Global Vision International, Kenya Report Series No.

00X ISSN XXXX-XXXX (Print)

GVI Kenya
Wildlife Research Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development

Phase Report 073 July-September 2007

GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Expedition Report 073 Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Kenya Wildlife Service One Earth Safaris Submitted in part to World Society for the Protection of Animals Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee Produced by Rachel Crouthers – Expedition Leader Richard Ayles – Marine Officer Emma Hankinson – Marine Officer Jake Bicknell – Terrestrial Officer Alex Mayers – Community Education Officer Amdeep Sanghera – Community Development Officer And
Tara Bott Emily Burns Celine Chang Jennifer Collins Christina Cox Julie Dawson Giusj Digioia Emily Evans Laura Gold Alexandra Graves Nasra Sulekha Hanshi Phoebe Hartigan Alison Helm Hope Kaye Kieran Knight Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Rachel Lawton Megan Mahoney Jacqueline Marschalk Jill McArdle Lucy Plumb Jennifer Prior Shan Prior Kieran Pounder Jessica Powers Nika Pozar Charlotte Smart Candice Smith Carly Louise Stafford Samantha Taylor Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member

Edited by Graham Corti – Country Director GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Address: PO BOX 1032, Ukunda, 8400, Kenya Email: Kenya@gvi.co.uk Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
The seventh10-week phase of the Kenyan Global Vision International (GVI) Expedition has now been completed. The expedition has maintained working relationships with local communities through both education classes and participation in local community events. The expedition has continued to work towards the gathering of important environmental scientific data whilst working with local, national and international partners. The following projects have been run during Phase 073:

Supplied manpower and training to Kenya Wildlife Service, and alternative income and indirect funding to members of the Mkwiro community.

Provided free local capacity building in terms of English language lessons, environmental education, support of alternative income generation initiatives and training in scientific survey techniques.

Cetacean population assessment programme in collaboration with Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)

Marine mega fauna surveys in collaboration with KWS and Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee (KESCOM).

Coastal forest primate population surveys in collaboration with KWS and the Colobus Trust

Coastal forest faunal biodiversity surveys, anthropogenic disturbance surveys and Angolan black and white colobus behavioural survyes in collaboration with KWS.

   

Supported ecological and cultural tourism initiatives. Facilitated promotion of local community based organisations’ ventures Participated as primary partners on the Year of the Dolphin committee in Kenya. Enabled local communities to benefit from support provided by EMs on return to their home countries through fund-raising and donations.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 5 1.2 Global Vision International Kenya ..................................................................... 5 2. Marine Research Programme ...................................................................................... 6 2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Aims ................................................................................................................. 7 2.3Training ............................................................................................................. 8 2.4 Methods ............................................................................................................ 9 2.4.1 Vessel based forms and methodology.................................................... 12 2.4.2 Snorkelling surveys (pilot study) ............................................................. 14 2.5 Results ........................................................................................................... 15 2.6 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 22 2.7 Development .................................................................................................. 25 3. Terrestrial Research Programme............................................................................... 26 3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 26 3.1.1 Background............................................................................................ 26 3.1.2 Study area ............................................................................................. 27 3.2 Aims ............................................................................................................... 29 3.3 Methods .......................................................................................................... 30 3.3.1 Line transect sampling ........................................................................... 30 3.3.2 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 31 3.3.3 Primate behavioural surveys .................................................................. 33 3.3.4 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 34 3.3.5 Fruit and flower survey ........................................................................... 35 3.3.6 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 35 3.3.7 Casual observations............................................................................... 35 3.4 Results ........................................................................................................... 37 3.4.1 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 37 3.4.2 Primate behavioural survey .................................................................... 39 3.4.3 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 41 3.4.4 Fruit and flower survey ........................................................................... 42 3.4.5 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 42 3.4.6 Casual observations............................................................................... 43 3.4.7 Primate Census Shimoni East ................................................................ 43 3.5 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 45 3.5.1 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 45 3.5.2 Primate behaviour survey....................................................................... 46 3.5.3 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 47 3.5.4 Fruit & flower .......................................................................................... 47 3.5.5 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 48 3.5.6 Casual observations............................................................................... 48 3.5.7 Census Surveys ..................................................................................... 48 3.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work ......................................... 49 4. Community Development Programme ....................................................................... 52 4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 52 4.2 School Education ............................................................................................ 53 4.3 Adult Education............................................................................................... 54 4.4 Al Hanan Orphanage ...................................................................................... 54

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4.5 Satellite Camp ................................................................................................ 54 4.5.1 Kidong Satellite Camp............................................................................ 55 4.5.2 Mahandikini Satellite Camp .................................................................... 56 4.5.3 Kasaani Satellite Camp .......................................................................... 56 4.6 Capacity Building ............................................................................................ 57 4.7 Employment.................................................................................................... 58 4.8 GVI Charitable Trust ....................................................................................... 58 4.9 Summary ........................................................................................................ 59 5. References ................................................................................................................ 60 6. Appendices ............................................................................................................... 64

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. Sightings of species on tidal conditions during the non-training period of 073 Figure 2-2. Number of surveys conducted by group size of the different cetacean species during the non-training period of 073 Figure 2-3. Number of sightings by effort hour for the different cetacean species during the non-training period of 073 Figure 2-4. Spatial distribution of sightings for Expedition 073. Figure 2-5. Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphin sightings Figure 2-6. Distribution of Humpback Dolphin sightings Figure 2-7. Locations of the four snorkelling transect for the expedition 073. Figure 3-1. Survey transects on the Shimoni peninsular. Figure 3-2. Census transects walked in Shimoni forest (east) and Shimoni forest (west). Figure 3-3. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during primate community surveys (n=12) Figure 3-4 Percent time spent in each behaviour state. Figures above bars are actual percentages for each behaviour Figure 3-5 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during Shimoni forest (east) census (n=29) Figure 3-6 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during Shimoni forest (west) census (n=56) Figure 4-1. A beach clean for International Coastal Cleanup Day. Fig 4-2. EMs and Kidong group members create chilli dung bricks

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List of Tables
Error! Reference source not found.Table 2-1. Cetacean species present in Kenyan waters. Table 2-2. Vessel based sightings and photo ID surveys Table 2-3. Number of times transects were surveyed with the amount of turtles sighted on transect. Table 3-1. Summary of transects in the Shimoni area. Table 3-2. Summary of primate community surveys Table 3-3. Frequencies of behaviour events Table 3-4. Summary of tree species within fruit and flower. Table 3-5. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals. Table 3-6. Summary of primate census surveys

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1. Introduction
1.2 Global Vision International Kenya The Global Vision International Kenya expedition was initiated in January 2006 and is based on Wasini Island on the South coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centred in and around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The marine research activities are undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel, Funzi Bay and Sii Island. The terrestrial research programme is focused on an area of coastal forest in the South-East of Shimoni peninsula, close to Shimoni village. The majority of activities under the community programme are focused on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. Community development activities are also being developed in Kidong, Mahandakini and Kasaani. These are rural villages based near Taveta, between the Western boundary of Tsavo West National Park and the border of Tanzania.

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2. Marine Research Programme
2.1 Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and covers an area of 39 square kilometres. The KMMPA includes the National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands. The KMMPA and the marine wildlife it contains are an important tourist attraction and, as a result, an important resource for Shimoni and surrounding communities. The islands within the KMMPA are surrounded by coral reefs attracting divers and snorkelers to the area. Almost every day dolphin-watching companies operating from Shimoni travel through Wasini Channel to the KMMPA (Emerton and Tessema 2001). These tourist dhows most frequently encounter Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Recently, a code of conduct has been introduced by KWS for the tour operators to adhere to when manoeuvring around the cetacean species, however it is not yet being fully complied with in the absence of effective enforcement. The levels of interaction between cetaceans and the tour operators are not being monitored or regulated in any way. The impact these activities may be having is unknown. In particular, it’s not known whether current levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable for the area.

Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of East Africa and little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species. Baseline data is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed (Stensland et al.1998). The main objectives of the marine research programme are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on the dolphin species that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. The study area encompasses a wide range of habitats including mangrove forests, coral reefs, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds and offshore areas.

GVI Kenya’s principal working partner is KWS. The research conducted by GVI will be shaped to satisfy the objectives of KWS, so as to assist them towards better management of the area. All data collected thus far is made available to KWS to aid in management plans of the study area.

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The Marine Programme is supporting KWS to collate data by conducting vessel-based surveys. The marine programme will primarily focus on the ecology of humpback and bottlenose dolphins and the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins and mega fauna within the area and improve the scientific basis and baseline data for management strategies. This information can assist towards long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area. During the initial phase of the marine programme research has focussed on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and daily movement patterns will be analysed.

Mega fauna species are also attractive to tourists and as such a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity on a number of levels. Another objective of the marine research programme is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine mega fauna within the study area, including sea turtles. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly.

2.2 Aims During the first year of operations the marine programme of GVI Kenya has completed initial research activities to determine species distribution within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Research questions were established to ensure that all the research methodologies used were able to obtain the relevant information to satisfy objectives set by KWS.

The marine programme aims to collect data to address the following questions on dolphins and mega fauna in Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area and its surrounding areas.

From vessel-based surveys:

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       

Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition Residency Habitat-activity relationships Diel movement & activity Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

2.3Training All Expedition Members (EMs) are trained for a two-week period in identification of dolphins and sea turtles present in the western Indian Ocean (Table 2-1.), dolphin behaviour and habitat encountered in the local area. The training includes lectures, organised study groups and in-field practice. EMs have to pass a theoretical exam on a set species list and form usage prior to collecting data on surveys. Written exams are followed by continuous practical assessments by staff.

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Common Name Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Humpback Whale Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Hawksbill Turtle Green Turtle Olive Ridley Turtle* Loggerhead Turtle Leatherback Turtle

Abbreviation BND HBD SPD HBW COD RTD RSD STD PTD -

Scientific name Tursiops aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Megaptera novaeangliae Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grampus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuata Eretmochelys imbricata Chelonia mydas Lepidochelys olivacea Caretta caretta Dermochelys coriacea

Table 2-1. Cetacean species present in Kenyan waters. (Peddemonns 1999; Richmond 2002) Turtle species present along the Kenyan coast. (Frazier 1975) Highlighted in bold the dolphin and turtle species encountered up to date. * indicates, only 1 dead individual has been identified

2.4 Methods During expedition 073 GVI Kenya used as a research vessel, Stingray, a 5.83m catamaran style power vessel with two 85 horsepower Yamaha two-stroke motors. Photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens) or using a Nikon D200 digital camera (50-500 ml lens). All depths were taken with a Speedtech depth sounder. All geographical positions and speeds were taken with a Garmin Etrex GPS.

Photo-identification Photo-identification (photo-ID) refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and

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flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be resighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs (Parsons 2001). Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependent on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting and shot of dorsal fins. During a photo-ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The aim during a photo-ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with later analysis of photographs from different surveys (Parsons 2001). The primary aim of photo-ID in this study is to determine population size for the different dolphin species and habitat use for the KMMPA area. Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved on the photo-ID database. This database has been copied into various users, and analysed individually by all users. Each user quality grades the photos into categories including: deleted, tail flukes, spacer shots, and quality categories which range from 0 (poor quality, distant, out of focus, partial images) to 3 (perfect photo-ID shots). Users then identify individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photo-ID catalogue will be created in which individuals are given unique ID numbers and names. This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long-term basis (Parsons 2001). Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals.

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Mark-Recapture Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met:  A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.  Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.  ‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being ‘recaptured’ (subsequently encountered and photographed).  Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.  The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Initially, a sample of individuals is photographically ‘captured’ (n1) and on a subsequent occasion a second sample of individuals is ‘captured’ (n2), of which a number were already identified in the first sample (m 2). The proportion of individuals that are marked in the second sample can be equated with the proportion in the overall population (N) (Evans and Hammond 2004).

The mark-recapture formulas are as follows:

Equation 1

(m2) = n1 n2 N

The number of individuals captured and marked is known which allows the population size to be estimated (Ň):

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Equation 2

Ň = n 1 n2 m2 2.4.1 Vessel-based forms and methodology Three forms were used to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size and demographics, these forms are: the Event Log, Cetacean Sightings form, and the Photo ID form, a fourth form comes into place when mega fauna is sighted the Mega fauna Survey form. Event Log Throughout the survey day an Event Log (Appendix A) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with number of surveys completed and changes in environmental conditions, course and speed. Alongside these features the scribe continues to record all conditions every quarter of the hour. Every half hour observers rotate roles and ‘view points’, every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break as Event log scribe. If dolphins are spotted all observers maintain the same position, until the survey is over.

The information taken by the Event log is:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Date Vessel name Time (24 hour clock) Co-ordinates (GPS) Event (see Appendix A) Dolphin Survey number (each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02, etc.) Vessel speed (using GPS) Environmental conditions (Appendix A) Additional comments

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Cetacean Sightings Form The Sightings form (Appendix B) is used to record sightings of dolphins and whales. This form was introduced at the start of 073 to gather simple unbiased information about habitat distribution, group size and structure, and if the sighting occurred due to exterior factors (e.g. presence of tourist vessels) or not.

Once dolphins or whales are sighted, the recorder documents the following data into the sightings form.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Time (24 hour clock) GPS Co-ordinates of the vessel Depth at the start of the sighting Dolphin Survey number (each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02, etc.) Tidal state upon sighting Species sighted Group size Number of Young present Whether the sighting was biased, or not e.g. tourists vessels Whether a Photo-ID survey was conducted or not Number of boats present (not counting research vessel) Comments

Photo-ID Form Staff members perform all photographic documentation in the field. During photo-ID the vessel manoeuvres into a better position to obtain the optimum distance and angle for photographs to be taken (Parsons 2001). Photo-ID is conducted at the same time as the cetacean sightings form. During a photoID survey the photographer tells the photo-ID scribe the frame numbers, spacer shots, recognizable or distinct individuals and the number of shots taken (Appendix C).

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Mega Fauna Survey Form Mega fauna surveys record primarily the identification of the animals, habitat notes and position of sighting and if possible behaviour notes. (Appendix D)

The data includes:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Time Vessel GPS Co-ordinates General location Depth Beaufort Tide Species Habitat Number of individuals present Photos taken Additional notes

2.4.2 Snorkel-based surveys (pilot study) Turtle snorkelling transect surveys came into place this expedition as a trial, following on from previous habitat surveys, to gather information about turtles species abundancy and their habitat use in the KMMPA and surrounding areas.

The surveys consisted of snorkelling in buddy-pairs along a 400 metre transect. One person was observer and the other person was in charge of safety and direction using an underwater compass. 4 transects were set up, 2 off Wasini Island, 1 off Lower Mpunguti and 1 off Upper Mpunguti. All transects were situated on the North side of the islands (Figure 2-7.).

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This survey obtained baseline information; habitat notes, species sighted, number of individuals and general notes, thus collecting data on the number of turtles sighted on the transects. This survey has paved the way for future improvements in collecting behavioural data and photo-ID using underwater cameras. All data from this expedition can be used by KESCOM to compliment turtle sightings along the coast of Kenya.

2.5 Results The data here has been analysed displaying the non-training period of the expedition in accordance with previous work and where possible showing analysis of all data collected that has been overseen by full time marine members of staff. During Expedition 073 there was a total effort of 148h.22m on vessel surveys, 130h.37m were spent during non-training days, 17h.45m on training days surveying the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Turtle snorkel transects were surveyed a total of 30 times at an average of 15 minutes per transect, a total of 7h.30m of observational hours. Results for all surveys are summarised below.

All vessel based sightings and Photo ID surveys (Table 2-2.).

Sightings BND HBD HBW Unk Turtle Hawksbill Turtle Whale Shark Total cetaceans 43 7 4 12 1

Nontraining 37 6 3 11 1 1

Training 6 1 1 1 0 0

Photo ID surveys 39 6 4 0 0 0

1 54 46 8

49

Table 2-2. Vessel based sightings and photo ID surveys

Cetacean sightings on tide were examined with T. aduncus displaying no preference for tidal conditions, being sighted only one more time on the flood tide than on the ebb tide.

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S. chinensis was only sighted six times this expedition 87% of those sightings 5 were on an ebb tide, and all M. novaeangliae sightings were on ebb tides (Figure 2-1.).

Figure 2-1. Sightings of species on tidal conditions during the non-training period of 073

During surveys, numbers of individuals were counted. The three species sighted through this expedition were most frequently observed in group sizes <5 in number. Only T. aduncus was sighted in groups numbering greater than ten.

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Figure 2-2. Number of surveys conducted by group size of the different cetacean species during the non-training period of 073

Number of cetacean sightings has been linked with vessel effort hours (Figure 2-3.). T. aduncus sightings were highest between 09:01-10:00 with 83% of all sightings between 09:01-12:00. S. chinensis was more frequently sighted between 10:01-11:00. Throughout the three surveys conducted on M. novaeangliae there was no consistent time frame for sightings.

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Figure 2-3. Number of sightings by effort hour for the different cetacean species during the nontraining period of 073

The spatial distribution for the research area is shown in Figure 2-4. A large number of the T. aduncus encounters were along the east side of Wasini Island, with S. chinensis being found mainly inside the Wasini channel, and unusually on two occasions further along the east side of Wasini Island. M. novaeangliae was sighted on four occasions and three were inside the Marine Protected Area. Out of the 13 turtle sightings of various species, 6 were inside the Marine Protected Area and the 1 Whale Shark sighting was near to a reef not marked on the map.

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Figure 2-4. Spatial distribution of sightings for Expedition 073. Bottlenose Dolphins (Blue, n= 43), Humpback Dolphins (Red, n=7), Humpback Whales (Green, n=4), Turtles (pink, n=13) and Whale Shark (Black, n=1). Also displaying Marine Park boundaries (Black lined box) (all data)

For this expedition 50%, 75% and 90% harmonic mean isopleths using Kernel Home Range (Worton 1989) (Figure 2-5) have been set up for T. aduncus with the majority of the 50% harmonic mean being outside the Marine Protected Area.

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50

75

90

Figure 2-5. Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphin sightings (n=43). Contours are plotted to show the location of 50%, 75% and 90% harmonic mean isopleths using Kernel Home Range (Worton 1989) (using all data)

For this expedition 50%, 75% and 90% harmonic mean isopleths using Kernel Home Range (Worton 1989) (Figure 2-6) have been set up for S. chinensis, the whole of the 50% harmonic mean is outside the Marine Protected Area.

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Figure 2-6. Distribution of Humpback Dolphin sightings (n=7). Contours are plotted to show the location of 50%, 75% and 90% harmonic mean isopleths using Kernel Home Range (Worton 1989) (using all data)

The Turtle snorkelling transect were all set up on the north sides of Wasini Island, Lower Mpunguti (Mpungutiya Chini Island) and Upper Mpunguti (Mpungutiya Juu Island) displayed in Figure 2-7.

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Figure 2-7. Locations of the four snorkelling transect for the expedition 073. Transect 3 and 4 are within the Marine Reserve.

Turtle transects surveyed through expedition 073 returned sightings on the majority of transects especially transect 4 (Table 2-3). Hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) were most commonly seen, Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were sighted on a few occasions.

Transect 1 Surveyed sighted 6 1

Transect 2 surveyed sighted 7 0

Transect 3 surveyed Sighted 8 0

Transect 4 surveyed sighted 9 10

Table 2-3. Number of times transects were surveyed with the amount of turtles sighted on transect.

2.6 Discussion

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This expedition continued to collect baseline ecology information on cetaceans and turtles within the KMMPA and surrounding waters.

The number of sightings increased from the previous expedition but was slightly lower than the expedition surveying the same months for 2006. However in relation to time spent surveying compared to the number of sightings, 073 search effort was every 2.42 hours compared to 063 where a cetacean was sighted every 3.31 hours. Further analysis is required to investigate further and look into whether monthly and seasonal fluctuations in sightings occur within our specified area of interest. Humpback dolphins were sighted on 6 occasions (7 including training data) which is limited data to draw conclusions on. The majority of sightings occurred within the Wasini Channel displayed by areas bordered by 50% harmonic isopleths (figure 2-6) this coincides with previously observed sightings from past expeditions. The Wasini Channel is 1.6 kilometres at it’s widest by 8 km’s long and the maximum depth 25.6 metres (14 fathoms) (Admiralty Charts and Publications #866). On average S. chinensis was sighted at a depth of 12.4 metres and very close to the shoreline or intertidal shelf, which mirrors with Karczmarski et al. (2000) who had 91.3% of sightings in water less than 15 m deep, and 80% of sightings less than 400 metres from the shore. Interestingly, the first sighting within the KMMPA boundaries was observed this expedition (Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-6). The group size for this expedition ranged between 2-7 individuals with a mean average of 4 coinciding with (Ross 1998) group size generally between 4-7 individuals.

T. aduncus were sighted most frequently along the eastern edge of Wasini Island as displayed by areas bordered by 50% harmonic isopleths (figure 2-5.), however the data is not sufficiently strong as this area is closest to GVI base, where all surveys commence from. A method of weighting the data, to compare our search effort per section with sightings, to give an overall comparison of the area of interest is required to establish habitat preferences. Also this kind of analysis is needed on all collected data to date, to find overall habitat preferences and to see if the habitat preference changes seasonally, thus enabling KWS to utilise the data and make management decisions, if necessary.

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T. aduncus was sighted 83% of the time between 0901 and 1200 hours. This could be due to a variety of reasons: tourist boats are known to leave Shimoni pier around 0900 and head out searching for dolphins toward the KMMPA and 62.16% of all bottlenose dolphin sightings were due to the presence of tourist boats; the daily vessel-based survey would generally pass through the areas bordered by the 50% harmonic isopleths (figure 2-5) at around these times explaining the frequency of sightings between the time bands. The dolphins’ diel movement is unknown in this area and we currently lacks diel movements for T. aduncus from other areas for comparison. T. aduncus group size was most commonly found in the 1-5 and 6-10 categories (figure 2-2.) but ranged from 1 to 30 individuals with an the average group size of 7. This number is similar to the average of T. aduncus in Moreton Bay, Australia of 10 individuals (Corkeron 1990), and also agrees with several coastal studies of T. truncatus around the world, which reveal relatively small groups that vary with activity (Shane 1990, Rogan et al. 2000, Meyler 2006, Ingram 2000). Further study to examine if group size changes with activity would be an important and interesting part of any baseline data study, however attempts to introduce behavioural studies in this area have so far been unsuccessful due to the particular limitations of our research. There were 3 (4 inc. training) sightings of M. novaeangliae during this expedition, 3 of those sightings occurred within the KMMPA boundaries. All 4 sightings had a group size of 2 individuals, and on the first sighting there were two fully grown adults, on all subsequent occasions the ‘group’ consisted of mother and calf. These sightings are in concordance with the winter breeding areas off the east coast of Africa (Carwadine 2000). All calves were estimated at being between 4-5 metres in length (slightly smaller than the research vessel) which corresponds with newborn size of 4-5 metres (Carwadine 2000). Turtles have been sighted 13 times from vessel based surveys and the majority of observations were recorded as unknown due to the speed of surfacing, only on 1 occasion was an individual identified as a Hawksbill turtle due to close proximity to the vessel on surfacing. The sightings were evenly distributed over the area of interest with 50% of the sightings occurring within the KMMPA boundaries.

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To enhance our turtle monitoring programme within our area of interest, in-water transect methodology has been trialled this expedition to collect more data on species occurrence both inside the KMMPA and outside. The data collected to date was a pilot study to ensure there would be sightings whilst in the water and that they could be identified. To date 9 Hawksbill turtles (E. imbricata) and 2 Green turtles (C. mydas) were sighted, which differs from Wamukokya and Haller (1995) who state that C. mydas is the predominant species within Kenyan waters followed by the E. imbricata. This difference could simply be due to the position of the transects, as transect 4 where 91% of the sightings occurred is situated on a diverse coral reef preferred habitat of E. imbricata (Richmond 2002). The results displayed are taken from the second 5 weeks of this expedition, as initially testing was done trialling different methodologies. Currently we have had sightings on all transects except transect 3 (off Lower Mpunguti); transect 2 had two sightings during trials. The results from the 5 weeks of data are very promising, and the methodology will be reviewed so more data can be collected on individuals’ size, habitat preference and behaviours. A Whale shark (Rhiniodon typus) was sighted whilst on survey this expedition, the second sighting to date, which confirms the species presence in the area but without enough data to draw conclusions.

2.7 Development Land-based surveys would benefit the area to assess:      Dolphin tidal and daily movement Dolphin behaviour from an unbiased platform Dolphin and boat interaction Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence

Non-intrusive land-based studies have been used in several studies to investigate preliminary population estimates (Berrow 1996, Ingram 2000) and/or changes in behaviour (including dive times) with and without presence of boats (Acevedo 1991, Shane 1990). Before this method can be re-implemented a new location or

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improvements to previous location are needed, to establish a position with a wider viewing angle and where more frequent sightings occur in order to perform a larger number of behavioural surveys.

Vessel-based cetacean behavioural surveys would help collate data on spatial heterogeneity, dolphin-vessel interactions and give us habitat preference for specific behaviours. Previous problems with this survey and our research limitations require us to set up a survey that will not introduce bias into the data. In water snorkelling surveys require improvements of methodology to collect more data on individuals’ size, habitat preference and behaviours. Increasing the amount of transects would give a better indication for habitat preference and behaviours within those habitats.

3. Terrestrial Research Programme
3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Background The eastern Arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania are an internationally recognised biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000). They support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wider-ranging, but fragmented distributions, and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern Arc mountains are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The coastal forests of

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Kenya form the northern fringe of the East African coastal forest mosaic, however much less is known about these unique and important, yet diminishing forest habitats.

The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along the coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, and is formed on ancient coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. In conjunction with coastal climatic influences, the plant community and the structure of the forest favour shallow root systems, which reduce stability. This makes these forest habitats highly susceptible to erosion processes and hence at risk from the influences of deforestation in the wider Shimoni area. The specialised flora that is found in these habitats supports and sustains rare and endemic species which are of particular interest to biological conservation, and sustainable livelihoods through responsible tourism.

3.1.2 Study area Primary research is conducted in Shimoni forest (east) on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village to the west (04º64’900”S, 39º38’600”E) and the coast of the Indian Ocean to the south and east (04º64’300”S, 39º40’300”E), (Figure 28.). The forest is locally known as ‘Mbuyu Tundu’, but will hereafter be referred to as ‘Shimoni forest (east)’. Shimoni forest (east) represents an important fragment of indigenous coastal forest, linked in part to the larger extents of the Kwale district forests. Currently used for resource extraction and the clearing of land for farming, the area is at threat from the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly on coastal land plots. This area of forest was selected for biological research, primarily because it represents a valuable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Discussions with communitybased organisations in Shimoni village highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Youth Conservation Project were keen to seek protection and promote sustainable management. As a result, GVI have developed the terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical

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level, the forest is readily accessible and GVI are logistically able to support long-term and wide ranging biodiversity surveys and monitoring of the area.

This expedition, GVI has participated in the Colobus census, undertaken by The Colobus Trust in collaboration with KWS, as a revision of the 4 month census undertaken in 2001 (Anderson). Primarily, to assess the status and distribution of the Angolan Black and White colobus on the South coast of Kenya and within the Kwale district. GVI’s participation this expedition has included Shimoni forest east, and the larger Shimoni forest west, located on the west side of the Shimoni village. The Shimoni forest (west) has recently been highlighted as at threat from habitat destruction. Despite this, it is an important coastal forest fragment, and may act as a refuge for populations of colobus monkeys found within the area. The census will hopefully help to obtain up-todate density and distribution of the species, and push forward conservation initiatives to place protection on the forest areas, ensuring its long term survival in Kenya.

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Figure 3-1. Survey transects on the Shimoni peninsular.

3.2 Aims The aims of the terrestrial research programme are to monitor primate community dynamics, densities, distribution, habitat use and time budgets, with particular interest in C. a. palliates which is a flagship species for Kenya (Anderson, 2001). These surveys are complimented and quantified by the monitoring of habitat variation through analysis of floral composition, disturbance and seasonal change. Vegetation surveys are utilised to assess floristic diversity, canopy height, canopy cover and seasonality of fruits and flowers. Monitoring of floral regeneration in relation to disturbance levels are used to assess forest recovery rates, and resource consumption including extraction of poles

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and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity. Butterfly surveys are additionally used to examine forest diversity and the effects of differing levels of disturbance on the butterfly community. Bird diversity and habitat use is also used to assess resource competition between certain avian and primate species and gain a species list for the area. Biodiversity is additionally monitored by the recording of casual observations, used to assess and gauge species richness and the presence of other rare and endangered plants and animals.

The eventual aim for this research is to support the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project in their petition for community management of forest resources, and build capacity within the community for responsible resource use and monitoring. With community management status obtained, the research can be used to suggest management protocols whereby resource use is acceptable at specified levels, and re-plantation initiatives are utilised to ensure the long-term sustainability of forest resources for both the human and wildlife communities. Additional forms of income may also be derived from the forest through responsible tourism. C. a. palliatus is a beautiful and charismatic primate, and can be easily located on most days. Guided tours through the forest may in the future provide a source of income for the local community, and the data from these surveys may be used to suggest the location for trails through the forest.

Due to time constraints from the collaboration on the colobus census, not all the above surveys were completed this expedition. However, primate community, primate behaviour, bird counts, butterfly trapping and fruit and flower surveys were successfully completed, Yearly data from these are of particular importance, for both C. a. palliatus population and sustainability, and biodiversity of the forest.

3.3 Methods 3.3.1 Line transect sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising east-west straight line transects (Figure 3-1). Parallel transects are spaced at 200 metre intervals, facilitating a 100 metre survey distance

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either side of the transects. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol (Lacher 2005).

Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised accurately, and facilitate distribution mapping. A north-south ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and to aid access.

The Shimoni forest (east) study area contains six transects; transect 1, the furthest south, runs approximately 100 metres from the coastal edge. The total survey area for Shimoni Forest (east) is 220ha or 2.2km2. The KWS forest area contains just one 400m transect which runs north to south, comprising 8ha. Table 3-1. summarises the total number of sections and lengths of each transect.

Forest Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) KWS forest

Transect 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total 7

Sections 17 34 48 43 39 38 219 8

Length (m) 850 1700 2400 2150 1950 1900 10950 400

Table 3-1. Summary of transects in the Shimoni area.

3.3.2 Primate community survey Three species of anthropoid coexist in the survey area. The Angolan Black and White Colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus), the Syke’s monkey (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis), and the yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus). The primate community surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team ensure they do not draw attention to primates undetected by the observers. This maintains consistency of effort, to enable the quantifiable analysis of data used in estimating primate densities (Buckland et al. 2001).

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Primate surveys are conducted along one transect at a time, once during each expedition. Surveys are conducted during the mornings when primates are more likely to be active and easily detected. When groups of primates are spotted, the sighting distance (distance from the observer to the first detected individual) is estimated and recorded, all observers were tested at an accuracy of 90%. Distance sampling requires the perpendicular distance. This is calculated using trigonometry, hence the sighting angle (using a compass) and distance from the observer is measured. Perpendicular distance is calibrated from the first animal seen to the centre of the group by (Whitesides et al. 1988) standard correction method (equation below). P’ = P ( 1+ ŕi ) S
Where: P’ = Perpendicular distance from the transect line to the centre of the group. P = Perpendicular distance from the transect line to the first detected ind. ŕi = Half the mean group spread. S = Sighting distance (distance from observer to first detected ind.

Population size and density was calculated using the program DISTANCE 5.0 (Thomas et al. 2006). Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met, including the random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group positioned 0 metres from the transect line has a 100% probability of detection (Buckland et al. 2001). Since the species surveyed in this study are not particularly cryptic, it is unlikely that such groups would go undetected; hence this assumption can be upheld with confidence.

For each sighting, species, group size, demography and behaviour were determined, spending up to 10 minutes with the group. Sex and age class is most easily recognized in C. a. palliatus; 0-3 months (white infant), 3-6 months (grey juvenile), >6 months (black and white adult). Small individuals with adult colouration and in close association to an adult were classed as sub-adults. Age classes are primarily defined by pelt colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate using relative body size. Sex was only determined in adults, where males have a clear white stripe from buttocks to genitalia which is absent in females. Ages classes and sexes

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were not assumed in C. m. albogularis and P. cynocephalus except where young were seen attached to an adult, as they could not be confidently quantified.

Sighting quality was recorded and ranked as follows; 1, group count incomplete, 2, group count complete but demographics incomplete, 3, count and demographics complete. Group spread of the primates was recorded where possible, to estimate a mean group spread for the different species sampled. In addition, tree species the primates were in was recorded, providing information on species preference.

3.3.3 Primate behavioural surveys Behavioural surveys of C. a. palliatus are used primarily to investigate time budgets. However, habitat use, group structure, and group interactions, are also derived from the data collected. Through habituation, and the identification of group territories, these surveys will also support the development of tourism initiatives to gain sustainable income from the forest wildlife. Continuous, focal individual sampling is adopted in order to establish C. a. palliatus time budgets. Time budgets can be used to establish conditions and constraints under which animals are living. The most suitable conditions promote greater carrying capacities and hence higher densities (Fimbel et al. 2001), as well as less vulnerability to changes in habitat condition. Time budgets can also be used in examining predator pressures by analysing the relative time spent being vigilant. This data will then be used to compare between populations, forest types, and at different levels of disturbance. Data may also be used in comparison with studies on the other sub-species of C. angolensis.

Focal individuals are surveyed in ten-minute blocks, measuring behaviours which are broken into states and events. States are measured in real-time durations, as opposed to events which are recorded only as frequencies logged within each ten-minute time block. States represent behaviours of longer durations; for example feeding, sleeping, resting etc. Events represent shorter, instantaneous behaviours; for example scratching, yawning, urinating. Some tactile signals and postures are included in this survey for use

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in the analysis of group interactions. These include stiff-legs display, which has been identified as an agonistic display between males of different groups of black and white colobus (Estes 1991). At the end of each time block, a scan sample is conducted to identify the overall group state (>50% of the group); this is used in the analysis and discussion of the circumstances under which different individual behaviours occur.

States and events are categorised under strict parameters, and outlined in the ethogram which is used to ensure consistency between observers and comparability between surveys. Surveys are conducted at all times of the daylight hours in order to measure a representative portion of time budgets throughout the day. Data recording is only

initiated after a period of at least 10 minutes to reduce bias caused by the arrival of the observers. If the focal individual moves out of view and observers are unable to confidently identify the same individual upon reappearing, the survey is ended. There is no set survey time limit.

3.3.4 Bird point counts Bird species diversity, abundance and density are estimated through the use of bird point counts. East Africa represents one of 218 worldwide Endemic Bird Areas, (Stattersfield et al. 1998) and birds are important components of forest ecosystems as well as indicators of habitat disturbance. Many bird species are dependent on readily available stocks of fruits, flowers and seeds, and the presence or absence of seasonal birds indicate the seasonality of these forest commodities. Birds such as large raptors also represent the only known predators of primate species in the area.

Early morning point count surveys are conducted along the transect lines at 100 metre intervals. The point count is delineated by transect sections. Odd or even transect numbers are sampled, leaving a section between recordings, therefore avoiding double counts. Number and species of birds seen are recorded for ten minutes before moving onto the next point count. A five minute settle-down period of silence precedes each recording period. Recordings of birds heard within the ten minute period are also

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recorded using a Dictaphone, and analysed from a bird song CD after surveys, aiding a species list from the visual constraints of the forest habitat.

3.3.5 Fruit and flower survey Fruits and flowers are surveyed in an effort to measure tree species seasonality, and the distribution of fruits and flowers throughout the survey area. Many forest animals rely on fruits and flowers as vital food sources; and most significantly for the aims of this project, they are vital dietary components of the primates found in the Shimoni forests.

Fruits and flowers are identified along the transect lines, recording trees within 10m of the transect line. Trees in fruit or flower are identified by the aid of an identification sheet, composed in collaboration with a local botanist, and their DBH recorded in order to assess age structure. Only woody vegetation with a DBH over 5cm is recorded. Samples, photos, and descriptions of unknown tree species are taken for later identification. . 3.3.6 Butterfly community survey Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. Butterfly canopy traps are utilised, baited with mashed banana that has been allowed to ferment for at least 3 days. Traps are baited and left for approximately 24 hours before checking, three canopy traps are used simultaneously on each trapping day. Traps are placed at three heights; ground (01m), understorey (1-5m), and mid-canopy (5-10m). Photographs of each individual are taken for identification using Larsen (1996).

3.3.7 Casual observations During all observer time in the forest, records are also made of other fauna observed and identified in the field, noting species, location, habitat, group size and other applicable notes. Indirect observations of animals such as tracks or dung are also recorded as indicators of presence. Where possible, unknown species are photographed for later identification.

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3.3.8 Colobus Census sweep surveys In addition to primate community survey, census surveys were undertaken in Shimoni forest (east) and Shimoni forest (west). Methodologies remained the same as primate community surveys, however, transects at 100m spacing were used and surveys were simultaneous, starting at the same time and maintaining similar speed. Transects were walked at a slow pace, stopping every 100m to watch and listen for primates (White and Edwards 2000).

Within Shimoni (east) (Figure 2-9.) one-day sweeps comprised of four teams (3 people in each), two on permanent transects and two between. All members were fully informed of survey methodology, and each team contained a staff member, proficient in identifying Colobus age and sex classes. Teams between the permanent transects also walked east-west parallel bearings, and all teams maintained synchronisation by VHF radio and the counting of paces. Additional data was collected on sighting time of primate groups, and observer teams re-grouped at the end of each transect to share data and eliminate double counts between neighbouring transects.

Shimoni (west) census (Figure 3-2) contained no permanent transects, therefore each start and end point were recorded using a Garmin Etrex GPS, thus allowing confidence in the 100m spacing and to allow mapping. Each survey day comprised of 5 teams, (undertaken over a period of 5 days), walking an east-west bearing with constant radio communication. Transect lengths and primate locations were estimated by pacing (Anderson 2001), and all groups were notified of a sighting, to avoid speed changes on transects and double counts.

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Shimoni Forest (west)

Shimoni Forest (east) T6 T5 T3 T1 T4 T2

Figure 3-2. Census transects walked in Shimoni forest (east) and Shimoni forest (west). Transects shown in blue are permanent transects in our survey area. Shimoni west transects are actual transects walked. Shimoni forest east transects are estimates, as the dense forest prevented GPS locations to be recorded.

3.4 Results 3.4.1 Primate community survey Primate community and distance sampling was completed once across all transect sections. Using the population estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al. 2006), the total C. a. palliatus population for the Shimoni forest (east) survey area (2.2 km2) is estimated at 88 individuals ± 33.5 S.E. (CI 95%: 40 – 196), at densities of 40 ind/km2 ± 15.2 S.E. (CI 95%: 40 -196). These estimates are derived using the distance sampling data from this expedition only. The input data does not include sightings of solitary individuals. Six solitary males of C. a palliatus were detected during the community survey. Table 3-2. summarises primate groups. Only two of the three species of primate were recorded during the community survey, with no sightings of P. cynocephalus throughout.

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C. a. palliatus Area surveyed (km²) Number of groups Number of individuals Average group size 2.2 12 53 3.8

C. m. albogularis 2.2 9 24 4.2

Table 3-2. Summary of primate community surveys (Average group size was calculated omitting single sightings)

Perpendicular distances for primate groups were calculated from the data, as these are necessary for distance sampling analysis in order to produce density and population estimates. Figure 3-3 shows the distance categories at which C. a. palliatus were detected on the community survey.

7
Number of sightings

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0-10 10-<20 20-<30 30-<40 40-<50 50< Perpendicular Distance

Figure 3-3. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during primate community surveys (n=12)

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3.4.2 Primate behavioural survey A total of 18 hours of behavioural surveys were conducted on 8 different groups of C. a. palliatus. Figure 3-4 summarizes the total time budgets for all individuals. The exact number of individuals studied is unknown due to the problems associated with the identification of specific individuals. Both adult males and females were studied, and females with young. Numerous notable behaviours were recorded, including social grooming, social play and stiff legs display. Copulation was not observed this expedition, however, a male was observed soliciting copulation on one occasion. Aggressive encounters were not observed during survey, either between or within groups. However, agonistic behaviour was witnessed on another occasion between groups of C. a. palliatus and C. m. albogularis. Staring behaviour is recorded when the individual being surveyed is intently staring at the observer. This behaviour is not analysed as it is caused by human presence. The behaviour state is used to prevent recording it as vigilance behaviour.

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90 85 80 75 70 65 60
Tim Spent (% e )

83.51

55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sleep Self Groom Groom Active Groom Stiff Leg Passive Stare Travel Alert Feed Rest 0.13 0.20 0.31 0.75 0.83 2.68 2.72 3.25 10.93

BehaviourState

Figure 3-4 Percent time spent in each behaviour state. Figures above bars are actual percentages for each behaviour

Colobus spent the majority of their time resting (83.5%) with only small percentages of their time budget engaged in grooming and agonistic behaviours (Figure 3-4). Table 3-3. Summarises the frequency of behaviour events exhibited within the behaviour surveys this expedition.

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Behaviour Urination Defecation Yawn Teeth Display Vocalising Scratching Contact Exchange Arousal Copulation Masturbation Throwing Shaking

Frequency 3 4 3 0 0 70 14 0 6 0 1 0 7

Table 3-3. Frequencies of behaviour events

Low frequencies of agonistic behaviour were observed, and no copulations witnessed, with low frequencies of sexual behaviour. However, again, as has been found in other expeditions, a high level of scratching behaviour was witnessed during behaviour surveys. 3.4.3 Bird point counts Bird point counts were conducted between the hours of 06:30 and 09:00 on transects 15 only. The time required for access meant that most surveys were restricted to sections within close proximity to the north/south ‘spine’. A total time of 10hrs was surveyed providing 16 point counts, covering 18 transect sections; forming a total survey area of 45,000m2. 53 birds were identified through sight and sound. Silvery-cheeked hornbills (Bycanistes brevis), crowned hornbills (Tockus alboterminatus suahelicus), common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and collared sunbird (Hedydipna collaris), were among the most abundant species.

Species previously not recorded before included the black and white cuckoo (Oxyophus jacobinus) and the yellow fronted canary (Serinus mozambicus)

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3.4.4 Fruit and flower survey All transect sections were surveyed for fruits and flowers, over a total duration of 48hrs. 537 trees were recorded in fruit or flower throughout the total survey areas. 13 species were identified. Most numerous fruits were represented by Trichilia emetica (206), Millettia usaramensis (226), Adansonia digitata, and various Ficus spp. The majority of Ficus spp observed were in flower (Table 3-4).

Tree species 1 Adansonia digitata Delonix spp. Ficus sansibarica Ficus sur Ficus spp. Grewia Lannea welwitshii Mallotus oppositifolius Millettia usaramensis Monathotaxis spp. Sorindea madagascariensis Trichilia emetic Uvaria acuminate 5 7 37 2 8 4 16 1 23 42 3 5 11 2 5 1 1 14 29 -

Transect 4 1 2 2 23 18 5 1 1 1 1 2 72 57 6 2 87 1 1 23 1 7 1 -

Total

20 5 1 33 5 5 3 1 226 1 1 206 1

Table 3-4. Summary of tree species within fruit and flower.

3.4.5 Butterfly community survey A total of 42 trapping days (where one trapping day is counted as one trap baited for a 24 hour period) were completed this expedition. Transect 6 in the Shimoni forest and transect 7 in the KWS forest was not surveyed. Table 3-5. summarises the species found and their abundances.

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Subfamily Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Total caught Number of species

Species Charaxes brutus Charaxes varanes vologeses Charaxes Cithaeron Cymothoe coranus Charaxes protoclea azota Euxanthe wakefieldi Euphraedra neophron littoralis Bicyclus safitza safitza Melanitus leda

Number caught 68 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 78 9

Table 3-5. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals.

3.4.6 Casual observations A total of 242 hours was spent on casual observations of fauna during this expedition in both Shimoni east and west forests. 23 species of birds, 11 species of mammals, 8 species of reptiles and 1 amphibian species was identified. Species previously not recorded include the Southern Banded Snake Eagle (Circaetus fasciolatus), Zanj Sun Squirrel (Paraxerus palliatus), Suni (Neotragus moschatus), Puff Adder (Bitis arietans), Eastern Stripe-bellied Sand Snake (Psammophis orientalis) and African Rock Python (Python sebae).

3.4.7 Primate Census Shimoni East The Primate Census was completed over a 6 day period, between the 6th and the 11th of August 2007. Using the population estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al. 2006), the total C. a. palliatus population for the Shimoni forest (east) survey area is estimated at 141 individuals ± 46.3 S.E. (CI 95%: 73 – 271), at densities of 79.6 ind/km2 ± 26.1 S.E. (CI 95%: 41.5 – 152.9). The input data does not include sightings of solitary

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individuals. Shimoni forest (east) census did not include minus sections, as did the community survey. Perpendicular distances necessary for distance sampling analysis for Shimoni forest (east) census are shown in figure 3-5.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0-10 10-<20 20-<30 30-<40 40-<50 Perpendicular distance

Figure 3-5 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during Shimoni forest (east) census (n=29)

3.4.8 Primate Census Shimoni West Shimoni (west) census was completed over a period of 5 days, 6th to the 11th September 2007. Using ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al. 2006), the total C. a. palliatus population for the Shimoni forest (west) survey area is estimated at 234 individuals ± 50.5 S.E. (CI 95%: 151 – 360), at densities of 72.3 ind/km2 ± 15.6 S.E. (CI 95%: 46.9 – 111.4). The input data does not include sightings of solitary individuals. Table 3-6. summarises C. a. palliatus distribution in both forests surveyed. Figure 3-6. shows the perpendicular

distance categories at which C. a palliatus were detected.

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20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0-10 10-<20 20-<30 30-<40 40-<50 50< Perpendicular distance

Figure 3-6 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during Shimoni forest (west) census (n=56)

Census surveys recorded only C. a palliatus species. Table 1-9. below displays actual group number and group size of C. a palliatus sighted in Shimoni forest (east) and Shimoni forest (west) without analysis.

Number of sightings

Shimoni forest (east) Area surveyed (km²) Number of groups Number of individuals Average group size 1.7 29 100 4.35

Shimoni forest (west) 3.23 56 192 4.02

Table 3-6. Summary of primate census surveys (Average group size was calculated omitting single sightings)

3.5 Discussion 3.5.1 Primate community survey This is now the third successful primate community survey that has been applied this year. However, this expedition DISTANCE 5.0 produced lower densities of C. a palliatus

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than previously. This expedition sees an end to the rains; however, canopy cover within the forest is still very dense, with significantly more leaf cover than at the beginning of the year. This may explain why fewer primates were recorded than previously. In addition to this, a high number of infant and juvenile C. a palliatus was observed. C. a palliatus has a tendency to be more conspicuous and wary of observers when infants are present. This increases complexity of spotting, therefore producing a decrease in sightings. Figure 3-3 shows no primates were seen between 10-20m. Distance assumes 100% probability at 0m. Therefore, if primates are seen at greater distances, the program assumes all primates at shorter distances from the transect have been accounted for. If this is not the case, distance will underestimate density, hence producing a lower population size.

3.5.2 Primate behaviour survey C. a. palliatus rely almost entirely on leaves for sustenance (Kingdon 1997). A preference for mature leaves enables this species to live in high densities, sympatric with other folivorous primates who favour younger leaves, and fruits (Fimbel et al. 2001). Because these mature leaves are of poor quality and require effective detoxification (Kay and Davies 1994), C. a. palliatus seem to exhibit energy economy and spend the majority of the time inactive. It is therefore expected that 83.5% time spent resting is normal for this species. This high percentage of time spent resting was similar to the previous expedition (64%). The minimal time spent traveling may be best explained by the group size found in this area. Smaller groups, deplete food sources less quickly and therefore can afford to remain in one area for long periods (Fimbel et al. 2001). Groups were easily located as their movements seemed minimal, and some were found in one or two trees for weeks at a time. C. a. palliatus spent very little time involved in grooming behaviours, and scratching was less frequent. Sexual behaviours including arousal, masturbation and copulation were observed at very low levels. C. a palliatus do not produce sexual swellings (Oates et al. 1994) however it is thought that a peak birth rate occurs within the rainy season, seasonal environment plays a huge part in reproduction (Oates et al. 1994)) when food is more readily available. A high number of infants and juveniles were seen during

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expedition. Further data on infant number and copulation rate are needed to quantify peak birth rate. Teeth display, throwing, stiff leg display and vocalizations have all been seen at lower frequencies. This again, can be related to a decrease in mating and therefore less agonistic encounters between males.

Sleeping behaviour was observed at very low levels. As C. a. palliatus are observed at most in the upper canopy, it is difficult to detect whether the individuals eyes are open or closed. This may explain why low levels of sleeping behaviour were recorded. Scratching behaviour is thought to increase relating to presence of observers as a sign of stress. As groups are being observed more frequently, it seems the habituation process is succeeding, allowing more reliable data to be obtained as groups are becoming more relaxed with constant observation. This can also be seen by a reduced level of staring at observers, and lower frequencies of urination and defecations (thought to be linked to stress).

3.5.3 Bird point counts Avian diversity and abundance seems low, however this may be explained by the small sample size and the visual constraints in dense forest of this kind. However, recordings of bird song and later analysis have proved successful and will be continued next expedition. The species discovery curve is so far growing exponentially, and with a greater sample size, will in future be used in estimates of species diversity. Casual observations is also used and is increasing the species list for the forest.

3.5.4 Fruit & flower Work with a local botanist has proven successful with a number of species confirmations and a photo key begun, covering the major phenology of the survey area. Trichilia emetica was found fruiting in high abundance throughout the survey area, with the exception of highly disturbed re-growth forest and clearings. All other species observed were found to be in fruit throughout the surveys, with the exception of all Ficus spp surveyed, found to be in flower. Millettia usaramensis was found in high densities with

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beans. Fruiting Adansonia digitata was observed throughout the study area but in low densities and only one found with both fruit and flowers. 3.5.5 Butterfly community survey Bicyclus safitza safitza was found in low numbers this expedition as was seen in April to June. Charaxes brutus was caught in greatest numbers, in all areas and trap heights. In addition, two new species of butterfly were caught (Cymothoe coranus and Charaxes protodea azota). Charaxes protodea is uncommon in coastal forests and is one of the few rainforest species to be found on the coast. New species confirms trapping with this method and bait is continuing to yield new species. Species diversity may be difficult to obtain from one catching method; however, it is yielding seasonal variation within species, hence important to continue with these methods to obtain a yearly analysis of data.

3.5.6 Casual observations Although bird species’ were low during bird survey, casual observations have increased estimates of diversity. This may be due to the fact that casual observations take place at all times of day, as opposed to bird point counts which are restricted to the morning hours. In addition, casual observations have no parameter limits on sighting distance, and many bird species appear to be particularly shy of human presence. Sightings of the Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) continue to be of particular interest, due to its rare and data-deficient status. A sighting of another possible species of elephant shrew is thought to be the lesser elephant shrew (Elephantulus spp) but this remains unconfirmed. Camera trapping has continued, with four traps now set, and no formal transects utilized. The first film process yielded yellow baboons, further films are yet to be processed. In addition, two snares were found during the surveys in Shimoni East.

3.5.7 Census Surveys Census surveys conducted in Shimoni forest (east) and Shimoni forest (west) yielded high populations of C. a palliatus. Conducting the census at 100m spaced transects increases the sighting probability, hence explaining the increase in sightings when compared to the community survey data in Shimoni forest (east). These population

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numbers seem relatively high, and shows an increase in C. a palliatus numbers when compared to Thomas (1990) and Anderson (2001). The area surveyed by Thomas (1990) differs from the Shimoni forest in that it holds 12 sympatric primates which may reduce the density of each species through competition. When compared with Anderson however, the increased densities are less easily explained. It suggests that the C. a palliatus population has increased within the last six years. This is encouraging and it will be interesting to see the change in other populations of C. a palliatus across the Kwale District. However, it is of concern to see the rate of destruction taking place in Shimoni forest (west). Each day of census chainsaws were heard or seen and many of the large trees were seen cut down. The main species targeted were Tricillia emetica and Antiaris toxicaria. C. a palliatus have been observed feeding on both these species. 3.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work Trapping of butterflies will be continued in Shimoni (east) throughout the course of the year to ensure representative sampling of the different micro-habitats and to assess seasonal variation in the butterfly community. Casual observations show that a large number of butterfly species present in the forest did not frequent the traps; it seems likely that they are not attracted to the bait. Complimenting the canopy traps with other survey methods, such as sweep netting should also be considered and different baits used after a yearly data set has been obtained.

Casual observations continue to reveal greater faunal diversity. Although some of the large terrestrial mammals have been identified, it is thought many nocturnal species are yet to be spotted. Four camera traps are now located within the forest hoping to obtain proficient data when the films are processed. It is hoped that confirmation of ground pangolin (Smutsia temminckii), aardvark (Orycteropus afer), various genets and civets (Family: Viverridae), aardwolf (Proteles cristata), and various mongooses (Family: Herpestidae) may be recorded in this way.

Bird surveys will be continued as the species list is still increasing. Recordings of species alongside sightings have proved to be efficient, enabling further identification of species.

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Primate Community surveys will be continued to assess change in population and density of different species within different seasonal variations over a yearly period. This could facilitate in assessing mortality rates within certain species.

Future work is summarized as follows:  Continue to take part in the colobus census, extending to other forests within the Kwale district.  Continue with primate community surveys within Shimoni forest (east) to obtain a yearly count of anthropoids inhabiting the area, and monitoring any seasonal changes within their population.  Continue primate behavioural surveys on C. a. palliatus, attempting to habituate more groups, at higher section numbers for comparisons.  Expand behaviour surveys into new study areas, to be used in comparison between forests of different floral composition and different levels of disturbance.  Photo identification may be possible for a few troops of C. a. palliatus, where the time budgets and individual behaviour patterns of specifics may be analysed.  Continue with evenly distributed sampling of sections for vegetation and regeneration surveys until representation analysis indicates a leveling of the species discovery curve.  Continue seasonal repetition of canopy surveys to support primate community surveys.  Continue butterfly trapping, across seasons, and trial different baits. Pilot complimentary methods of sampling the butterfly population, such as sweep netting.  Pilot surveys of the Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) may include nest surveys and flush netting.

The Shimoni forest (east) continues to be under threat from human disturbance. The ‘Shimoni Youth Conservation Project’ are a group of self-formed Shimoni residents who have submitted a proposal for the community management of the forest, and for the cessation of extensive deforestation and un-sustainable timber harvesting for commercial purposes. It is hoped that the data derived from these surveys will be highly

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beneficial in the formation of management plans for this forest, in an effort to benefit both the areas biodiversity and local human community. The group has also asked if GVI could present lectures on forest importance, diversity and primate populations. It is hoped that these will begin in the near future.

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4. Community Development Programme
This element of the programme falls broadly into 4 main areas; TEFL teaching in Mkwiro Primary School; TEFL teaching in adult classes to local community members; orphanage development and sustainable development community-based projects. 4.1 Introduction With regard to the TEFL teaching, the EMs received the 2-day training course on TEFL on arrival in Mkwiro focusing not only on the adult classes, but also on TEFL for children. In the first phase, the EMs designed a lesson to give to the Standard 1, 2 and 3 classes at Mkwiro Primary School. The second phase EMs, a smaller group, were able to take a short introduction lesson with the Standard 8 students. This training was very successful with several EMs feeling confident enough to present classes as the lead-teacher. The main community stakeholder we have been working with is Mkwiro Primary School. During this expedition, all of GVI’s classes with Standards 5-8 at Mkwiro Primary School have been arranged in double lessons and lessons with Standard 1-4 have been single lessons. Due to the school holidays taking up a large part of this expedition’s community time, and students attending the Madras Islamic classes, we were only able to conduct normal classroom lessons for 4 weeks during the expedition.

The adult classes have included simultaneous beginners and advanced classes for both the men and the women. These classes continued to be very popular and have continued to help build capacity for tourism, enterprises and build confidence within the village. Visits to the Al-Hanan Orphanage have been two-to-three times weekly during both the school term and in the holidays and we have been involved with the orphanage throughout the expedition with help and support as needed. Various community projects have been started or continued during this expedition, and we have worked alongside the Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group, Village Committee, Dispensary Committee and Tumaini Women’s Group to work on aspects such as fundraising, developing capacity for tourism, the village tour and developing markets and revenue for local enterprises.

GVI have been an official member on The Year of the Dolphin Committee and have continued to be a key community stakeholder this year. Shimoni, Wasini and Mkwiro

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Primary Schools each received 3 laptops and a generator as a donation from Tui Travel Company in recognition of their participation in Kenya’s Year of the Dolphin opening ceremony. GVI has provided each school with a training course for Microsoft Office applications and has been working with Mkwiro to enable the school to start an internet business to enable the generator costs to become sustainable.

Figure 4-1. A beach clean for International Coastal Cleanup Day.

4.2 School Education Following the Kenyan syllabus, we have been working on the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using these as the basis around which our lessons are planned. We completed one chapter for each Standard in the first 5 weeks. We have conducted more than 17 hours of English lessons. In terms of extra-curricular study, we have conducted 5 hours of tutorial work with Standard 8 helping them to prepare for their final exams. We continued special reading lessons with the Standard 6-8 students where they come individually to our base for one-on-one reading time. This has benefited more than 50 of the learners so far, and the individual time has really motivated both the EMs and the students.

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4.3 Adult Education During this expedition, we have conducted a record 50 hours of classes to the women’s and men’s classes. They have both been split for the first time into beginners and advanced levels. The advanced classes have covered topics as diverse as Presentation Skills, Study Skills, Proposal Writing and Leadership. With the beginners’ classes, we have been working on transport, food, time, money and descriptions as well as vocabulary and skills relating to the student’s jobs. During the Adult Education, time has been used for computer lessons using a downloaded series of lessons from a British University. We have continued to offer lessons to the teachers from Mkwiro Primary School and during Ramadan they have been able to come for a 1 hour lesson each day. This is a valuable addition to the capacity building, as the teachers are becoming increasingly able to teach the students in the Primary School on computers. 4.4 Al Hanan Orphanage We have been visiting the orphanage every Monday, Wednesday and Friday for an hour and a half each day. We have spent more than 20 hours at the orphanage during this expedition. Activities have included games, homework, reading help, sports, drawing and painting. The orphanage underwent a lengthy set of improvements during this expedition. We were able to attend the opening formalities with a group of EMs and have continued to support the orphanage’s developments since the official opening. 4.5 Satellite Camp Working in collaboration with the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and the Kenyan Wildlife Service (KWS), GVI successfully completed its fourth series of satellite camps with 3 ex-poaching communities in the Taveta district. The 3 communities (Kidong, Mahandikini and Kaasani) had historically poached wildlife for their own subsistence purposes, while also supplying the local and trans-boundary bushmeat demand. The prinicipal threat to wildlife sustainability in the nearby Tsavo West national park and local non-protected areas, however, is the bush meat trade - an increasingly destructive and lucrative international practice surpassing habitat loss as the greatest threat to tropical wildlife (Bennet et al. 2006 as cited by Omonde 2006). Therefore, in order to negate the impact of this trade on local wildlife, and to simultaneously improve the livelihood options for ex-poaching communities, GVI continue to implement capacity-building exercises in each of the three villages. It is

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anticipated that, through the promotion of environmental awareness and creation of alternative livelihood opportunities, the ex-poaching communities will play a key role in the long-term sustainability of their natural resources.

A fourth village, that of Mtakuja, had previously been involved in the satellite camps; however, due to internal problems and issues of land ownership, it was not possible to implement a satellite camp with the group this expedition. However, after GVI recently met with Mtakuja group members, it is anticipated that the issues preventing their participation will soon be resolved. Overall, GVI delivered approximately 52 hours of lessons to the 3 communities. These lessons also involved close guidance and supervision from 30 expedition members. Attendance was generally excellent, with classes comprising between 10 – 25 members. Summaries from each satellite camp will now be presented.

4.5.1 Kidong Satellite Camp The Kidong Conservation and Development Community-Based Organisation (herein Kidong group) are aspiring to create a cultural centre, with the hope that tourism revenues provide a viable alternative income. Therefore, the satellite camp this expedition partly concentrated on tourism workshops, where group members and EMs acted out tourism-based role-plays. The EM’s created hypothetical problems that tourists generally encounter, and it was up to the group members to deal with the problems in an efficient and professional way. The expedition members were also actively involved in researching the culture and practices of the Kidong group members, with special emphasis on issues surrounding hunting, social calendar, religion and village structure. It is anticipated the collected data will form part of the cultural information stand within the centre. As Mtakuja could not be involved in the satellite camp this expedition, it was decided to use Kidong as a substitute village. This particular satellite camp was very hands-on, and introduced methods in reducing conflict with wild animals. Mixing elephant dung with crushed chilli, EM’s demonstrated to group members a new technique which has been deterring elephants from crops (see fig. 4.2). With chilli being locally-available and easily grown, the Kidong group now have an effective and economical way of guarding food crops from wild animals. The Kidong group also

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received lessons in natural pest control, and together with EMs, drafted a funding proposal aimed at obtaining building materials for the construction of the cultural centre. The next satellite camp in expedition 07-04 will concentrate on developing business opportunities for the group, with special focus on neem and aloe-vera derived products. 4.5.2 Mahandikini Satellite Camp The Mahandikini Youth Network for Animal Welfare and Rights (herein Mahandikini group) are looking to substitute poaching with a bee-keeping enterprise, with thirteen members recently undergoing training with the Kenyan company Honeycare. This particular satellite camp had an agricultural element to it, with EM’s discussing with group members topics on soil conservation and mulching. Natural-pest control was also covered, with EMs demonstrating to group members techniques in controlling cropeating pests. By using locally-grown products such as garlic, chilli, onion and marigold, Mahandikini now have a cheaper and environmentally-friendlier alternative to chemical pesticides. Promising is that Mahandikini farmers have also reported success in deterring crop-eating pests with these naturally-made sprays. The Mahandikini group are looking to tackle the problem of deforestation (primarily caused by charcoal burning) in their area, so the next satellite camp will focus on setting up tree nurseries and ways to create products from them. 4.5.3 Kasaani Satellite Camp The Kasaani Group for Animal Protection (herein Kasaani group) are keen to initiate a bee-keeping project in their locality; having recently received training from Honeycare, the group are awaiting the delivery of 50 beehives to begin production. Due to the location of Kasaani being very close to the border of Tsavo West National Park, they are accordingly suffering from high-levels of human-wildlife conflict. It was therefore apt to cover issues surrounding this conflict, and present possible ways of reducing problems with wild animals. Along with natural pest control, the topic of mulching was also discussed covered. EM’s and group members conversed about the potential benefits of mulching, and how laying dead leaf matter on soils could improve the agricultural capability of Kasaani. With lack of potable water being a fundamental problem to the villagers, EMs and group members also had a brainstorming session – bringing up important information which the Kaasani group will use to formulate a proposal. The next

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satellite camp will look to develop the income-generating capacity of the group, by initiating tree nurseries and neem/aloe-vera ventures.

Fig 4-2. EMs and Kidong group members create chilli dung bricks

4.6 Capacity Building At the start of this expedition, we were able to commit 3 Saturdays to helping the Youth group with various activities including a beach clean and helping with the bee hives. Meetings have been arranged to discuss the proposed restaurant banda and toilets at the beach facing the marine park and the Youth Group are working to resolve their own internal problems so that we can continue working with them into next expedition. The problem of finding sustainable building materials remains an issue, but it is hoped to be resolved soon. EMs have also used their time to speak with the Tumaini Women’s Group to try to develop their markets with stalls in Shimoni. We hope to help continue this with the women into the peak tourist season next expedition. Meetings have

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continued with the Dispensary to organise the boat which is to be bought with sponsorship from Timberland Clothing Company. We hope that within a few weeks, the boat and engine will be bought and the dispensary will start to generate revenue.

We have taken on two local Kenyans as part of the National Scholarship Programme this expedition. Nasra Hansui, a KWS student from their training institute has come to us for training in the programme which can be passed back to KWS. Our second NSP was Mwanasha Hassan Zinga, a local woman who is hoping to start a teacher-training course in Mombasa. She is from Mkwiro village, and has benefited from learning and the GVI TEFL skills and has been able to develop her teaching style in adult classes. As well as generally strengthening the relationship between GVI and Mkwiro village, the additional TEFL course will add extra strength to her CV.

4.7 Employment Currently, there are several local staff employed by GVI: Marine staff: 1

Boat drivers/security: 5 Base security: 2

The expedition members get a great deal of added enjoyment and understanding of the local culture and way of life by working closely with these local staff. We are also helping to build capacity within our local staff by helping them to improve their English and offering computer lessons and practice when machines are available. GVI also supports local enterprises in the community including bread and samosa makers, the village tailor and curio sellers.

4.8 GVI Charitable Trust GVI has helped to sponsor 5 children to secondary school in full this expedition through donations to the expedition through GVI CT. The Orphanage committee have given a proposal requesting for the remainder of money previously pledged to the orphanage to go towards building a new classroom block. Now that their other developments have been finished, the classroom block is underway. Our relationship with the orphanage

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remains strong and all parties are very appreciative of GVI CT. Some of our EMs used their Interest Group time to investigate further fundraising for the orphanage, school, dispensary and other projects in the village.

4.9 Summary GVI’s involvement in the local community in Mkwiro as well as in Shimoni and Wasini through English teaching, capacity building and help with the orphanage has made a tangible difference to the lives of the community members. Next expo, we hope to increase the amount of reading and English being done in the students’ free time by actively helping out in the new school resource centre. We are also looking forward to working with a re-formed Youth Group and increasing the capacity building activities amongst the adults.

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5. References
Anderson, J., 2001. Status, distribution and conservation of the Angola black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in coastal Kenya. A report for Wakuluzu, Friends of the Colobus Trust, P.O. Box 5380, 80401, Diani Beach, Kenya.

Acevedo, A., 1991. Behaviour and movements of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the entrance to Ensenada De La Paz, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 17(3), 137-147. Admiralty Charts and Publications number 866, Edition 4: 1950, Plans in Tanganykia and Kenya

Bejder L., Samuels A., 2003. Evaluating the effects of nature-based tourism on cetaceans. 229 – 256.

Berrow, S. D., Holmes, B. and Kiely, O.R., 1996. Distribution and abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Shannon Estuary. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L., 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York.

Carwadine, M. 2000. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Dorling Kindersley Limited, London, pp. 18, 77. Corkeron, P.J., 1990. Aspects of the behavioural ecology of inshore dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Sousa chinensis in Moreton Bay, Australia, in The Bottlenose Dolphin, S. Leatherwood S., Reeves R. R., (Eds.), Academic Press., San Diego, pp. 285-293.

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Emerton L., Tessema Y., 2001. Economic constraints to the management of marine protected areas: the case of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti National Reserve, Kenya. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.

Estes, R. D., 1991. The behaviour guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primate. University of California Press, California.

Evans, P.G.H., Hammond, P.S., 2004. Monitoring cetaceans in European waters. Mammal Review. 34,1, 131-156.

Fashing, P.J., Cords, M., 2000. Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: An evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests. American Journal of Primatology 50, 139-152.

Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., Mulindahabi, F., 2001. An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology 39, 83-92. Frazier, J., 1975. Marine turtles of the Western Indian Ocean. Oryx 13, 164-175.

Ingram, S. 2000. The Ecology and Conservation of Bottlenose Dolphins in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland. Submitted as P.H.D. to N.U.I., Cork.

Kay, R.N.B., Davies, A.G. Digestive physiology. In: Davies, A.G., Oates, J.F. (Eds.) 1994. Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour, and evolution. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Karczmarski, L., Cockcroft V.G., McLachlan A., 2000. Habitat use and preferences of Indo-pacific humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Marine Mammal Science 16, 65-79.

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Kingdon, J., 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Academic Press. London. Lacher, T.E., 2005. Tropical ecology, assessment and monitoring (TEAM) initiative. Primate monitoring protocol. Conservation International.

Larsen, T.B., 1996. Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History. Oxford University Press, New York. Lehmann, I., Kioko, E., 2005. Lepidoptera diversity, floristic composition and structure of three Kaya forests on the south coast of Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 94, 121-163.

Mann, J., 2000. Unravelling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods, in: Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., H. Whitehead. (Eds.), Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, pp.44-64.

Martin, P., Bateson, P., 1993. Measuring Behaviour: An introductory guide, 3rd edn. Cambridge University press, Cambridge. Meyler, S., 2006. Aspects of the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncates, in the Shannon Estuary. National University of Ireland, Library Journal 24(4).

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J., 2000. Biodiversity hotpots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403, 853 – 858.

Omondi, R., 2006. A project proposal for the Tsavo West National Park Community Game Scouts. Kenyan Wildlife Service. Parsons, K.M., 2001. Procedural guideline No. 4-5 Using photo-ID for assessing bottlenose dolphin abundance and behaviour, in: Marine JNCC Marine Monitoring Handbook. 1-21.

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Richmond, M.D.. (Ed.) 2002. A Field Guide to the Seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands. Sida/SAREC – University of Dar es Salam, pp. 461.

Shane, S. H.,1990. Behaviour and Ecology of the bottlenose dolphin at Sanibel Island, Florida., in: Leatherwood, S and Reeves, R.R. (Eds.)The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, pp. 245-266.

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J., Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK. Stensland, E., Berggren, P., R, Johnstone., 1998. Marine Mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment. Ambio. 27-8, 771-774.

Thomas, S.C. 1990. Population densities and patterns of habitat use among anthropoid primates in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Biotropica 23, 68-83.

Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Bishop, J.R.B. and Marques, T.A. 2006. Distance 5.0. Release 2. Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/ Wamukokya, G.M., Haller. R.D. 1995. The status of sea turtle conservation in Kenya. A paper presented during the 15 th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, USA, February 1995.

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6. Appendices

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Appendix A

EVENT LOG
DATE: Time (24hrs) Event VESSEL: South 04° STAFF (Initials): East 039° OBSERVERS (Initials): PAGE ______OF______ Environmental Conditions Precip T I Wind D Comments

Effort Trans Bearing WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide #

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other/15 minute recording 09 - End of survey day

Effort Type: Beaufort Cloud Cover: LT - Line Transect 0 - Glass Measure in eigths CW- Casual watch 01- Ripples e.g. 0/8 - clear DS - Dedicated search 02 - small waveletss 4/8 - half sky o/c PI - Photo ID 03 - occasional whitecaps 8/8 - over cast 04 - Frequent whitecaps Visibility (km): 05 - Many whitecaps Boat Speed: Swell: 0-1 heavy rain (use GPS) 0 - no/weak swell 1-10 1 - intermediate swell >10 2 - strong swell

Precipitation Type N - None R - Rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

- Intensitity I - Intermittent C - continuous

CHECKED Initials

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Appendix B

Sightings Form
Date: Vessel: Skipper: Recorder:

Entered onto computer □
CHECKED (initials)

Group size Survey number Distance Angle to Tide to sighting Ebb/Flo Latitude Longitude Effort Sighting MFS/ sighting (P or S) od Time South 04° East 039° type number DS Species Min Max Best

Spotted because PhotoDhows? ID? Yes/No Yes/No

Number of Boats Comments

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Appendix C

Date (YYYYMM-DD) Roll #:

Photographe rs Initials

DS or MFS #

Vessel Initials (SR or ET)

Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number (MFS or DS): Start time: End time: Photographer: Camera: Scribe: Frame # Notes

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Appendix D

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

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Appendix E

LAND BASED SIGHTINGS: ENVIRONMENT AND BOAT
DATE: Time (24hrs) OBSERVERS: Environmental Conditions Wind Swell BFT Direction PAGE ______OF______ Vis Tide Precip T I No. of Vessels Boat Traffic Number of each type of vessel i.e. Comments

Observers

Cloud

Cloud Cover: Beaufort: 0 - Glass Measure in eigths e.g. 0/8 - clear 01- Ripples 4/8 - half the sky overcast- small waveletss 02 8/8 - over cast 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps Swell: 05 - Many whitecaps 0 - no/weak swell 1 - intermediate swell 2 - strong swell
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Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10

Precipitation Type N - none R - rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

Intensitity I - intermittent C - continuous

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

Entered on computer

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix F
LAND BASED: SIGHTINGS
DATE: Sighting Time (24 hrs) observer's initials OBSERVERS (Initials): Dolphins and Megafauna Bearing Sighting Distance Species Min Group size Max Best Tide (ebb or flood) Plot # on chart PAGE ______OF______

Comments

Bearing Read by observer from compass at bottom of binocular view

Distance Use reticles in binoculars counting down from the top of the horizon or shoreline

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common Count short reticles as StD - Striped halves PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species

Tide: E - Ebb - High to low F - Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix G
LANDBASE SURVEY: DOLPHIN BEHAVIOUR PAGE: OF DATE: OBSERVERS: Record every 5 min./after each dive cycle from 1st sighting # Group size Vessel #Tourist Vessels Dive Dive type dhows Time Spp Spread present Type Duration Min Max Best

# dhows swim with dolphins

Split into View subObstructed groups by boats (Yes or (Yes or No) No)

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species
© Global Vision International – 2007

Dive Type Rg - Regular Td - Tail-out Pd - Peduncle Rs - Rapid Surface Rt - Rooster Tail Lp - Leap Pp - Porpoise Snag - Snag

Spread Tig - Tight (< 2 m) Mod - Moderate (2 - <5 m) Spr - Spread (5 -10 m) Wsp - Widespread (>10 m)

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

Page 71

Appendix H

Date:

Time start:

Time finish:

Weather: Wind: still / light breeze / firm breeze / storm Cloud cover (0/8-8/8):

Team's full names: GPS start: GPS finish:
Time sighted Common name

Location:

Precipitation: dry / rain / showers

Scientific name

No. individuals

Notes / description (if unsure I.D.)

© Global Vision International – 2007

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