Global Vision International, Kenya Report Series No.

00X ISSN XXXX-XXXX (Print)

GVI Kenya
Wildlife Research Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development

Phase Report 071 January – March 2007

GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Expedition Report 071 Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Kenya Wildlife Service One Earth Safaris Submitted in part to World Society for the Protection of Animals Produced by Graham Corti – Country Director Rachel Crouthers – Expedition Leader Hugo Felix – Marine Officer Jake Bicknell – Terrestrial Officer Sara Trafford – Community Officer Alex Mayers– Community Officer And
Richard Ayles Karen Bartlett Stephanie Campbell Jessica Eddison Emma Hankinson Jessika Hyde Joanne Lacey Jennifer Noscoe Melissa Pepper Brandy Rodriguez Siobhan SpenceEdwards David Shikhoba Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Student Cornelia Bachmann Kavita Bhanji Roberta Carmitchel Clare Gibson James Humphreys Margo Kramer Johanna Lowe Kaylynne Parks Josie Purbrick Rachel Sackin Abdikadir Adan Salim Polleh Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Student National Scholarship Student

GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Address: PO BOX 1032, Ukunda, 8400, Kenya Email: Kenya@gvi.co.uk Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
The fifth 10-week phase of the Kenyan Global Vision International (GVI) Expedition has now been completed. The expedition has maintained working relationships with local communities through both English classes and local community events. The expedition has continued to work towards the gathering of important environmental scientific data whilst working with local, national and international partners. The following projects have been run during Phase 071:

Supplied manpower and training to Kenya Wildlife Service, and alternative income and indirect funding to members of the Mkwiro community.

Provided free local capacity building in terms of English language lessons, environmental education, development of alternative income generation and training in scientific survey techniques.

Cetacean monitoring programme. In collaboration with Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KEMFRI)

Marine mega fauna surveys. In collaboration with KWS and Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee.

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Wetland Avian Species list. In collaboration with KWS. Coastal forest primate populations, faunal biodiversity, floral biodiversity and levels of human resource use. In collaboration with KWS,

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Initiated and supported ecological and cultural tourism initiatives. Developed working relationships with Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee (KESCOM), World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and a number of community based organisations to support and develop scientific research and local capacity building.

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Facilitated promotion of local community based organisations’ ventures. Enabled local communities to benefit from support provided by Expedition Members on their return to their home countries through fund-raising and sponsorship.

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Table of Contents Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... i 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 5 1.2 Global Vision International Kenya ..................................................................... 5 2. Marine Research Programme ................................................................................. 6 2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Aims ................................................................................................................. 7 2.3 Methods ............................................................................................................ 8 2.3.1 Vessel based dolphin survey methods ..................................................... 8 2.3.2 Vessel based forms and methodology.................................................... 11 2.3.3 Land based surveys and forms .............................................................. 15 2.4 Wetland Avian Survey..................................................................................... 17 2.5 Experimental behaviour survey ....................................................................... 18 2.6 Results ........................................................................................................... 18 2.7 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 23 3. Terrestrial Research Programme .......................................................................... 24 3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 24 3.2 Aims ............................................................................................................... 26 3.3 Methods .......................................................................................................... 27 3.3.1 Line transect sampling ........................................................................... 27 3.3.2 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Primate behavioural surveys .................................................................. 29 3.3.4 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 30 3.3.5 Canopy survey ....................................................................................... 31 3.3.6 Fruit and flower survey ........................................................................... 31 3.3.7 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 31 3.3.8 Casual observations............................................................................... 32 3.4 Results ........................................................................................................... 32 3.4.1 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 32 3.4.2 Primate behavioural survey .................................................................... 34 3.4.3 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 35 3.4.4 Canopy surveys ..................................................................................... 35 3.4.5 Fruit and flower survey ........................................................................... 36 3.4.6 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 36 3.4.7 Casual observations............................................................................... 37 3.5 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 38 3.5.1 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 38 3.5.2 Primate behaviour survey....................................................................... 38 3.5.3 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 39 3.5.4 Canopy surveys ..................................................................................... 39 3.5.5 Fruit & flower .......................................................................................... 40 3.5.6 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 40 3.5.7 Casual observations............................................................................... 40 3.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work ......................................... 41 4. Community Development Programme .................................................................. 42 4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 42 4.2 School Education ............................................................................................ 43 4.3 Adult Education............................................................................................... 44 4.4 WSPA Ex-Poachers Project ............................................................................ 45

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5. 6.

4.5 Al Hanan Orphanage ...................................................................................... 46 4.6 Capacity Building ............................................................................................ 47 4.7 Employment.................................................................................................... 47 4.8 GVI Charitable Trust ....................................................................................... 48 4.9 Summary ........................................................................................................ 48 References ........................................................................................................... 49 Appendices ........................................................................................................... 51

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. Discovery curve for wetland bird surveys. Figure 2-2. Number of conducted surveys by group size from the different dolphin species. Figure 2-3. Number of sightings by hour of effort from the different dolphin species. Figure 2-4. Dolphin distribution, recorded on behaviour surveys. Figure 2-5. Transects in the Shimoni forest along the Shimoni Peninsula, Figure 2-6. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected. Figure 2-7. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. (n.) m albogularis groups were detected. Figure 2-8. Mean canopy cover for transect sections. Circle size represents percent cover. Figure 2-9. Mean canopy heights for all transect sections. Figure 2-10. EMs painting the sign for the Mkwiro Primary School. Figure 2-11. The teachers’ computer class at Mkwiro base. Figure 2-12. English with the Kasaani and Kidong Ex- poacher groups. Figure 2-13. EMs Brandy and Kaylynne at the orphanage. Figure 2-14. Richard taking chapatti classes at Mkwiro Base.

List of Tables
Table 1-1. Dolphin species present in the coast of Kenyan (Peddemonns V.M, 1999). Table 1-2. Vessel based dolphin sightings, behaviour and photo ID surveys. Table 1-3. Vessel based mega fauna surveys.

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Table 1-4. Land base sightings and behaviour surveys. Table 1-5. BND (T. aduncus) behaviour according to tidal states. Table 1-6. HBD (S. chinensis) behaviour according to tidal states. Table 1-7. SPD (S. longirostris) behaviour according to tidal states. Table 1-8. Summary of transect grid system in the Shimoni forest. Table 1-9. Summary of primate community surveys. Table 1-10. Percent time spent in each behaviour state. Table 1-11. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals.

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1. Introduction
1.2 Global Vision International Kenya The Global Vision International Kenya expedition was initiated in January 2006 and is based on Wasini Island on the South coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centered around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA), which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The marine programme research activities are undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel, Funzi Bay and Sii Island. The terrestrial research programme is focused on an area of coastal forest in the SouthEast corner of Shimoni peninsula, close to Shimoni village. The majority of activities under the community programme are focused on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. Community development activities are also being developed in Kidong, Mahandakini, Kasaani and Mtakuja. These are rural villages based near Taveta, Taveta-Taita District between the Western boundary of Tsavo West National Park and the border of Tanzania.

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2. Marine Research Programme
2.1 Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and covers an area of 39 square kilometres. The KMMPA includes the National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands. The KMMPA and the marine wildlife it contains are an important tourist attraction and, as a result, an important resource for Shimoni and surrounding communities. The islands within the KMMPA are surrounded by coral reefs attracting divers and snorkelers to the area. Almost every day swim-with-dolphin and dolphin-watching companies operating from Shimoni travel through Wasini Channel to the KMMPA (Emerton and Tessema 2001). These tourist dhows most frequently encounter Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Currently, there is neither a code of conduct to follow when manoeuvring around the dolphins nor are levels of interaction monitored or regulated in any way. The impact these activities may be having is unknown. In particular, it’s not known whether increased or even current levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable for local dolphin populations.

Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of East Africa and little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species. Baseline data is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed (Stensland et al. 1998). The main objectives of the marine research programme are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on the dolphin species that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. The study area encompasses a wide range of habitats; mangrove forests, coral reefs, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds and offshore areas.

GVI Kenya’s main working partner is the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The research conducted by GVI will be shaped to satisfy the objectives of KWS, so as to assist them towards better management of the area. All data collected thus far is made available to KWS to aid in management plans of the study area.

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The Marine Programme is supporting KWS to collate data by conducting vessel and land-based surveys. The marine programme will primarily focus on the ecology of humpback and bottlenose dolphins and the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins and mega fauna within the area and improve the scientific basis and baseline data for management strategies. This information can help lead towards long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area.

During the initial phase of the marine programme research will focus on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and diel movement patterns will be analysed.

Mega fauna species are also attractive to tourists and as such a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity on a number of levels. Another objective of the marine research programme is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine mega fauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly.

2.2 Aims During the first year of operations the marine programme of GVI Kenya has completed initial research activities to determine species distribution within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Research questions were established to ensure that all the research methodologies used were able to obtain the relevant information to satisfy objectives set by KWS.

The marine programme aims to collect data to address the following questions on dolphins and mega fauna in Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area and its surrounding areas.

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From vessel based surveys:         Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition Residency Habitat-activity relationships Diel movement & activity Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

From land-based surveys:       Tidal and diel movement Diel activity Dolphin behaviour from an unbiased platform Dolphin behaviour before, during and after exposure to vessels Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence

2.3 Methods During expedition 071 GVI East Africa used one research vessel, Stingray a 5.83m catamaran style power vessel with two, 85 horsepower Yamaha two-stroke motors. Photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens). All depths were taken with a Speedtech depth sounder. Summit marine binoculars 7x50 were used for land base surveys. All geographical positions and speeds were taken with a Garmin Etrex GPS.

2.3.1 Vessel based dolphin survey methods Photo-identification Photo-ID refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth

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and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be re-sighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as interbirth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs (Parsons 2001).

Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependant on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting and clear shot of dorsal fins. During a photo ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The aim during a photo ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with latter analysis of photographs from different surveys (Parsons 2001).

The primary aim of photo-ID in this study will be to determine population size for the different dolphin species and habitat use for the KMMPA area. Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved into the photo-ID database. For the first year this database was copied into various users, and analysed individually by all users. Each user quality grades the photos into categories including: deleted, tail flukes, spacer shots, and quality categories which range from 0 (poor quality, distant, out of focus, partial images) to 3 (perfect photo-ID shots). Users then identify individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photo-ID catalogue will be created in which individuals are given unique ID numbers and names. This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long-term basis (Parsons 2001). Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals.

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Mark-Recapture Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met:  A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption; only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.  Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.  ‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured.  Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.  The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Initially, a sample of individuals is photographically ‘captured’ (n1) , and on a subsequent occasion, a second sample of individuals is ‘captured’ (n2) of which a number were already identified in the first sample (m2). The proportion of individuals that are marked in the second sample can be equated with the proportion in the overall population (N) (Evans and Hammond 2004). The mark-recapture formulas are as follows:

Equation 1

(m2) = n1 n2 N

The number of individuals captured and marked is known which allows the population size to be estimated (Ň): Equation 2

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Ň = n 1 n2 m2 Dolphin Behaviour Surveys The photo-ID survey protocol provides a systematic approach for sampling the behaviour of free-ranging dolphins. As part of this protocol a Dolphin Behaviour Survey is used to record basic behaviour data when conditions allowed a dolphin survey to be conducted.

The survey is based on focal group sampling (Mann 2000) over a period of 10 minutes. Focal group sampling involves recording the group behaviour by assessing what state the majority of individuals is engaged in, events that occur during the survey period are also recorded. Cetacean behaviours can be distinguished between events (short duration behaviours) that include: rapid surfaces, tail slaps, leaps and states (longduration behaviours) such as: resting, travelling, foraging and socialising (Mann 2000). Group composition and group dive durations are also taken into account during the survey. To obtain group composition a group of dolphins is for this study defined as two individuals that are within 100 m of each other. If a new group comes within the 100 m radius of the first, this will be considered a sub- group and therefore surveyed as a subgroup, in the same form. As for recording dive times an ordinary time clock is used, the dive time starts when the last animal of the group dives, and ends when the first surface is sighted.

2.3.2 Vessel based forms and methodology Four forms were used to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size, demographics and behaviour, these forms are: Event Log, Sightings form, Dolphin Survey form and Photo ID form, a fifth form comes into place when mega fauna is sighted, Mega fauna Survey form.

Event Log Throughout the survey day an Event Log (Appendix A) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with number of surveys completed

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and changes in environmental conditions, course and speed. Alongside these features the scribe continues to record all conditions every quarter of the hour. Every half hour observers rotate roles and “view points”, every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break as Event log scribe. If dolphins are spotted all observers maintain the same position, until the survey is over.

At the beginning of the day and at every interval of data collection the recorder notes the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Date Vessel name Time (24 hour clock) Co-ordinates (GPS) Event (see Appendix A) Dolphin Survey number (each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02, etc.) Vessel speed (using GPS) Environmental conditions (see Appendix A) Additional comments

Sightings Form The Sightings form (Appendix B) is used to record sightings of dolphins and mega fauna. This form was put into place to gather information about habitat distribution and in the future study distance sampling data (distance and angle of the sighting). The recorder notes if the sighting occurred due to exterior factors (e.g. presence of tourist vessels or land base information). This information is then included in the analysis to note any sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye or if the vessel was simply not in the same area as the sighting.

Once dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the recorder documents the following data into the sightings form.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Time (24 hour clock) GPS Co-ordinates of the vessel Effort type during the sighting Sighting number and survey number Distance and angle to sighting (no data for expedition 071) Tidal state upon sighting Species sighted Group size on sighting Whether the sighting was biased, or not Whether a Photo ID survey was conducted or not Number of boats present (not counting research vessel) Comments

Dolphin Survey Form All EMs receive training on dolphin behaviour (Appendix C) to ensure that each individual will be able to recognise behaviours in the field. As well, there is always a marine officer assisting with data collection to ensure that behavioural observations are consistent across observers. Dolphin surveys commence once the species is identified (Table 1-1.), using a focal group sampling (Mann 2000) over a 10-minute period.

Common Name Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin

Abbreviation BND HBD SPD COD RTD RSD STD PTD

Scientific name Tursiops aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grampus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuata

Table 1-1. Dolphin species present in the coast of Kenyan (Peddemonns V.M, 1999). Highlighted in bold the species encountered up to date.

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To help aid the process of identification and number of individuals present any distinctive fin shapes (scars or speckling of individuals) are noted. The presence of mother-calf pairs and whether they include neonate or young of the year is also recorded. Neonates are defined as calves which are up to three months old, these calves will have curled flukes and dorsal fins, foetal folds and usually swim in a position parallel to the forward midline of their mother; young of year are older than three months and will travel next to the mother but behind the mother’s midline, near the mammary slits (Mann 2000).

Depth is taken for habitat notes with a depth sounder. Vessel interaction is also recorded during this survey to assess the impact that the research vessel may have on dolphin behaviour. This is recorded by noting whether the dolphins react away from, toward or not at all to the survey vessel. Behaviour is analysed according to an Ethogram (Appendix D).

Photo ID Form Staff members perform all photographic documentation in the field. During photo-ID the vessel manoeuvres into a better position to obtain the optimum distance and angle for photographs to be taken (Parsons 2001).

Photo-ID is conducted after the behaviour survey; during behaviour surveys only opportunistic photographs are taken. During a photo-ID survey the photographer tells the photo-ID scribe the frame numbers, spacer shots, recognisable or distinct individuals and the number of shots taken (Appendix E). Mega Fauna Survey Form Mega fauna surveys record primarily the identification of the animal(s), then documents habitat notes and position of sighting and if possible behaviour notes. (Appendix F) After the sightings form is completed the recorder documents:

1. 2. 3.

Time Vessel GPS Co-ordinates

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

General location Depth Beaufort Tide Species Habitat Number of individuals present Photos taken Additional notes

2.3.3 Land based surveys and forms Land base studies were conducted during the mornings from 07:30am to 12pm. The site is located at S 04.65860º E 39.40076 º on an elevated cliff at approximately 9.7m from sea level on the North East end of Wasini Island. This location was chosen because it covers both coastal and deeper waters. Land based research platforms are ideal for studies of anthropogenic impact without any direct influence (Bejder and Samuels 2003).

There are two primary observers and one scribe present on every survey. The three recorders rotate every 15 minutes to ensure that each person receives a 15-minute eye break every half hour. One observer uses 7x50 Summit marine binoculars, scanning an area of approximately 1.5km to 3km from the land base location. The second observer scans an area approximately 0-1.5km from the same location using the unaided eye. The third person is scribing, noting any environmental changes, the number of tourist dhows travelling from West to East towards the marine park, dolphin or mega fauna presence and dolphin behaviour, all the information is recorded in 3 forms and a map, to plot dolphin movements during the observation period and mega fauna sightings.

The forms are: 1. 2. 3. Environment and Boat Event Log Sightings form (including Map) Dolphin Behaviour form

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Environment and Boat Event Log During the land based survey the Environment and Boat Event Log (Appendix G) is completed on the quarter of the hour and when environmental conditions change..

The scribe makes note of the following data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Date Time (24hr clock) Observers Environmental conditions (Appendix G) Number of vessels Vessel type Proximity of tourist dhows to the dolphins Swim with dolphin occurrences Additional comments

Land Base Sighting Form When dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the scribe documents the following information into the sighting form (Appendix H):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Time Observers Bearing and distance to sighting Species Group size Dive type Duration of dive Spread Number in correlation to plotted on chart Additional information

Map

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A map of the area is present during land base surveys, for the pinpoint of sightings and record dolphin movement.

Dolphin behaviour and vessel interaction form This data sheet was introduced on 6th June 2006 to gain a greater insight about dolphin behaviour before, during and after vessel presence. Observations were recorded every 5 minutes from the initial sighting (Appendix I).

The recorder documents the following data:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Time Dive type (Appendix I) Dive duration Species Group size Number of vessels present Vessel type Number of Tourist vessels Number of dhow conducting swim with dolphins If dolphins split into sub groups If their view is obstructed

2.4 Wetland Avian Survey An avian survey was conducted (Appendix J) in the mangrove area on the South side of Wasini Island. There is little known about the diversity of bird species within and around the KMMPA. This study came into place to help KWS collate baseline data on general avian presence within the KMMPA, identifying any rare or endemic species and edification sites. The current aim of the survey is to compile a species list for the area, moving then to other study sites with more specific aims.

The survey is conducted on a line transect along high, mid and low tides recording every species and number of individuals sited in one hour duration (Bibby, et al. 1998), GPS

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points are taken at the beginning and at the end of the survey. The recording is done with the help of binoculars and the identification with the help of “Helm Field Guides: Birds of East Africa”.

2.5 Experimental behaviour survey A dolphin behaviour survey was experimented during this expedition, the survey focussing on dolphin behaviour and boat interaction. It is based on a time sampling check sheet using behaviour sampling as a method (Martin and Bateson 1993), and consists on ticking different dive types, possible stress signals and major social interactions within the group during sequential 5 minute recording intervals. In each 5 minute interval, the scribes record number of vessels present, direction within individuals of the group and movement of the group. Dive times are also recorded preferably from mother calf pairs, if not possible from a distinct individual or a group dive. All this information is separated in 3 different forms each one with 3 categories for the behaviour (dives, social interaction, possible stress), another form records the interaction (number of vessels, dive times, movement).

2.6 Results The data analysed corresponds to the non-training period of the expedition. During Expedition 071 there was a total effort of 161 hours and 44 minutes spent on vessel surveys, 65 hours and 7 minutes on land based surveys and 18 hours on wetland avian surveys. Results for all surveys are summarised above. Vessel based dolphin sightings, behaviour and photo ID surveys (Table 1-2.), mega fauna surveys (Table 13.), land based sightings and behaviour surveys (Table 4.) and wetland bird survey discovery curve (Figure 2-1.).

Sightings BND HBD SPD Total 43 7 4 54

Behaviour surveys 34 6 4 44

Photo ID surveys 32 4 4 40

Table 1-2. Vessel based dolphin sightings, behaviour and photo ID surveys.

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Species Unk turtle Manta Ray Whaleshark Sailfish Total

Mega fauna surveys 37 8 1 1 47

Table 1-3. Vessel based mega fauna surveys.

Land base BND HBD Unknown Turtle Unknown Dolphin Total

Sightings 10 3 19 3 35

Behaviour surveys 4 1 0 0 5

Table 1-4. Land base sightings and behaviour surveys.

60

50

40
Number of species

30

20

10

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Survey 12 14 16 18 20

Figure 2-1. Discovery curve for wetland bird surveys.

From the 18-wetland bird surveys a species list was compiled with the 52 species found. (See Appendix K)

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Dolphin group size was estimated during vessel based behaviour surveys and put together according to the number of times a certain number of dolphins was surveyed (Figure 2-2.). The most likely number to be encountered for T. aduncus and S. chinensis was up to five individuals per group, while for S. longirostris was more than 25 individuals per group.

For the different dolphin species the number of sightings was linked with vessel effort hours (Figure 2-3.). This link showed a distinct interval with a higher number of sightings, which was between 10:01 and 11:00am.
18 17

16

14

12

Number of surveys

10 8 8 6 6 7 Bnd Hbd Spd

4 2 2 0 0 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 > 25 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

Group size

Figure 2-2. Number of conducted surveys by group size from the different dolphin species.

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25

20 20

Number of Sightings

15

Bnd Hbd Spd 10

10 7

5 2

4 3

4 2 1 1 0 11:01-12 0 12:01-13

0 0

0 7-8

0

0 8:01-9

0 9:01-10

0 10:01-11

Hours (24h)

Figure 2-3. Number of sightings by hour of effort from the different dolphin species.

The dolphin and turtle spatial distribution for the research area, presented a considerable amount of encounters outside of the Marine Protected Area (Figure 2-4.). All the S. chinensis surveys were along the Wasini Channel, a great number of surveys with T. aduncus were located along the East coast of Wasini Island and all the S. longirostris surveys took place South-East of the Protected Area. Only turtles are more widely distributed across the study area.

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Figure 2-4. Dolphin distribution, recorded on behaviour surveys - red BND (T. aduncus), purple HBD (S. chinensis) and yellow SPD (S. longirostris). Turtle distribution, recorded on megafauna surveys - green. Area in blue – Marine Protected Area (KMMPA)

In relation to dolphin behaviour the following Table 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 show the different behaviours according to tidal states. These results were obtained from the Dolphin Behaviour form (section 3.4.1).None of the behaviour data shown in this report will have further analysis (see Discussion).

No results from the experimental behaviour survey or land base behaviour surveys will be analysed in this report (see Discussion).

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BND Behaviour Rest Foraging Feeding Travelling Socialising Unknown Total

Ebb 2 2 0 4 1 7 16

Flood 1 2 2 3 0 9 17

Table 1-5. BND (T. aduncus) behaviour according to tidal states.

HBD Behaviour Foraging Travelling Unknown Total

Ebb 2 2 1 5

Flood 0 0 1 1

Table 1-6. HBD (S. chinensis) behaviour according to tidal states.

SPD Behaviour Unknown Total

Ebb 0 0

Flood 4 4

Table 1-7. SPD (S. longirostris) behaviour according to tidal states.

2.7 Discussion Following the first year of GVI´s marine programme, this expedition continued to collect information on the baseline ecology of dolphin and turtles within the KMMPA and surrounding waters. Part of the data from the first 3 months of this year was compiled showing dolphin and turtle distribution in the area. (Figure 2-4.). This will prove to be useful on an annual basis, showing distribution and habitat preferences of each species throughout the year. This information in alliance with behaviour protocols can then provide researchers with a glimpse of the biology and interaction with the surrounding environment from the different species. Unfortunately this “alliance” has not taken place as the previous behaviour methodology proved not to be appropriate for this area or provid the desirable data. Due to these factors, this was the last time we will utilise this methodology. Although an experimental behaviour protocol took place, the results are not displayed in this report, as it has little bibliographic support from Cetacean behaviour

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studies and the available data still needs more consistency in order to demonstrate results. Land base behaviour protocol also needs more consistent data to be analysed and tested for its applicability to the research area.

3. Terrestrial Research Programme
3.1 Introduction The Eastern Arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania are an internationally recognised biodiversity hotspot. They support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging, but fragmented distributions, and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern Arc mountains are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests, however much less is known about these unique and important, yet diminishing forest habitats. The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along the coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, and is formed on ancient coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. In conjunction with relatively high salinity levels and coastal climatic influences, the plant community and the structure of the forest favour shallow root systems, which reduce stability. This makes these forest habitats highly susceptible to erosion processes and hence at risk from the influences of deforestation in the wider Shimoni area. The specialised flora that is found in these habitats supports and sustains rare and endemic species which are of particular interest to biological conservation, and sustainable livelihoods through responsible tourism.

Research is conducted on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village to the west (04º64’900”S, 39º38’600”E) and the coast of the Indian Ocean to the south and east (04º64’300”S, 39º40’300”E), (Figure 2-5). This area is here after referred to as Shimoni forest.

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Shimoni forest represents an important fragment of indigenous coastal forest, linked in part to the larger extents of the Kwale district forests. Currently used for resource

extraction and the clearing of land for farming; the area is at threat from the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly on coastal land plots. This area of forest was selected for biological research, primarily because it represents a valuable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan black & white colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Discussions with community-based organisations in Shimoni village highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Youth Conservation Project were keen to seek protection and promote sustainable management. As a result, GVI have developed the terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level, the forest is readily accessible and GVI are logistically able to support long-term and wide ranging biodiversity surveys and monitoring of the area.

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Shimoni village

200m

Figure 2-5. Transects in the Shimoni forest along the Shimoni Peninsula.

3.2 Aims The aims of the terrestrial research programme are as follows;  Conduct primate community surveys to assess population size & density, distribution, habitat use and demography.  Conduct behaviour surveys to examine the time budgets and habitat use of C. a. palliatus in the Shimoni area.  Conduct vegetation and regeneration surveys to assess biodiversity, species composition and regeneration-potential under different levels of disturbance.  Conduct disturbance surveys to assess and monitor levels of resource use including extraction of poles and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity.

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  

Conduct bird surveys, in order to establish avian species diversity and densities. Conduct fruit and flower surveys, to establish tree species seasonality. Conduct butterfly species diversity surveys, to assess the impacts of differing disturbance levels on butterfly diversity and relative abundance.

Gather additional biodiversity data on the fauna of the Shimoni forest through the recording of casual observations.

Support the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project in their petition for community management of forest resources, and build capacity within the community for responsible resource use and monitoring.

Support the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee in the development of their nature trail, and build capacity to access tourism revenue through the responsible management of natural resources.

3.3 Methods 3.3.1 Line transect sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising east-west straight line transects (Figure 2-5). Parallel transects are spaced at 200 metre intervals, facilitating a 100 metre survey distance either side of the transects. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol.

Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised accurately, and facilitate distribution mapping. A north-south ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and to aid access.

The study area contains six transects; transect 1, the furthest south, runs approximately 100 metres from the coastal edge. The total survey area is 220ha or 2.2km 2. Table 1-8 summarises the total number of sections and lengths of each transect.

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Transect 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

Sections 17 34 48 43 39 38 219

Length (m) 850 1700 2400 2150 1950 1900 10950

Table 1-8. Summary of transect grid system in the Shimoni forest.

3.3.2 Primate community survey Three species of anthropoid coexist in the Shimoni forest. The Angolan black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus), the Syke’s monkey (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis albogularis), and the yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus). The primate community surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team ensure they do not draw attention to primates not detected by the observers. This maintains consistency of effort, to enable the quantifiable analysis of data used in estimating primate densities (Buckland et al. 2001).

Primate surveys are conducted along one transect at a time, during the mornings when primates are more likely to be active. When groups of primates are spotted, the sighting distance (distance from the observer on the transect line to the geometric centre the group) is estimated and recorded. Distance sampling requires the perpendicular distance from the transect line to the geometric centre of the group. This is calculated using trigonometry, hence the sighting angle (using a compass) and distance from the observer to the centre of the primate group is measured.

Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met, including the random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group positioned 0 metres from the transect line has a 100%

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probability of detection. Since the species surveyed in this study are not particularly cryptic, it is unlikely that such groups would go undetected; hence this assumption can be upheld with confidence.

The behaviour of a primate group when first observed is recorded, along with primate species and group size. Where possible, time is taken to summarise the demography of the group. Sex and age class is most easily recognized in C. a. palliatus; 0-3 months (infant), 3-6 months (juvenile) and >6 months (adult). Age classes were selected on the basis of pelt colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate using relative body size. Ages classes and sexes were not assumed in C. (n.) m. albogularis and P. cynocephalus.

3.3.3 Primate behavioural surveys Behavioural surveys of C. a. palliatus are used primarily to investigate time budgets. However, habitat use, group structure, and group interactions, are also derived from the data collected. Through habituation, and the identification of group territories, these surveys will also support the development of tourism initiatives to gain sustainable income from the forest wildlife. After a trial-run of various methods during the last expedition, continuous, focal individual sampling was chosen in order to establish C. a. palliatus time budgets. Time budgets can be used to establish conditions and constraints under which animals are living. The most suitable conditions promote greater carrying capacities and hence higher densities (Fimbel et al. 2001), as well as less vulnerability to changes in habitat condition. Time budgets can also be used in examining predator pressures by analysing the relative time spent vigilant. This data is then used to compare with other populations of the same species, and on other species and sub-species.

Focal individuals are surveyed in ten-minute blocks, measuring behaviours which are broken into states and events. States are measured in real-time durations, as opposed to events which are recorded only as frequencies logged within each ten-minute time block. States represent behaviours of longer durations; for example feeding, sleeping,

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resting etc. Events represent shorter, instantaneous behaviours; for example scratching, yawning, urinating. Some tactile signals and postures are included in this survey for use in the analysis of group interactions. These include stiff-legs display, which has been identified as an agonistic display between males of different groups of black and white colobus (Estes 1991). At the end of each time block, a scan sample is conducted to identify the overall group state (>50% of the group); this is used in the analysis and discussion of the circumstances under which different individual behaviours occur.

States and events are categorised under strict parameters, and outlined in the ethogram, which is used to ensure consistency between observers and comparability between surveys.

Surveys are conducted at all times of the daylight hours in order to measure a representative portion of time budgets throughout the day. Data recording is only

initiated after a period of at least 10 minutes to reduce bias caused by the arrival of the observers. If the focal individual moves out of view and observers are unable to confidently identify the same individual upon reappearing, the survey is ended. There is no set survey time limit.

3.3.4 Bird point counts Bird species diversity, abundance and density are estimated through the use of bird point counts. East Africa represents one of 218 worldwide Endemic Bird Areas, (Stattersfield et al. 1998) and birds are important components of forest ecosystems as well as indicators of habitat disturbance. Many bird species are dependent on readily available stocks of fruits, flowers and seeds, and the presence or absence of seasonal birds indicate the seasonality of these forest commodities. Birds such as large raptors also represent the only existing predators of primate species in the area.

Early morning point count surveys are conducted along the transect lines at 100 metre intervals. The point count is delineated by a 50m x 50m x ∞ box. Numbers and species of birds which enter this box are recorded for ten minutes before moving onto the next point count. A five minute settle-down period of silence precedes each recording period.

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3.3.5 Canopy survey Canopy cover and canopy height are recorded in order to be able to describe the forest profile and to compliment primate and other faunal surveys.

Estimations of the canopy cover and canopy height are recorded every 10 metres of each 50 metre section, enabling five recordings to be averaged for the section. Canopy cover is recorded by looking straight up through inverted binoculars, estimating the percentage of the area blocked by tree canopy foliage and branches, to the nearest 5%. Measurements of canopy height are taken at the point where the canopy cover is taken. Canopy height is measured using a clinometer to measure the angle to the top of the canopy, and by measuring the horizontal distance from the recording point to the position where the angle is taken. Canopy height is then calculated taking into account the eye height of the observer. 3.3.6 Fruit and flower survey Fruits and flowers are surveyed in an effort to measure tree species seasonality, and the distribution of fruits and flowers throughout the survey area. Many forest animals rely on fruits and flowers as vital food sources; and most significantly for the aims of this project, they are vital dietary components of the primates found in the Shimoni forest. Fruits and flowers are identified along the transect lines, recording trees within 10m of the transect line. Trees in fruit or flower are identified and their DBH recorded in order to assess age structure. Only woody vegetation with a DBH over 5cm is recorded. 3.3.7 Butterfly community survey Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. Butterfly canopy traps are utilised, baited with mashed banana that has been allowed to ferment for at least 3 days. Traps are baited and left for approximately 24 hours before checking, three canopy traps are used simultaneously on each trapping day. Traps are placed at three heights; ground, understorey, and mid-canopy. Photographs of each individual are taken for identification using Larsen (1996).

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3.3.8 Casual observations During all observer time in the forest, records are also made of other fauna observed and identified in the field, noting species with confidence of identification, location, habitat, group size and other applicable notes. Indirect observations of animals such as tracks or dung are also recorded as indicators of presence. 3.4 Results 3.4.1 Primate community survey Table 1-9 summarises the data from distance sampling of primate groups. Including all casual observations and behavioural surveys, a total of 131 groups of C. a. palliatus and 40 groups of C. (n.) m. albogularis were recorded.

C. a. palliatus Area surveyed (km²) Number of groups Number of individuals Average group size 2.2 20 85 4.3

C. (n.) m. albogularis 2.2 7 26 3.7

Table 1-9. Summary of primate community surveys.

The data set for the primate community survey records sighting distances. These are necessary for distance sampling analysis in order to produce density and hence population estimates. Figures 2-6 and 2-7 show the distance categories at which primates were detected.

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6

5

4
Number of groups

3

2

1

0 0<10 10<20 20<30 30<40 40<50 50<60 60<70 70<80 80<90 90<100 Sighting distance (m)

Figure 2-6. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected (n=20).

3

2
Number of groups

1

0 0<10 10<20 20<30 30<40 40<50 50<60 60<70 70<80 80<90 90<100 Sighting distance (m)

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Figure 2-7. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. (n.) m albogularis groups were detected (n=7).

3.4.2 Primate behavioural survey A total of 25 hours of behavioural surveys was conducted on 9 different groups of C. a. palliatus. The exact number of individuals studied is unknown due to the problems associated with the identification of specific individuals. Both adult males and females were studied, and females carrying infants also. Numerous notable behaviours were recorded, including social grooming, social playing, stiff legs display and sexual arousal in males. Aggressive encounters were not observed during survey, either between or within groups. However, agonistic behaviour was witnessed between groups on several consecutive days prior to the initiation of the behavioural survey. Each aggressive encounter witnessed was in the same place and suspected to be between the same two groups. Four weeks later, a juvenile was found dead in the same area hanging from a tree. Assessment showed that it had been dead for several weeks.

Behaviour Resting Feeding Alert Sleeping Staring Grooming passive Travelling Grooming active Self grooming Stiff legs display Playing social

Percent time 53 20 13 6 4 2 1 1 0.4 0.3 0.1

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Table 1-10. Percent time spent in each behaviour state. (n= 74,248seconds)

3.4.3 Bird point counts Bird point counts were conducted between the hours of 06:30 and 09:30 on all transects. The time required for access meant that most surveys were restricted to sections within close proximity to the north/south ‘spine’. A total time of 23hrs 11mins was surveyed covering 57 transect sections; forming a total survey area of 130,000m 2. 194 birds were spotted from 34 different species. 3.4.4 Canopy surveys Canopy cover was recorded every ten metres across all 219 of the transect sections. The average canopy cover for one section varied from 0% to 95%, the total average being 69% (Figure 2-8)

6

5

Transect number

4

3

2

1

0 -20 -10 0 10 Section number 20 30

Figure 2-8. Mean canopy cover for transect sections. Circle size represents percent cover, largest size = 100%.

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Mean canopy height was calculated for 116 sections during this expedition. The remaining sections were completed during expedition 064. Figure 2-9 shows mean canopy heights for all transect sections.

20

Mean canopy height (m)

15

10

5

0 -16 -11 -6 -1 4 9 Section number Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 Transect 4 Transect 5 Transect 6 14 19 24 29

Figure 2-9. Mean canopy heights for all transect sections.

3.4.5 Fruit and flower survey All transect sections were surveyed for fruits and flowers, over a total duration of 27hrs 16mins. 153 trees were recorded in fruit or flower throughout the total survey area of 219,000m2. 11 species were identified, several more are awaiting identification by a local botanist. Most numerous fruits were represented by Ficus sur, Adansonia digitata, and Diospyros abyssinica. The most numerous flowers were represented by Hibiscus spp. 3.4.6 Butterfly community survey A total of 108 trapping days (where one trapping day is counted as one trap baited for a 24 hour period) were completed this expedition. Each transect was sampled with 18 trapping days. Table 1-11 summarises the species found and in what abundances.

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Subfamily Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Lipteninae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Total caught Number of species

Species Charaxes brutus Charaxes candiope candiope Charaxes varanes vologeses Charaxes cithaeron nairobicus Charaxes hansali baringana Charaxes jahlusa kenyensis Euxanthe wakefieldi Pentila pauli clarensis Eurytela dryope angulata Hypolimnas misippus Neptis saclava marpessa Bicyclus safitza safitza Melanitus leda

Number caught 117 11 9 2 1 1 8 2 26 1 1 300 27 506 13

Table 1-11. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals.

3.4.7 Casual observations A total of 189 hours or 37,978 man hours was spent on casual observations of fauna during this expedition. 40 species of birds, 9 species of mammals, 17 species of butterfly, 6 species of reptile, and 1 amphibian species were identified. Five C. a. palliatus and three C. (n.) m. albogularis skulls were found this expedition, and may in future be used for crude estimates of death rates. Species not recorded previously on this project were found; Fischer’s turaco, (Tauraco fischeri) the forest batis (Batis mixta ultima), the great sparrowhawk (Accipter melanoleucus), the green wood hoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus), long crested eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis), Retz’s helmet shrike (Prionops retzii), tawny eagle (Aquila rapax), and the small-eared galago (Otolemur garnettii).

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3.5 Discussion 3.5.1 Primate community survey Distance frequency of primate group detection, as expected, is greater at closer proximity to the transect line. C. (n.) m. albogularis detection is however not greatest at 0 metres. C. (n.) m. albogularis have relatively high energy levels when compared with C. a. palliatus and seem to disperse much more readily, and travel more frequently. It is therefore likely that C. (n.) m. albogularis will have travelled some distance before detection by observers. As only one group of primates was spotted at a distance greater than 50 metres, this is seen as an anomaly and will most likely only occur in clearings or particularly open patches of forest. Initial, crude estimates of density seem high (approx. 8 groups/km2) when compared with Thomas (1990); but with more data, the distance sampling will be used to estimate a more accurate figure of C. a. palliatus densities in the survey area. 3.5.2 Primate behaviour survey C. a. palliatus rely almost entirely on leaves for sustenance (Kingdon 1997). A preference for mature leaves enables this species to live in high densities, sympatric with other folivorous primates who favour younger leaves, and fruits (Fimbel et al. 2001). Because these mature leaves are of poor quality and require effective detoxification (Kay and Davies 1994), C. a. palliatus seem to exhibit energy economy and spend the majority of the time inactive. It is therefore expected that 53% time spent resting is normal for this species. The minimal time spent travelling may be best explained by the group size found in this area. Smaller groups, deplete food sources less quickly and therefore can afford to remain in one area for long periods (Fimbel et al. 2001). Groups were easily located as their movements seemed minimal, and groups were sometimes found in one or two trees for weeks at a time.

Appeasement behaviour was only recorded on two occasions, each time in the same group. Social grooming was witnessed between a male and female who took turns to groom one another. It was noted that unlike most small groups of C. a. palliatus groups, there were two adult males, the physically smaller of which was observed located at the periphery of the group.

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Behaviour surveys were concentrated around 3 groups. Attempts at surveying groups whose territory was further from the local community mostly failed. These groups readily dispersed when under constant observation by the survey team. Some data was however collected on these groups after several failed attempts were made. It would seem that habituation of most groups will not be a problem if patience is applied.

3.5.3 Bird point counts Avian diversity and abundance seems low, however this may be explained by the small sample size and the visual constraints in dense forest of this kind. The species discovery curve is so far growing exponentially, and with a greater sample size, will in future be used in estimates of species diversity. A box size of 50m x 50m x ∞ limits data recording, yet is essential for estimates of densities in forest habitats. This box size is chosen by the average maximum visibility in the forest. In some areas, visibility is much greater but recording numbers without area limitations would make these areas appear to contain greater densities, and most likely greater diversity as well. Casual observations can be used to increase the bird species list, and point counts can therefore be used in estimating densities, and drawing comparisons between microhabitats. 3.5.4 Canopy surveys Canopy surveys continue to provide valuable data on seasonality of canopy density in support of primate surveys. Mean canopy cover was lower than in previous expeditions, and may be explained by two factors. Primarily, the lack of rain during the previous four months will have caused leaves to dry and drop; and clearing of the forest by the local community has been more intense during this expedition. Figure 2-8 shows a consistency of canopy across transects 5 & 6. This seems due to low levels of disturbance in these areas, which are further from the local communities. Transects 2, 3 & 4 show decreases in percent cover around the north/south spine. In this area extensive clearing for farmland has occurred.

The canopy height survey shows much lower canopies in those sections west of the north/south ‘spine’ (figure 2-9). These areas are much closer to local communities and

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are mostly re-growth following clear felling and burning, differing markedly from those sections east of the ‘spine’. In the remaining, more pristine forest, inconsistent levels of canopy height seem to be natural, and may be influenced by changing substrates. In some areas, coral rag is completely covered by soil; however other areas show large outcroppings of bare rock were the establishment of strong root systems may be inhibited. On all transects, canopy height slopes off at the furthest eastern sections. These sections represent the frontier between the forest and the ocean, where larger trees may be unable to dominate, and thicket style plants are better adapted to this micro-habitat. 3.5.5 Fruit & flower Aggregations of Ficus sur were found in areas where the ground vegetation layer was less dense. However, as Ficus sur inflorescences shoot from the tree trunk within 2 metres of the ground, the increased observations may actually be due to improved visibility in these areas. Adansonia digitata was observed throughout the study area but in low densities. 3.5.6 Butterfly community survey Butterfly populations seem healthy in most of the areas surveyed. Lowest numbers occurred rather interestingly in transect six, the most undisturbed transect. Lehmamm and Kioko (2005) in a study of three forest patches in Kwale District, also found that pristine areas do not hold the greatest species diversity. Species diversity may be difficult to obtain from just one catching method. It also seems likely that the bait type will only attract certain species. However, recording highly seasonal species such as Charaxes hansali baringana is benefited by a consistency in bait throughout the year. 3.5.7 Casual observations Although bird species diversity was somewhat low during bird survey, casual observations have increased the estimates of diversity quite considerably. This may be due to the fact that casual observations take place at all times of day, as opposed to bird point counts which are restricted to the morning hours. Also, with casual observations there are no parameter limits on sighting distance, and many bird species appear to be particularly shy of human presence. Numerous sightings of the Zanj elephant shrew continue to be of particular interest, due to its rare and data-deficient status.

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3.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work The initiation of the primate behaviour survey has proved successful, and real-time budgets can readily be quantified using the data obtained. In future the survey would benefit from identification of consumed plant species, and the gauging of maturity of leaves eaten. Bird point counts may benefit from afternoon surveys, hence covering all crepuscular hours. This should increase the species list and enhance the sample size at greater rates; so estimates of bird diversity and densities should be obtained more quickly.

Trapping of butterflies should be continued in Shimoni throughout the course of the year to ensure representative sampling of the different micro-habitats and to assess seasonal variation in the butterfly community. Anecdotally, it was observed that a large number of butterfly species present in the forest did not frequent the traps; it seems likely that they are not attracted to the bait. Complimenting the canopy traps with other methods of surveying the butterfly community, such as sweep netting should also be considered.

Casual observations continue to reveal greater faunal diversity. Although some of the large terrestrial mammals have been identified, it is thought many nocturnal species are yet to be spotted. Next expedition the survey team aims to initiate camera trapping across the survey area. It is hoped that confirmation of ground pangolin (Smutsia temminckii), aardvark (Orycteropus afer), various genets and civets (Family: Viverridae), aardwolf (Proteles cristata), and various mongooses (Family: Herpestidae) may be recorded in this way. Future work is summarised as follows:  Continue primate community surveys along transects in Shimoni but with the aim of simultaneous surveys over all 6 transects. It has also been requested by KWS that forested land at the KWS Shimoni head quarters be surveyed for C. a. palliatus next expedition.  Continue primate behaviour surveys on C. a. palliatus, attempting to habituate more groups.

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Continue with evenly distributed sampling of sections for vegetation and regeneration surveys until representation analysis indicates a levelling of the discovery curve.

Continue seasonal repetition of canopy surveys to support primate community surveys.

Continue butterfly trapping, across seasons, and trial different baits. Pilot complimentary methods of sampling the butterfly population, such as sweep netting.

Continue recording casual observations.

4. Community Development Programme
This element of the programme falls broadly into 4 main areas; TEFL teaching in Mkwiro Primary School; TEFL teaching in adult classes to local community members; orphanage development and sustainable community projects. 4.1 Introduction With regard to the TEFL teaching, the EMs received the 2-day training course on TEFL on arrival in Mkwiro focusing not only on the adult classes, but also on TEFL for children. They designed a short 15 minute lesson for the younger students and designed a word poster so they could teach a nursery rhyme. This training was very successful with several EMs feeling confident enough to present classes as the lead-teacher. The main community stakeholder we have been working with this expedition with TEFL is the Mkwiro Primary School. During this expedition, almost all of GVI’s classes at Mkwiro Primary School have been arranged in double lessons and have included all the students from Standard 4 to Standard 8.

The adult classes have included a new format for beginners and advanced men’s as well as the women’s group. These classes continued to be very popular and have continued to help build capacity for tourism, enterprise and confidence within the village. Visits to the Al-Hanan Orphanage, have been three times weekly and we have been involved with the orphanage throughout the expedition with help and support as needed. Various community projects have been started or continued during this expedition, and we have worked alongside the Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group, Village Committee, School

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Committee and Tumaini Women’s Group to work on aspects such as fundraising, the village tour and developing markets and revenue for local enterprises.

The Year of the Dolphin Committee has been and will continue to be a key community stakeholder this year. We have been working with them and the other community groups, especially Mkwiro Primary School, to develop the Year of the Dolphin programme of events for 2007.

Our Satellite Camp at Kidong, Kasaani and Mahandakini has involved the local Expoacher groups in those areas. These have been key stakeholders in the Satellite Camp community development projects. 4.2 School Education Following the Kenyan syllabus, we have been working on the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using these as the basis around which our lessons are planned. We have been teaching Standards 4-8 and have covered one and half chapters in each grade. We have conducted more than 36 hours of English lessons, over 8 hours of P.E. lessons and just over 4 hours of Creative Art lessons (e.g. in Figure 2-10). In terms of extra curricular activities, we have conducted 17.5 hours of tutorial work with Standard 8 helping them to prepare for their final exams. We have helped out at various sports activities during the term including a volleyball tournament and various football matches at Mkwiro and Wasini. We have also begun a careers development programme for the Standard 7s and 8s. One of our NSP students from our partner KWS gave a talk to the students to show them the careers available to them within the organisation. This has helped with motivation and inspiration for the students.

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Figure 2-10. EMs painting the sign for the Mkwiro Primary School.

4.3 Adult Education During this expedition, we have conducted 14 hours of classes to both the women’s class and the advanced men’s class. These have covered topics as diverse as mangrove rehabilitation, survival strategies, elephant social network and dolphin presentations. The beginner’s men’s class has started up again this expedition and has been already seeing some success. Over 12 hours of education has been achieved during the beginner’s classes and with the same students at the same time as the advanced men. We have been working on greetings, jobs, Mkwiro landmarks and some adjectives to describe fish and clothes, as the main participants are fishermen and a tailor. Some of the Adult Education time has been used for computer lessons, and we have also achieved 3 hours of computer lessons for the teachers (Figure 2-11), although circumstances in the school have not enabled us to extend this more. We have continued to offer lessons to the teachers, and hope to review the idea again next expedition.

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Figure 2-11. The teachers’ computer class at Mkwiro base.

4.4 WSPA Ex-Poachers Project The project expanded this expedition to include participation from four villages; Kidong, Mahandakini, Kasaani, and Mtakuja. Over 70 different community members attended workshops or lessons encompassing various topics such as English (Figure 2-12), Language acquisition, current conservation and environmental issues, monitoring human wildlife conflict and HIV/AIDS awareness.

Teaching was based in three of the villages, Kidong, Mahandakini, and Kasaani, with Mtakuja travelling to Kidong. Almost 44 hours were spent teaching in the community, with a request to visit Mtakuja village in the future. Topics which community members were interested in learning about in future expeditions included; project management, learning about new wildlife deterrent methods, technical skills, apiculture, increasing farming capacity (particularly tomatoes), more Aids awareness, and other topics related to creating an alternative livelihood. The main priority for all four villages was to start earning an alternative livelihood soon, in order to alleviate economic dependence on poaching.

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Figure 2-12. English classes with the Kasaani and Kidong Ex- poacher groups.

4.5 Al Hanan Orphanage We have been visiting the orphanage every Monday, Wednesday and Friday for an hour and a half each day. We have spent more than 36 hours at the orphanage during this expedition. Activities have included papier-mâché, games, homework, reading help, sports, drawing and painting (Figure 2-13).

Figure 2-13. EMs Brandy and Kaylynne at the orphanage.

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4.6 Capacity Building The EMs have spent their Interest Group time helping the Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group develop the Mwauzi Tumbe Tour. Meetings have been arranged to discuss the route and what is involved on the tour, the speech and facts and stories they will deliver and they have started identifying tress and discussing how to label the plants and trees on the route. Photos have been taken of locally produced clothing with the goal of developing a brochure in the future. Hammocks have been introduced by GVI to the Youth Group, and several have already been produced. We hope to help explore and develop the market for these locally.

GVI staff gave 2 workshops of 4 lectures each on dolphin ecology in Shimoni to local boat operators who conduct dolphin tours in and around the marine park. This has greatly increased their capacity to identify, give information on and understand the dolphins in the area. 4.7 Employment Currently, there are several local staff employed by GVI:

Marine staff:

1

Boat drivers/security: 3 Base security: 2

The expedition members get a great deal of added enjoyment and understanding of the local culture and way of life by working closely with these local staff. We are also helping to build capacity within our local staff by helping them to improve their English and offering computer lessons and practice when machines are available. GVI also supports local enterprises in the community including bread and samosa makers, the village tailor and a curio seller who brings a stall to base. EMs have also paid local ladies to give them chapatti-making classes (Figure. 2-14), helping to build the capacity of these ladies to offer the lesson commercially.

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Figure 2-14. Richard taking chapatti classes at Mkwiro Base.

4.8 GVI Charitable Trust GVI has helped to sponsor 5 children to secondary school in full or in part this expedition through donations to the expedition through GVI CT. During the expedition, £1000 has been given to the orphanage through the Trust. Part of this money has been used to fund the salary of the dispensing clinician and the rest has been used on new uniforms and shoes for the boys, and glasses for an orphan. The Orphanage committee have given a proposal requesting for the remainder of the money to go towards the water tank. Our relationship with the orphanage remains strong and all parties are very

appreciative of GVI CT. Some of our EMs used their Interest Group time to investigate further fundraising for the orphanage, dispensary and other projects in the village. 4.9 Summary GVI’s involvement in the local community in Mkwiro as well as in Shimoni and Wasini through English teaching, capacity building and help with the orphanage has made a tangible difference to the lives of the community members. Combining the community capacity building and the current scientific research, in this expedition we have started building an information centre on base. This will house information on all elements of our project and can be used in the future by the local community as a feature of village tours. We will continue to develop this in the future. In the next expedition, we hope to develop the careers information and TEFL education to reach the maximum numbers of people in Mkwiro. We will also be looking forward to developing more environmental education in the form of a holiday programme.

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5. References
Bejder L., Samuels A., 2003. Evaluating the effects of nature-based tourism on cetaceans. 229 – 256.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L., 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York.

Emerton L., Tessema Y., 2001. Economic constraints to the management of marine protected areas: the case of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti National Reserve, Kenya. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.

Estes, R. D. 1991. The behaviour guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. University of California Press. California.

Evans, P.G.H., Hammond, P.S., 2004. Monitoring cetaceans in European waters. Mammal Review. 34,1, 131-156.

Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., Mulindahabi, F. 2001. An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology. 39, 83-92.

Kay, R.N.B., Davies, A.G. Digestive physiology. In: Davies, A.G., Oates, J.F. (Eds.) 1994. Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour, and evolution. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Academic Press. London.

Larsen, T.B. 1996. Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History. Oxford University Press. New York.

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Lehmann, I., Kioko, E. 2005. Lepidoptera diversity, floristic composition and structure of three Kaya forests on the south coast of Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 94, 121-163.

Mann, J., 2000. Unravelling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods, in: Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., H. Whitehead. (Eds.), Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, pp.44-64.

Martin, P., Bateson, P., 1993. Measuring Behaviour: An introductory guide, 3rd edn. Cambridge University press. Cambridge. Parsons, K.M., 2001. Procedural guideline No. 4-5 Using photo-ID for assessing bottlenose dolphin abundance and behaviour, in: Marine JNCC Marine Monitoring Handbook. 1-21.

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J., Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK. Stensland, E., Berggren, P., R, Johnstone., 1998. Marine Mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment. Ambio. 27-8, 771-774.

Thomas, S.C. 1990. Population densities and patterns of habitat use among anthropoid primates in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Biotropica. 23, 68-83.

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6. Appendices

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Appendix A

EVENT LOG
DATE: Time (24hrs) Event VESSEL: South 04° STAFF (Initials): East 039° OBSERVERS (Initials): PAGE ______OF______ Environmental Conditions Precip T I Wind D Comments

Effort Trans Bearing WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide #

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other/15 minute recording 09 - End of survey day

Effort Type: Beaufort Cloud Cover: LT - Line Transect 0 - Glass Measure in eigths CW- Casual watch 01- Ripples e.g. 0/8 - clear DS - Dedicated search 02 - small waveletss 4/8 - half sky o/c PI - Photo ID 03 - occasional whitecaps 8/8 - over cast 04 - Frequent whitecaps Visibility (km): 05 - Many whitecaps Boat Speed: Swell: 0-1 heavy rain (use GPS) 0 - no/weak swell 1-10 1 - intermediate swell >10 2 - strong swell

Precipitation Type N - None R - Rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

- Intensitity I - Intermittent C - continuous

CHECKED Initials

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Appendix B

Sightings Form
Date: Vessel: Skipper: Recorder:

Entered onto computer □
CHECKED (initials)

Group size Survey number Distance Angle to Tide Latitude Longitude Effort Sighting MFS/ to sighting Ebb/Flo Time South 04° East 039° type number DS sighting (P or S) od Species Min Max Best

Spotted because PhotoDhows? ID? Yes/No Yes/No

Number of Boats Comments

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Appendix C DOLPHIN SURVEY FORM DATE VESSEL START END SOUTH 04° ENTERED ONTO COMPUTER OBSERVERS RECORDER EAST 039° SPECIES TIDE EBB/FLOOD CHECKED INITIALS SURVEY # DS DEPTH WPT#

LOCATION

HABITAT NOTES

RESIGHT? – YES/NO

DOLPHIN INFO – FIRST GROUP ID NOTES

GROUP SIZE MAX: MIN: BEST:

M/C PAIRS? WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS): SUBGROUPS: ACTIVITY (checkmark for primary behaviours, underline secondary behaviours) REST/MILLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) FEEDING (FISH SEEN) TRAVELLING SOCIALISING BOWRIDE UNKNOWN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES END OF SURVEY TIME: LAT: REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE LONG: DOLPHIN INFO – SECOND GROUP (Within 100 m radius of first) GROUP SIZE ST INCLUDING 1 GROUP ONLY SECOND GROUP TIDE: EBB/ FLOOD MAX: START TIME: LAT: LONG: MIN: ID NOTES BEST: # OF SUBGROUPS: M/C PAIRS? WELL MARKED (BEST GUESS): ACTIVITY REST/MILLING FORAGING (SUSPECTED FEEDING) SOCIALISING BOWRIDE UNKNOWN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL: N S E W NE NW SE SW NOTES

FEEDING (FISH SEEN)

TRAVELLING

END OF SURVEY TIME: LAT: REACTION TO SURVEY VESSEL: AWAY/ TOWARDS/ NONE END TIME OF DEPARTURE: LAT: TOTAL # ANIMALS: _____A _____YOY _____N TOTAL PHOTOGRAPHED: _____A _____YOY _____N PHOTOGRAPHS ROLL NUMBER: SPACER SHOTS:

LONG:

LONG:

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Appendix D
Ethogram This ethogram is the copyright of the long-term dolphin research project at Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, Western Australia. The ethogram is reproduced here with permission and with some adaptations for the Shimoni project. I. GROUPING Ten meter chain rule For the purpose of defining a ‘group’ of dolphins (see further below), individuals in a ‘group’ must be linked by the ten meter chain rule. The rule states that in order for two individuals to be in the same ‘group’ they must be within 10m of each other or within 10m of another dolphin that is within 10m of one or both of them, and so on ad infinitum. Definition of a group We restrict the term group to refer to assemblages of dolphins in which the following requirements are fulfilled: (a) the median interindividual distance is <2m (i.e. a “tight” group); (b) the predominant group activity is Rest, Socialise, and or Travel (note: all assemblages of foraging and feeding are excluded); (c) all individuals are linked by the 10m chain rule); and (d) all, or nearly all, of the individuals in the group have been identified. Individuals in tight assemblages separated by >5m but in the same ‘group’ by the 10m chain rule are said to be in different subgroups of the same group. Individuals in tight groups that are not in the same assemblage according to the 10m chain rule are said to be in different groups. Note that this definition is designed for studies of dolphin social behaviour and is quite restrictive. Group Spacing Very tight Tight Moderate Spread Widespread Wide-disperse

vti tig mod spr wsp wdi

modal distance between group members is:

less than 0.3m 0.3 - 2m 2 - 5m 5 - 10m 10 - 30m 30 - 100m

Important Group Geometries Abreast abr Individuals are side-by-side abreast [staggered at less than ½ a body-length (BLD) between individuals], any distance Staggered Abreast Formation sgg frm Individuals are abreast and staggered between ½ and 1 BLD, any distance The basic Formation is two individuals flanking another on either side and just behind. Variations between three or more individuals occur and should be described.

Group Movement Straight

str

Individuals in parallel orientation moving in one general direction (i.e. not varying more than 45 for a period of at least a minute or through at least two surfacing bouts. Individuals in parallel orientation repeatedly changing direction (varying more than 45 within every minute or in sequential surfacing bouts. Speed is typically slow to very slow. Single individuals engaging in this movement pattern are said to be milling. Individuals changing orientation with respect to each other on every or nearly every surfacing. Individuals in a milling assemblage are typically stationary over an area but assemblages may also progress at any speed.

Meander

mnd

Milling

mill

Dive type Dive types are discussed in Section II (Feeding & Foraging).
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Speed None Very slow Slow Cruise Moderate Fast Blast

vsl slo cru mod fas bla

0 mph <1 mph 1-2 mph 2-3 mph 3-4 mph 4-6 mph >6 mph

II. FEEDING & FORAGING We refer to foraging as those behaviours which indicate that dolphins are seeking prey. Feeding, on the other hand, refers to the active pursuit and processing of captured prey. Foraging is by definition a “continuous” behaviour (i.e. a behavioural state) for which we attempt to record a duration. Thus, we may use the term foraging bout to indicate a discrete period of time in which an individual dolphins engaged in the activity of foraging. We refer to discrete behaviours (e.g. a tail slap) as a behavioural event). This dichotomy is useful because typically we can use observations of behavioural events to diagnose the behavioural state (i.e. activity). Feeding, however, may be continuous or instaneous (note that we still refer to feeding as a behavioural state even in situations where the duration of the activity is emphemeral). Which category a particular kind of feeding falls into is determined by two factors: (a) whether the prey are solitary or schooling and (b) whether the prey are large or small. When feeding on small prey the cycle of puruit-catch-process is essentially instaneous, but some large prey items take considerable time to process and we can record a feeding duration for those items. Examples include bream, large squid or cuttlefish, snake eels, and rays. Note that dolphins cannot masticate (i.e. chew) and thus must “process” prey items that are too large to shallow (e.g. by rubbing on bottom or throwing on surface). Feeding is also considered continuous when dolphins are feeding on small schooling fish, as the cycle of pursuit-capture-process continues essentially uninterrupted. Examples include bouts of ‘leap-and-porpoise’ feeding on concentrations of schooling fish such as anchovies or sardines. Thus: (1) if we can record a feeding duration for large and small schooling fish or a large solitary fish record the activity as Feed; (2) if we record only occasional instantaneous observations of feeding during a continuous foraging bout, record the activity state as Forage/Feed; and (3) if there are no indications of active feeding, but there are indications of foraging, simply record the activity as Forage. As with anything to do dolphins, there are many shades of grey. The key is to develop a transparent diagnosis for what constitutes the activity state of Forage that is consistent across different observers abd over time. A. Foraging Foraging Foraging is generally characterized by single dolphins or slightly spread-out assemblages of dolphins (i.e. >2m between dolphins). A general exception is when one or more dolphins remain close to a foraging dolphin for social reasons (e.g. during herding, mother/calf pairs). Both the dive type and the inter-individual geometry are important in determining foraging independent of observations of feeding. Dive type Tail out dive

td

Flukes are raised above the water surface as the dolphin descends at an angle for a deep dive. The peduncle is humped up out of the water as the dolphin descends for a deep dive. Tail flukes are partially submerged.

Peduncle dive

pd

Geometry Milling

Changing directions with every or nearly every surfacing. In an assemblage of dolphins, individuals are changing directions with respect to each other.

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Dispersed Milling

An assemblage of dolphins milling in a large area; typically 10m or more between dolphins. There may be smaller, tighter ‘clusters’ of dolphins within the assemblage; often after a lp/pp bout. A frequently occurring type of spread (>5m) movement pattern in which dolphins are in rank formation (i.e. abreast – ‘on-line’).

Lateral Line

Behaviours Weed prod

A dolphin prods into a seagrass/seaweed mass at the surface with its rostrum. Maybe followed by a fish chase such as snacking.

B Feeding Pursuit: individual behaviours Rapid surface rs

A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface. A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin’s ventrum does not clear the water surface but in which the dolphin does completely clear the water surface. A rapid surface in which the dolphin maintains a normal horizontal posture and the dolphin completely clears the water surface. A normal surface in which the dolphin ‘humps up’ its posterior half to break its forward motion as it descends. Often seen when dolphins are driving or pursuing a fish school in shallow water. A dolphin rapidly accelerates and/or swims fast along or below the water surface. A fast-swim along the surface in which a sheet of water trails off the dorsal fin. A fast-swim belly-up just under the water surface. The fish may often be seen skipping along the surface just in front of the dolphin. A slow or moderate swim, belly-up, after a small fish (typically 2” or less—a ‘snack’). The dolphin is vertical in the water, prodding into seagrass patches with its rostrum. A dolphin stops abruptly at or under the surface and wheels, swinging its flukes sharply. May be indicated by observing fish being knocked into the air. A sudden jerk of the head and snap of the jaws at or just below the surface or underwater. The fish is often seen. A dolphin lifts its flukes and sometimes the posterior portion of its body out of the water and brings the flukes/body down vigorously against the water (sometimes creating a ‘kerplunk’ sound). Not likely to observed in Shimoni but a dolphin chases a fish out of the water onto the beach, momentarily “stranding” itself.
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Porpoise

pp

Leap

lp

Humping surface

hs

Fast swim

fsw

Rooster tail

rs

Belly-up chase

bu

Snacking

snk

Bottom-grub

bg

Tail-whack

tw

Snap

snp

Tail-slap

ts

Beach feeding

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Pursuit—group behaviours Lp & pp feed An assemblage of spread out, milling dolphins in which the predominate surfacing type is leap or porpoise. The aggregation may progress rapidly in any direction. Bird feed Cluster feed/mill A milling assemblage in actively feeding group of seabirds. Feeding on a relatively stationary school of small fish (2-4”) in a milling group but with individuals surfacing side-by-side with one or two others. Record as cluster mill if fish not seen. A slightly spread to spread assemblage of dolphins snacking.

Snack party

Fish catch & process: direct observations Fish catch fc Dolphin observed to catch fish or another prey item. With fish Fish toss Fish-busting wf ft fb Dolphin observed with fish in its mouth. Dolphin observed to toss a fish. Dolphin observed to rub fish against the bottome (=bg+wf over sand substrate).

Fish catch & process: indirect observations Note: The indirect observations are dependent on context as each may indicate a different behaviour in a non-foraging context. Chew Fin jerk cw fj Dolphin seen to make biting motion in a foraging context. A sudden twitch of the fin (indicates sudden movement of the head); again in a foraging context. A dolphin lies still on its side at the surface; again in a foraging context.

On side

osd

Foraging types Note: More than one type may apply—e.g. bird feed may occur with other foraging types. Foraging (non-specific) Group Bird feed Lp & pp feed Foraging that could not easily be classified as any other type.

Dolphins are surfacing within or around actively-feeding seabirds. Dolphins are multi-directional (i.e. milling) and lp/pp continuously within an area. The area may be relatively small or dispersed over as much as a kilometer or more. The activity usually occurs in closely spaced bouts with abrupt starts, stops, and changes of direction. The assemblage as a whole may progress rapidly. An assemblage of foraging dolphins in which 10 or more dolphins are present.

Foraging aggregation Individual Bottom grub

Dolphin sticks its beak to the se floor to ferret something out of the sea floor while in a vertical position. This can only be observed in shallow water. Foraging in which predominant dive type is td/pd. Breath intervals are irregular with no long intervals between dives. Dolphins typically stay submerged for more than a minute after a td or pd dive.
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Td/pd

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Mill

Dolphin forages and changes direction (orientation) with virtually every surface or breath. Often hovers over a particular location but maybe progress in any direction. The predominant dive type is during foraging is rt. Only occurs in shallow water. Foraging in which dolphins frequently utilize tail slaps, often with several tail slaps in succession followed by a fish chase. Belly-up chase and capture of fish trapped against the water surface. Dolphin approaches to within 1-2m of stationary or slow-moving boats and exhibits solicitous behaviours such as opening jawing or orientating head-out.

Rooster tail

Tail slap

Snack party Boat-begging

III. MISCELLANEOUS Some behaviours do not fit obviously into either social or feeding/foraging categories. In some cases behaviours may occur in a wide variety of contexts including feeding, socializing, or resting (e.g. snagging) and in some cases they can be clearly excluded from either (e.g. stretching). Snagging sng A dolphin floating at the surface, still or slowly moving, is said to be snagging. When still the dolphin’s flukes will drop to the degree that only the anterior edge of the dorsal fin may show at the surface and the rostrum may be exposed to the top of the mandible. Snagging may last from a few seconds to several minutes. Occurs in a wide variety of contexts: (a) resting: when dolphins are in a tight group, moving slowly with regular, peduncle, or tail-out dives and with no evidence of foraging or socialisng (b) socialising: snagging may occur in several social contexts; dolphins may snag prior to joining other dolphins or while waiting for group members to “catch up” (e.g. when one member has strayed off to catch a fish) Occurs frequently during snags. The dolphin flexes its body one or several times in succession. A typical sequence is to depress the neck region while flexing the head up, then to flex the neck region up while pointing the rostrum down. Stretching may include side-to-side flexing as well. A dolphin approaches a patch of seaweed/seagrass and rubs it while rolling side or belly-up. The dolphin’s pectorals and flukes are often lifted out of the water, draped with weed. May be difficult to distinguish from weed-prodding. Dolphin emits a ‘coughing’ sound. May be voluntary or related to stress and increased respiration.

Stretching

sth

Weed rub

wrb

Chuffing

chf

IV SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR We consider five categories of social behaviours: 1) affiliative; 2) aggressive; 3) sexual and 4) non-contact dispays; and 5) miscellaneous for behaviours that do not fit easily into the first four categories. Bottlenose dolphins are remarkable for the variety of synchronous behaviours they perform. Each category includes a sub-section of synchronous behaviours. A. Affiliative Behaviours Contact Behaviours (prb = Petting and/or Rubbing)
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Petting

pet

Gentle contact involving movement between the pectoral fin, dorsal fin, or flukes of one individual with any part of the body of another individual. Petting triplets, with two individuals petting with another positioned between them, are sometimes seen. Observation quality: 1. Observation based on direct observation of pec-body contact:  Note whether pec is: 1) actively moving; 2) knee-jerking; or 3) stiff  Note part of body being contacted: (common parts include: blowhole, dorsal surface between blowhole and dorsal fin dorsal ridge between dorsal fin and flukes; dorsal or ventral aspect of flukes; side below dorsal fin; side peduncle; eye region; “chin” chest (between pecs); genital area).  Note whether receiving pec contact is actively moving against pec: 1) roll; 2) pitch; 3) yaw 2. Observation based on surface observation of underwater roll of one dolphin at distance 0 from another dolphin Frequently observed sub-categories:  keel-rubbing (krb): One dolphin rubs ventral aspect of its flukes and/or keel of peduncle against (typically) the leading edge of another dolphin’s pectoral fin. Female to male but may occur male-male (or female-female). The pec often knee-jerks. One individual may keel-rub to two others simultaneously who are side-by-side at distance 0.  mutual face-genital petting (mfg): simulataneous petting in which one dolphin receives petting around the genital area while the other receives petting around the eye.  rub-pec (rp): One dolphin rubs along stiff pec of another, typically along side from behind the eye to peduncle. Often seen in herding context (female to male), often in response to pops. Also between males in an alternating series.

Rubbing

rub

Gentle to more vigorous body-to-body contact. Individuals are often seen rubbing against each other vigorously in play groups. Frequently observed sub-categories:  chin-rub (chr): A dolphin approaches another and rubs, head first, under the chin of the other dolphin. Often observed female to male. The rubbing dolphin may be right side up or belly up, but is more typically on its side. One dolphin rest its pectoral fin against the flank of another dolphin, behind the other dolphin’s pectoral fin, and below or just posterior to the dorsal fin. The actor is positioned just above and alongside the other at distance about .3-.5m behind the tip of the other’s rostrum. Typically female to female, and often in cases of harassment by males. Infrequently male to male. Observation quality: Note whether the observation is based on: (a) surface position (sbs staggered by .3-.5m at distance 0) or (b) direct observation of the pec resting against the side of the other dolphin.

Bonding

bnd

Synchronous Contact Behaviours Synch spt Two dolphins approach from either side and contact the central dolphin’s pectorals petting with the same body part and perform synchronous movements against the pec and/or are petted by both pectorals of the central dolphin synchronously. An example is two dolphins, on side, under the pectorals of the central dolphin, pitching toward and away from each other synchronously. Non-Contact Behaviours Synch surfs ss Two or more dolphins surface synchronously—they both break the surface and dive in synchrony. If the dolphins are side-by-side but staggered note the relative location as ½ body-length difference (1/2 bld) or 1 bld. Note distance between
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dolphins as: 0 = <.3m; 1 = .3-2m; 2 = 2-5m; and 3 = 5-10m. Synch up ss-up Two or more dolphins break the surface synchronously but do not dive synchronously. A common example is when one dolphin remains snagging at the surface. Distance and location are as for SS. Two or more dolphins break the surface asynchronously but dive synchronously. Distance and location are as for SS. Two dolphins surface side-by-side but are not quite synchronous during any part of the surfacing cycle. When a dependent calf repeatedly approaches (to within 2m) and leaves from an adult or adolescent animal, or the baby remains remains at <2m from this animal while remaining >5m from the mother. The bay does not tour on its own (then it’s traveling). Touring is a state, and must occur for the majority of a surfacing bout (when surfacing bouts are discrete) to be called. If there are non-discrete surfacing bouts, then touring should be called if it occurs for the predominant interval you are using for measurement (i.e. 5-minute intervals).

Synch down

ss-dn

Almost synch surfs Touring

ss-al trg

B. Aggressive Behaviours Individual-to-individual Head-tohth One or more individuals line up with one or more individuals. head Tiff tf A head-to-head in which at least one individual is bobbing its head up and down. Accompanied by Donald Duck vocalisations. Head jerk hj A sharp lateral or vertical jerk of the rostrum. Often accompanied by a sharp bang sound. An exaggerated opening and closing of the mouth. An indirect indicator of a HJ or JC in social groups. Two individuals fast swimming, one behind the other. The individual in the aft position is the chaser. Two dolphins ‘chase each other’s tail’ in a tight circle. A dolphin rapidly accelerates and swims fast directly at another dolphin approaching to within two meters or less. A dolphin strikes another violently with its flukes/peduncle. A dolphin swims rapidly past another so that its fin hits the other dolphin. A dolphin ‘karate-chops’ another dolphin with its pectoral fin. A dolphin strikes another dolphin with a sharp lateral strike of its rostrum. Essentially a HJ with contact. A dolphin bites another with a rapid motion of the head and jaws. A charging dolphin slams into another with any part of its body other than its rostrum, peduncle and tail, fins and pectoral fins. A dolphin charges into another dolphin with its rostrum.
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Jaw clap Fin jerk Chase

jc fj chs

Circle chase Charge

cch chg

Tail hit Fin hit Pec hit Rostrum hit

tht fht pht rht

Bite Body slam

bte bsl

Ram

rm

© Global Vision International – 2007

Attack

atk

An intense aggressive interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive behaviours by one individual only (e.g. biting, hitting, etc.). An intense interaction between two dolphins involving multiple aggressive attacks by both participants.

Fight

fgt

Group-to-Individual Head-to-head: X on 1

hth-2, -3, etc.

Two or more dolphins line up head-to-head against another dolphin, e.g. hth-4 indicates a four-on-one interaction. Two or more dolphins attack a single individual. The single dolphin may or mat not fight back.

Group attack: X on 1

atk-2, -3, etc.

Synchronous Behaviours Synch head jerk shj Synch jaw clap Synch charge sjc scg

Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous head jerks. Two dolphins, side-by-side, perform synchronous jaw claps. Two dolphins, side-by-side, charge another synchronously. May veer off synchronously in opposite directions. Two dolphins, side-by-side, blast after another dolphin or group of dolphins. The pursuing dolphins porpoise or leap synchronously abreast.

Synch chase

sch

C. Submissive Behaviours On-side osd In connection with being approached or (more clearly) receiving aggression from one or more dolphins, a dolphin lies on its side at the surface.

D. Sexually-Oriented Behaviours Sexual behaviours are given a separate category because some behaviours may be performed in both aggressive and affiliative contexts. As well as judging the intensity of the behaviour, the observer should look for other behaviours (e.g. biting, petting) which would indicate that the interaction is an affiliative or aggressive interaction. Individual-to-individual Erection erc Mount mnt

Obvious. One dolphin approaches another from the side and slides ventrum over the dorsum of the other animal at a 5-30 angle with respect to the anteriorposterior axis of the other dolphin. An erection may be seen if the mounting individual is male. Males have been observed to mount males as well as females and females have been observed to mount males and females. Two dolphins may mount another synchronously or iteratively from either side. A common variation of mounting. The individual being approached rolls belly up at or below the surface, then the approaching dolphin rolls over and mounts ‘upside down.’ The penis is more readily visible in inverted mounts. A dolphin approaches another as though to mount but instead of angling up over the back of the other it presses against its side in parallel orientation. May be simply another variation of mounting. Often occurs with two dolphins ‘sandwiching’ a third between them. Two individuals approach another from either sides though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour.
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Inverted mount

ivm

Side-press

sdp

Double roll-out

dbr

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Goose

goo

A dolphin moves its rostrum into the genital area of another dolphin. May be performed slowly and gently in affiliative interactions and violently in aggressive interactions. The goosed dolphin often avoids by rolling belly up and tail-slapping at the goosing dolphin. A tail-slap, rub, or belly-present may also precede a goose in affiliative interactions. One or more dolphins push up under another dolphin’s mid-section forcing it out of the water. The dolphin being pushed is typically on its side or belly-up. One dolphin approaches another and inserts the other dolphin’s pec-fin intoits genital slit.

Push-up

psh

Pec-mount

pm

Group-to-individual Group-on-one-sex gps

An encounter in which two or more dolphins perform multiple sexual acts on a single individual. An aggressively-maintaind association. Two or more dolphins use vocal (pops, screams) and physical (head jerks, charges) threats to force another dolphin to accompany them. Herding dolphins engage in normal daily activities such as foraging while herding another dolphin as well as in social and sexual behaviours directed at the herded dolphin. Typically seen as an aggressivelymaintained consortship between coalitions of males and a female.

Herding

hrd

Synchronous Behaviours Synch mount smt Synch goose sgs

Two dolphins approach another from either side and synchronously mount it. Two dolphins approach another side-by-side from either side or from behind and synchronously goose it. Two dolphins approach another from behind, swim up on either side, and synchronously perform side press or ‘sandwich’ the dolphin in the centre. Two dolphins approach another from either side as though to mount but as they come up along either side they splay up and out rather than up and over, sliding their ventral area against the side of the other’s peduncle. Only seen as a dyadic behaviour.

Synch side-press

ssp

Double roll-out

dbr

E. Displays Dolphins, particularly males, perform a wide variety of displays. Many displays by males are often performed in synchrony with another male or males and these can be quite spectacular. Displays are divided into two categories, those that can only be observed as synchronous displays (by definition) and those which can be performed by a single individual. Individual or Synchronous Tail-slap ts A dolphin raises its tail flukes out of the water and slaps them against the water surface. Chin-slap cns A dolphin raises its head out of the water and slaps its rostrum against the water surface. Maybe light or hard. A dolphin raises itself out of the water to at least its dorsal fin and then slaps its belly on the water surface. Maybe light or hard. A dolphin leap clear of the water and lands on its belly. A dolphin leaps clear of the water, remains orientated normally in the air and reenters head first. Note: this class is the most common form of leap and occurs in
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Belly-slap

bls

Belly-breach Leap

blb lp

© Global Vision International – 2007

many non-social contexts such as very fast Travel (i.e. blasting) and leap feeding. Chin-slaptail-slap Face-slap csts A commonly occurring sequence in which a chin-slap is immediately followed by a tail-slap. A dolphin, on its side, raises its head out of the water and slaps the side of its head on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin, on its side, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its side on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin leaps clear of the water and lands on its side. A dolphin leaps clear of the water side-up, or turns on its side in the air, and reenters the water head-first. A dolphin, belly-up, raises its head out of the water and slaps it on the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphin, belly-up, raises itself out of the water at least to its dorsal fin and then slaps its back against the water surface. May be light or hard. A dolphins leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and lands on its back. A dolphin leaps clear of the water, belly-up, and re-enters the water head-first. A dolphin rises partially up out of the water while in the vertical position. Dolphins have been observed rising out past the pectoral fins or son only the rostrum breaks the surface. A vtr in which the dolphin rises up to at least halfway down its peduncle and holds the position with vigorous fluke-thrusting. A dolphin rolls on its side belly toward another dolphin at distance 0-1 as it swims past in front of or alongside the other dolphin. A dolphin tilts its belly toward another dolphin while positioned beside and just behind the other dolphin. Often performed by two dolphins in formation behind another. A dolphin, from tilt-in position, angles its head into the vicinity of the other dolphin’s genital slit. In horizontal position, a dolphin rotates its head in circles (only seen once as a synchronous display by two dolphins). A dolphin pushes its chest down and arches its head up and out of the water, then moves forward, often with a slight bobbing motion of its head. The bobbing motion is typically not as pronounced as in a rst. May be accompanied by tail slaps. Like the rooster strut except that the dolphin sways its head from side to side instead of up and down. Very rapid, short strokes of the flukes in any orientation. Often used in intense, singleton displays. The most intense single display. Often growing out of the rooster strut, the dolphin
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fcs

Side-slap

sds

Side-breach Side-leap

sdb sdl

Head-slap

hds

Back-slap

bks

Back-breach Back-leap Vertical rise

bkb bkl vtr

Tail-walk

tlw

Belly-present

bep

Tilt-belly-in

tlb

Tilt-head-in

tlh

Head-circle

hcl

Rooster-strut

rst

Side-sway display Tail-flailing

ssd

tfl

Arching

acd

© Global Vision International – 2007

display

arches its head up higher and higher, often until it is arching out to the dorsal fin, while whirling around, often rolling over on its side or back; often with an open mouth. Often accompanied by tail-flailing and sometimes tail-slaps.

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Appendix E

Date (YYYYMM-DD) Roll #:

Photographe rs Initials

DS or MFS #

Vessel Initials (SR or ET)

Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number (MFS or DS): Start time: End time: Photographer: Camera: Scribe: Frame # Notes

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Appendix F

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Appendix G

LAND BASED SIGHTINGS: ENVIRONMENT AND BOAT
DATE: Time (24hrs) OBSERVERS: Environmental Conditions Wind Swell BFT Direction PAGE ______OF______ Vis Tide Precip T I No. of Vessels Boat Traffic Number of each type of vessel i.e. Comments

Observers

Cloud

Cloud Cover: Beaufort: 0 - Glass Measure in eigths e.g. 0/8 - clear 01- Ripples 4/8 - half the sky overcast- small waveletss 02 8/8 - over cast 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps Swell: 05 - Many whitecaps 0 - no/weak swell 1 - intermediate swell 2 - strong swell
© Global Vision International – 2007

Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10

Precipitation Type N - none R - rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

Intensitity I - intermittent C - continuous

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

Entered on computer

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix H

LAND BASED: SIGHTINGS
DATE: Sighting observer's initials OBSERVERS (Initials): Dolphins and Megafauna Bearing Sighting Distance Species Min Group size Max Best Tide (ebb or flood) Plot # on chart PAGE ______OF______ Comments

Time (24 hrs)

Bearing Read by observer from compass at bottom of binocular view

Distance Use reticles in binoculars counting down from the top of the horizon or shoreline Count short reticles as halves

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species

Tide: E - Ebb - High to low F - Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Appendix I
LANDBASE SURVEY: DOLPHIN BEHAVIOUR PAGE: OF DATE: OBSERVERS: Record every 5 min./after each dive cycle from 1st sighting # Group size Vessel #Tourist Vessels Dive Dive type dhows Time Spp Spread present Type Duration Min Max Best

# dhows swim with dolphins

Split into View subObstructed groups by boats (Yes or (Yes or No) No)

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species
© Global Vision International – 2007

Dive Type Rg - Regular Td - Tail-out Pd - Peduncle Rs - Rapid Surface Rt - Rooster Tail Lp - Leap Pp - Porpoise Snag - Snag

Spread Tig - Tight (< 2 m) Mod - Moderate (2 - <5 m) Spr - Spread (5 -10 m) Wsp - Widespread (>10 m)

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix J

Date:

Time start:

Time finish:

Weather: Wind: still / light breeze / firm breeze / storm Cloud cover (0/8-8/8):

Team's full names: GPS start: GPS finish:
Time sighted Common name

Location:

Precipitation: dry / rain / showers

Scientific name

No. individuals

Notes / description (if unsure I.D.)

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Appendix K. Mangrove birds species list

Scientific name Anthreptes collaris garguensis Apus a. affinis Apus a. apus Ardea c. cinerea Ardea melanocephala Bostrychia hagedash Calidris minuta Callidris alba Casmerodius albus melanorhynchos Ceryle r. rudis Charadrius hiaticula tundrae Chlorocichla flaviventris centralis Cypsiurus parvus laemostigma Dicrurus a. adsimilis Egretta dimorpha Gypohierax angolensis Halcyon leucocephala Haliaeetus vocifer Hirundo aethiopica Hirundo senegalensis saturatior Lamprotornis corruscus mandanus Larus hemprichii Limosa limosa Merops albicollis Milvus migrans parasitus Muscicapa striata neumanni Neafrapus boehmi sheppardi Nectarinia amethystina kalckreuthi Nectarinia olivacea changamwensis Nectarinia sp Numenius arquata orientalis Numenius p. phaeopus Oriolus larvatus rolleti Oriolus o. oriolos Oriolus sp Ploceus cucullatus Ploceus sp Pluvialis sp Pycnonotus barbatus Sterna albifrons saundersi Sterna b. bengalensis Sterna bergii Sterna dougallii bangsi Sterna n. nilotica Sterna sp Streptopelia semitorquata

Common name Collared sunbird Little swift Eurasian swift Grey heron Black Headed Heron Hadada Ibis Little stint Sanderling Great egret Pied kingfisher Ringed plover Yellow-bellied greenbul African palm swift Common drongo Dimorphic egret Palm-nut vulture Grey headed kingfisher African fish eagle Ethiopian swallow Mosque swallow Black-bellied starling Sooty gull Black-tailed godwit White-throated bee-eater Black Kite Spotted flycatcher Bohm's spinetail Amethyst sunbird Olive sunbird Unknown sunbird Eurasian curlew Whimbrel Black-headed oriole Eurasian golden oriole Unknown oriole Black-headed weaver Unknown weaver Unknown plover Common bulbul Saunders' tern Lesser crested tern Greater crested tern Roseate tern Gull-billed tern Unknown tern Red eyed dove

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Streptopelia sp Terpsiphone viridis Threskiornis a. aethiopicus Treron waalia Tringa sp Tringa totanus ussuriensis

Unknown dove African paradise flycatcher Sacred Ibis African green pigeon Unknown sandpiper Common redshank

© Global Vision International – 2007

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