1<;
|

8,1^

€€€,

30

. \^\\ . ^ 6 €€. []
802.

84. Epidaurus. Late Michel 1069.

IV cent.

b.c.

IG.IV.951. SGDI.3339. Ditt.Syll.

[7]^.]

[^ejot»

'^\['\

?

eu[^]u9

'^/."

. <; ^ €, ',^ [^. ' " , ^ '^^^
8
ev

^? \
iyeveTO,
|

^<;
5
[e]7r€7/3ct-

6<;

/€'[^]?

fyaa^Tpyi

11

<;, [^.

^<;.

^],
8i

'

84.

One

of several stelae found in

the Asclepieum recording the cures ef-


^ .
TTj

fected.

a. PRns.2.2~.

ivrbi

n\iov€s, iw

-/-^~/

,.^
'
yeypawTai
be e|

tic influence, e.g.

contraction
pi.

',

.
Tlie dialect

-

- • '

(!.

Lengthened is etc. ways on, and e usually et, but we find p6s beside xeip6s, and (25 ,
3. irtvff'irr]:

,

8€
el

<;

10

usually

rarely

ai,

etc., ace.

6).

al-

see

58

c.

2.27.1

^
5.

ivTOs
:

=

ef/it,

see Glossary.

.

Cf. Paus.

—7

ff.

The words on

the votive offer-

shows considerable At-

ing form a rude epigram, hence the

€€
'
15

244

GREEK DIALECTS
vlv

, ^ €€ € ' . €<€ ^^
el
I

,

\^^,

erL

70|[4]^ 7\\€\€

eyKVo^

'
^
';
debv

[No. 84

iTriTeXetv,

iy

Be

|

Oeov, el

yevoiTO

virep
el TLVO^ 20

70leev
virep
eiTLTeXelv.

|

6![],
||
|

,

6[] eiSe
Xe'yeti^,

eSoKei eTrepwTriv vlv

€< €,

,

ev
'.
atv
eSoKei

€7€.

,

? '^

epv

25

virohieavpe

Xeiv

teal

30

|0']7[]9.
35

€, \] \[ ^ [ ^.
€7nypa
'

€ ^ ^ ,8 , ,
eKTelvai

aKpaTel<i

€ ' '
<,
iv

irapeu]

^,
e^eX-

\^'^. —

[^yeo

^^^. '\['\ eyae8v [^ ' € e^epv
Oeov
,

[7r]tVa/ca9

avy-

€-

eirl

'

eva eKTeiveiv

[rjai/
||

eirel

deov

ev

"

yevoeva

eXe. «[?] -^^

[][]9 \^ ' " € "" 0[' — [vy
e'poev

\'\
vyirj

.

'
'^e
|

[] [«;]
|

\J'\epov,

\

Oebv.

'ep€p^oa

SieyeXa

eyae8oa

[»] \\

40

ev

[9 ^eo eh ['^ ] voeva, e
poetical

'].
,

^
]69

apyvpeov,

,
u\Tre\p
vlv.
.

yt€ yvea

|

||

8-\
6

eSOKei

eo

heo \^€*

yevoeva

[^yL

.

e^rjXOe.


decoi

7poeao

[' .
elirai^Ta
|
|

|

— 27,28.

85
who

for wliicli elsewhere
:

of.

89.8.

for the god, looking nf the hoy's father,
Ixide

4:j ff

Tfien the boy

acted as torch-bearer

if he obtained

him promise that he (the boy), what he ivas there for,

No. 84]

ARGOLIC INSCRIPTIONS
irarepa

\ €\, • ? ^ 9—
[eKeXero, ttoJi

lyeh

[^ .
[
|

'

e^]a7riVa9 " vTroheKO
elirelv.

? ,
".
'
eXeye
eiSe

245

706/36^9,
he

^-^

iv

45

{jytrj'i

€7^['€.

^ [ ]? ^ . ' \^ ] , ^. ^^ ,8 ]\ , , ' \< , . '] , '^
|

.

4<

,
et?

[iJaev
6

\\[^yaa

[] , [^ ] €\\ \\\€';, ] \, ^
-^
ihoKei
/ca]t

iirei [/ca

'^]

50

eh rjov
h\e

\\
|

'\\\
''],
|

'|[[/;

']^

55

eh

[,
[

o^^lv elhe

iSoKei

^€[]

,

el

^ ' '
'

^]

€\
|]

(>0

,

^\€
|

'^^
[][[:

|

]
6

,

, ' ," . ' '^, .

.

^(^)\

"

[]\^•

"

'

,

<^

.;" ^^
^

eXe'yov
r)
:

65

— )-

70

looidd within a year
offerings for his cure.

make

the thank-

— 00.

:

6\, '
||

\.
(50.

.
— 75.

75

see 177.

see

280.

When he had not even any rudiment of an

246

GREEK DIALECTS
oyjrt^

[No. 84

80

.[, ()€7 €> .^. — [ ''^ \, < \\ \ |!«^, \€,
€'[€8'\
et[9

ihoKei

deov
ei?

tl

e7re]tTa

Stayayovra

|

85

'"? .[
€7[]€.
[<?

eVet eyeveTO Trepi

'

Toy yvXtov

eJTrea/coJTret
|

'?
Toy

\^.€\.

7<;

hyi?]
et?


€7

90

95

. - ,. - ^
eyeoLL
eh
BevSpeov tl

SevSpeo^

^ . -'. . 8
6

8 , ", []; ."
7r]tWiy, eXvireiTO

'

eiSe

Toy

:€[7],
[]
"

?

yap

6 iv

yX6v,

et9

lepov.

i^aipev hyii) Toy

' yeyev€
eTrel


|

)]?

, , \
'
|

7| ,^ yevova

', "-

ave-

\<;

-jre-

yeyevevo
|j
|

yi

100

105

.^^ ,/? ^y - •^ . . •. ' ,
X6y'^av
6

;

^ yav
ey

— yv. yotaevo ' '} ^. —

yt

ey

'-

|

|

yevo.

.
€\4.
97.4).

yvo


it,

yXX^

\

||

/'i^PjX-

ya\ova
for
i.e.

vylv

y[]ov.
Or read

eye, but only the place

the

empty
to

,

eye-socket.

— 102.

must understand

while with

€^$

refers

() \€$

-

(cf.

we

85. ^ . — ^ '?. /'[9]. Corinth. in the iir. — (^ 6 | ^^ Corinthian [9] 85. .3114. nos. SGDI. Ileipatov Xen. . is but in uncontracted - the See 41. IG. 86. VttO Sei- 115 8e iv [ etc | etf '. 125 [^]? Corinth. See28. Early VI cent.stly votive offerings to Po- the Corinthian differentiation of or I () and (transcribed = and contain the name in both uncontracted and contracted forms.€ € ^ ^ . SGDI. — ev ^/ | ^. Tliis and the following illustrate They are mo..1V. veavia €7 — || 120 eu)v • 6 Sidyeiv ihelv iv toll | ^. ' aveOeKe .4. Roberts Apevia ToSe 86.. Probably error. ^ . iyeveTO. € . . 5 Uoredafovt and nominative onl}' tiie . ^^ ^ .358. 8€. ^ . \YloT~\ehapdvi . Iff. Early ^ cent. ^= e) \.'st an .IIellen.€€< €€ ^^. .4. . '€ | € ^^ €. /^? . . From a lai'gc collection of i)ottery fragments found near Corinth. YioTihafov\j. *.\211.:3119.r).3•29. a. [^'\. \^\ vTr[o\ iveKa11 . <. c. 87-90. []. —^ <. Cf. The epitaph forms a single hexameter. open e €^€.. as seidon. For Ile^afo^ev syllable (c). cf. . c. C. close e corresponding to Attic spurious orgenuineet. 86] COEINTHIAN INSCRIPTIOisS 247 irpo 110 iraif []9 € <^<. No. ' ^. . 8€ | i^eyepdeU 8e.' .217.

but is of io-suffix). 'B. Solnisen 25.i. sg. Northern Acarnania (exact pro\'enance unknown). -€(): . dat. u.TX. /[]4 88.2). h. SGDI. IG. 6. • [^> '^?. 99. cor- See 32. -.e. tive sense as in — 6. augmentless verb forms. IG. -: oo.. Corcyra. this is probably beformed with another suffix cf. e. — -. and pi. raasc. • ' ^" Roberts ' cent. Eng. lG. -afo i.8G7.-2. Roberts 100.c. See 76 89. SGDT. But. {j)6{P)e € / €{) ' Early cent. ivl.8G9.j.IX. — - and in -. I..IX. no. 8<. in transi- Homer.1. 8 <.3175. ' Tohe 'ApviaSa ' {) . Lamm. €\€ . Roberts 106. tumulus with a side --.2 {-- 4. ^. '' cent. B. since assimi- lation of to (cf. Corcyra.i. sg. 16< []9 <€ <yeveav • 14< yap Hviov ef ' ' roSe IsleveKpaTeo'i roSe ' '. Corcyra. 87.c.IX. TG.319(). and the three following are examples of metrical inscriptions composed in the epic style and with retention of several epic words. Roberts 98. The restoration is that suggested by Dittenberger.3. also MAeifioy. 90. lamh as pronounced) is not otlierwise attested in Greek. course uncertain. in -oio (105. eirl 88.i.521. SGDL3188.c.C.i. 6.g. IG. : cf — 3. GREEK DIALECTS [No.3180.SGS. 6{). This 89. Solmsen2. -. 89. Early Solmsen25. gen.248 87.e. Monument of Menecrates.evpapeo'i <? Trepl <? yaf | . SGDI. 105. ^ i$. 87 ^ cent. Germ. rected from :. . Lat. -ai. in- flectional forms.] ' evl ivOuv irovede. : gen. .

when Through the help of the following victor}/. in -eCs of a harbor temple of Apollo. The Selinuntians promise golden who shall help them Instead of an express conis Zevsfirst. 2. — carelessly used for accusative.751. Michel 20. making these Cf. 92. gods do the Selinuntians loin : Through Zeus we conquer.. and is still further limited by the Corinthians joined the league.c.XIV. 93. sg. 1. The date must fallin the period between243B. SGDr.302r).. . writing the name of and promontoiy north of Epidaurus.C.6\ivOi>\^tiol • [] [] []|[]/ | ^'[a]ay [] [] €['\[. 1)2] MEGARIAN INSCHIPTIONS Megarian 249 '\^6[^~\ '[7][]// €|•:[^ . the name of the strategus. <.44. ['\. cent. Roberts 117.342. lapevs : Persephone. ^ ' \[ 91. Decision of the Megarians. SGDI. ' iapev<i Me7«/3ei9 ^^ ]' ^. [<^ 1.— — ^. '] eV] [9 7][•\^]'€'? e/iey. Selimis. Decision of the Megarians. : — 7 — Cf 5. Ditt. iv ' [vrepjl | '['] |[[4]/ [em] • '91. .\\\ 8<. ['EJTTt ]^ ' ^^.^926.452. 1. statues in gold names. B. Achaean and 223 b. name : gen. shall set from 89. Between 242 and 234 B.Syll.3046. 5 nominative an enumeration of the gods who usually assist them. ]?. Dltt.268.C.c. ' ^ ' < (. 3 Upbv : -€ ^ . there 1. 8 [At]a €< []€ ^. : 4. 111. IG. ]' • ' '^[]-|| 5 iv \. the implication being that they will continue to do so. Demeter. see 58 6. \^7^ [toJO | AljiaXem. Solmsen 21. dition. Ares. statues to the gods to victoiy. ff. Epidaurus. Pans. And whenthereispeace. Inscr.3.Jurid. . appointed by the Achaean league to arbi- trate in a territorial dispute between Epidaurus and Corinth. etc. — — For the psilosis in — see 3.p.3. V Michel 1240. ^ £8 : < ". we and engraving them up in the eTr'iapeOs.I.Syll.?. -^os. when the Megarians abandoned it for the Boeotian league.

.18 (Spiraeum). with the feminine form Aiynrvpas 20.sg. 8e \^ ^ | €7€\6<.Nat. <^ iwi hirep and referred to 4. but also the u.' 250 10 GREEK DIALECTS 8e Me7«/3€t9 \[^ }\\ ] €\[]['\<. -ci.10. \[ ] • | ['\ iirl [] [There follow. ) .22.Ilist. 21 beside gen. 8.3 (correcting and Pliny. masc.{0 [ /3 [] ^ . €7 hirkp vTre\p • [] • | ^'• 'At'eia? 6^|7/>[] • <. contains the characteristic forms etc. 6.- <. eirl • [ €\ .-^ ? iirl '[]<. • || '. 32-96. ?: by pas tSls 1. is — 19. eVl • <. eva iirl ^J7t8apv €. 5 . aireaTetXav [No. See 42. tlie names of the arbitrators appointed to lay out the boundaries for them. shown Tlie list of names. — 32ff. [] [^'\• () '7[]^/ • \\[''\< ewi 11. '< Aiyi7r6pa<i iirl ^ . ^ . 11.'^ '\ <. 1. []^ | €7 • [^ | 8€ . 105.<. in So 'Apalas 1. 92 <> 'AXieiov <? •'! €7 Xeiav TOV • ]| ratj? < €7 20 ' €7 TOf 25 ' II €7 " iirl | hirep "^ <. • | \ ]0 HeTpai eVt <. [9 .sual form in 13 £f The confusion caused by the iden-as. ^.] tity by Thnc.. of those .2 arranged according to the three Doric tribes.

- (€- shall give out the contract is to the one who willing to furnish the stele at the lowest figure. IV (or III) cent. original ^ Xdws in Archilochus. club. . ( G.XlI. IG. Syll.694. "ESo^e ? <. — Z£v(S) ^\$. Camirus. 62. . from that of the other demes. / ' \€€<. 97. *€. : .' } .707.449. ] || [8 iv |j ^ cent.737. 'Kes arxursed. For the latter cf. 9] RHODIAX IXSCEIPTIOXS Rhodian 251 93. but not in classical Attic.XII. .see 160. ^ . ff. . SGDI.c.4U0.4. SGDI.i. 'it — The neighboring (see 42. - demes of The names of the or Camirus are to be inscribed. X^xoj) was resting place.4127. : . ": €. SGDI. \8. b. Solmsen32. Hesych. Camirus. Camirus. —8 ff.2) was under : grave. IG. the control of Camirus at this time. The last words are to be read.i. Cf. yet evidently sustained a relation to different — with resolution of the 95. Michel 433. '- island of . b. [ eti] * [| 5 94. b.c. is used by late writers. VLV ' | hiva | \€^ j . for the first part of the compound. 1 .4118. Si': ^. both those on the island and those on the mainland.^ '^ . whence either grave or the usnii\ place of recreation. — crasis. The meaning of tlie word (from cf.^ ^. from the Periplus of Scylax. ? | ? • ev | ' lepov | i /"}? 5 j j ^^| ev TOLL iv SeiKvveiv ev || ev 15 ev € : ' lepov lepoiroioi 93.— No. 95. Zei'(S) IG. ? .i. 94. YI cent.XII. iv reXewj and. .c. Ditt.2. '^ ^^ \ .

"^ • 96. who was worshiped with divine honors by the Rhodians. 18.560.XII. [ | '<. VII or VI SGDI. . |] • otl | | \7 | [ 6 '\\ 97. = A in/( = . Cf. IV (or III) cent. lepov | <. ^ . Syll.8. 4. marble from Lartus. elire 5 \\ 10 15 20 No'yu-09 25 30 35 '' . .:.52G1. i € [] [No. = .5. '€8 (^)() Lindus.56. Ath. a place in the neighborhood of .— 252 — GREEK DIALECTS 7[€\]. Kobertsl80. Ionic alphabet.- the name given to the acrop- — <3 -. a. Michel 434. | 7\ | eVo|[8ou | 6 [?] €\ '^ . '.i.). 7\. ICx. = A and in c (and probably in i). Ilicks 3. tl i$. . out cent. Inscribed on the legs of one of Abu-Symbel by Greek mercenaries who had taken part the colossal statues at .300 ev ry 97.. as iroXios : | | : and tlie nymph Kliodos. . 90.. in u. oUs of lalysus. 'i'ypa^\rav. || | . . | | []]' '. forsg.lllO. I)iod. Ilelios '^ '()^ ^' . Cf. c. =.8 Tol<i '\a\vaioL<i.GTT.c. lalysus. name appears : as also on another inscription. 4 a daughter of pi. . but with15. . 95 [ ]Ditt. . Khodian (?) inscription from Abii-Symbel in Egypt. h. where the 7. • . '< \ \ SODT.

: For . let them go up. Beginning of a hexameter. and =. Hdt. being evidently the copy given to Demetrius .- ho 6(9) "^ ^ ^^?. ^. — as far as the river see 132. ' .) or Psammetichus II (594-589 b. /? . i. ble. 2) = A. from lalysus (c). though there is nothing to prove 99. KipKios tian Eerti. of <5 Tlie peculiar spelling is perhaps yap due to a. 98.2 a. ^' ^ ^()'^\^ €^[€). Second half SGDI.' h. Ha7eae/3/Lco[9]. | '. yu. For Tlatafo in see 105. confusion between the two Among . complete restoration : is possi- ot ijXaffe aor. 99] RHODIAN INSCRIPTIONS vh 6 [ 253 Kep/cio? ()7()09 6 11 C.c). B. i^Troiec. is clearly in Doric and may well have been written by one of the Rhodian mercenaries.. Michel 5.4254. III cent.33. ). 11 and of the fact that this inscription was found at Rome. ..- /. probably the latter.e. there are two lonians.' ? ^ ].4. SGDI. in I TrpoeSpevovaw. . | ) : IG. 94. from Teos and Colophon (6 and e). and one Rhodian. 1{) [] 7[ < 5 | 98. Proxeny decree of Agrigentum honor of Demetrius of Syracuse. In view of 1.-£ -.systems of writing known to those who names are inscribed be- wrote these inscriptions. ^ cent. . These mercenaries were from Asia Minor and the adjacent islands (cf.. | 99.2.952. and h Ionic (on account of the movable). Agrigentum.. those whose low. || '. $ '^^. i. . . 7rpoajopouvTo<i an expedition up the Nile under PsammetichusI (004-617 B.C. / is also Doric. ' 6 - - 5 e. 6 . avrlovs pes TToXXoc.— . stands for the Egypwhich is applied to the stretch of water between the first catvis aract and Elephantine.'€-/. ' '€'/9[6]9 . g. in a The ran inscription.C. '^ ^?[^. as well as i.c.7.154 - vis : — 5. 1) = >?. (before 210). (7. The main part of the inscription (a). Gela. \ > ev this. Similarly be/xi.4247. n. ".XIY.1. a 3.

. (76 6). ^ 20 . 100. 11 virep "^ (^)\ ''. Ditt. Michel 555.Syll. 8 . in 1.. it appears that he was resident Rome. and its subsequent restoration. n.. Trpoyey | ]Sloo.4258. — for . occur 15. there were continual changes in of its its •7€<• not population. after the analogy of etc. 8. The : Syracuse in 387 b. 8e || iari irapaheho • '\\. . €€ its in several : inscrii^tions. SGDI. 7|0€/36€ e? | (^€8 e/c | ayadcuv 7rapaiTLo{v) yeyoveiv. '? 1> {.323."< "' /? . and his services probably con•sisted in some dealini^s with the Roman in '. . clear. 3. avaylyeX- }<. .c.'^ ' Se \ 8- €v€pj€T€iv ^. ^ ^.7€<. IG. after () is in the sixth period of two months. : loo.612. ^ ' ^^. cance of the following numeral €(. at the But very end of the month Kapmos. nn €[]<.. • '^ 8 25 < (1. 8e ^ .2. Rhegium vas a Chalcidian decree of the ony. Rhegiuin.XIV. see 147. : 24). 8 8 ^) ^ 254 GREEK DIALECTS | [ €^ ^ Kapveiov — [No. . and in the few early inscriptions the Ionic element predominates.€ . | €€ iv ayadai . 10 15 javTivoi<.c. Some if new inhabitants must have been with ei furnished by Gela or Agrigentum.. . destruction by Dionysius of Council. the — 10. col- senate in behalf of Agrigentum. for which signifiis employed 14. | pt . cent.

['\['\<. of Cos 37-39.] || ['\L\_y^ov^i. Syll. is the language of this the rites and ceremonies appropriate to - each day of year. ^' ['] and most of the seventh are so badly mutie<? 8e []\ [ayoSe 10 iv ayopdi [<. probably mediating between the council and the assembly. Cos.3C. 101-103. '^'? ' '/ ' ' ' ^. Portions of a sacrificial calendar. 1. [^ [] lep\oTroLol . The Rhodian influence in Sicilian Doric seems to have been considerable. Cf. the Pamphyli drove up to it the three . the Pamphyli having the precedence. After the tribes had each selected nine oxen in a manner prescribed in the : preceding lines (apparently one : refers to a small select body. ' COAK INSCRIPTIONS 255 * iirel 6 I evvov. €. Ditt. \ 4][]' ? ^. arpara'yop €'^ eh he iv iyyovov^ 5 SiaTeXet ei? 'l?yL\\vv. not merely Doric. . [/[. <. in which were enumerated from each ivara or ninth part of the tribe). and no. 102. 101. and there unite them in one herd. iv «?• ^.11).18. SGDI. When the priest and the iepohad taken their places at a table. Cf. 101. unex'ijlained and probably an error of Some kind. Paton-Ilicksjuscr.. at Tauromenium. ]!..36-. ra^ KaXoKayaOia^.610-G18.] ~\ iepem lepav.r)228. they were to drive them to the agora. 1. •€ — day. 70? 101] . evepyerav ^ < €V€Kev () ? '^ 8e 8.C. Selection of the ox and other preparations for the sacrifice to Zeus Polieus. 2. sen 33. et? ^ 8'^ 8 . Ilesych. [€y tlie | o'\y which but contains the Rhodian and the word otherwise known only from inscriptions of Gela and Agrigentum. we may judge by inscription. B. Michel 71G-71S. 8-19. the twentieth of the which occurs on the following month Batromius (cf. Solm- [The first six lines lated that only a small part can be restored. rat TTo'Xei.3038. SGDI. Late TV or early III cent. Coan 101-103. infin. 47.

as this sacrifice takes place imme- rected from as = . to the sul)- 150. '? ^€<. tlien ox chosen for Zeus.sacrificed tollistia. 23. ff. | [€ lepa lepa i^ iepoTroi^ol ] | T[ai] ' eirel he ev ajopai [^||]. the Hylleis drove up fore tlie Dymanes. -ycpca- the title of others. rpe^h [. a similar procedure is to be repeated for the choiceof anoxtobe. ^]^ . subj.' []<?. Upa Cf. — — 1. [ €<? [ |]7 a'y[op'\\av • | [< ] | 20 ^ ^. . and. va'yopee []'[ 7\] | 30 ) []^ finest ]epe<. ' '^ . be- chosen." [\'\.^ '. • 6 hirep evhe^io[^ [/] Katoi oave |]{) " • • '(7)€ • eireiTa ' [ \\ [«:]||7€' If 6 ' it is epaevo [^ : [7]/)0 these 8 oxen for selection. of religious matters. : . 25 ayopevei [o]i9 ^]. --. and. a pig. — 31. . they select an additional ox from each the third part of a tribe. a priestly official. in the small in the form island of Pserimos.. •[] — 1. vTTOK^y-yjr^et. — 29. €7 ^['] €\' [^ '[ '? ^^ 9 • Be [ . If still no choice has been made. and unite these with the three more. as of officials in charge lowed by vows and a i)roclamation of the choice./ . []7. . in this case. : : : the in addition the sacrificidl cakes choice of the ox to be sacrificed to Zeus (prepared) /roHi a Polieus having been disposed of. 9 [1 " ?']. — 19 . . viits tamehj. tlie none of diately. ^ '[ . . (/-.<? • • []|^<? ][\'\[ eireiTa €76\[ \^\<. -'€ = : cor- whole burnt-offering. Tiien the choice is effected. offers between Cos and were here. a body Calymna. Aor. .256 • GREEK DIALECTS 15 ' [. narration returns. / € []. €< ' ' . fol- The elsewhere. 48. . ^ • [. occurs only here. then the Pampliyli again and so on in rotation until all twenty-seven oxen had been presented. in <^5. described at this point.

. Ilesych.No. . is during the night. aTrovha\y aoLvo^v ^ ^ ^ ^. — irpoa: wliich after slaughter are yoptviro) sc.12 : — 44. .1. ['^'\ [8'\<. ? €(< : — 43. ^. 140. . | € '^ ' < II ] 7[^'\. [^ . ^ ia\_pe\\v'\<i €<. iapeh. ' .] ' ^. . 11. — 4G. 55-56. 7[^^ . \_^ /|] ] iviavTLa te/oew] €6[ ' - [ou9 ] €[. \. carrying Cf. .— cvSopa ivSe'pc- . . ^- cheese-shaped. 9^ : in the skin and made a tois Cf. ^ ) €[ ' • .\ . roi? eVre- 40 ^'^^^ | - 45 hep evhopa ivSe'pe- 6 [^^'\ • [ 50 • [] [^^ |0[9] ['\ | \^\\^ 55 [^ Cf. no. : 136. [:|].^< 6\^ e'iTt[aTrevK\ovTe^ € ^ COAN INSCRIPTIONS €^a'y[^ovT\e^<. 8e €. [ ' lapev\^'\ . [«:]'• 35 257 \a^p^^ovaL ' [\^ eVet '[^'||/3 8]e \\^]| | €\^. . The reference victim to certain parts of the 8 pi. — 4. : the eudopa are lorapped in the skin. . 7^ [\'\ • . 6 • '8 ' le\p'\a ' |]9 ^/.. • \^^8 . 102. '^. ^ [] .10 48. ^Jut.8. . . and no. iK- special offering. 101] €7 €7 vavT€<i Kriv\ei Be 7[9] /30i<? ][4}][9] e7ri^fe[TW [ ^ ^. wrapped up here in literal sense. 102. < ?. ^ 6 . • [€ . that .[. . off.

— : (iO. ^ • '] ^ []\ dvet oh ie[pev<.. [ ^^ . ' . ^^ due to the co-existence in the case of and gen. - The spelling eo of the spellings eo (cf.g.258 GREEK DIALECTS iepd Trape'^et • [No. from - in Cos.3 etc.. -eos and -ens). 'Emrat Me[Xai/]ia • lepev<i ye'pi] []\\€ • eV<? oh reXea ' • [/catji'ai] iep€v<i iepd ' yepy "E/c^Ta[t €'\. as cheeses are now made the sliape of a slender cylinder. lOl dvet GO '-• [ ^^ ^ • . .. ^. ^^ \^^ '. . ' 8'^8 ^^ [/]| ' . . TOii '. " | ap^^' • '^ ]|4 'Peat ' ' 7]||^ 10 1) \ . 6 || []/0€9 • Toy '^^ etc. in other Coan inscriptions). sg. eOffo in no. • '[] • [] ^^ | • • \_^\ • .. original eo (e.[1^ /ca[t] [^\^'\ 6 20 \ . in is /|[]' is. . • t]e[pe]i'9 | \_ - 102. II . — 01.\^'^ • 5 .\ [^] [^. [ ] :'/[ . 102.^ [ ' ' [^\ . [|/] €<. \€ ]. : vovos.

iv ' . d. .KXelov.4808. when there were no signs for and . in consequence of which even mostly of obscene content. a..[] || 1\. a No.' ^. . b. : h. IG. ' \€ ^ \\ [']!6 259 ^'6'[. 102. long to the oldest period of the alpha- bet. 104 and 10) are epitaphs. Roberts 2. 25 • [][9 ['\ ?] [\€''\ [8]• [ . which were indicated by and of inscriptions cut in the solid rock and or pA.. SGDI.'^ \" \ . 103. sc. *^€. They be- was sometimes indicated by Oh (as in . ] • ^ ol\e^ <0 4> 5 'Upa- [] lepa. "AyXdv.. [<. ? ^]. . \'\ || [|'.? [ [] | ^'\. 17. €. '^] |[9. C. ?. . '.\[] }'\ < [) ^'^ ..c. . ]| eXat Ovei • • [] €€<. 106 belongs to a series . Theran VITcent. while no. '? ['• • || l^epa -\ 10 15 104. Trap 104-106.XII.iii. 104] THERAX INSCRIPTIOKS \1 '\' ^€ ^ 8\<. . ' € [^ 88 . Thera.762. €.. .. . Nos. .

n. Thera. cf. is two words. (cf.c.7o3. 108). • | 7/|9 ^Ayopav ^\\_\ IG. movable. . ' this early time KXea^o/jos. month Artemisius they shall offer a sacand at the Agoreia (name of a festival) a banquet and sacrifices in front of the image. IVcent. b. Thera. SG1)I. Solmsen29.\) —« c. ayaOov ||</9 - 107. Leges Sacrae 128. .Syll. b. last The inscription. instead of to Seiwvi^ev are variously in- (as well as thereafter) they shall offer terpreted. 108).Suppl. € . SGDI. Attic. c. On the twenty-fourth /.XlI. 7\' \ 10 ey || Even at was completely lost. cent. no. Ziehen. IV or early V cent.' See 136. IV cent. Roberts In.iii. a. . IG. Avhile is completely 4\. sec 58 Att.4809. land dedicated to her service Ayopai were celebrated (cf. GREEK DIALECTS [No.C.iii. TG. 105).c. 8 Solm- | 11 108. SGDI.-452. | . Ziehen. li. ^ . ' — ox. TG. [^ [^ I ^\€\<. -Ion. Thera. raSe ?.476o. 'AyopTjLois no.iii. metrical (tVo iambic SeiTTvtfei' -: an trimeters). the 1 f. 109. *? ayaOai ey rifice. 116. {ci.l32-i.XII. Thera. 105 106. This was. In the very first year a medimnus of wheat. B.436. 5 Ovpoi [ / ^^ ya^. hence without augy mentand with the For 108. sen 28.260 105. Agloteles. 109. But the words from up to the a sacrifice. was the first to honor tvith a Carnean banquet the god {Apollo Carneus) on the twentieth of the month in lohich the doubtless. ' []€7^ .XTT. ^^ etc.4772.Leges 'Ayoprjiot'. of the but with retention of the Doric ending. /9'. likewise no. Tlh€i8i(7r)'7ri8a<i €'7\^€<^. IG. Boundaries of the land for Mother of the Gods. 108). $.630. 5:3(3.iii. 'Op- inoie.4787. Sacrae 127.iii. who also promises 6 ff. Michel 715.XVI. B. SGDI. .9. ^ "^? — ^. son of Enipnntidas and Lacarto. cent. Thera. Solmsen27. c 107.XII. '< ?}? '. Ditt. eveoo- '7().C. — no. ^ ^()'. by Archimus.c.

not - etc. SGDI. complete as in itself.. .No. the forms of the letters. Merriam. The the sixth centuiy e.Am. and that the Code is of the fifth century b. subj. .552 93 If. {the judge) shall condemn him to a fine often staters in the case of a free man. Code. Ycent. probably about the middle of it.. because he seizes decree that he release him.Arch. I. ^. but a series of regulations uncertain. Although a sign for is lacking in the Law-Code. COiiiparetti.c. and ir the direction of the writing ). precise has been transcribed uni- and is regular. ' ^ '\ . .l885.J." which If he makes the seizure. Michel 13o3. Gortyua. both at the beginning shown by the and the unused space at the end of the last from inscriptions which contain a sign for . five in case of a slave. The same inscriptions show that aor.l ff. CRETAN mSCRIPTIONS 261 j 1 Cretan 110.lS86.. transcribed. and . ff. The state of the alphabet which and (there are no signs for or -€v?). Whoevei• about to bring suit in relation to a free shall not man or a slave.B.]Mou..1). have The later ones with transcription followed in our text is that which accords with the forms of the earlier inscriptions. Such are the ine and finitives of contract verbs in -EN (-^i' column. Although conveniently so designated. Disputes over the ownership of a slave or one alleged to be a slave. although the inscriptions now generally believed that the de- velopment of the alphabet was slower in Crete than elsewhere. {-€ or -€ ?) The earlier inscriptions with while the have ivfoiK^v.24ft:. The famous Gortynian Law- are not much later than the Law-Code. Solmsen 30.32iif.Auticlii III.1-IL2. 4998). since there is evidence of on various subjects.C. it is not of course a complete in the The proper transcription of Law-Code is in certain classes of forms code of laws. should be so etc. and him within shall three . and the infinitives in . '? € \ he 110. is regularly so used in the inand scriptions of the "North Wall. There are also other inscriptions from Gortyna containing regulations of series of seven beside often have which have before words beginning with a vowel (93). It formly . are such as are usually characteristic of {- . a'yev. make seizure before the trial. tive are not distinguished from See 4.pp.Jurid. but the prohibi- general style of the writing. one columns being known sometimes as the Second Code (SGDI. ^ . points to a later date. Hicks 35 (only I)• Inscr. 7<« is See 150. 110] I.4i)91.pp.g. . the had already been used with this value in an earlier period. -MEN . a similar character but on different subjects. I.

{the judge) shall decree that {the plaintiff) have judgment — For time.2GfE. but if they testify for both or for neither. 1 20 25 30 . € . ^. denies making a seizure. of the slave. against him. The word occurs in another Cretan inscription (SG 1)1. 170. .' | ]|- € | 8\ \€- | [ e | 6 [] Tre\y'\T huX\ov'] ' kg- VLK€V € | Xayaaei € j \^^€ man ? days. in the Similarly Ob. 8\_€ ayev. a drachma in the case of a slave.38. unless a ivitness tifies.. Cf 11 S. the judge shall decide under oath. . 110 202 5 GREEK DIALECTS Treyrjle. . a slave. the judge shall decide under oath- as a take accumulated fines). where its of the Some meaning When •' € is equally disputed. the latter where he acts directly as arbiter. in the case of Hie slave ten staters and a drachma for ewh day until he surrenders h im. between StKaSSevand Tiie him. But if he does not release him.. here and elseKpivev. of time.. — is If one party contends that a man a free man. As to the decide under oath. pai<. the judge shall But at the end of a year judge has pronounced judg- ment. € Se • ayei. tes- time the judge shall decide under oath. and as to the surrender {the slave). Kpivev. — [No. ^. { ) = Att. after the former is used where the judge pro- nounces formal judgment according to the law and the evidence.^ . If they contend about is his. where. : — 25.se.e.4 ^ j| \€ iXeiidepov €<. .specially XI. 6 ^ /Cjo[t]yev. and he shall surrender the slave. €€<. If he does not release {the free man) or day until he releases him. . for delay) or but not more. (the judge) shall declare judgment according to the ivitness.. e . £ e eXevdepov ^'^ ' Kpivev. three times the original instead of the accumulated fines less. (i. . the use of the genitive in see 171. for each {the judge) shall to condemn him he shall release the free within five days. eXeve^po.serve the case of the free m an for fifty staters and until he releases a stater for each day clear distinction in u. ^. 11.6000 I). each declaring that he a witness testifies. one may exact three times the — amount fines. gen. The purpose of to be to seems prevent the accumulation of this last provision those who testify that he is a free man if fines out of all proportion to the value shall be preferred. But if one e. a fine of a stater in the case of a free man. third (i. iXevee[p]ov. ^^. Xayaaai iv | | €eXevdepo [] 8\ \^'\^ < [:]|' € [\a'y'\aa€i.e. the other that he is a slave. the one in jjossession has been defeated. 10 .

{^).45 ()€. 8e 263 | | «[ e e? €<.. pay the simple fine (i. he shall 2-45. ff. olireL. '[:]'?. 11. either him- for him.e. INIany take he shall pay what is written. (see Glo. he shall daughter) of an aw iraipos. ()9 7| • • \\ \ eXevdepov \^~\ ayet e \< | [] [^]? €<. but if upon {the tried. \ . evrt he | he | 7ohL he . If he does 34 ff. • |€ 50 \\ 55 II €€. . But there shall be no penalty for seizing one presence of two witnesses of age and free.ssaiy) If a member of the makes a seizure. 6 [ €\ 5 the whose account one uge in a temple. no] CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS XayaaeL. \€<. 47-50 and their relation to the — provision in 1. is defeated takes ref- has gone out of he shall office. but if he does not make the summons or point him out. viKaOei. summoning {the successful party) in the pay what is ivritten from the time when he made the seizure. poLKeav.). \_'\<. or another {seizes the one a eraipda {) who \vas not a or society member of made up of citizens. in 11.. II.^ '. 6 ' € vaevei 6 eXevOepov 09 e . if defeated {the defeated party). ? 8€ . eXevOepov • alji : €€\.2ff. render him {the slave) at the end of a year. . addition (to pay the simple fines in what is stated in 11. At ][] i[^ypa^{)€va. iv || e e 35 40 |)- ivi.) $ and as not even (referring back to sur- referring to the value of the slave.' . * €\\. See Glossaiy.vaevti e . 34 ff. gaged his person. If one commits rape upon a or he shall free man pay one son or TheOTr^- If {the slave) dies while the suit is being hundred ratpos. — 38 of a member of the If the slave on case shall be tried after he (the official) ? |. shall point out {the slave) at the temple where he takes refuge. . 3. self or another condemned for debt or one who has mortThe penalties fixed.36 are variously understood. withoutany additional fines for delay). ten. adulteiy. . No. occupied a social position . eXevOepav ' heKa ' he fOLKea YiOt hapKvav^ slave) he f[ol^iK€v^ poiKea \>\\t anniversary. II. irevTe y ear. staters. Rape and woman. and.

— 36 If one declares shall swear. and the slave shall have the preference in the oath. 11. 25 30 35 \ 7€7 ^ . with four others (literally himself as a fifth). ff. he with two an a case of a serf the master and one other. i>e pay — ten staters if a ivitness testi: iirfiri pcrai — 28 ff.45 ff. . {if he testifies falsely). then 11 ff. Be eirl • Be \<. but if in the night two obols. €' foiKeus. any from her own property. by who caught him day one obol. each calling down curses tempts to If one athave intercourse with a free — IG upon himself othei-s. 7€€\ iXevdepav. BtTrXel Be irevr . he shall pay two staters. hut if one that has already been violated. • Be aXXveOpaL iv 40 ^ . eKev. \ alXeOec iv | e iv • • || he Karaaraael • \ Be ^ aXXvaeTat. irevWe. \^'\\'\.6 — shall of her relative. i\v (\). But he is not ransomed.^^ . ^ . to the distress . i^KevOepav oXirev iXeuOepav avhpo'. i. GREEK DIALECTS | [No. If one violates a household slave by force. and the half of the produce. ^ . it shall the half of whatever she {the house). (the wife) shall have her own in the house of the father etc. midway between the iXeoOepos and the are meant. that he took him in adultery and did not lay a plot. — him as they the one |9 \.264 10 e 15 . Se 8e iv '^. in the power of the captor^ to do with whatever there and five . 45 ' aireTaipo . loit- husband. fore three ivitnesses to the relatives of the one caught (literally caught in. in the case of in : .45-.. Rights of the wife in announce be- the case of divorce or death of hu. At avep eie [/ca]t []]^ . 8 6€\ e ev 8€8[]€ • 8\- 8\. ivatXedevTO^ | eev Kped- iXo\vTa irevTov et e<? Be foiKelo^ aTepov eXev.e. e. and has woven within is. Be ff. 7r[eV]Te 7€|' ' 20 TQ<i . irovei Be i7\apevov. 8vo poLKeav. ]€ . lo'ish.€. but looman shall fies. if there is but to the master of a slave before two nesses.) that property loith which she came to her they are to ransom him if ivithinfive days. If a man and wife arc di- vorced.sband. 110 evhodihiav hokav al • ararepavi [ojSeXoV. a case involving a fine offifty staters or more.44. in Possibly the that he has been the victim of a plot. One . 6 KaBeaTal\\^ ^ .

| so ei <? €\^^€\<. . gen. a short expression for things pay off. '^. . olnvos.7\ 6 | fv . 15 avep | Xei fa | dah aveS • 20 [ ' II [xjat' ^] €^'\\ \\ :[^] Trepoi. ei. €v\8lkov ] «:a/97r[o] . to the 7| yvva \<. . . acin the pres- . otc <. her husband matters which she denies. gen. shall . <. denial by Artemis. anything belonging shallbe a matter for trial. ). ^^ jjj art. . /^7\] "\€ . avep irepoi [ CEETAIi INSCRIPTIONS kotl 6 265 evviraveL avep [atVijjo? /ze ^.2G. she — 17 xpijtos from xp^eos. and whatever she if the wife wishes. €.^ Trepei 7ra/3||eXet 1 | . five staters and the thing heirs. €8\'\€ : fa '. V. — — 50. 6 6 \_'\€^. — If a stranger helps her carry he shall the heir at law. ten staters wi ols and half the amount which (he judge swears he helped carry — 49. — 27 ff. {it is permitted)^ . she man dies leaving children. If a pay five staters. pay off. \ '^ . i'Le (. I <. thechildrcn. Kpeios III.€ . \€ . And of the produce in the house she shall share with the lawful he shall itself.e.. But if the husband declares he is not the cause.21-22 or loife If man wishes make gifts. . . 34 = by attraction. : liere and : i. judge) cording to what shall decree that she take the oath of ence of three ivitnesses of age and free. 6 irevre . witli ff. 14-15. «. and whatever she purloins But as regards (the holding her own property and whatever is toritten. €v8l\kov ' 25 ac ej^lpaTTac . carries off this she shall return. {proceeding?) But if she takes it Amycleium to the archer-goddess. ^< \ . ^ <. ^ ' ' 30 fa | 35 husband is the cause of the divorce. — 37 to ^. sg.1. if the see 101. : to 6 cf. • \_] ^^^ 5 ' irapeXei. yvva. III. . ff. But if she carries off anystaters. the judge shall decide under oath. thing else belonging to the husband. ' €()8€. If any one takes anything away from her after she has taken the oath of denial. no] fOilv 7€€ /3[9 ^ . may marry again may have given her.

\ \. but not more. Partition of property the oath. . €€ . e € opei. eireXevaaL al Be e • ^. ing of the stone. tliough the elision of the e If he does not receive it. \ /^ et[e] () ['\ || . no IV 5 /cea9. . 44-1 V. : ' some- ^' ring. and witnesses shall have preference in IV. 23. 44 child. or she — Disposition of chil- dren born after divorce. €7. -epov € \^ eTTeXev|| 'y\uva '^4. III. ^. € fa €K€V ' irepoL. . €. € ^' . Kepevovaa. — d[i] . to — -' . avep e 266 GREEK DIALECTS e e hvoheK\a e I Be \ • 8€ 8 e | hi 50 <? 55 eTreXevaui Be . 6\\€ Be rot a\vhpl iirl eirl arejav ' 6<.14ff. . If the man has no house which she shall bring {the child). the child shall be in the power of the mother either to bring of ^e is difficult (or ?). — nical term for certain kinds of gifts. ' .€ .40 45 .. and the relatives it. | tol ? oJlTTfie. € . ^ . if she exposes the child. 177. ' eVt | . []. no penalty.. TOC 10 15 20 25 6€. evB\iKOV . f not occurhousehold (V. Te|/coi €\<. ^. [|| /xe BeKaeTat. as to whether they brought among children and heirs-at-law. €\. does not see him.: this conforms to the readread /xe 'i[e] at his house in the presence of three witnesses.23-VI. [No. ' <.^ . {) foiK^ea • € ' either clothing or twelve staters or thing of the value of twelve staters. eirl tol rja? poL- | al Be € tol €. jvva \\€[']€[']. there shall be If a divorced wife bears a she shall bring it to her husband ff.2. III. with aphaeresis tati ve see For with the op- up or to expose .26) and IV. ? : | this is the regular word for perhaps a tech- being house in this inscription.

€< Tt(9). is IV. Ovyarepavi ' '. hut against those {who received gifts) previously no action shall he brought. who has been fined ais shall have his % 22 ff. the one ^ — 33 ff. . in the same way as is prescribed the property shall But V. he ' ei e 10 eKe[v'\ he eKev ahevinal | eKev €\. And the property of mother shall be divided. \€\\. ||| - 40 anre[p] 45 . ? \.. 4 ^ . But any one dren) should he condemned to pay a fine. those to it falls according to the source of receive dies. e || \ :/3[']7. airoXavKavev. : which are xoomen shall share in the inheritance. eVIlt KeL Kopat foiKiov. — . € € TeKv\(x 15 ei . ' '7[']€ a{a)he\7nol he TeKva. -^€\. \< avep € a\\t []760 [7]/ 6 ['\\€(<) ho\VTO'i e ' e\_v^hiKOV €^€. or serfs attached the body of to the estate) shall have the {was written) money. eypaTTUi.e. [ \aKev hev oTeiai he 50 he he aWa 6 (nro\av\^Ka\- V 5 vev. | ^ 267 evfoi- 30 €^<. eVt poLKeo^ ei. < Oak <. as — there are no heirs-at-law. . ev Tac{^) .l ff. at | 070 if ^.[]7^\ € 7^||. those of the household who compose the /cXSpos (i. for the property of the father. not occupied by a serf residing in the country. 35 []^€\< 6[T~\eia hoTO eTrea^^evae. . ra || . he Xe|t iraTep ^ ? . Whateverxooman has no property cither hy gift of father or brother or by promise or by inheritance. . ' €< | 70^[]/. € € 7\[] []..No. . the — if — 44 ff. \<. € - 20 | he 25 when Cyllus and his colleagues of the {subdivision of the tribe) of the Aethalians composed the 63. ei'[e. no] CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS iiravavKov e^ev TOL ev a\t 8€\ e al he Se tl<. \ [']. et {of the chil- € \\ at he peaa. €Kev. these portion taken out and given him as written. \ €4.29ff. when she whom If there is none of these. . eypaTTai. evei. it. ['] jvva rajlt ^[^]4 €'[7/].

\ .- [No. GREEK DIALECTS f | 40 ael 45 50 . |]| \' . | \. clothing. cision of the judge. As long as the father lives. 1. as in Hdt. ((nd it — 14 f. € ^ ||? 34. e Xei. mortgage on himself has acquired or inherited. ^ ^. the object. tva-tLii — 3(5.268 elev e\K€v 30 35 . ornaments. : — 39. | 28 If some nfthe heirs-at-law wish to oftheprice. Sale and mortgage of family property. it. niture. they do not agree as to the division. But whatever if . at \6 [a]t []||€ /xe avvyiyvoaKovTi Kpe- €7\ '. divide the property. iv-aeiei (). 110 \ €7\\€^ €. until If any one. without . 11 '\() /' ff. — cf . 8e .2. 2-46. if they do not wish to make a divid- VI. eXd^ydepovi e 8€\^8 ^. they shall receive each his share ' € of. \^ . and others not. produce. At ^ errl ^.. : |' at ? : aor. ^ . the judge shall decree that helowj to those wishing they divide all the property taken by some as . disposing of it to whoever offers the may dispose most.. nor take a ing the property. e a\yei e jrepet. subj. . 5 10 ? €/ . after the de- more probably iva-dii (eiju') with stead of i from the indicative. is written . and fur- VI. enters in by force or drives or carries off anything. they shall sell the property. 6 Sdei. division. he and. In the matter of live stock..2ff. ' 7/3||[]. = <^. he shall 08. the judge shall decide with ref- erence to the pleadings. subj.\\ 8€ <. If. >\ €7€\<. 15 ^^ . pay ten staters and double the value of 174. XeiovaL Se ^^ €€ €^ || evaeiet. / 7|.: 82. ^ it. — VI. ' ^. Kpe'to^ €<. ^ ^ \ ^. when one shcdl not purchase any of the father's property from the son. (the son) he wishes. ^. et but in- to divide. .

tween a male slave and a free woman. Responsibility for the acts of a slave. 55 ff. ransomed.. 2 30 6 €€ he <. — 25 ff.4. with reference to the matter about which theij are disjmting. that it ransoms him from — 51 ff. . e [ .\^^ . ' ransomed person shall added on the original substructure.15. 7€<. '. Cliildren of copy- mixed marriages. . : — ai.\. or possibly in — demand VI.. 7\. but the tlie The general sense is restoration and precise ' since the inscrip- interpretation is uncertain. is hiKaaWav | . 19.4(5ff. €7 ' 110] e j CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS '^. tion of this law. with reading of do tlie text. etc. the opponent denies.€ .54. proper. In the case of marriage be- belong to the ransomer. e ^ he | Kp^eo<i ' €7\\€. [] what clear. '\ ^ 269 /[£]^ | €\€ rot 20 e e € ei^ilSiKov . ' he '< []<. 1. \~\ 45 h\^vav<i'\ Tt|<> 7\\ h 50 \^'\ \^'\ || \'\. VI.ininatters of previous date. before the judge where it is pre- scribed for each case. contrasted witli top irpbeea.2-i. if one is sold into hostile So in IX. belongs to the mother or the it or on the ground that he did not to be wife. which is not extant. Iff. . 37 and VIII. . e 7^\ h e hiTrXeiav ? [/. . his exile. Tat yvvaiKL. upon his demanding it. ' a'oh\evov 40 ei.4G-VII. — VII. Something is certainly missing between the end of VI and the beginning of VII. 15 and XI. . \ e €l. action shall be brought where belongs. = otherwise than is written. either overlooked by the stonecutter ing. € 4 .' ^/^^. [ 55 | VII otherwise Cf. But do not agree about the amount. But if forced if they (to so) hands and some one. ^ . ai he | € II €he [] ? € €\ a7roho[e)9ai eTraiveaei iirl 35 e ' \^^ a^ohL 6 eh hXo^^ . Perhaps. ejpaTTat. • €9. until he pays . Repayment of ransom.

rov hdXov. | '^ tol . The heiress. 6 the choice of a known as €\ . If TraTpoCxosTrap^^vosIIdt. which had been concealed. whether the slave went to live with the lations for her marriage Reguand the disdaughcf. cession). in default of sons. 7|[]/3[] TrpeL'y\J. SGDI. If there arc several heiresses and sons of brothers. iXevOepa et €.[|. the one who has acquired him shall be liable.1)-. whom marry oldest. . upon discovering any faults. eKev. Not until the expiration of this period was the purchase binding. if the slave note.270 reKva. 5 GREEK DIALECTS al he I he 10 ' € €9 e/c<? a iXevdepa eirl <? . the oldest of those living. (= it the one to falls to marry) or simply shall VII. 110 yeverai. 6. For the use 4998. ter 67%(). — becomes the heiress 10 ff. a — 9. but If there are no father's brothsons of the brothers. If there are several heiresses and fathers brothers. €-€£ : ehv . When. eKev ^^'^ ^^ . who becomes the virtual head of the family. or whether the woman went to live with the slave.' 67€() €7|4 e/c? 7[)' ahLKe\KeL e .24. also 77 the meaning in both passages to be dis- . he t'e(^)^ai :€7[] € [e]? 07'€(^)^ eTrlt [^ ^^^. and the purof a slave . Att. physical or otherwise. he might repudiate the purchase..marry The purchaser was allowed a certain time within which. is . they shall marry {the second) the next oldest (and so on in suc- chaser liable for the acts of the slave.9 | iXevdepoi aj\opa^ € €. the groom-elect. woman. she shall But some take that one {ivho is the son) of the pose of abroad. 20 7\\. i 15 . thus raising himself in a position of her property. \€{). he []^- ee^ €|- the status of the children depended on . 7[\€0^ e €6. 1 ff. The person so determined. ers. (. cf. they shall marry [the .^aroi. is determined by fixed rules. The heiress her father'' s brother. VII ai if of repaiow. 8€\€\ 7^\<. has wronged any one before or after. measure to her condition. eKaelev. 57 with Stein's one having purchased a slave from the market-place has not repudiated the purchase within the sixty days. e? [] Tr\epaLoaeL fCKaeKOVT \€- evhiKov he vceeh he he TrXt'e? '' ». ' free 7\€<. husband. [No. [] ahe\TTLo\i 25 .

— 35 ff. 6\ . 6['\. the all the property and proper share of the property. €\ ? Be | €. any one of the tribe she wishes. - then. she may. 6{). although he is iviiling. . being a minor. \. ^ .. 6 €7/3||[]/ | 55 ' . . '. is written. of those subj. . 151. [']9 <. 271 a []. 6()[^^ . in case she • marry another : perf . 7-8. . . 07ri^ie(^)^|ai 7'[]9 6{) ^'. If he does the next in married to the one to wh-rm Ihcy gave her. \^^ ? () 7\\ [ ^'. Trpeiv 6 .1. ^{) . elect) his — "VIII.30 ai he 35 ' eirLKapTria'i oirviev. €\ | ^^ . \\ . ^ .. .No. . if she does not wish to remain ff. ? '(). []:[][9] \^'\\ • '\(). though both are of marriageable age. 6\ 20 25 second) the second {in order) after the son who ask for her hand. there is no groom-elect. If one becomes an heiress after her father or brother has given her (in — 20 ff. income shall belong to the heiress until he marries her. || . 7\ OTihxi [ \ \^\ ^ 6]. 6 € 6 | he 67\() et ^ Xet \\- 40 6<. • 5 {e). if there is another. marry her. — 24. they shall give to him (the rejected groom- marry {the heiress). But if she may marry property as of the tribe. \ Xeioi - eVviII 5 \ \\ . ' []1 [ Xejt ||| 67{) \- . to \ . does not wish of the eldest (and so on). dividing the succession. like etc. she with sliall all the property marry has borne children. not — 47 marriage). But If the groom-elect. ? 45 50 X]e[i €<\. as is loritten. 110] CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS et e | * ^\ ^ .

\\ .e GREEK DIALECTS [Xo.24-X. ' 5 10 . one . \ . 6 [ [€. hk '? 67€{) /u.30 at 35 40 45 50 ' aV[o]/309 55 ^{). 272 []04 07€(^)^[ ]? avep j '/9]|6. [^^ (?). eie. .][?].?) 7[^]] fraud ?. // one dies who has gone given as security or has been guilty of or conspiracy surety or has lost a suit or owes {stands in such relations) to him. 20 at ' '[|^ / ? 7['\\ 25 \ At ? 7/3[]«| [ .. Ka\TaXi7rei. //? ' || eiriKaTaaTaael. Various subjects. ' et e e? |9 /6[][ ?] ['\ [] [| []< et. at Be ^ €. ]'. '[]€:]|^[]? \< money . . Be €7\\[^ 67€(). ^^ ? . ^ € . ' ' [7]/3. IX. ' 6 OTTViev () €7 he | eU. 24 ff. no ['^]|^[.^ /cai €. | | :]['? (. | [' BtapC\a[vKa]v\€v ete [^]|[]9 at ' ai^[o]poi £7|/3. 7[/3«''•]«'''[« €€.\ \ ^ Trap [^ ei. at eypaTTai.Jei'.. eypaTTat. oire eypaTTai. 7[. || et. e 15 TaaTaael [] ' <> . '.[ ] /i. | []9 a[i'7r]i /^[]^'. at eypaTTaL. \7€() [^ 7€()[^. ^/ \'\ \ € | 'Avep peaa ^/ » / ^^ | ]| [«:|]/ :[^/9 [/ijel•* ^€ [ ^ () [_'\ \\\ \ €7[- «-| alt • »- eie. .32. 7/|'' or another - IX. €\jpaTTat ete. []6.

X.4). The third 1. The judge shall render his decision according to the tes- If the suit is xoith reference to a judgment won. . • SiKaBSerd [a]7ro7r\5vio. € — : whichever course the complain- judgment for If a son has gone ant demands. : contributed to for «ks {=fts) judge) shall decree that {the plaintiff). w as in 11. and keep the property. ^ timony. — |35 ^. < . . invalid. 7/9[] 707['\.. {shall give testi- momj). with ios ff. when he has taken oath himself and likewise the witnesses. the heirs. if he is alive and a citizen.— 28-29. \6 ap'yvpov apyvpov \<. but the most is for -) isuncertain. irepa^L '[:]4 | {) [ •? 6\ <| | 7\\. ' 40 <. 11 ' . ^:]| (S)e 35 . €/3\' e|? [11. 76() lacking] . has the simple amount. . . '.30 | 6 Be \ Bipeawi e Be BiKaBBerd ? . in 11.' Kpios : 35-30 the h to no purpose. 'Special legacies are surety. ^^ Be | ^^ [']. the one etc. — 43 the heirs as witnesses. probably only an error. \. and with used like iKeivos as in VIII. /€7/626-27.||9 <\€ 8<. After they have testified. {?). \'. <. . who has timony. . . 20 e? 25 |1 latter with -. — 5. \\€.. if The precise and staters they choose. {the — 50.. no] CEETAN INSCRIPTIONS 6 Se 273 TO ivLavro • at TToXiareveL. or does not pay back a venture.'] [~\ ol 50 6 ^] . \\ ^'. []€ ['\ 15 tl<. while his father is living. 8. meaning of vos (cf.No. may pay the 100 24. at | 1-9.^ \ . letter in 29 is probable reading . person shall bring suit against said be- fore the end of the year. he the property subject and to fine. which he possesses shall be not to exceed the value of 100 staters. ^. but in the case of surety and pledges and fraud {?) and conspiracy the heirs as witnesses shall give tes- If one has formed a partnership with another for a mercantile venture {and does not pay him his share). . ||[ e e9 Trep[a'\v 45 evS. to TTOVLOvrov. either to take oath of denial or—. the judge and the recorder.€<. and \< ' . obscure. .<.S.48. and most of 10-14. before following (97. . If one makes a gift of greater value.15ff.

. — 10.lOff. \\4. the adopted . but as regards matters of a previous date. — 42 — 41. ket-place.. . . there shall be no liability. Adoption.ei'] ]' yveaia '\7 ciTra^yopevovTi [ SeK^a iS | 8\. ' fai 40 foivo. Xei TeXXev Se €^ lapekov € avvvei yve- 50 XI 5 € )() ^ 8e . (). eypaTTai.23. aveXeTai | 45 €{). yvea[i^a [^\^' ^ . € [\| [« \'•^ ' Xei] \^^ [^ 6 e|l|[/u. \\\€ || €€. the stone proclamations. 35 aTroTTOvioVev )^ 7() 8^ Xet.e. ^. ^^. 1. etc. €() | [No.30 [^] .33-. when the citizens are assem- () — 19 looks after the interests of ff. ^ . Adoption may be made from The whatever source amj one wishes. € ^\\€<. ^ . whence they make <rvvv-ii: see 101. -cvCo: sc. bled.. the clerk of the These regulations the time shall be followed from from ff. of the inscription of this law. of beiiic. 274 /xe GREEK DIALECTS €(^)\[1^ he €8€ " €{). .son) or from the adopted son... ayopav airayopevovTi. /' . ireha aLirep ^je[Xe]iat epaeve^ \. son) in the market-place. in ivhatever perform the religious and social obligations of the one who shall He way one holds {property). [] cKelv. • - [ Se 10 15 20 [ €[^ ' ()' . wishes. X. fepKaat. OeXeiat . 6 \- yvva \^' official a||t ypa eypairae. ayopav • 6 ^ ^ .. adopted him. may renounce If the adopter {the adopted whether by virtue of adoption (i. who adoption shall be announced in the mar- strangers. no 6 /^' €7\7€() €8\€ Be e? Kpeo<. he — Xl.33ff.

. [^€(^) 8e | €€ 40 9 86< \\.24 f If one seizes a trial. shall the property manage best they whom he owes money. apyvpov €7\€ \. () yvvaiKi | yvvaliKi . e |[7€ apyvpiov.24-. []€ 9 . oireXei.3./ . if the judge has decreed an oath. /^^^^ No. '4ypaTTai. \€\. ypav.€() [ €\^. ' 11 \\' The the fine for is di- ' 25 not be subject to any further fine. XII. no] /xe CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS aj€L . See note to If one dies owing money or having lost a suit. In case the heiress. When a woman vorced from her husband. .OG. 21 ff. {) . but other matters he shall decide under uath twenty days.e. shall be treated according to is written. the mother's property for the offer any one may receive him (i. ff. ' 30 oireXdv e Xei- 35 apyvptov oi<i | at oe Xei . owes it. in the presence of the judge. 1—15 lacking] eypaTTO {)<. eyparrat 25 ^ otl i at ovTL. in default of a groom-elect or is brought up with her mother. — 31 to the pleadings...< ^ . if there are no so long as they are under marriage- able age. may the man an asylum). . But if not. 11 ff. []4 | [€] | [7]/30? v7r€[8) [ iv 8\\ [^\ e 11. . oZtlvo^ as in II. The what heiresses. 45 otl 50 ' €-|| . she shall take the oath of denial of whatever one charges within judge shall decide as it is is written whatever loritten that he shall decide accord- ing to witnesses or by oath of denial. A'arious supplemen- .iftheywishtopaytltefineinhisbehalf and the money to those to . oti — : — according 1. the brother. | 275 atei | €7€€(). ypa€va. tary regulations. — 4G ff. The — mother. man before the the father. but the heirs shall and income as .5. . 09 " . .' . 26 ff.. ^ . the property sh(dl he- father's brother and the mother's the long to those tvho the suit or those to those designated (above). 20 . . father's property shall pay XI. thoseto to receive the property whom it falls may hold the proj)whom he erty.

Q.| . 29. known as East Cre- cepts them.. . he hvoheKapeTia e wpeOyova. Avtt£ois : for produce note the interchange trades by barter). [] 5 ^€7] 6 'lepairvTvai '?] . 1. . Hierapytna 1 13. and under oath. ^-^^ iv ' ^ cent. 50-11. ' / I [. | [rai SGDI. ^ ' 68 || \' 6\\€ ]. or is unwilling to accept the {lyronze) coin. |[ BeKOiTO ff. five silver staters. ' '\ ['] 8€€ efahe rjai \eioi 8€€ | apyvpio<. ''\] . Am.] '- [.pp. Ill or .oOll. Michel \ /3['.276 30 . See 86 with 1. body of youmj men. Gortyna. Eeport shall be made 1. If one ac(\. 8. c. SGDI.^. Halbherr. ' . 278.g. 07\€() () ^. Sheshnllhemarried to the when twelve years of age or older. . ' [ . 191 ff. 13. llO — ' rat apTvev oTTvieTat. Decree of Gortyna regarding use of the bronze supervisors of the market shall decide the use of bronze coinage. and unassimilated forms. 3 ft. 111. \[ ^^ | Inscr. and of this body the seven loho are chosen by lot as 111.329 ayopav. \_ ^ | can until she marries. n. TI. heshall pni/ afine of of assimilated e. not accept the silver obols. This illustrates the mixed dialect sometimes tan. Arch. 1897. irevTe 112. 5 10 . Treaty between and Lyttos. Ill cent.c. Hierapytna. ^ 7€[ . Jurid. or sells See 273. One shall make coin ivhich the state has established. J. € ' ^ \ '^ € ^^ GREEK DIALECTS [No.

El. '^ '. he ^ \ he ev he iroXei ev ev ev ." " ' 7\() 13. ^^ €^. 112] CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS iroXeaiv i^eXev 277 '. [ " . . h •. ihioi^ \\^ || at he Ttve'^ Ihiai hLa'oXevv. It is generally explained as standing 15). in two otlier Cretan inscriptions. < ' . €€ € ^. | -^ . 6 hiKaiov ^[^[^'\ occurs as an epithet of (51 a). Zeus . = . he evopKOi ( lepoii.^ ^[\ No. hX. 7]^' . \€ € ..42. : TLoXtaha A<^pohiTav }. or else contain hyper-Doric : for fparpios with for f as in "Oa|os .. ev []. " ^ ". .\\ 15 hX." "" ' '.— sce.5ci. iyo) /caj|[t] '^ . . . . ^ h . OTL 8e otl i^e- \€ evopKOV ei otl he € he ri he ihiai h. . . €'^€ ^ . Elean source 17. The epithet would then be of (cf. € '. 6 hiKaiov ev hk ' ' ! '. ev '' ev TeXo^ €€. ^VLXepiav "Apea ' ^^ . . '.- 20 TloXiaha poh\av .

5 80 \ \ . but also retains Whether or not meaning exactly unfeature Be many 3. | () | 11 ^. 1 /^ |[| <\^ ^ | '//. €- ephebcs' dress. .VJ.4G:3. SolmsenSl.5.[]'' /cat • /?) / | /cat 7/>[|']||' /cat 50 55 (')0 /» /^ /^ | C5 70 7. ^/ \ ^. \\ . B. — 11-12. ^ \ vrrevavria. and the Lyttos. 7]8 | /^ ^|/9 ^/ »/ | /3777/30- rot? 7[/'9 ' /. 1 but copied from an earlier version.. | }\\.IU. . ^€||[]• \\'. . -^ ': ' 113. ^\ . . Michel 23. — some characteristic 11. : for (seeSl).^ () . ' ' \ ^""Ill or II cent. avy • 5 10 1. Dreros. : obscure. promising loyalty to Dreros iiers 0/ </ie or bands in which the but enmity to Cretan youth were trained. jnein- ephebi.5 "Apea 30 ' <.5 ' . '/ | /7/ '[]][/. ' '. The dialect shows a strong ad- mixture of /coicT? forms. — 45.— 278 25 'yiveaOai GREEK DIALECTS [No. cf. 112 .C. of the : « . the epithet jirobably refers to Law-Code ¥. cf. I)itt.SylI. 7€ 7^ : ()' /xot | Oath taken by the Drerian allied Cnossos. of the Cretan characteristics. . '/ /-^ Tat ' ' | . ''. /^'''^ ^'^ot '? /^ ? /7.") 20 2. | \4\ 1 11 | | || ayeXaoL | eKaVrov ^| " 11 'Ayopaiov || || /cat raf /cat || / | •? /cat | 35 7||/'9 40 4. 140-141. SGDI. he <.. 0-7. girded. 11.

\^ []. at /? with such an interpretation. /cat || '/ ' /] ^^^ ot | €125 [70| 130 /cat | || Nt- 135 140 || /cat 7ot||t • oV ' -. '^^ . || '<? |] 115 \ 120 • [ / 7/9[^]|^' 7|[|^]| eTaipeiaiatv | • op|/cof ? '^\€ ^. we may as- but it is difficult «: 105. — 104: after they have \i<r<ros of Drewere actually described in the 140-147. 127. | | • \ . — 103. ]^ ^0? peiatatv^]^ \'^ at || ' <€ |?}/39 ^ ^ /u. unless they impose same oath upon the ui)On those who are passing out from it (?). |[ .^ Ill • II . . uieta- phorical use. — 127. . : — 132-13o. ol bc included in the oath. 119.5 of another inscription. ipevral = = ipewaw Eustath. ' — : able metathesis. |] \_€'\ . the collectors of Cf . on : . for with remark- — 115.€\\ 1 a'ye^av 100 105 | /8[] | ' /ca at eh]{L). the .^ . €iira77eXetj/ gone out of office.] ' | St[So]/Lt[e]y. wat /ca /xr/ || ..No. original. [|| ^[ he || CEETAN INSCRIPTIONS re j 'y^vvalica<i • | ^ [] . seen also in = /7. ^ €€ iv /ca i]\^hoevo \ • /u. but omitted here. - to reconcile iyo- sume that the early boundaries impeach. \\ / . | 279 | [\ || 85 ) \)5 Be 6\.r^ | ^ ^. It is generally assumed that the oath was imposed upon those entering the ayiXa. — 137. [.. 8 . 113] • ['\ [^ 7] / \. : — 97 ff. is 8€ ros if this inscription a copy of an earlier one. € . . pei-haps insolvent."' ^ ? '. | ? '^ | ' Tat €\ ^. /cat | | /cat ot 145 150 155 1<>0 7j[o]t €[]€- noth'nig of lawsuits and executions : shall tiv€v: rtces. public (in contrast to sacred) funds.2a.

.

APPENDIX SELECTED BIBLIOGEAPHY OF AVOEKS OF REFERENCE WITH THE ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED Periodicals A. = Classical Journal. Eranos Glotta = Eranos. = Berliner philologisclie AVochenschrift. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen- schaften in Wien. Berl. Argent. Quart. Strass- burg. Athenisulie Abteilung. Ber. = Mitteilungen des deutsclien archilologischen lustituts. Class.Woch.Akad. J. — Classical Philology. . historische Classe.'^. Diss. Sitzungsberichte der koniglichen preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. = American Journal of Archaeology. Ber. Arch. 281 . erat- petus- B.Wien. Phil. Zeitschrift fur griechische '. J.Ges.Akad.Phil. at Athens. Dissertationes philologicae Argentoratenses selectae. Ilallc und lateinische Sprache. Diss. = Classical Review.C. Phil. '.M.Berl. = '>€<. = = Classical Quarterly. Class.Sjichs. ^-. iv ^ . = American Journal of Philology. = Bulletin de correspondance hellonique. Bz. Class. Acta philologica Suecana. Class. = Glotta.IIal. Philologisch- Ber.B. Philologisch-historische Classe. Am. . = Dissertationes philologicae Ilalenses. Journ. = = = ^•. Am. = Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermauischen Sprachen. Annual British School = Annual of the British School = )<. Rev. Berichte iiber die Yerhandhmgen der koniglichen siich- sischen Gesellschaft der "Wissenschaften zu Leipzig.

= Monumenti antichi pubblicati per dei Lincei. Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in Hermes = Hermes. = Zeitschrift die oesterreichischen Gymnasien. Oest. Leipzig 1883. I.Gel. = Jahrbiicher fur klassische Philologie. Cauer.de Phil. Texts and Commentaries Cauer = P.Brit. Philological Associa- Wiener Stud. Zeitschrift filr = Revue arch^ologique.282 Gott.oest. M. dei- = Nachrichteu von konigliclien Gesellschaft der Wissen- schaften zu Gottiugen. zig = W.klass.S.H. Ass.Gr. = Neue Jahrbiicher fur das klassische Altertum. Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae. Gott.Anz. = "Wiener Studien.F. Geschichte und deutsche Literatur und ftir Padagogik.Anz. NeueJb. Phil. the British = The Museum. Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum. = Revue des otudes grecques. = W.Mus. Rev. Am. 2d ed. . = Jahrbuch des deutschen archilologischen Institute. K.Or. Rev. = Tndogermanische Forschungen. Arch.Ph. GREEK DIALECTS = Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen. arch. Leipzig 1893-1901. = Jahreshefte des oesterreichischen archilologischen Instituts in das klassische Altertum.F.L. = Journal of Hellenic Studies.Phil.Antichi = Momoires de la Soci^t^ de linguistique. Ditt. cura della reale accade- mia Mus. I. begriindet von A. Dittenberger. = Philologus.f. Rh. Ditt.f.und Altertuni. Kuhn. = Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie.Naclir. = Transactions of the American Rev. Leip- 03-10.S. Inst.Z. Zeitschrift fur classische Philologie.Ital. Trans. Jb. J. = Museo italiano di antichita classica. = Re\'ue de philologie. = Anzeiger fur indogermanische Sprach. Zeitschrift fur klassisclie Philologie.Gymn. Greek Inscr. ]yion. Jh. Jhrh.M. = Zeitschrift fur \'ergleichende Sprachwissenschaft. Wien. Zt. fiir = Wochenschrift fiir klassische Philologie.skunde. Delectus inscriptionum Graecarum propter dialectuni memorabilium. "Woch. Dittenberger.Syll. Philol. 2d ed. tion.Et.

regiae Borussicae editae. 1890.SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Ilicks 283 = E. II. 1898. Roberts = E. XIV. ff. Inscr. Inschr. Dittenberger. Kern. 1899. = Solmsen Collitz-Bechtel. IX. VII. Leipzig 1905. 1908. 1908. ^. W. Cambridge 1905. . ed. 1902. Die Inschriften von Olympia. XII. 1895. Inscriptiones Ai-golidis.Jurid. Kern. ed. llicks^ refers to the first edition. = O. Aetoliae. 2d ed. . Manual of Greek Historical Inscrip- tions. Inscriptiones Rhodi Chalces Carpatbi cum Saro Casi. 1897. Hiller de Gaertringen. W. Die griechischen Dialekte in ihrem historischen Zvisammenhange mit den wicbtigsten ihrer Quellen dargestellt. Part I. 1898. IX. F. = Inscriptiones Graecae consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum I. SGDI. Recueil d 'inscriptions grecques. W. Baton. ed. ed. Oxford 1901. F. 1903. 2d ed. L. ed. A. i. ed. ed. 1894. III. Ililler de Gaertringen. Roberts. ed. Gardner). Der sudachaische Dialekt [Arcadian and Cyprian]. '. Hoffmann = O. F. XII. Dittenberger. diques grecques. Paris 1900. Magnesia der. 1893. Acarnaniae. IG. Inscriptiones Amorgi. Michel. insula- rum maris lonii. Sammluug der griechischen Dialektinschriften. Part II (with E. Inscriptiones Thessaliae. Inscriptiones Graecae ad inlustrandas selectae. Inschr. Hill. 1892. iii. Ililler de Gaertringen. Olympia = Dittenberger-Purgold. Inscriptiones Symes Teutlussae Teli Xisyri Astypalaeae Anaphes Therae et Therasiae Pholegandri Meli Cimoli. Solmsen. F. Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Maean- Berlin 1900. Inscriptiones Phocidis. = Dareste-Haussoiillier-Beinach.v. XII. i. Der nordachaische Dialekt [Thessalian and Lesbian]. ed . Delamarre. Der ioniscbe Dialekt.v. Gottingen. I. ed. Hoffmann. XII. Recueil des inscriptions juriParis 1895 ff. Quellen and Lautlebre. Fraenlvel. Kaibel. XII. iii. Berlin 1896. All references are to Part unless II is added. G.ii. Cambridge 1887. Locridis. 1891. Hicks and G. Inscriptiones Megaridis et Boeotiae. Michel = Ch. Inscriptiones Cycladum praeter Tenum. ii. Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. Inscriptiones Siciliae et Italiae. S. Supplementa. Xll. Inscriptiones Lesbi Nesi Tenedi. dialectos Gottingen 1884 = F. O.

— General AVorks 2 vols.Gr.^. /. G. Pape = W. Part revised by Gerth.Gr. 3 Greek Grammar Brugmami. 2 vols. iiaoh ihrer Bildung er- und systematisch geordnet. Grundriss der vergleichenden Gramiiiatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. App. Vergleicheude Syntax der indogervols. Griechische Grammatik. = H. Revised ed. Kuhner-Gerth = uhner'sAusfiihrliclie Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. Hannover 1890-1892. manischen Sprachen. 3d ed. Ziehen. Delbriick.&S. nich 1900. Strassburg 1897 ff. Handbuch der griechischen Laut. 3d ed. van Herwerden. Delbruck. by A. = K. = K. Braunschweig 1884. Greek Dialects• 1839-1843. Indo-European Comparative Grammar Brugmann. = B. Griechische Gi'ammatik.Grd. Chicago 1898. Brugmann. revised by Blass. LeyIlerwerden den 1894. Kuhner-Blass = Kiihner's Ausf iihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. Herwerden. Fick and F.Meyer = Gustav Meyer. Hannover 1898-1904. iireek Grammar. Heidelberg 1902. 2d ed. Goodwin. 3ded. = Liddell & Scott's Greek Lexicon. 3d ed. Part T. Leyden 1892. L. Gottingen . = K. BechteL Gottingen 1894. Kew York 1883. = Appendix Lexici Graeci suppletorii et dialeclici. Lexicography Fick-Bechtel kljirt = Die griechisclien Personennainen 2d ed. Worterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen. Strassburg 1893-1900. GREEK DIALECTS = L. 7th ed. W. Ahrens. Searles. 3ded. Ahrens = H. Leges Sacrae lectae.284 Ziehen. . Mn- Goodwin = W. 2 vols. Brugmann. Hirt. Brugmann. Boston 1892. De Graecae linguae dialectis. Leipzig 1896. L. Gr. Brugmann.und Formenlehre. Lexicon Graecnni suppletoriuni etdialecticum. Lexicograpliical Study of the Greek Inscriptions.A^ergLSyntax Strassburg 1902-1904. Leges (iruecoruni sacrae e titulis col- Leipzig 190(3. Searles = Helen M. Kurze A-ergleichende (irammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Pape. Hirt = H.

= R. Nebraska 59 ff. Smyth. Prellwitz.TV. p.">ff. The Sounds and Ionic. See above.M. De dialecto Locrensium. ff. Gottingen. Solmsen. University Studies 1888. Eleisch. Trans. Inflections of the Greek Dialects. . Delphian Valaori. Hal. De Boeotiae titulorum dialecto. 1S82. 287 1882. Ass. Kyprisch. Der delphische Dialekt. Thessalian ff. Diss. Arkadisch. 283) III. . 1901. Hoffmann Meister 1891. 1887. Bootisch. Lautlehre des arkadischen Dialektes. Wendel. 1882. Arcadian and Cyprian Kiel 1883. W. Spitzer. 2 vols. 1893. Meister II. l-l.598 Boeotian Meister Sad^e. Am. Gottingen 1901. 285 Dialekte. 1889. Hoffmann (see above. Hoffmann Meister I. I. Locrian Allen. Iloft'mann 1893. 1870. Meisterhans. Curtius Stiidit'ii I. 1903. Smyth = H. Asiatisch-Aolisch. Register zu den Inscliriften von Delphi. Bennett. De II. SGDI. ff. Die griechischen p. 205 ff. The Arcado-Cyprian Dialect. 201 ff. Thessuliotis uud Pelasgiotis. 1 ff. Gottingen 1885. II. Berlin 1900. 1903. Smyth. jNIeister. 1898. Lesbian I. Rh. Schwyzer. Graiiniiatik der attischen Inscliriften.181 ff.LVIII. Oxford 1891. 283. dialecto Thessalica. oded. Meister I. Die griecliischen Dialekte. Phil. 1882. Special Dialects Attic Meisterhans = K. 123 I.SELECTED BIBLIOGEAPHY Hoffmaun = Iloffmann. Thessalisch. Kefer- ences are to the pages of the separate issue. Ionic by E. ^. On the Sounds and Inflections of the Cyprian Dialect. 1889. XVI. 3 '.

De Argolidis dialecto. Upsala 1902. De dialecto Eliaca. Solmsen. Athens 1891. Rhodian Bjorkegren. De tituloruui Lacouicorum Heraclean dialecto.5. De tituloruni Argolicorum dialecto. 16 Megarian Schneider. 1892. Giessen 1882. Marburg . Laconian Mtillensiefeu. Basel 1896. Mlodnicki. 131 ff. 1909.192ff. 1871. Boisacq. Beitrage zur griechischen Wortforschung 93 if. Coan Barth.286 GREEK DIALECTS Elean Daniel. Die dialektischen Eigentiimlichkeiten der Inschriften von Thera. Diss. Die lokalen Verse hiedenheiten 1908.f. Gottingen 1903.355ff. Ueber die schriften. 25. De Coorum titulorum dialecto. Baunack. Brody 1906. Doric Meister II. Eigentiimliclikeiten Corinthian Kretschmer. Suppl.XVIII. Argent. im Dialekte Kretas. Ilanisch. Die griechischen A'aseniuschrifteu. Ilerforth. De sonis dialecti Rhodiacae. if.o30fE. Halle 1880. Argolic der argeischen Dialektiuvou Friesen. Theran Ilauptvogel. Cilli 1900-1907. .VHI.IIal. De dialecto Megarica. Paris 1891. De dialecto Cretica. De dialecto Ileracliensium Italicorum. 1887. ff. Les Dialectes doriens. Meister. Der Dialekt Megaras und der niegarischen Kolonien. Die Tnschrift von Gortyn. Jb. Upsala Universitets Arskrift 1897. I. Diss. "1. Koppner. 1882. 1 1899.Pli. Cretan Leipzig 188. Ilepl ^5 ^^? Kieckers. CurtiusStudienIV.

Id. Solmsen. The references. Thumb.47ff. Rh. Collitz. Berliner KlassikertexteV.Et.M. les Sachs. Hoffmann.B. Smyth. 264.6 ff. by the num])ersof the latter. Dorer und Achaer 1. also the brief statements in the histories of Busolt. Am. Buck.135 to p.Herakles2 Beloch's extreme skepticism toward the tradition. Rev. Die^er•wandt- schaftsverhaltnisse der griechischen Dialekte mit besonderer Rucksicht auf die thessalische Phil. 1903. for collections of inscriptions. 1888. Ber.Z. The Interrelations of the Greek Dialects.. except those to the present work which are mostly by section numbers and in Clarendon type as usual. 284 ff. has fortunately found few adherents among 1 references are mostly to discussions outside of the Greek These are arranged to correspond with the sections of the Grammar.. 1904.1885.. XXI. Zur Geschichte der griechischen Dialekte. Dialektforschung nnd Stammesgeschichte.Gr. Zum pamphylischen Dialekt. J. Class.XXXIir. 1907. text. And even for this scattered literature completeness has not been sought.4ff. 1. 135 would refer to no.LVIII. Bury.Y. E. fE.NOTES AND REFERENCES Pamphylian 287 Bezzenberger. The Dialects of North Greece. 1891.. K. Bz.53 1.M.Ges. De mixtis Graecae linguae dialectis.32ff.32off. Hoffmann 1.. . 241 ff.74 ff. . The Grammars and the grammars of special dialects..192ff. 598 If. and perhaps no consistent principle of selection will be evident. In a case like Hoffmann's Griechische Dialekte. 135.Rh. II.. NOTES AND REFERENCES 1.413fE. La place du pamphylien parmi dialectes grecs.1 ff. Mundart. Meyer. . Die Inschrift von Sillyon und der pamphylische Dialekt.. Kretschmer. Meister. -or. are by pages.481 ft'.1907.. as listed above. Ahrensl.258ff..ii. 135.1904. In the notes some details are added which were intentionally omitted from the but also some few important forms which were omitted through oversight or became accessible too late to be incorporated in the text these last including some forms from the new fragments of Corinua. also Wilamowitz.lff.1 Meillet. and particularly his denial of the Doric migi-ation.LIX. 1887. XeueJb. Kretschiner. Glottal. "1.P. But in the main preference is given to the more recent articles in which the material is tpioted with some fullness and the dialectic scope of a given peculiarity defined.. 385 ff. Meister. Phil. which failed to reach me iintil recently. Cf. systematic citation of which would seem superfluous. Ziir Beiirteilung des pamphylischen Dialekts. but 1.. Eigennamen als Zeugen der Stammesmischnng in Boeotien. 421 ff . Thessaliotis und Pelasgiotis. 1905. 11. ff. 1 Interrelation of the dialects. 1904.

while recognizing their striking sired. Hatzidakis.Woch. Beitrage zu griech. Das sind reine Luftgebilde. 2. note.. but detached at such an early period that the ordinary sense. 7. Pp. so far as we can judge from the scanty remains..II.f. 4. Die Makedonen.338ff. 32. oest. Kirchhoff. 3 5. Am. and corresponding to the use by some scholars of either Aeolic or Achaean in a wider sense. .S. Fr. Buck. XXXVI. = ff.46ff. 385 ff. 6. Hoff- mann II. and. on the linguistic side. Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. and. Against this cf.286 suspicion from the reading Tera(p)p€<: the sixth-century inscription of Ephesus (Hogarth.4. 3.72 "Von archaeologischer Seite hat man mehrfach eine <vorachaeische Bevolkerung und Cultur des Peloponnes und eine achaeische Einwanderung Jahrhunderte vor der dorischen construiert. Studien zu Geschichte des griechisclien Alphabets.245. and from the linguistic standpoint by Meister.29. No mention made of Macedonian. iiber die eine Discussion unmoglich ist.288 the historians and none GREEK DIALECTS « among students of the dialects. BnigmannGr.XXVI.. it is best not classed as one of the Greek dialects in it the neighboring Thessalian.122 (no. Phil.H. LIX. Larfeld. in 1'1. but has not met with favor. to affinities. 589. Gymn. etc. is Phil. As a general term covering the Aeolic and the Arcado-Cj'prian or Achaean group.) On see Foat. P. J. I. 222 ff. Anz. AVe prefer to differentiate the Aeolic of the north and the Achaean of the south.note. ff. which. is 1905. Thumb.26ff. See Buck.. da ihnen jede histo- P.G73ff. II. J. 4.5 at Teos 22-23). chisclien Epigraphik. Pp.Z. Class.Klass. shows some notable points of agreement with Cf. is elaborated from the EarlyAge of Greece. Buck. Phil. Skepticism is now expressed by Solmsen. Hoffmann. 355 8.Gr. The view referred to is that which archaeological standpoint by Ridgeway. 275 ff..93. Dorer und Achaer.XXI. Fick. ff. Wortforschung 1. note 2.. 8 ff.K.3ir) ff. 593 ff. '. for further Lesbian examples. Excavations at Ephesus. is a form of Greek. Ed. note 2.. XVJII. " Central Greek " has been proposed by Thumb in the article cited above. ' rische Grundlage fehlt". and the literature cited. Kiihner-Blass I. 4th ed. Meyer 11.Class. Neue Jb. 6. when a term covering both is de- speak simply of Aeolic-Achaean. The " much more jiroblematical " view referred to that also of Kretschmer in the article cited above. removes all [^].523«.XXV. Ilandbuch der grieZt.Wiedemann. 319. Yet Roberts. F. Schwyzer. and.Phil. 1905.

iv passed over to the etc.. 451.11.XXXII. if we adopt by gives Att. Sommer. (cf.2 a. For with. Buck..M.Ber.. SGDI. Kretschmer. .M.612. to is do Avith tlie position before vowel or consonant. XXXIV. see 103 o).329. occur in the new fragments of Corinna.F. Schulze. Rh. and without further material it is useless to attempt any more precise formulation of the conditions.Class. ei?. XVII.l893.XXV.Syll. 2524 = ^. late decrees of 289 Solmsen. Class. .Siichs. . (cf. forms (our accentuation of them of as -<. I. 17.Z. 16). Z. 213 ff.K. Beitrage zur griech..XXXI.3. 1897..65. K. Perdrizet.NOTES AXD EEFERENCES 9.118.Ges. .L. Att.Z. XXV.und Verslehre.270.Phil. Lautstudien.LIX. 429. ^«xpos occurs in two Corcyra and Epidamuus (Tnschr.Auz. and that is also occurs several times at Vaxos. Laut. De Boeot. Sad(5e.Ber. Class. see Solmsen. Cf .K. Solmsen. Rh. note). cf. also 76. that Pamphylian. 80. 1904. 939). Kretschmer. The change of cv to Iv has nothing . namely ethnicon (9.M.54fE.jMaguesia. Baunack. 20.Z. but character of the word.v. also Solmsen. 9. Buck.375ff..Griech. for e which he which is cites also Att. 12.513ff.2). 117) the assumed *)( may be dispensed e the iew of Wackernagel.(tos for of the other dialects. Ditt. 653 XXXII.F.94ff.-iG). Boeot.XI.5 .422. is merely for convenience. = eV - but also regularly l<: = e?.II. Wackernagel (cf.Phil. MtAt. Ehrlich.XXXR^5. tit. 669. £5. 19.289ff. dial. but rarely elsewhere. regardless of their accent.LA^III. Cf Solmsen. 13. /. 10.23. 8. XXXI.. For For /6/. elpi).2(i8..Z. also dis- to in the regular spelling in Attic. "With regard to // e compounds was unacexamples cented in the nom. Wortforschung . of the earliest Delphian iiisfuiption.2. 904. - A. B.K. also the . also in no. and possibly in these ace. I. 8. Buck. Cf.493ff. Bvit other are lacking even for imaccented syllables (cf. assimilation. Et. Cf. 13.600ff. probably due to the proclitic the Once established. Unter11. Bz. as was once thought.J:4:.XLI. 191 If. A similar change before of appears in coins and an unedited Delphian ^ passim.II. cusses the change of . \\£. It is not accidental agrees with Arcado-C\'prian t in several important features (see p. that in while elsewhere we find the spelling to be expected TLov (our no.j3ff. Buck. .nus.Ilev. has not only Xe.Gel. Gott. . . 257 ff.Ges.Grec.LVII. Meister.rhil.Sachs. 335 K. For suchungen zur griech.

The introduction (SGDI.F. Buck. A. where Arc. are best understood. K. . used for the genuine of the early ^legarian inscription and (Willielm.Gott. Buck. Aside from .l906. and.uud VersMeisterhans 67 ff. on the situation in Lesbian and Boeotian. which occurs IG.Z. .135 ff. /*. Att.XXVII. Bz. Z. Hoffmann II. still 41. For Attic cf Meisterhans 36 ff..474. Untersuchungen zur griech. For = .XLII. I. Phil. Ahrens 11. where /ao\v/88os beside discussed. Baunack. or must be from Wackernagel. But further inscriptional evidence is wanted before the question can be regarded as settled... 38.F.Vristophanes. 2«5 Cf. 229. Cf. Thilologus LV. Glottal. where they are so cited.I. gives Att.290 GEEEK DIALECTS 1. 91).S9ff. from ao in all dialects. Kretschmer.75..4. AVortforschung 1. Class. Nachmanson. although the conditions governing the distribution of Att.5311. . S(. Ehrlich.355ff.K.XL.K. Gram. was overlooked.1a and 94.i)L5278.17) and Arc. 32). I. as rrjSe. the spelling usual in the jiapyri (]\Iayser.240 if. dipththoug £1.904. For Attic 39. For Dor.6. ^ not merely late Doric.XV.g. XXI. .. and Cf. <.:\r. Beitaken as triige zur griech. Schulze. For Boeot. Against this rightly Ehrlich. It is the prevailing view that original apo or that e. 203 in . The lexicons giA'e no evidence that the penult was short. Philologus etc. Gott. Buck. doubtless because of But there is 28 a. Papyri. the forms . For Phil. cf.169ff.522. ..). ff. Otherwise Jacobsohn. Laut.231ff.Z. cf. XL. 41.193 Kiihner-Blass . (no. etc. Griech. d.342ff. also even from epa. 169. Glotta 11.M. Vn. B.. Sohnsen. Quaestiones Epicae.6. 263 ff..263 Johansson. cf.. K. and most recently.4a. 553 ff.96. cf.Anz.52.35. of the strong grade of the root is due to the influence of the verbal forms. XXXI. Eulenberg..52ff.. 354 are ff.262ff. some of the inscriptional . thus agreeing vith Ion. while the word seems not to is decidedly the more occur in the Attic inscriptions. I'ntil there is other evidence that Meg. and *-<)<. . never . Cf. cf Sohnsen ibid. 41. 41. ^^ €5 34. */. and some other similar cases are is 28. J.. Hoffmann 111. K. cf. Thumb. Zupitza. 35n. Smyth 343 ff.4r. KiVi'. 93 is ft'. 41.XXY. . The change Alcman. Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenismus.XXXI. .l897. Schwartz. Am..Gel. 18. also Buck. though and by Keil.Nachr.58 ff. 138.XV.2.-<. ibid. 131 42.Z. 132.A. II.1. LXVII. 430 ff lehre.Z.281.5532. with Sohnsen. not West Greek . ew and in part obscure. examples in . 321. Keil. XXXIX. .

c. But cf. NOTES AND EEFERENCES are very early. .C. Ilav^s no. Untersuchungen zur griech. 46. De sonis dial. 302ft'. Magnesia 43.v.Z.Z. K.XXXII.29. 260 ff.19. quoted from Rhinetc.5 if.84ff. 42.. Buck.321ff. Schmidt. Xote also Arg. BerLPliiLWoch.XXXII.391ff.IX. Sad^e. I.(^^ ibid. K. . .Z.B. ibid. 532 ff. Lautstudien. XIX.455ff. . West Greek a.QuaestionesEpicae. XXXII. rtcos Solmsen. e. K. Meister.203 Bechtel. XXXVIII.PhiLII.6ff. For Dor. Zur Geschichte des griechischen Digamma. 90 ff 54. 50 .5a.Oest. K. Heracl. Solmsen. Glotta 1. Delph.XXXIII. 87 ff. = Meg. is so nearly jiarallel to that of vf etc. Laut. J.Z. ff. 44.407ft•. 51. . 175 ft". Z.Z. Buck.5 . 82.Bz.26. Thumb. 130. tit. Untersuchungen zur griech.. 79 55. .Glotta held that oa gives Buck. has been included in the same tabular representation. is ]. Cret.li61. less Achaean. Wilhelm.372.. Like Rhod.IV.1. occurs B. The that it history of / iu ^«r/ros etc. XXI..und Verslehre. De Boeot. 231 1904. in survives longer than that of vf the Law-Code beside and .5616.XXVII. It is commonly ? .22. . Laut. 291 IG. Delph.iii.Anz. Laut. Solmsen. in Tarentine writers.273ff.M.1908.. 39 K. J. Class. not pre- viously quoted. Mess. Griech. . 440 ff. Heracl. 84 ff 42..I. Sommer.'.(. dial.K.Schmidt. Solmsen.XXXII. Schulze.6.336ff. 50-55.. also Kiihner-Blass 1.F.3. It was doubtcommon to all the West Greek dialects.1.352ff. I. Solmsen. 544. <. 42. e. 52a.. ^ ff..2. ttolOvtl occurs Inschr. also attested for 294 ff. our cf. Ilaveas). Delph.g. Kretschmer.304. J.1o (Smyrna). Dorer und Achaer 1.186ff.S0(Arc. on whicli most recently Jacobsohn. Thumb. Untersuchungen zur griech. Rhod. . Bjorkegren. «vv^. 38 ff.129. = reos.Z. 181 ff.97. 52b. In Cretan the of But it is not wholly identical. XXXII. Ther.. Un- tersuchungen zur griech. IIoffmannIII.und Verslehre.IX. For thon.F. Taos and voCaos.Jlirb. 49. 58. IlermesXLIV. from ^^ (.. e. 5691 (Erythrae).K. 187 ff.SGDI. Solmsen.. 42. etc.255ff. Z. 49. Wackernagel.und Verslehre. I. Laut. ca cf..F.XII.662 . A. (Thasos) in contrast to 42.H. Schmidt. K. XXI. = fp- Solmsen. .g.und A^'erslehre.g.XRs 9. 54716 also Ion. and jier- haps also in the case of Ilom.

K. 5Sb. Meister 11. in Ionic. 80. 75. Beitrilge schungl. 67. K.2. 76. 288. in Macedonian. In calling the the probable explanation that (Alcman. 73 ff. lapos mention should ha\'e been of iWras.M. 5 Mansion.. 58.318ff. made Sommer I.4a.und assimilationserscheinungen bei den altgriechischen gutturalen.25 of the Meister. Kretschmer. 71a. Weisschuh.Sachs.Ges.ll2ff.3..347 ff. unexplained it is had overlooked for the due to dissimilation from the grecques. Meister. 24.2 ff. Gr.3. Griech. is in Phocis.4. . Like of Corinna. 61.M. Dorer und Achaer ff.Z.Z.576ff. GO.Phil. 60.1.G23. Cf. or h. ster.XLII. with of moment . De rhotacismo ff. later Solmsen. Schulze.264fE. Ber. 61.1908. Makedonen. See also p. Untersuchiuigeii ul)er don Spiritus Asper.) = Ueber dissimilations. 125 ff. (iriech. 25 ff. Doi-er view that the change is vas restricted to Sparta is untenable.IT. Meister ibid. 55 ff. see 184a. Brugmann. . Kretschmer.247ff. F.Gr. in the new fragments Jacobsohn. Solmsen.XXII. (^6 a contamination of 63. HoffmannIII. Jacobsohn. literature cited. Rh. . In connection with Argol. A new exception our no. 68. On Cret. Lautstudien.1.Z.K. Meister'. Gr. 69. Class. Solmsen.42Gff. Mei- 69. at Eleusis I.292 57. ().7ff. . and Astypalaea Buck.XXXII. 68. Dorer ) . development of became cited.274.. und Achaer ff. territory in Asia Chios and other once Aeolic. und Acliaerl.K.78 with 1. On relics of Aeolic vv etc. 1900. 72. is ivcmi *'--.e. 09.Z.6. Sommer.Z.49 60.513ff. Lautstudien.. . Hoffmann.2. Kretschmer. no.s 59. Solmsen. Cf. etc. Sommer.LVIII. is probably 1. 59. I Brugmann. Cf. linguae Graecae. .Gr. 64.)( now attested for Cyjirian also. VII. Les gutturales So also Dor. (Alcman). Rhodes.XXXIII. Meister.. and the literature . zur griechischen Wortfor- A. 68. 60.100ff. GREEK DIALECTS Thumb.608. Minor. Pindar.K. 48. Die On the difficult question Avhetlicr in the intermediate stage of the etc. cf.XXXV.

84. Schulze.XI. On Cretan ^^^ I. and Plut. needed to the matter.K. a late inscription of C!yrene I etc.I. G. Zur griech. sixth-century inscription of Ephesus (Hogarth.g. Mei- ster. Aeolism. Neue cf .1 1. or 19ff. 603 89.) Brugmann. West . A ft'. Cf. Lautgeschichte. Kretsrlim("r.. cf. Spear in Am. (also in Tim. late as to be easily attributable to influence. not an inherited. Thumb. 293 the same + consonant may arise in new formations and undergo development as secondary intervocalic Corcyr. it is also possible that in some dialects pp was only an occasional colloquialism and that was preserved. in suspect of being an artificial. 27. 900 82. In some dialects where we find a few examples both of pp and of only.Anz.. 4.F. Elean. Cf.II.I. . . But. 86. Xote also Boeot. Locr. 1905. Cf. in just what dialects. There seems doubt its Rhodian provenance.) is p. especially in Boeotian.F. ctKotaros. 1897.1.48Gff. Excavations at Ejihesus. 77.3. 140. Calyiiin. De consonarum in Graeca lingua praeter Asiaticorum dialectum Aeolicam geminatione.2.Rh. Jb. The isolated especially significant. tional evidence is und Achaer 1. cf. Dorer settle . ff.LIX. Beiheft. For add Coan On the question of Megarian Meister. cf.68ff. Phil. Zur griech. L. the latter may be so or even of 80. . that pp was common to the But we do not feel warranted as yet West Greek dialects in general.160. XXXIII.461ff. and £/<6^^. Arcadian. 81?/. Instit. Lesb. Mucke. pp is to be recognized as normal. 84a. 304 f. Lagercrantz.18fE. Gott. On 88.3 . shows a doubling of dentals after a consoand.Meyer. Earlier inscrip- Lautgeschichte. Class. ? is now published be no reason to . 81a. XXIX. even without external influence.1. For = late in Ionic. iu sentence combination. cf.272. Dorer und Achaer of the But against the Law-Code as lypa . cannot be determined with any certainty from the existing evidence.M. TTWV.Gel. « . (Corinna) = 85. Solmsen. '. e.Phil.266.NOTES AND KEFEEEKCES 77. .284ff. For pp. 87.Class. latter 's understanding of Jacobsthal. in assuming / 81. and Theran. Buck.Z. to 86 and 96. J.4.Phil. ff. besides Attic. 122 nant. But Ionic. The Rhodian vase with the inscription containing by T. . Lac. 116a. Lagercrantz. 68. cf. in careful speech. etc. 391. € . with literature cited.= -^.XXI.

Glotta 1. with literature 91. Ahrens 1. 1899.. 165 ff.3. Solmsen. .273ff. no. In viev of the frequent elision in Argolic (above.. J. On Cypr. In. Class. Laut89. Thess. Festschrift zur 49. and no. Rh. in the once each in Homer.Arg.IX.C.51 1. as origiKretschmer. vir. Cret. nal genitive in I -ot 106. Hermann. Cypr. Buck. B. = Trepiayr/s. Greek Versification in Inscriptions. den griechischen Dialekten. cited. 1907.4. . iiroiee is The type is of crasis seen in the usual one in Argolic.533. .. .2. 329 ff.1. I.(. ff. 218 ff. Brugmann. 107. De crasi et aphaeresi.294 GREEK DIALECTS und Yerslehre. I.5. Tt is of course introduction of -avs beside dialect in : ( which the oi-stems Meyer 475. XXIV. Solmsen..Nachr. Kretschmer.Herodas. With Thess. in the Locrian or Aetolian ethnicon Zum €. 89. Rev. that Another instance Epid.4-1: ff. Aegin. in Boeot.30. On On distribution of -oi. .TT.249ff. Brugmann. Allen.8). Arc. Glotta 1. as preferred in -oto the text.1903. Sonuner.. note to 94.2GGff.XX. Lucius. Keil. Die Prapositionen in den griechischen Dialektinschriften. Phil.F. inschriftlichen vv Versammlung deutscher Philologen und Schulmauner.178. Buck. 222. 448. Rh. I. II. Diss.Grundnss 11. Gunther. is 94.57 ff.2GG.. etc. 151 107.Gott. -i. also 7£ ^ Kiihner-Blass I. Die Apokope in occurs also in Thess. '.Gr.XXXIII. 94. as in Delph. ^ iepovv. is really elision as we is seen in ( -) no.494ff. -ot5 (cf. Basel 105. IG. 19. ff. Solmsen.37ff.Class.LIX. TI. as original locative.1. cf. and A. 106. Class. (rot (6 /-). and most recently Sommer. )7 disputed. 279).7. -ot . Buck. 95. from -010.II. hapyetos (o cf. See above. occurs IG. 126 94.Phil.". Cf. not accidental that the analogical also occurs) in -avs is show by-forms and - found in just that (104. 28. '€<.Gr. 289 ff. 2 .M.1203. 94. with literature cited.ii... -. . F. Rhod.34 ff. -.1.3olff. . p. 107. 225. end.M.3.40.IX.778ff.XIX. On also 226. new Corinna fragments. and cognate with Lat.).Phil. Trip before A'owels. believe. G. but the explanation is not convincing to me.IV. HoffmannII.F. 354 ff.1).LXII.XXV. 290.458. more probable than Aoikos.1.M. XX. Untersiichungen zur griech. am convinced of the correctness of the first-named view.1036. ]\r(!ister. etc. -). ' .Schmidt. 102./3. 459. Class.27.6.29.

268ff. Locr. Thess. Wackernagel. not to assimilation of to as in Crete. Class.Rev.5. J.1151.ii. belong to the adopted -stem and A^ague 111. PhiLH.47. But as forms in . we tj-pe. -stem forms.NOTES AXD EEFEEE^iCES 108. Buck. With in inscrij)tions of 114.1906.241.Woch. On ?. is attested also for Amorgos (.400ff. (37..2a.K. DeBoeot. it is 114. Bechtel. 224 o). Rev.45 Cf.5. Hermes XXXVII. rot there mentioned is to be taken as dat. Cf. 255 ff.12. 126. 123. Buck.17) shows a similar extension of i^atthe expense of and is perhaps the Arcadian.5223ff. as read IG. 114. XL\aTI.Phil. 129. to find oTTct etc.. cf. beside from */35 Dat. rero/aas as nom. Boeot. XIX. A. Rh.. Tauromeniam.from -stems are known and Boeotian shows the - inflection in other case-forms..228. 60.2. 112. form. II. 67. by Wilhelm.460. On the question of Thess.Ber.24.II. Elean should have been mentioned among the dialects vhich show the relative use of the article.1. Phil. prefer to assume that these forms too Still different views. Schmidt. ? TreVre.. Class. The new fragments Boeotian. Rh. la in Buck. sg.e.IX. Pldlolotit. On Lesb.Phil. 132... Lac. 256.. On the distribution of rot and ot.50G. On Corinna bring the first evidence of the use of Cret.IX. in other dialects than West Greek and Boeotian as read we knov no certain examples as yet.031ff.IX.. (full material in Sadtie. 242 ff.11. Meister. Buck. gus LXI. 181. Phil. Class.LX. 122. Buck. Schmidt.. 129.'lTrTroK/oarei? etc. 295 Hoffmann. no. Berl. hut too general and Solmsen. like its to the analogy of .LXTI.4). Class. . at all surprising (cf. but owes probably not from -<.Sachs. Arc.) are ?. ovvve. ?.are not found in the dialects which keep the -inflection.XXXVI. -7/s is in an Elean decree (SGDI. 148 ff.M. etc.Z. 253. note.. . are expressed by Sadee I. 50ff. no.6. also Thess. IG. MeWei etc.5. 7€05 as nom. But the West Thess..2.XXXVI.5).2 rt.. cf.301 ff.259ff.Z. J. cf.M.301.XXXI. Phil. Class.1. while vocatives in .ii. but here due to the analogy of 116.ii. On .15off. Class. M. Buck. While it would be not t\_€]iB€vl. ff. 125.Class. is very doubtful. to carry conviction. (107. dial. . dual beside of -. 247. SGuI. etc. Buck.3. 409ff.pl.Ges. Solmsen. 1.l904. K. 119..1). . Cf.3. generally taken as Cf. cf. and as ace.4. occurs IG. IT. either vocatives or nominatives Avithout Kretschmer. XIX.32. rather than a true Elean.

riiil.Anz. .21. .413.2. Solmsen.2.II. 136. I.Tab. I. l. 264. Kretschmer.sthal.101ff. .06).29G 132. Buck. is Avrongly corrected to )8€()/ €by recl^- Kern.2. Phil.F.39.De Boeot. 133. with literature quoted. Buck.F.159. J.:.1. Inst.Meyer.e. If.M. or Eryth- Xow . 150. Teos. 146.1!)00.s Cf Jacob. Schulze. Buck. For - etc. 132. and with ace. Zubaty. with literature cited.A^i7vaVin.. . 60. That Arc. 75. . 151.GlottaI. Die Prapositioneu in den 135.0. 23. G. K.458ff. Buck. .HermesXX. the iKiw fragnu'iits of Corimia. K. no. instead of usual eVt'Avith gen. 2. In addition to Miss Kellermann cf. 132. 17 ff. For Ion.1.30ff. Greek Dialects (Chicago dissertation). aor.Cla. cf. Schulze.321. dial. 1. pressed So iu lleraclean (Ileracl. Cret. On also from Miletus cf. and had also been recognized independently by me.6 b.I. ff.lO.Z. 101 ff. XXXIX.0 rt. Thumb. lusclir.11 (addition). Class. tit. II.. I?uck. oued here by Solmsen. is add from Ephesus (see above. XX. SGDI.1. Of the numerous discussions of the relation of the most recent is that of Jacobsohn. Solmsen.549G. until being ex- by . 135.TT..j. 147.203. €. v.41 I. Magnesia 38. Schmidt. XXXII. But Epid. 1900.M. 138. XXXVIII.")7ff. Until re- known East 10. to 135.XXIjBeilieftjllS.Class. 120 144 n.lff. Sachs.-jl ff. IIatzidakis.2). I prefer to regard as an optative (177). . Solmsen. 136.XXV. 132. Meisterhansl69. pereo^. to 89. never until."). in Elean (no... . GREEK DIALECTS . . we prefer the older explanation. 139. K. Solmsen.^. 1 ff. to Schulze's suggestion quoted by Sad6e. 148.LIX. 141. Z. Ber..390.279ff.14. K.10. 412 Lac. 18. 10. 142.F. On Delph. J.. also Arcadian.!) «.1).4. are atte-sted in .Rh.2. 135. in expressions of dating occurs with gen.Phil."). Ionic examples Avere from Chios.e.II.Phil.491ff.3.. IDO. as given in tlie text. XXXIII. 136. Schmidt..LXI. 1^05 (not in Wendel's Index) Ivy Kellerinann.XLII.I.. in Laconian (no. Jb.8. Class.ss.Z.II.10 ff.XXII. On the Syntax of some Prepositions in the (itinther. 01. and Giinther I. 136. cently all the rae. Buck. Ges. . 1904. 143. griechischen Dialekten. 2. belongs here. as always iiiean. Class. Boeot..Z. Rh. subj.3a.2o5.59ff. Xeue Jb. Dclph.Arch.lOO). long as. pointed out by ^leister..Phil.F.

F. Buck. Hoffmann 1. griccli. Buck. De 17 ff. but here only as the result of the confusion between ot (Meisterhans 66). Solmsen. M. rather than as Swaerai.II. (no. though we regard the former as more probable. .4.2. Solm- Wortforschung 1. ). Class.Wortforschung 1. 265.Class. which is of course to be distinguished Ion. 152. if the ojitative. Grundriss 11. perhaps only a graphic Cf J.M. ff. LIX. from -aet. is obscure.267. .4982. 11. Solmsen.Schmidt.?. lS.596ff. Der Gebrauch der Tempora uud Modi in deu kretischen Dialektiuschriften. The origin of this class.I. sen.498ff. The Arcadian form is i.1. 157. 133 ff.Neutra. dial. Brugmann. Beitriige zur griech. = usual . Sadoe. tit. There is no certainty that Thess. Among the few special studies of dialectic syntax. -u>u or from -aei. .2.4).301. 164.XVIIT.302ff.C.1. 165.idg.) but none certain of -.PhilologusLXI. 7ff. Wortfor- 166. Beitrage zur schung 168 1. SGDI.267. Jacobsohn. For ».4. ). accusativi usu in inscriptionibus arcliaicis Cretensibus.XXV.98.H. Class. genetivi. 169-178. Schmidt.3.Berl. Buck. (Cret. Buck. (no.. 297 - different tj'pe.574 Buck.98 ff. 161. J. -. : (41. Class. -oei we should expect or are simply the Attic forms and to be accented 161. ft".o2.Phil. which occurs twice is - (see Wendel's among variant. Pluralbildung d. AVackernagel. 5004. De accusativi.II. P«h. Boeot. a-^l.116 164. 296). Phil. Solmsen.Phil. Ber.Akad. I.l899.274 ff. 361. For Boeotian add from Thespiae.NOTES AND EEFERENCES 151. Cf. (in either case Eleusis. 11. also iu ibid. may be mentioned K. and are For Oor. cf. LVIII.Beitragezurgriech. . Meister. 159. occurs also at not clear whether the late Lesb. For cf. from from that of the agent-nouns in Att. J. Der syntaktische Gebrauch des Genetivs in den kretischen Dialektinschriften. 11.LIX.326ff. Class. -. Rh..Schmidt. and ff. beside those on the use of prepositions already cited (p. Hellenistica. Bonn 1905. 27) and Arc. 16. 5.29. 166.. Jacobsthal.263 ff. B.Pluralbildungder idg.244 164. 603 ff. -. Solmsen.XIX. Ruttgers.F. latter is really an € It is ^ . 329. is A still seen in Cret.Rev.2. and the contracted occurs in the also taken by some as later no.15) are to be so understood. In Delphian there are several other examples of Index 190 ff.Xeutra. . 158. but Dor. over two hundred instances of avXeovres. witli the optative sign added directly to .7. Pliil..

I. of this article which deals with Greece. Die griechische Sprache im Zeitalter des Ilellenismus. 44.l. Among the important Ionic characteristics should have been mento tioned : Contraction of . 178.e. More commonly known as the Achaean-Doric A.XLII. Jacobsthal. 1.e. 174.2. whose Arcadian examples. n:5ff. . 176.Beiheft. Jacobsthal. See Buck.Z. 87 ff.e. 179. Jacobsthal. 177. Edith Frances Claplin.. 1 The portion in the text. 00 83 ff. after INIeister 279. Prolegomena zu einer Geschichte der im Zeitalter des Ilellenismus. I..^ griechischen Dialekte .XXI. ff.99 ff.>5. with litcniturc cited. XXI. 182. The Syntax of the Boeotian Dialect (Bryn ]\Iawr dissertation). should lie rej)la('ed by those given I. and also the statements condensed from a more comprehensive but unpublished study of . I.U3ff. I.. 11. Ph. however. in our text.II. 274-280. Wahrmann. The Source of the so-called Achaean-Doric Class.2. Jacobsohn.Class. are this subject.. Thund). Jac()l)st]ial. Jacobsthal.193ff.81 ff..F. Buck. The General Linguistic Conditions in Ancient Italy and Greece. «Tourn.K.'58ff.e.Phil.J.Beiheft.. Buck.298 GREEK DIALECTS XXI.

. So also Lesb. bands in which the Cretan youth were trained Cret. 49. or added. or stands in the position of and in the position of vaos.9 = ( Thess. .2 162. note No. Heracl. dypeais. = . or Cret. Thess.. waXivayperos. ^ Akin Lesb. = 'Ay^Xaos. 110) are cited by name. preside over the assembly.3 5 d-yaios {?). like Att.. ayp^OevTes. to the sections of the Grammar. 77. Lcsli.. See deXios T/Xtos. ' . . note East Ton.13. El. ypiov. assembltj. ? ? . 5. 164. otherwise. ivonderful Cf. 53 Cret.8. pov = No.1.. 41. Etym. or.4. to the numbers of the inscriptions.. members of the 31. 41. assembly. A.0.. 1 34^ 1..st Ion. at also etc. = el. 5. d-yopacrtris Boeot.. no.. 167 Delph. Chian yeywv^ovres. by 77. poaypv. Thess. In other states the ayopavbwere officers in charge of the Eub. . -. 113.2 41. 35. 66 Meg. and in these the transcription which we have employed for forms occurring in the epichoric alphabets is frequently replaced by the more familiar spelling.. Thess. pres. ' -. . 58 ( Lac. Tims i.3 Dor.4 Delph. plainly. The Heraclean Tables (no. calling out plainno.9 make invisible .11.G GLOSSAKY AND INDEX is ignored. 164. 49.3. ephebi. at West Greek.17. The references are numbers in Clarendon tyi^e. ()£. e. Mag.'. 53 Cret. : € . But the . convict. Karaypevrov. e. -« . to &ypa El. -€( market Delnh.. Delph. 62. 00. by precise form occurring is sometimes retained as a caption. = note without fraud.3 299 133. -^^. ()08 .4. stands in the position of . = ^?. = ay ados. -. admirable. . to the corresponding sections of the Appendix. See preceding. = - 41 . 51D38.5. Aeol.) are sometimes substituted. 71. For inflectional forms the conventional captions (nom.. ad. 413. = 77 adv.2.2. ='. no. = 107. Brevity and convenience in each case have been preferred to consistency. = -\€... no. . note = \6$. (( Ion. 1 sg. El. 164. . El.12. avraypeffLS. from = - 59. Horn. = Cret. Hesych. note We.. no. 61. note iepoavXos. 69. e^aThess. " ly. 74) and the Cretan Law-Code (no.. 80 with € .3 Cypr. ^.. or given separately with a cross-reference. . v^s• decree. Cf. = Thess.. etc. where App. avypeais = a'ipeCf.sg. 132. Tos. in order to In the alphabetical arrangement the presence of obviate the separation of the many forms wliich occur witli and without it. is added. = Lesb.9 . 53.e. 152.. indie. . 5 .g. = Cret. final and temporal. 2 c Cret.

= 19. in full. . 20 89. Delph. Et. sg. 511)47. Ileracl. wholly. under perpetual lease.3a -is Epid.9.. .. 5.. €> ^). . lull. . 77. llesych.2 119. .. plantation.\\ ).2 Arc..3 a = . . Mycen. = Cret. delay. and llesych. •§.sb. 12 Ia'sIj. 133. sausage-meat. 6. 58 6.3 'I'liess.. = Arc. act of the € TTOXiS -= forced penalties. eZse?u7iere. but ab- stracted from absence of f Locr.. ^. = . otherwise. alvos• alpeOc's Tlior. = under 44. ?j 132.3 state of being an 112. ). Delph. El.. . (e. (1) Delph. investigate. heiyhts c covered HIS 1. = ?. Ilheg.4 Not an orig- inal uncoinpouiuled form. used of the meeting of the phratry. = . = iVetol. .(5 € . = 52c. Cf Cret. (act of). Aio-ioSos Lesb. . ^. -.5 Lesb. 119 17 Cri't. Corinth. 8 ( = Cret. ("dan. elseivhere... a<lopted son) [). Ileracl. 'IMie. (). =. = 132.. *5 . 58 note El.5 IMeg. = 7. Cf. 132. 55.ss.. 61.. = 133.4. 89. IJoeot. ? . = 191 = = 17 17. (2) Rheg.. 58 58 c •705 in early I. ? € € 5 . in form = Att. etc. 58 share. Meii. Hence the 12. = Cf.0 h 12 74 74 b lA'sb.4 22 avaros immune from punishment.. note Lesb. 58( . Cret. Ion.. tend about (in law).5 -KTVOViS. (no. = C'ypr. 18) haXiios Arg. Arc.. hrashwood. Loci'. 136. ai- .2 Delph. 56 77.1 132. ^. Corcyr..v. 586 (52. Corcyr. Ileiacl. elseiohere.. = = . Arc. decree. = 95 = .se. Arc.. (e.. lli'racl..4 No.g. Thess.. Cret.. -is Cret. Ilom. (coudition of. alfd Cypr. = 20 with App... rcftaie.2. . = 51 . Cret. ( -. but title of Tegean ofticials who en- . €5.\tos. Ileracl.g. = VP-eh. 258 €5. avTTavTos). Tab. alvos Delph. note assembly.s. 19. no. Agiig.. &$. 57. 132. adopt . = (1) Gela. llcsycli. con- See (). 119 with lenis. € € Le. note Corcyr. iiXios Dor. = 89. -• ^ . avaros see subject laivsuit Heracl. Cret. . 5? . .2 Cret.. . Ach. (8. adoption adoption Cret.. 49.e. Vy\n•. aei 53. .300 GREEK DIALECTS Ion. = 88 -"! etc.. 76.3 . ornament.see Cretan words. 78 ^5. . sturcohvj. ? [] .2 76.. Ion. {). = late Cret.7 Cret. . €(). decree of the £(<5 Arg. €%. = No. coaguUited blood and meat. Mai:. gen. assembly (not in technical sen. aXios Lesb. Arg. litigate. (' = '^.G aipedeis. — •.€5. Meg. reading no. . =: Delph. (or c.4 £ $ )1). From JasI). penalty for Cf. (-$ 133. 51).see 52 Lesb. 58 . = -ovpyiKOs. = = -. Cf. . 41. (no.-^ . Agrig. note 44. (2) Acarn. i. cf. 164.(3 Cf. Gela.. adv. .

= Arc. 162.1 ). pi.' .. = = name of a month. under oath of denial Cret. contend denial.8 Cret.2 See 9.3 . = Cret. Thess. Delph.. Arg.2 = Ileracl. Delph. . €<> 22 Coan.. 52 £€€.. ^ GLOSSARY AND INDEX C'l'et. 191 Arc. ••€ .. 162. a counter-boundary- See Boeot.. . to Lac. avo^ija also possible Cret..3544 Cretan words.3 = -7pa0os.0.. 69. opponent. ..-. . € .2. = Arc. Ileracl. 85. 1) &5os Loci•. 18. dvcOciKaiv Thess. € .. voted.2 = . € .3 El. $ ^.g. 5.2.5 = 75 49. minor.s. Epid. Delph. Boeot. defendant. as Ioii. LocT. = Cypr. . 6. .= Cret. ? . " .(€ . 142 -ija But cf. 85. From nom. = (146. Cf . = Thess. = 9. Lesb.. &- there The.2 = ££[8]= $. 33 Thess. < 'ret.4 Thess. Cret. yvpa.36 5 Cret. correA.3 140. See in early SGDI. 19. see under El. dveOcav.2 89. loil. 136. he of divided opinion. = '•£• = . . l'J. =: e. 164. . Cret.77. = 12. VA.3538. deny. from 146.£ . 7$ . £ . .iri\- 301 sponding to the Attic \ai Delph. = avrpoiros Cret. Delpli. €€ = = - Lesb. . = Boeot. 19.5 Boeot.. = Boeot. '.3 €£ avevs €-5 = €'75 €€ = Lac. = 162.2 aoTOs East Ion. II. iios. . ayovTi Cret. = 12 ci 136.-€ . -?. Avi^. not of marriuf/ cable age Lesl). . -. €• = ill Ildt. springs or torrents = -.. 6/ra5e. . = ypaov.(5 &vev. name of a festival . 17. 12 Lesb. . summon 191 = poet. 133. 146 Eretr. = auras.1. () . 66 auepidevros not venal. = apyupLov. •€ . 167 a Lac. 10 49. note.. .5 16 69.... No. 144 Arc. Arc.. proclaiin airaros ally. or in office (so 45. = (Att.5 £8 -9 .12 = Ileracl. = 5 139...29.28. " '? '. -. = Cret. be approved. .ss. = Cret. off etc. €. = 66 66 Locr. Cf lidt.4 Ion. 53 = l)el])li. used impersonseizes. = happen be present. = Cf. neut.. 101) yiyvovrai al Boeot. fee. path avTopos Ileracl. 55 162. = App.4 = pypos. = . meaning uncertain. inscr. . I'hoc. .. ' .1 avopos Cret. = 49. bear See witness.e'aoe= e5o|e. etc. one ivho is not a memnote ber of a Law-Code Arc. Thess. impiety. probably 133. perquisite. Cypr.3 . 162. victims for the ' .4 Ileracl. Lac. Tlies. shall be no fine for the one who Locr. Arc.4 Locr. = 162. Cypr... . .2 Cret. of apvos. -6 . 68. 78) Ileracl. presided. see Ileracl.. = 133. ^..1.. -[ . = ooyaaL. -.. 85. XaFos.). 10 12 ••-[] No. 'I'htins. = 95 note Arc. 138. ~ %pyov. carrying Cret.^.5 82. () . (i. in 75 86. ^-^. road. 64 = 138. 133.= Lac.

serve as ras or official dedicator. Kheg.4 Thess. 68..2 68.1 49.. . also Ar. in Mytilene (no.sb.3. . £ . Cret. note Heracl.4 ficial title.. . lie- Eietr. = 35 121. = - = ?5.3 Thess.4. e. = 86. (no. ...2.3 132. at Ath4C) and Mile- 5. 6 ".4. . note £5 . € . next of kin Kpid. an official body. states. 33. 78.€ . 32) manage (property).4 121.2 61. = aCn. = 69. . . No. . = . = '. 70.3 Cret. . Ther. {har) {. .0 32 32. 80 Lac. Hesych.1 88 15 52 official title in many Vret. € .1.4 Sicil. .EL.4 Lac.2). Cf. &xvpos 6 • .1 Cret. 125. ^ws. . No. {)< {). hence time of peace. (i Lesl). 22) and Elis (no. intestate Dor. See = 167 £( () Boeot. Lac = *€6. = Corcyr. = . In Arcadian simply prepare. 133. = 77. ^).2. 139. pron.2 Boeot. ol those next of kin. Att. = 71 Delph.2 reflex. Dor. 68. Att. fine. reflex. . 121. Cret. €>. .2 '. . = Heracl.. 165. -\ = (cf.. Grk. 1. '. Tab. . Lac.4 € = Dor. Locr. the nearest owners.. 49. .2. e. 3 pi. in In some the chief magistrate others restricted to religious functions. -€ -. Cf. € Cret... Coan. Kpid. 42. (\. . =*^. ivhere.g. penalty. Heracl.4 ..77. etc.5a Epid. 72 68. 41. 55 33 (f. appivT€pos Arc. Ik'racl.Lysist. 53 tus 132. The... 45. = = = aCrts. (or 44. 69 GREEK DIALECTS 5 Locr. Cret. ^.. 164. = 13. = 75. 121. Boeot. . 30 12. subj..9 reflex. ^.3 84 53 133. 50 121. Le. 13. ' . 68. .. 132. . pron. 27.3. 121.. €9 *05 . be the first pto- liarrh. i)run. )' ..g. Lac.3. 129. -.. = 186 ^/.l303. Cf. at Chios (no. Dor. 146.2. := Ther.0 121. = 75 Thess. magistrate 41.4 tCjv . Rhod.see Cypr. .2 07$ = Cret. . 586 133.see Thess.8 302 '<5 Coan. = = ' . and In Cretan (Law-Code XII. 161. 1. = = = '. 80 etc. time ivhen there is no rayoi. = llcracl. (and -iXXos) ?repos.. Ileracl. note).30 ff.. .. like the ens. Boeot. provide. blemish Arc. = iised of . Cf the ofsych. 121. Boeot. pron. etc iws. -.'. 132.5 49. shut off (water by damming). fine. Delph. Ion. = . devise by . . = rJTe as. = -. Cret.5 building to hold chaff. Thess.= = 44. 57) . Sicil. = eauroO.3 Cret. = " 49.4 Cret. 48 animals xuithout 113. from as Boeot.2 Lesb. Hhod. '.s Arg. '. Boeot. = 35. note ' Arc. = -%..2 86. 11• = Lesb.2 = 05.3..2 . ( 80. 53 Thess.. = 60. pron.4 W.ss. . Locr. = 108. Tol 's El. = = '^.2 reflex. reflex.().4. €€()= Lesb.

. Cypr. 5 = Cret. 116 66 Arc. Delph. 51 ('ret.?. Cypr. Epid. etc... = 49.. Thess. . -. 10. 69 ..1. -.. descendants.. 157 157 b 108. = 18 15.note Coan. . Cret. 164.Tab.gen.... 85. ' .. mound. == . Ach. Thess.!» . Nos. see 51 64 Delph.. 28. Cret. 114.2 = 49.. 184 ? 6$ ( 5 •. = Cret. 44..58 = See Heracl. 51 . = etc. ".2 \vith a 5 5 5 -is 303 164. = 49.1 W.1. cow-shed. 68. offspring. 86. = heap of ".. 151..1. wedding cakes.3. . '? ' . = 82 146. 25 with Lac = Lac = . \€ Boeot.2 Cret.... (iU.. El. Boeot. ' .10. 05 -. = 35 . 70-73.. =77. 37. . '% $. = 75 Le.. Arg.1. ? .4 Delph.4 Arc. call aloud. *•. . Arc. 84 69. see = 20 = 44. pi...3 Carpath...l. Arc. .1 1 GLOSSAEY AND INDEX .. in 88 . = "•5 44. 84.7 162. as in lldt. division 75 = 5 -yop Lac. Boeot. 68. . Zfi'/s. .\rc.7 86. €$. = -' = 7€. .4 111. . leeches. Cliian. Cret.1 Cf.4 Argol. lleracl. . = 167 Astyp. ".i. = 241 Sicyon.Grk. . = = -. = /3ous.. . =^'. =68. = Mel.3 Lac. Lesb. . Nisyr. 75 . 1. llesycli. = . ("ret. in .-.4 Boeot. occurs also in Pserimos near Calymna 86. leader of the the bam Is which Sjiartan boys were ? Dor. . . = want. .4 . = 87 Cypr. [) 49. 75 Cret. = lihod. 165. ' . = = 51 Delph.3 '. = 68. . •>1.. ". also in plural No. = = . = yivvos = yi El.. ' ' ' lleracl. 165. Epid. = 49. title of a priestly ot!icU.4. . Thess. lleracl.. '. Apivias ("orinth. $ . 47 162. 191 Locr. . = - '. = Aeiviaj. Boeot... = 13.4 Boeot. .92.2 ceremonial cake.3 49.3.. Argol. Delph. Lesb. Cypr. = 7^- 53 earth.. 5 Boeot. Lac. . . of 116 Arc. Epir. Bhod. -.2 Lac.. = 159 with Lesb. note .7. $. 5 Lac.2 Boeot. []. 84 with A])p. . 6. 114. note lleracl.sb. = Lesb. -. = 7/-)7. So Boeot. . title of officials. • .. = 167 = = 31 44. 116 Lesb. = 12 Lesb. . ( «€« trained. Delph. ".3 IIeracl. 54d 68. = — Arc = = 66. = -/€. Lesb. = Corey r.4 famil•/. = 6. Chian =. No.. 12a Boeot.. papyrus marsh. = Boeot.4 Arg. 44. . 51 Arc. with = 139.

= ^= 75 . 87 £•€ Cret. = yaypanrai.1 Cos. etc..7 = Ion. = 48. 112. 115 115 Delph. the rare ^- 162. = Hoeot. legal penalties. .. . = ayv6vu.2 110.1 sacrijice consisting of twelve vic- . 131 68.7 Delph. e/c.49. Me. Thes. .ss. Boys under seventeen were not allowed to enter the gymnasia.8. . 30. = '^. 162. Heracl. . = ' . = adv. /> 52 43. GEEEK DIALECTS a. Heracl.2 Heracl. €€. 52 Cret.3 84. . = 49.7 Cret. 46. = ("ret.. And... fines. § . Syrac.. = 84 = 84.2 Locr. $..10 164.. Lat. € Boeot. Boeot. = Cret.5. = "-. 54 54 with a Law- Cypr.7 Delph. = . 75. Cf.2 10. Phoc. = 7 € Locr. ($. 49. = Boeot.75.2 Cret.' €8€5 164.2 forms . 25 52 b 46.Arc. 100 kC The. = . Chios.2 15. = = tims Cyj)!•. . \V. €(05 == €€ Khod. £=/.14. 7 Boeot.... Cf. . (". Ion. . = 116 116 «I'kokttos Lesb. adv. Eub. $. 304 Cret. = 241. Cf.5 -TTjs.3 €$ •. = 137 138. €$ ^. 163. . Locr. = Cf. = e/coO(Ta. 114. etc. 132.2 . . «£ £ Grk. duim Svi Lac. €£ . j'wos. Thess..2 €( 62. « .3. see SU Thes.2 Epid. Pamph. Delph. 134. ()0. = 114. .2 84 Cret. = No. 163. = 163. in late Lcsb.8 Epid. 1 1 8. = -tijs. Cret. 114.1 No. € . 132. -TOS.2 El.7 160 = = = «faros. form. = in ]. = = . . Thess. pron.. Heracl. = . Ion.s... Boeot.526 I) = 52 . 31 Locr. Arg. £8. = Corcyr. note Boeot. «(\ = €€5 Coan. . . El. $ . aS also ill lldt. (^ret. €£8 = Dor..1. = Epid. 8 -. Arii...-/ ' . 166.. £$ . . 66 distinction... El. 25 with note €.2 = .1 = = . = Ion. =: iypa\pev. . = 8($ Code Civt. $. . .4 112.7a TIhss.1 70. on each side 132.. « ? 6 = Arg. 117. double portion of flesh. =: 84 = Cypr. — = 154.5 l^iid. amend. 151. 25 c 60.s. El.2 Cret. 144 (Cret.1 at Mytilene. Cret. tlie Cretans called and so were termed Hoeot. €(5 75.2G. = 114. . . note El. = 24 Cret. .1. Cf. in- ..) =.1 Cypr.") -. € 62. 8« of.2 114. = '^. one loho is of age. change. -. Ion. 11 See preceding 163. to e^eiX^wpreweiii. = gen. €$ Lesb. 139. . 162.= plural 114.2. 5 /... 81 162. Orop. 62. El. = ijveyKav.") 5 Heracl.11 ooOXos. 162. — = 68.see spectors of justice Locr... 137 86.. £. a double cut El. = 31 Cret. = '.ss. .. 112. = Zijva.. IX. 3 pers. = = — officials 89.

7a. cf.9 139. (. 133. Kpid. 30i eiffeyeyx^j. = 76 133. 156 'EXevGivvaios CYet.son who ble to suit. cvSoOcv Att. Lesb.. ^ ^. eis ^/^. 1. belonging within. Delph.-Ion. 43. within. = ^/. = alive. evaros.4 163.4 T)elph. 58c.1. Dor. Cret.1 84 Delph. 18. a'«. = Ion. No. GLOSSARY AND INDEX 6..see 114. {). subjected to suit.. = evTOvOa Cumae = Orop. = «f^s. ' . Lac. within. = Arc. . Cret. 26 a with App.2 '? .. fvTU» = (. evv€Ka Lesb. € 138. « «« with dative of the per.34. within. 86. He-sych. = iXevdepos. money given as security. 118.4 F. within. 5 /j Dor..4 cvSopa Coan. Thess. = eiVi.35. 65 84 . = no. = 20.1 65 tvQivos Cret.4 Delph. 117 Ileracl.ss. (i(). 154. 120. = 85. note €v8os Cret. €€(-€ Thess.51C47. 133. 41. hcKOTov Arc. (10). .5 ivhipohais Lac.1 €. Ther. from Att. 163. 01C38.pid.0 107. = €6.ss.4 Cret.. - funeral Cf.. = Thess. 118. -.. 33 a € Arc. 114.7 Thess..4 163.1 £. 101. iveave loithin 506.3 "> « . = \. € .4. €€€£ Boeot.. 59. « . (10) = but used impersonally is lia- 133.1) 135.2. note Ar«. rites. see no. . entrails..40.. 132.4 €v8ocr€ ("oos = 133. hivTi Delj)h. = eyaros. Delph. €vtavTios Coan. Lac. no. . = = ceremony for the dead. . 114. €=. ?$.1 Locr. Ileracl. anniversary. €6 €£ W. until. Dor.3 65 = eare.48. 35 101. 49.. = Corcyr. CI. 028 c Orop.(5. .. For the former and more original meaning.'i iyKT-qaLi.. = Lesb. Law-Code I. where Attic and most dialects have elire. 132.2. note ' .Grk. 135. = = = 163. 1.0 = sometimes has -. = Boeot. . eviavaios. = Lesb. Deriv. .2.3 118. Grk. \€. 58 c. = Locr. Coan. vith App. = from 144 a. in office. = €vt£ W. 133. 18. Delph. 162.G .e. No. . note not sKTia-is.. = €. 1 65 J. . . = = ?'.38. 163.='E\eve€puaioi. .. cvScvco Lesb. 136.2. ? = £5 -^/.. 6. 132. « ivSipo) Kos.4.IV.. 61. Rep.3 eviavTos (1) end of the year.1. 114. 6 «. lieracl. 165. = = 9. Syrac. El. see Ileracl. Cf.2 €KT€i<T-is. -Locr. No. 4 = = note ivant. — elwe. be No.49. The. 114. in 72 164. see no.4 regularly in Boeotian and Thessalian decrees. (inscr.. 114..34. tazes of admission (to citizenship). iv Boeot. 85. Delph. which the word . 65 65. C'f. 58 54 5 c. no. 66 « note €VTi evracris The. . Syrac. lihod. of hevvc'a Ileracl.9 42.9a.. == €(€$ 42.2 ivSvs Delph. So 151. (the house) —-. Ther. = ($. ^leg. €<( Heracl. = = Homer. 133. 59.7 elvai. €€'9 68. €vs Cret.9.. '.2. Plat. note «v€T€pia Locr. €•€ i\o\)dipos Cret.8 €VT€s Dor. within. From like Att. = Dor.. Ther. .sb. Heracl. . Ilesych.1 efs.G = See ay Coan. 116. note hivaros Delph. sc.4 . « « ei's.. 133. Cret. 526. 163... Cret. Sometimes also in decrees of Oropus Tab. iv^xvpov. (2) year. 133. 49. . note ^.)= .124.9 i'voTOs . Cret. 43. = 116. 34 34.9 iviroi El.. El. .4 .

(inscr. = drive up.. =: and Ilesycli. . sometimes iioeot. 162. 74. 55. { Sometimes = heir-at-law c3t .(5 €6£ Cret. FiVija Cypr. = beaker. 133. 136. the next oldest.l. () . . = 4. 589. of kin. = im- pose upini. 49.21. = HjOVV. = Lac. €6• No. €irav)(i<rTos = ' €tr6iT€ () ( . The. hring. No.. is the etymological one (cf while of oiir texts l)yri « * like ). = note . mean collect.S. = Cf. Cf No. € €. = 162. 17. enforce = 36 solemnly promise. IG. Tiiess. Dor.ss. 77. No.se (cf. Ion. see Chian fp = -. aor. = 1 1 . Locr. ) ? .3 sacred pcnnlti/ Locr. assume op{f)ii'u . = 62. etc. .5 eavToO. Coan ^Tre- Cret.2 133. 74. short expression for = ''. ) Meg. Locr. 67ros. root used in a iigurative out). Ilarpocration (aor.).. Delph. heirs-at-law. Theocr. . •< lieracl. ~/. €€' ' i. 46 5 = '..3 ptos Locr.. used of the buildings belonging to the land. Ile- sycli. Probably . = No. etc. For beside Ileracl.9 Cret. := Lac. 165. (^) = €7. See "ret..S. note lieracl. Cf.2 This spelling as in no. = 55 Cf. = 52 collectors. share.. note . ois groom-elect 29 60. enforce. just for..3 El. movahleprop. Lac. 69. note Epid. Cf. Cret. II. enforce (fines). 4. 1. . 53. •! 53 «iroipe<r€ Hoeot. for the year.9 I'. offering. beside (31) 29 9. cf..4 133. « ..4. {. /arm buildings to fut. 59. See no. Arc.5.. $^ €. Lat. 4 4^ The. Also ifwm from simplex I'robably related to 1•% Arc. ' . (-'ypr. = €••€ Eretr. 120. spondco. Thera Att. Cf. = = eweiTa. €€. also Arg. « ).) Ci'et. Cf. l)eside .3 LI.3. = (^). . Ion.10 Thess.. subj.3 lieracl.5. = e0€^^s. but also a regular . 69. i.e.52.e. €pirw . GREEK DIALECTS 116 . jurors fpyov. 133. Urk. 89. 82 €iroif6h€ Arg.. = 58 6. 306 6 | Cret. No. G7. 02. = El. and Arc. ^.9). 18.150. = 95 €5 = c -€••6 iKile ou. 84. .2 Corcj'r.. €ir Thess. Sometimes in tragedians. = 12 Arc. I>esb.3. note Delph. = eiripoiKOS Locr. or declare. Aetol. 118. collective..1 Cret. ) = 69. 4 €€(> = -'. HI. Syrac. piiros = 52 iiriratris Boeot. but lieracl..3 A rg. ( ^•! €••£€ ' ••€•8 Cret. = \vitli ££. aor. = Cypr. . . = IriSee next ( ^ -^ ^.40 and also in ])aHerlin Aeg. = e|w. dual of ivavayKes. ivrfKaaiov rental k-Ki\tv<ril (fnt. = (. = €€€( « €€ is €-ir£ €6( 147. «() €€ € from an sen. cpoTos Boeot...5 expropriate. 6 = (. = p)enaltij €•€ Arc.3 whom property is those adjudged by law.. 167a No. of 132. {^. return. 93 132.l. But many as a by-form of - Dor. - crtij.. note ^Vrg. Hoeot. . Cret. Lac. Boeot.

= 138.. 134.5 . . 100 Lesb. 28. Cf. 66. note Arc = Arc. = 49. see also Ileracl. Argol.4.2 Cypr. = 112. = lohether.146. . . Cf. Epid.3 Cret. pe'ppci) prose vise in many dialects.0.9 Delph.7 at.. cucraPc'oi El. shut in (water by damniinii). = e^.2. firos El. 58c. 164. . 19. eiot. - .3 The. 78. i 134. = pofu6. = eppwyvTa. =: €< = '€§ Arc. €Tos. = iKTos. 133. = assembled. 241 49. 280 Delph.. transgress Cret. 132. €€ . 19. 81 f( Epid. yearling. = = private citizen €Tos. 49. = '4•^. Locr. = &. vitulus.. = . = €-8€8 Arc = €•8€ give out the contracts 4. 58c The.. 100 52. = 121. 6( . €£€ yopodvTai. Mess.1 = eppw El. 66.GLOSSAKY AND INDEX € 4.4 Cret. 52c Arc.. Delph. -yia El. 100a. . *$ = « 142 Boeot. see F€o-7rapios Locr. = 88 .5 .. 147. = 12. = = . to /^. iuiperf.. see no.4 . 86. = el. (vtpytTts Thess. = 146.5. 134.0.1 162.4 €<£(8 Arc = 28 a with Apji. of followiiiu'.3 €€ €.0.. -.8 «- Sicil. 163. 68. 157. 146. €-€£$ 165. Lat. note. 49.4 the body of demiurgi. 25.2.. -Cypr. Boeot. no.s.. when. note Arc. 52..2.1 Cypr.9 = €/. 154. title of «<€ = €(. Cret."08 31 Cypr.3 68. 58c Itos €TT€ Boeot. eare. Tlies. 1 sg. Epid.4. € tion. note = .cl.6. era^av. of 1€3. = iK. 89. = . Cypr.. Cret..yp fKyovos. Cret. Lesb.. yij. 139. as Arc. €£9 = = Lac 36 €€ = evepyeriwv. etc.10. = ^|3. }lera. Delph. = 163. Boeot.1 Cret.1a Cret. 5 . ' €€ . i. 05. 100 those who .1. pcras El. Epid.sb. 9«. 49. repair. heir. fem.41. -. with 44. Arc. 100. 1. probably halfgrown sheep.1. 61. . 61.ss. . EL.2.4 19. deriv. Ileracl. Astyp.3 . 80 Boeot. =: efjOi.3 $ 37. ~ . ^.. . 100 Arc. | Locr. Delph. 35 a €^$ ^.1 Epid. = yiypa^^au 137 Gen. Le.. 163. . 62..0 = '/'""!''• 61.75 euvola. = -. = .10. 132.1. 49.5 86.5. 164. prayer or impreca191 pseudo-dial. ? .3. = 68.see EL.= £ 81 = 83 io-rtuntil... ( 71. 112. note Boeot. 79 Lesb. «{ryovos £-< 100 = €9 €€ ^. see Lesb.sg. 135. where. Coan. 148 El. the half.1 Awwaos.9 Cret. 307 Arc. see = 12 a = eu^a/ttevos. €€• = = 27. 157 no. 163..7 mid. 132.e.7 dvai. such as are midway between lambs and full-grown sheep.ss. Cret. Lesb. Cypr. 46 €S . 130 ff. 28. ^-. = .2 80.' = Boeot. Tab. (3. 55 a = \\>\. no. 58 c . 87 Thess. 55 Delph.. Boeot. = 84. 82 eha. €05 49.0 100 €<rs Boeot. = in sense of 61. a select official body.1 62.

some Arc.1 44. Epid. — Coau 163. ministers of religion. . 114. =5. = = 20 . .5cZ 9.)C.3 Cret. ijpeyKa. Ge'pcros 41. 9 lioeot.1. = ?. .4 jVrc.. extraordi- 24 . 111.1 = ^. Thess. Ion.8 .Xa. = 111. Lac. . 51 C . IleSee no. y.1. = yo eappos ()8 = 164. = 65 fine. note Thcr.. 164.. OLyuvos• note Cret. 2/j 163.4 '. 0€Op8oTOs Tliess. T)S = = ds. . . 81 . 133.1. 163.s applied to priestly attendants.2. primarily in charge of religious matters.4 Locr. 89. etc. = Qeo-. Cret.2 deod 165.8 ()« Cypr. -... and.1.3 41. 154. security. tape's = 5. Arg. . 81 = but in technical sen. ^.. Ion. Delpii.(3 5 134. 114. . 155. = Ion. €5 . Ilcracl.4 Upoiroios.2 t^umae 65 fine. Cf. = = Arc.2 = Boeot. ? Ocopos. .8 Cypr. ? [€' 165.. in some places. = 17. 89. 57. sacred commissioners. 81. 80. 58 6. Delph..2 the purl . 10 10. — Mil. See following impose a Att.8 eyyvoi.1 with App. 157 (-as). Khod. ronscrrnted to the god €08 = Arg. Att.4 6 Boeot. I'hoc. 121.1.3 see = 13.!) Oivos Cret.2. sycli. 5 {() \ .2 . ^. serve as priest. = = . 163. 65. 93 Boeot. ^..( = 138. •( ' . $. = = Me. ?. 163. 60. (37). 163. 19. = 151. = Elean Le. = lidcot. ' Orop. no. immune.4 '? = ' = 5. 25 65. etc. . 167 eponymous 65 title of certain superiorotlicials. . Arc.. (Stiris) = 85 = El.ss.4 41.2 Plioc. Ijtpes Cypr. Arc. = Delph.1.5 perquisites for healing. = Epid.1.2. = ©eio-iriivs lioeot.0 43. =: Coan ' .. . = 49. = evaroi. Cret. sf)metimes regular magistrates.Meg. 42.3.4rt = ^.. Arc.8 ?5.Meg. 164. 161. . . 84 Cret. .3 65. lid. -( 68.4 (?). officers magistrates..1.'wff. inimuniti/. who were even. Cret. 163.. = Cypr. Arc.. Epid. title of officials in charge of religious matters. . = *. . €8 Fii. 81. . 144 Eplics. = 164. 163. etc. Cyren.5 ? . = = -. Ion. 144 151. be Arc 78. impose Locr. ' . = 9.. the ^. = € \ Arc. = «. = '. Cf. eav. Boeot. €08 \.d 308 -. from iyLpi.2 165. = ^. = *6.2 70. 163.2 132.. Somctime.4 ehai. 80 0£. iepeis.Thess. but in states the chief 05 €(08 ..se of be secure. 58 c . 42. {). 69.9 = TjvfyKa. then. 114.4 = . Tt.') GREEK DIALECTS 61.4 1. official title. cover 59. 144 49. 49. = Delph. The. i^peia. 42. ©loirirao-TOS Boeot. 49. 111. sometimes to priestly officials of high rank.7 Cret.ss. = . .5 37.sl). sometimes nary commissioners {). ? .2 = . 5 ()£5. . . = 167. . 54. 134. . 586 = 163. 52 28 6 56.

.. GLOSSARY AND INDEX tpcvs Lesb. .. 1< . *. Arc = ta. Proper names in = are Ionic and Boeotian eiVds. [( Cypr. Cf. Hesych.1. . Boeot. especially a burnt offering. a measure. related . . Cret... impose a a pas- the iutposition of 17. see iXaos probably maltreat. 53.3. violate gen.r. twenty feet wide. large used of cattle. = 95 with a = El. As in Horn. sense. Ikos = ('. Hesych. (. as often in the Septuagint. see Hesych. = vlov.2a = in as prevail. From as Eng. 54 19. . Lye 12) Lac. -. Ipos Le. 'i\e- 116 with . I'virao-is .2. Lesb. 86. 116. 13. Hesych. Iv Arc-Cypr. Co- = perf part. = KaXos. . Wvs Ion. . 76a (. at once.. . 49.•') impious. jure. 116 Heracl. Ipo's.^ . Cret. [ipovi) district iVos = icos. • 4. = App. Epid. name of a particular (twenty-foot) road fiKariireSos Heracl. cano Ceos. 49. and . Jko\_v] .2 . dv. Ath. 10. probably hen. = iaravTes. Lesb.? '. hen to Lat.1 = 13. 'iXeos. KaXpos Boeot. ing of ten = be valid. be of greater . Ther. 3 i^ers..4 121. Cf. though also occur. 54.. . . Cf. also Ion. = e'lKoarhs. = €\. so also in rinth. .£ . Hesych.. 49. . and Lac urn (Plut. Arc. . — priestess. to *Cf. €5 Upos. ). = Cf Hesych. 118.2 Xajris Epid. 25 . Arc. 13.1 Cret. &3 (05 = App. (Lac.1 10.v ? . prnn..4 118. blameworthy. () '? hit. sheep and goats. in late inscr. 52. from at one blow. 116 with = 52. .2 W. hiXef os) (i Cf.1 . = iywv. Cret. 24 ? ([. Arc.. so also inscriptional (Eplu. 54 c 11 ban• = quet-hall. = Delph.1 Boeot. Pindar. Smyrna.sb.. Cf. Heracl. njeaning = shall ^ .1 offer.To. Thera.. (Chios). 61.1 to t/uas. . Arc. . and lit.2a 49. 58 6 Cypr. 58c Boeot. stricken (in battle).Grk. 58 Delph. 81 « As in lit. 167 iepos. Arc. = valid. lorite upon.. ' . {) . = ^icetJOs. Lac. 3 pi. note 114. ()<05 . = . El. Denom. dXet- 10.. Rhod. = ~^. 113.y. = Ipos Ion. = /ce.3 in- = 85.3. 49. 13. of Cos. 50 6. also Delian the past and Ion. 52 c 86. Athens.. Boeot. 11 used with Arg. (Paros) . Arc-Cypr. led Thess.4 Boeot. Arc = 138. Cret. piv plv - = or_dat. [] . Cj'pr. 5. pasture ture tax. 10 Arc = Cf. invulid. Lat. Upos..1. = 167 Cpeia Lesb. 134. Ids Cret. Boeot. = eiKoaros.2. Dor. = = 9 Boeot..3 perf . = 97. = — HI - Coaii 10 inform in legal 80..Vrc. Locr. 135.. in contrast to bull. 10. = /cparos. sweepings. aXivecv -.. 58 6 = = 167 Lesb.4 151.sus). Mess.. Cret. Cf = 1. Delph. = iv. It' iijiess. pCcrpos. . .. . Bhod. Ion. ill \o. see Arc. Cf. Lac.. 309 13. $^. . ()£ 134.2a in meanKapreposlon... 62.

s. . = W. con- Ion. }i}/se = suj^port.1 rt KXe'fos I'hoc 53 Thess. ) 13. ' . 229 18. Arc = 08 = .. KapuKCfrio -• letic .3..1 proper names in. Used with in no.3 Lesb. 128. 134.1. 142 KaTafe\|A€vov Cret.3 5 € €€ note = -. 3 ID. — 12b . 95 Cret. ) . 142 191 72 Lac. but in meaning 12. GREEK DIALECTS 49.2 Ktivos Lac. Ci. 82. . (. £ 78 Kis Thess. in the hunt.. Nos. ath64.. ^^. called see preceding). -. a single member Cret. beside Arc. 13. 19. Kas .1 142 form. Mess.. Argol.1 lioeot. -€ (-) 5d Boeot. ' 5 . 200 ed. 5 Ileracl. = Epid... 53. -iv. 155. -. = demn. = Cret. and originated in the reproduction of Roman proper names like Cornelius.4.2 . mid. proper names -KXepes. 191 61.1 . niortgage.. 81. Kt'vTo \)or. . 65. LI. Lesb. take a mortgage Thess.. -. name of an Delph. = . serfs attached to the estate = Arc. .3 191 116. See following.1. 75 Cret. no. asseinhled. = 54 Epid.sb. Dor. . . 155. in. highioayman. -. = 54 Ai'c = Cypr.. 57 Thess. later used of a single member of this body.8]? Thess.. 131 Eub. 117. vith pi. . (.2. 116 . or Lycian origin = Ti's. = see appivrepos 161.£ . . Cypr. \. gifts. etc. ( = Coan = Ion. the body of . 22. 159 Ion. summoned. . *\€5 Ilerael. . = = 162. = 6 KoOapcris El. = . = 142 or -'?.. ai't as highwayman Itm. 70-73. Cf. cover over with stones. Also for 54 cf.. = Le.. 71 Lesb. . . ' . = -. 53 = \ -->. game. Diels.2 .. = . often used instead of = Argol. note. was Cret. Arc = 95 Cypr. 125. Att.8. tomb or niche in tomb a Heracl. .. See ay Boeot.310 authority. ) . .2 165.\rc. = 5.1 164. 134. . 117. Probably of Carian Lesb. 25 with Cret. 162.4 convict...4 Cret.3 26 fKetvos. 35 a Naples. 139. Nouns -is. to Karei- —-.2. aor. ' (. . 138. - 108.. Mess. Thess.1 xripevcris divorce 95 Cypr. as in Democr.. 85. fr. Ci.-Cypr. . 166. = = Cypr. 81 Thess. 125. = ...4 KOT€pos Ion. intrans.Grk.. act other- - 5 142 Mess. = Cret. €• = 78 (: — = 57 ... [€. 68. \rr .3 162. ? . -€'8. Karaifci Locr. Arc. be a member of the 42. etc. Cumae.. = 6 126 = 41. -. = ^.2 6€5 Arc. $ 113. € 134." 68. Cret. the body of chief magistrates (collective.2. for earlier -tos. -££ =: are frequent in late inscription.1. of in -/. . 57. Hesycli. colloquial Cornells € Hoi'ot. . = = = road.

consecrated. Inn. = = Cret. note Boeot.5. No.. Corcyr.3.38. €6 Aapiaaws. 146.3 Chian .. not« Delph. Meg. Boeot. yv..1 Adverb from • €.. Doric (Cret. 45. Cf. 41.9 Thess. = 41. . . 132. = . € Cf Hesych. 86.Thess. sg. adj. Rhod. ) a receipt for. 3 AvTTos Cret. gen.1 = 44.. Cret. note I'lii'ss.3 16 = . Xon-ds 19.2 with App. or €6 jVrc. Epicliarinns and Tiieocritus) and El. like papyrus marsh 93 89. The-ss. {\ayaiev). \.. 31 title of (1) officers with special function.. = 15 =. / forms as Boeot. -.3 Me'vvii IJoeot. - KWS . [€]. ivith a third L. Locr.3 Mvps. until.. or body of Tlies. ^/... (?). = €s. .3 76b - ?. = Thess. = Heracl. grave.. = 86. GLOSSARY AND INDEX 74 (act.) canceling.. see ^ €(16. (but.. Coan.4 Chalcid. with ilar Lesb. 162. 113.). Cf. dat. . .1 . Cret. No. 12 . . Cret. — 77. 22 c. = = Cret. = 62. liliod. et Probably related XeLTovpyos. = /? No. . 132. 6•( . ^. 112..2 . wittingly ». €€$ Cret. = ayopa market-place (Thess. 17. 74. etc. hesh. €-£8 €--5 ). Thess. -4 Heracl. = .44. .. nos. 9. marsh. 55. to (39) Boeot. 87 Att. = . note Tiiess. 28.4 71 Epid. also in € \. No. note Cret. real estate. . . .. from -. note 112.1 No. = Kparos. release aor.3 112.4. (2) at Rhodes the highe-st officials of tlie state.. = ^. = = Thess. Mh€i|ios Corcyr. $.€ = Att. -? 2(5..11. No. =. = 88. Cf. .. 24 Cypr.. = 74 Khod.. yaaaL. 96 Heracl.s.3 77. .8 Ion. epithet of Apollo. ayopa = \nroTt\io) Locr. .. Cf. = 44. 94.. note Thess.9a 53 19. Xds. hollow. 157 Tliess.1 Arc.. 126 accounting. ..2 (mid. = sel. €[]€$ €. juiji/os. pol -. () Aegin. 93. intermediate bound- yyv Arc. Boeot. = = ' and \7jT7Jpes• le- formed . - = Cf. 18. 113. 137.. 12 161. Kperos = ' .0. Corcyr. insolvent (?). = 164. El. Thess. •5 note 18. .4 77. taking a receipt for. is KTOivaras Ixhod. party. elsewhere only contracted ?. 16 28. a territorial division simto the Attic deme..10. = . . 146.9a Heracl. and Xe7r/s 86. Cret.. €€ . 108. = Lesb. €. jjlundering No. . Epid. of 63 Ion.^ S. 38). 54 68..4. Pamph. Kriais Thess. 89.. Epid. El. . Ion. etc but iu sense ary Locr.Upeiai.1. = 12 .. . Meg. . 'memher of the Epid. Cret. until. TTtDs. Cpds.4 Arc. sycii. = = .2 167 = €5 Heracl.. leave taxes unpaid. .4 €5 €'( No..) having canceled. No. Epid. Meg.4 134. some kind of shallow ves-os 115. accursed. . . 25. Xeiropes. Lac.subj. = Cret. 69. .. Cf. Ile- € €( Cret. giving 311 ^d. Klean. . note Xoiris Arg. €..

d (6 . 82 . ) Locr. = dat. 70-73. an official bodij of young men.) = Dor. .. Ileracl. . Ile.1 oVos. 44. = 77.3 19. Cf.6 12 Ik'racl. sacristan. Coan 31. Boeot. vawoios. 51 \os.8 . 132. "5 . •. (Ilesych.4 133. *35. Lac. €8 = . nos. €5 = |eVos.. 167 49. etc. .4. 9 42. 132.se . 82 -fiv. ? . . -. = 6. Dclph.. = ^05.. . Wica<ras. oIkos. = 546 Locr. = Ileracl. 41. .4. .1 Ther. W. 132. 86. as a law-term in . ace. 53.3 with 49. = .).Grk. = 72 Kretr.. /?.. = = 13. = . Lesb. ols = olvos.1 mus •-05 Ion. Cret. 6 {..0 114. {olwhe etc.2 The. until. Deiph. Cf. take refuge in a temple see = = ()08 = see Lesb. . fOiKcus Civt. ^. 54 Lesb.1. 77. oiirhi. 54/ = note v€OTas Cret. -/. 113.3. gen..5(Z 112. =. 134. <. = = -. num84 Ion.. = ^i^^os.sb. 14G. 135.. title of judges in cases involving the rights of is used by a late writer to translate the Latin praetor peregrinus |vv = 135. = =. ''€8 112. 49. storehouse. Lesl).. Corcyr. poiKos Dclph. conCf. a coin. = Cret. 5 60.9 58c 89. Cf. 88 tei'in 86.3 etc. = .3). = Lcsl). 118.Vpr.ss.45. = Cf.3 Ch'et. .sych. 81. = hoi(rovTi Ileracl.Lesb.4 . 59. Lat. contend adv.. vLv-L 118.8 . = •!. Ion. 77. Epid.sIj.4. 68. = 6$. {^. 89. = Le. Boeot.1.1 167 132.. Cret. . ?. Title of officials in general charge of the affairs of the temple viKahas. = = Ephes. . = oy6ori. 44. 191 = 52 = olos alone. . Lac. In some places the offi(!e Itccame one of considerable rank and honor 6$ . Boeot. i/eoras. 54 lleracl. 59. see oL 132. Ia'. note Arg.. 31 - 1(. = 52 Cret.. Cret. 132.2 = ^ .2 68. ? GREEK DIALECTS 42. . Cret. = *^. ^. Phoc. Ion. {.1 Cret. = 60.3 Delpll. also Ion. -. Attic (in law). . = Ion.. 58 = ?. custodian of the temple. 5 . .3 Cypr.1.3 Thess. .2 vitll Ajip. . -. = Cret. Related to Horn. 84. 8 . 164. . = 89. Cret. = koivos.. Coan (41. €5 .7 53. Cret.).4 85. ' . 133.3. 54/ Xo.4. So also Cret. oipos C. 3 pers.. test..7 €5 - Ion.. 77. .7 08 161..2 = 5 0€(.).3 Lac.3 = 58 Ion.. = . 54 6^. Delpli.2 114. Ther.5 42. .!) Ileracl. Lac.) 68.1 (05 applied to Spartan boys in the third year of tlieir public training.0 114. 66 El. 164. have sexual intercour.3 vews. for = 8. •. 58c. . = = l?oeot. = Tliess. = 112.. 88 a Ion. 9. proii.1. Cret.. = = 0. 41. . Hoeot... = ( 'f . El. granary Lac. . lli'iacl.

2 OTTOS Cret. oDpos watcher. = 22 b Cret. 84 Locr. Cf.. . — . \( Cret.5 60. oVos.4.2 Arc. 123 . infin. no..3. .5 24 132. oTcpos Cret. 132. 12 OTTOTTOs Boeot. = lOretr.2 oTTivts Le.1) Thess.. . 53. . = /. Cf. no. Epid. 112. of a month 5.1. Lac. = = . 138. see Cret. = - 5. = 132. 54. o^ns. rre(]uent in Lesbian and Cyprian. = 27. opos Ileracl.4 Locr. \. = = No. Cf. tup€iov('ret.5. note $= oVrtj? 131. ovptvo) Cret. in 10. Lesb. 138. 8 oirfi W. name ^Vrc avys. Att. Cret. = ?. 129. 97 Cret. 52 . ? . etc. . 69. irrj. 132.ss.3. al = = . = 114.. 62. oirirws Lesb. — Spoj.sb. 58d Ion. barley measure. = 49. .3 = £€ .1 Arg.6 oiri Cypr. Locr. = = = = 114. officera appointed to look after the affairs of orp/ums or minors. --? --$ -132. ivhen. to pay. 51 o'pos.49. 66€%. 127 Locr. . as. C'ypr. and in demned So Arc. Xoyia Lesb. aor. 130 . Ion..5 = ottws. sometimes. Lesb. ) 6. s. = ]. occasionally elsewhere Lesb. = 42. and 41. 120. where.2 Dor.. raj /. 129. L. ov€ Thes. [^.. 44.2. 129. 82 = = . =.-Cypr.[). as Laconian in Flut. 142 <5 - . . = = Cret. Boeot. = Dor. Cret.5 123 also final... 162. note Corcyr.. [/ro]- -iXXos. = Kretr.. ayyeiov ets Cf. = Occurs (-/Xos and Epidaurian 6$.. = 124 in aorist = Our.oiS. Jfirors Hie oath = %. 164. = o/ioi'ooOvTes. . Arc. . . . ami in the writings of Archytas and Phintias. ••€ •-' <:• 80 a 132. = = ^. Ileracl.4. € fTos hoppos Corcyr. GLOSSARY AND INDEX 117. oveOcCKacv Thess. etc. Are. = 45. . €[] ? Lac.4. = oTTOrepos.. . 82. . etc.2.. 129.v. (Cret. irpbs awapxas 'OttovtCovs..H .13.9 oirohs. 146. 11. Ilesych.. Lac. 69.2 313 = oXCos = 0X1705. ovpeiov. Ilesych. 132. 2rt Cret.Lyc. 129. oitottos Cret. '/. . 121.4. perfect. beside etc. b KOpios. . *-$2 60. .20. i)2 passim).1. perf. 54 From from watch opos. possess.1 bid 13. -.. 128. 58(i I'^l. = Boeut. .. 6 Thess. Boeot. ( -. like Att. be con- No. . = = 123 65e.1 = ? 132. .3 IJoeot.5ci Cypr. "irai Ion. = 22 86.. 6iri 132. = ^.5 irrj.. . or.. = oVe. = ?.Grk.4 omis Bhod.2 66 Coan. = 54 etc. = 77. b.4 Lac. = . OTeios Cret. . 156 oeria Arc. . '. (cf. €. 44.s.7 -.3 = 49. be adjudged guilty.) like El.. The. .157 Lesb. guard-house.1 Cret. 5. = 24 €$ €.3 irais = vl6s. 68. having preference in Locr. = 82 oirira Lesb.2.

Thess. used of a 10 minae. 82.= 7rei'raeT7. 2. = .. 68. . ireireiiTTeiv 156 2 if.(). W.}. ?. 118. 95 Boeot. set aside. Boeot. = Boeot. Amorg.. = Boeot. €9 "•€ . ' ) .2 66 '>1. Cret.!). 114. -7(<8 -? Delph. oath sivorn by five gods.2 68.. 1 ^ .so ^).. as in ireSiov Arg. = '77$. of the court Locr. 77. 135.20). Cf. pi. 12 irepoSos Del] = in Ihlt. = — 9. officials at €9((. of 116 I'il. Used elsewhere with other cf. as Delph. -5 ^ .2 Ion. €65 ' . Thess. 08 .5 ^ . 142. -.. Cf. = 68. = ••6) '. trans- gress Epid.5 iVrc .3 Arc. = 68. into (cf. . = ^ 138.. €€8 iriTTapes. = 7re7re«r^oi. 68. . 95 Lesb.2. = 68. No. 135. Boeot.. ?.. = with aec.2 I'hess.7€ --.2 . ethnicon. .5 314 11.. = Jlera-. owner. () . = 146 Lac = 132.2. Dor.. an adjunct wpoor presiding officer of the counin Teo. 1!). ' .. Kl.5 Locr.(irk.1 originally a cake offered to the gods. 116 inform. yivoi gens. note Chian = gen. Cf./)t's.^) = Mera-. = 53. = 68.l.4 tablet.2 Arc. €5.!) Thess. examine . Elean . 136. uds (cf. off {the highroad). 114. . = 49.2. ^?. 163.5 ircSija t-'ypr.. = Arc. also. ? €$ a iiiDiitli Arc. = nepi. repudiate (the a slave). = = = €8. Boeot. IIO. clerks Lesb. 17. = 96. and perch for foiols Thess. = irapeiav Boeot. s. fasten round with Mytilene. = TTicrtrupes Lesb. with till aaliihle jnod- ots. in this sense yivos gens.5 Mop. .2.2 Cret. Ilesych. 147. quintuple oath. 66 114. note Agrig. (p. ill.29). 19..4 « ().9 95 with App. = 5€/. Ilesych.. GREEK DIALECTS Cret. VII. 86. Ion.. bnt also applied to an offering of money. 68. 135. = ]nnvhase of see Gehi. 49. lead. and a})prove. 9. of note Tliess. Law-Code Hhod.. Cyi)r. name Cret.2. e^e- ireiroiovTewrcri (no. . 58ci ir€vTos Cret. piS. .. Lac. . .2 .2 Cypr. note ues . App. 95 85.1.2. wvos).some inscriptions of Delphi and Aniorgos = 48 (or sum of money Cf. 51 D !. 1. ffavts 19.2 €. 114. yap val- 68. assemble. rarely. . €= 16 a . 58 c Delph. = wooden Same word as springboard 65. Arg.3 .V. = irapeis Boeot. . . 162. 95 = Locr.. ungirded? No. — Trap = 95 Lesh.2. Cret. 135.. ireSafOiKOi Arg.5 with App. == . 12. 6. (no. Thess. or Aetol..7. 4. = 132.200 Law-Code . for dat. 105. = < €$ 816 68..5 135. 3. . eijual to lleracl. -? . 96. drive in warjon 17. note 88 Cret.j Locr. ) iravSvios Cypr. 12. 173 irapis Boeot. .'). ?. 114..4.5 132.s Ieracl. Xo.3 = '. So in no. heiress. . €8 = 135. note 270) = 95. serve as 12.

1. •7€€5. 61. -. Eub.5 = .2 etc. the ttXUs Cret.4c 132. 131 18 6 = €-€ = . = 41. 8. Delph.3. . 42. = 68.sb. 135. Cret.2 Lac.3. title of municipal magistrates in charge of public buildings. 113.. Boeot.1. etc. viajoi-ity irXeoves.. Heracl. 157 • up to. irXi'cs . 61. . 49.2 = majority Homer.1 49.4 = ^'. = 167 167 •- ) •(€€9 89. .'. 59.1. 61. 11. Cret. 114.1 iros Arc. irp€£- on. 49.1. iroXwTTOs Heracl.. 61. . Thessaly. = Cf .4 68. 162. = Agrig. pi. = Chian = 81 66 Heracl. 151. streets. -.. €(|:).. . = Especially freciuent in decrees of Phocis.5 Thess. Cret.06 Delph. to = For stem cf. = Arc. 3. 9. 85. 53...2. = €= . 113. VOL = TTpos.. = 69. . .4. €•5 ^..(?). ?. = ••€ — cent Boeot. = = 28 .1. Boeot..3 Boeot. etc. . ' ••05 Are. 147. 86. •.. 70.2 Cret. .4 " . = 41. = the ttX^^os. etc. 49. = €$. late Dor. .=. &.3 'Ip•osCret. $ .(i!rk. -?.2 6S. iroXep El. wpotKOs Boeot. .1 Cret. Epir. Heracl.4 Lesb. = Eoeot. . = adjaCf. . See ay Tliess. 132.3 113. ayp(w 59.1pT€v«Coan.. . be ing otHcer of the 162. = Cf. Arg.4. Lac. = GLOSSARY AND INDEX 315 19. = etc..-. 132. 705. •iroei. ^ . = IIoiTios Cret. 86.2.. -8= Locr.66 158 77. Sd 69.. od.3 with irpeCv Cret. see J^ac. Boeot. = 15 •Dor. = 164. and other jjarts of Northwest Greece. Locr.1 €€€ .3 ^^. with App. = TrX^es .. 49.. •-? Thess. where it is almost constant iroXis Lesb. "irpciYevTas. € <€ . Le. 81 Rhodes. to.1 =r tJs Lac. and notably in Crete.1 41. = Trpos.9 W. 86. 150 Called at Athens. ^ . = = 63 •7€•5. as in amount.. 59.4.1 42. iroK k£ Thess...6 Caipath. . 68.2 Heracl.sb. nora. 61. . == '^^.. =: . •TToUvo-i = Phoc. . ^. 42. = See 51.4 84 Heracl. = El. = 41. = 41.0 Ion. = TrXioves.3 77.3 presid- Le. 157 . El. $. . be close adjadig 142 a Heracl. -Cypr. 135. = = = Uudios. 68.. Cret. Epid.2. to.. Cret. 86. = iroiet etc. = Boeot. . 135.'.. . side El.4. <€€' = TTOXtos (iroXecjs). 1. = Aojs $. €5 .1 Ion.3. 4.3 . cent 59. = 41. = 13. . = 5 Cret. Heracl. 61. iroXis . to. etc. Locris. -. 49.3.1 61.9 Argol.4 Lesb. .Grk.4. = Cf. . 49. = 162. = TrXeov.. = =*7:7 53 heap earth upon Lesb. 95 TTpos.> Tr£<rvp€s Horn.. Boeot... 109. Lesb. 31 Cypr. . .4. like the Roman aediles.2 59. •8 . 113. Arg. 107. = Terrapes. Arc. enforce.4.. = Heracl.3. 132.. Cf.3 W.2 See .3 Chian = 86. =^. Boeot.3 7€•8 Thess. 113. = Heracl. 49. 7rpos.

SeXivo'vTioi. 101. receivers before spectors of grain. = Hoeot. = ire- Ceos = sacrifice 76 irporavis Lesb.1 Cyi)r.3 No. 12 162.34. /5. = uncommon -.. Epid. etc. 67 54 133.. at Athens. = 6(. = •.1 Lesb. (08 TTDpOS Dor. 4. = = = (€^-. 53 Kjjid. ^ . 53.1. poyoi • Crct. 67 -iTToXis Cypr. prompromise. {') €. 164. Cf. one who Arc.II. (rarely Att.. 165. house.3 LI..4 (£€5 Ion.Mag.. Calymna. jTvas Ilvpfos. ridge. . laio.8. note 162. granary.^ -£ ('. Dor. So -^ and ol in- Boeot../or?nerZy. Corcyr.. Cnidus.3 of - ]\Ieg. no. -€ € . 310 GREEK DIALECTS 19. -.2 cTTop-iraos Arc. = 78. Coan = = -. 68. 76 6 . = -.7 . L•esb. \. Ilesych. he surety Ileracl.. = = Yiuppos 54 c Dor. I'liotius voaovs - L. Cypr. 5 . = 133.29.1 Athens. 64 Cypr. [••"]<[] 157 ti (1) A. Cf. 10.. 159 159 with 165.157. 123. = and •7€5 prill)• 41.. Law-Code III. 5 5 5 .6• ( .s at 85. ? .4c 111. 08 SeXivocvTi.4 63 132.. etc.. Still other variations in the transcription of the Persian word are seen in = = 128 .\. 60. 157 Dc'lph. Kretr. ( . • "6\• . . etc.1 Ileracl.2 Lesb.S. -(•)( = 78. 70.1 164.1.. " . = Trpi'Tamoi'. irpo|£vviovv Tliuss. Delos.1 Ileracl. 89.4 = 65.&S. 41. make moumls or pits Cf.. = (5 .. -5 . IlvpfoXiov etc.. IIvTios Cret.('') (^.. A]>]). 54 Crct. . /.4 Lac = Oeos. looks after the rights of alien.. The more usual prefix replaces •irpoTepiia here the related but Heracl. = - Trpo^evos. compact. ^is Arc. irpocrGiSios --'? Lcsh.. 31 Lesb. oris Diir. 133. 164. . -• 4. ^7rt7€j'7is.2 48 Ileracl. 133.. (.. ( 6. 30 IJoeot. -. = . note FA. Ilesych. So compact. 49. 44.s. TpUTaveLs. =: tis. Cf. .5. = Hoeot. = *7rpoe77iios surety.2 a Cypr. '?.-a•!'!". = 5. etc. creXavva Roeot. . Lesb. (3) Att. sec originally speech or verbal agreement. So in Cos.').1 and Corcyr.4fi. (2) The chief niagi. Ileracl.. at Tauromenium. . decree. = •••€9 clc. Thess.. 44.strate = of a city or state. Cret. 15.= 41. fpira compact. etc. ^ 75 Cret. ( €8 . -is --' note Cret.3 Tlier.45 Corey 1". (wpouffeayevis) date.)= wpuravLS. Epid. ^. at Athens. . etc.see 132. 55. etc. = ( -.. So in no. 133. -.3 ise.V. . irvs = Coan. n^ppias. = 70. . = Arc. = 1•'1. a subdivision of the -' tribe. 128 the day Ileracl. €8 ( . yrjs but Etym. Lesl). but in dialects other than Attic-Ionic also used of a formal fplrqio) agreement.2 Cf. (. 55. Dor.3 = 32. Syrac. Tauromenium. ras according to the laws and the contract. decree.

Coan.1 159 Dor.? Tas <7vyto- 317 123 = Tfis. 162. the To£ = El. € € ' ^ . 114. •'€< . 105. € 08.44). . (Dreros) Lesb. Ion. . =^. . 120. = = Ta£s Lesb.4 132. Of. Delph. — = here. belong to the body of 78. 33. invite .. 78 to-day.10 164.. . officials of the phratry of Labyadae 122 al. note <r»s.Uh. gen. 125. 132.4 Ceos.1. = Tt^uJcTi.. in apjiointing magistrates Thess. pi. € . T€Os Dor. = 43. Hoeot. = 133. == €'5 €€ Dor. . 37 W'^iirk. a measure.. 276 163.6 -is. 132. = thus. . El. /. = 78 . etc. 78 ])el-ph. 6€-€'€8 T€\e«s ("oan T€os Dor. No.. (2) city officials like the nianyplaces. note). --' .12 . = 162. hold the office of rayos official title. Arc. to drink Arg. fut.4. 114. 167 118.ss.. note Delph.. 41. 114.1a ('ret.--€. Cf. 1. in Attic and elsewhere. 8..turn()fiheroad{?). = o-os. Delpli.4 Cliian. Boeot.. 81. no.2 Jioeot. .ss. lltiracl. Tab.3 163.. . 33 132. Lac. Ti'pTos l-zcsb.2. = 66 Arg. salians appointed only in time of war (cf. At Delpld. TiTpaTos. (€$ Arc. 28.G Inn. 132. Ion. See El. . = 119. tAs.4 aor.. = Zrjva. (. .2 = ^£5. Cf. having wedge-shaped (or rp^xvija) Cf.. Arc. Cret. /uos .£\$ £. 77.. . The. of Thess.2. U1C33. ..(3 124 164. 157 6 --€ roads) . = TiXuos. -. 112.2 El. Argol. 84. expenses of inauguration Cyren. Lesb.4 Lac. join 6 € . Dor. £ € (no. TiVapTos.10 Cret.. TiV^epes. (TTpoTOs I'oeot.252 Thess. like (ktcus 49. 28. 144 El. pres. Heracl. 68.. here. 151. . = East Ion. note Yhoc. = 18 84 Te'pxvija trees. of the present time the jiresent one. = () (. No. gether Arc. =: Acre.. 125. shrubs. No.€() (.1.4.. . 130 ff note . €.. In The. . . t^Xos office. enclose. 87 41. support. pi. off- = . "^ = €. -4 Thess. — (not ^7 122 = rds.4 T€'Topes W.1 = thcfre. = . 49. no. . 33. 116 group of four boundary/ stones. hence time of war. TcXicrrpa assist in carrying fecv Strabu. 157 = -/\^ = = Cret. 84(1 -eiTOs Thess. official. 54c. €. = 7. . Tlie. fellow « ' . 5 (TTpOTOs Lcsl). = = ^^. Cypr. cut o/f (the Heracl.1 Mess.2 = 21 Are. Ace.2a. .9 = 118.ssaly applied to (1) a military leader of the united Thes.GLOSSAKY AND INDEX ( •5 . ( . See Arc. time when there is a ray 6s. and feet = --.=:T^TTapes. Apoll.iJrk.$• \5. ? € 6.Crk..12 Locr.4 164. note W.. 5 4 e. Cypr. 123 122 123 . — .. 51) 116 Coan.2 ••€5. tios Boeot. 107.. Ilesych. = 124 = . no. contract <rvy\iai Ion.

318) TV Dor.S. /oreyer. = . in expres. 8 . = security. 13. No. C'uicyr. . vvs Thess._7?<.2a 66 £ ? = = Corcyr. Heracl. 118. - Tas Tlie.2. = . ('ret. = 34 a Rhod. = 60.salonica • . for 67. 53. . 1. = = 123 Toi/s. 318 = Tip I'll.roLG. the last day of the month -rtpos Arc. 22.3 I Lesl). vlvs = fios.2 124 W. v€s. 28.Grk.5 Totj.. the threefold amount.10. . = . 7( note viTTirpo -. 135. €= etc. 78. . 47 Delph. 119 Lesb. 114.si.s. . ridicule = No. 58ci Boe- ot. Lesb. note Tpfjs Ther. = 18 Lesb. (5 &. '. 21. See Travdyopcni Tpeh.Syll.2. = 122 122 135. = 30 hvXopeovTos Thess. = Thess. tliirty feet wide Ion.3 Coan = ••<5 = kw\los three-pronyed fork ^Vi'C. TOK10S or = W. 133. — Heracl. = vpais Cy pr.8 Cypr.3 Tpis Ci'et. 15.CJ). vlbs. = Arg.-^. . the Law-Code - of Thes. 89. = rauras. 84 in technical sense. (Phalanna). 7 165. 132.. 114.5 etc. cheese-press . = Thess..ss. (ActslT.. 61. Tlies. City officials (like the of other Tliessalian cities. . Epid. ^/ No... . '= . 167 . 22c of.6 Thess. . no. note hvirv Cumae = vs Arg.O) and other Macedonian = towns (Ditt. 132..2 119. ^ = 122 132. Arc. previously. = 105.7 burial-place. Delph.$. 119. 78 .2 70. 123 Thess. '.0 tokos interest Delpli. = Eub.. . 22 Cypr. . 30 pevos 5.. Arist. = 31 ^. . Dor.43. ? ). 41. also sonietunes at riialanna).86. U. Tis. 133. . = 61.3.2 GREEK DIALECTS 24 Tvt Boeot. 78 Tos = Tous. 46 65 = wapdivos.3 18.1 . = lii'sh. . note 95 135. 8 . = y/u. Lesb. 58(i = ol. Arc. 136. 114. Cf.8 V Cypr. note Locr.€ts. = Arc. Tvpeta Heracl.Grk. (jret.4 5 5.2 Arc. =. ^ . . . less pure. £8 '. . = here. = TVS Boeot. = rpeis.2. = 122 Hoeot.. = «8 Cret. 157. 3(.'. . Tpiivs ('ret. = 117.. 165. — 116 road (.11 Pamph. note Toiv£OS Thes-s. = sions of dating. (€€ . €' late Boeot. the official in charge of the iniblic forests (cf..4 70. €€ <€ = ==-. No. 41. 78 Arc. = rpeis. = 22 19. 62.Tvaros . hence variation in spelling 25 6.4c. 2()2) Thess. = 12.2 42. = Eub.2 rpeis. € here.3.. ^= = Amorg. thence.0. 136. . 132.. Hoeot. 124 124 132.(3 123 €-5 vi Cret.=. lUiod. -709 Semitic loanCeos = word. App.sed with Ktpvav of mixing water and wine. v€vs. note (p.4 No. Lac.4 112. ^. = Delph. . etc. 25. 123 124 132. €5 1.3 12 with gen. 109.. from he pos. 123 = .?) leracl.4 132.4 El. = 6€.. = 6. vis Tovs = Toi/s. and so applied also to the debasement of coinage.2 . = '. Lesb. = .(5 Boeot.

. 164.2 80 Arc. Cret.. .3 = = -. o'pos. . 164. = 84 Aetol. = 25. Cti. = €€ 65 Cypr. . Lac. 161. = . (or 37) = (\. 79 xeip-. Hesych. . 6i. = Lesb. = 140. Thess./. 4. festivals celebrated at afixed date. 117. . etc. .4 = Cret. € . G ravine. €£( . Epid.. Locr. .. -. € . = 68. = = 66 ?. 111. ) .3 Lesb. $.5 Le. . Cf. = 68. 117 Cypr. Hdt. 129.1 Arc.sb. . = Boeot. ' .. no. note Epid. border on. (oviv.. Le. Locr. 151. .1. -55. 68.4 84 $ 164. 84 76.sb.9 Co&n. = *(^5. = <^. -{). . = = 58. = but meaning po?•tion (for the god) Epid. 74 Dor.4 70.2 = . a!s. . = 161. xipabos Boeot.. = . = Lac. .-'> Dor. = = = Lac. = 142 Boeot. . 162. . . 191 Meg.3 Delph. light-gray. = Cret. 31.49.3 € .")) = Att. = 59. = . GLOSSAEY AND INDEX Ion.. 84 72 Cf.3 Lesb. = 72 = .. = ?. (no. \$. 11 with El..117. = 74 Arc. Ileracl. $ .Cret. 76.) declare. 25 ) 58 54 ^.sn1)j. ' OS IJneot. . = <. () ^.. . P>{) Boeot.2 Dodona = dewv. . Locr. Especially frequent in insular Lesb. 49. Cret. El.5 . Epitl.2 ' . = = 85.3 33 . = 84 El. 76. = Iloni. 25 b. etc. €« Naples Locr. . bear ivitness.1.1. Delph. %. 66 12 1 .— . 79 Att. .2.. = act of voting.1 = Dodona = Ooovres.o. lopos..6 Cret. 70. = 25. 51 132.. €08 . ^. . 117. Cret. .7 €5 . Cf.7. = following Cypr. $ €— 319 = 76. Cf 53. C 89.2 Doric -ios 164. {-n-ovei etc. 142 - *- 60.

IT. like those used in the Summaries. and Epirus. of Along the western coast of p. from which late inscriptions. in a form which may be easily surveyed.CHARTS AND MAP The charts are intended _ to exliibit. to define and should always be interpreted in the light of the section of the Grammar to which reference is mation The cross is sometimes surrounded by a circle as an intiof some reservation. represents tlie grouping of the in Thessaly dialects as described above.) common to several dialects. Cliart I (repeated sUght corrections from the author's represents a selection of article in Class. Northern Greece the extent so imperfectly is Corinthian influence (see 10. 320 . the distribution of peculiarities some of the more important with if. But the various Aeolic and Achaean survivals scattered through West Greek note) is territory are ignored. 1 The mixture and Boeotia is indicated. known that the coloring of Acarnania and the adjacent region to be taken merely as a crude suggestion of the speech conditions. the nature of which will be understood to. is sufficient to identify the it. though not always made. frum the section referred The coloring of the dialect map ff. Pliil. plienomcuon. ai'e 241 phenomena which especially signifiI cant for the interrelations of the dialects. and Chart a is a con- densation of the same. we have onjy a few has been left uncolored. pp. also the Aeolic streak in the Ionic of Chios. The presence of a given peculiarity is indicated by a cross opposite the name of the dialect and beneath a caption which.

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Thessalian - Th. Til. ^ ^ P. Boeotian Phocian Locrian I L L Elean [ Laconiaii < < Heraclean Megarian Corinthian Argolic Ehodian Coan Theran Cretan .CHART Attic Ionic Arcadian Cyprian Lesbian F.

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W. Ionic C. Arcadian Cjprian Lesbian Thessalian Th. Boeotian Phocian Locrian Elean Laconian Heraclean Megarian Corinthian Argolic Rhodian Coan Theran Cretan .Attic .

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Ionic C. Thessalian ThI Boeotian Phocian Locrian Elean Laconian Horaclean Megarian Corinthian Argolic Rhodian Coan Tlieran Cretan .Attic . Arcadian C}prian Lesbian ¥. W.

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. Los Angeles. CA 90024-1388 Return this material to the library from which it was borrowed.JUL 2 2 University of California SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 405 Hilgard Avenue.

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