Global Vision International, Kenya Report Series No.

00X ISSN XXXX-XXXX (Print)

GVI Kenya
Wildlife Research Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development

Phase Report 074 October-December 2008

GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Expedition Report 074 Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Kenya Wildlife Service One Earth Safaris Submitted in part to World Society for the Protection of Animals Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee Dolphin Dhow Produced by Graham Corti – Country Director Rachel Crouthers – Expedition Leader Lucy Buckingham – Marine Officer Anna Sweeney – Marine Officer Emma Hankinson – Terrestrial Officer Alex Mayers – Community Education Officer Amdeep Sanghera – Community Development Officer And
Elenedene Arnoldi Zoe Averill Melanie Barter Nick Beal James Boyer Charlotte Carpenter Alexandra Dawes Nigel De Mello Kelly Frick Krista Greer Nicola Harris Andrew Hayes Sara Hill Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Amanda Hrenya Sanja Krnjajic Keri Langridge Rebecca Law Sarah Leckie Laura Moynihan Ekens Okemwa Dario Piovesana Cheryl Sanchez Kirsty Scott Kate Smaby Victoria Syers Yvonne Thom Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member

GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Address: PO BOX 1032, Ukunda, 80400, Kenya Email: Kenya@gvi.co.uk Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
The eight10-week phase of the Kenyan Global Vision International (GVI) Expedition has been completed. The expedition has continued to work towards the gathering of important ecological scientific data whilst working with local, national and international partners. The expedition has strengthened working relationships with local communities through both education, capacity building and participation in local community events. The following have been facilitated during phase 074:

Supplied manpower, training and resources to and on behalf of Kenya Wildlife Service

Cetacean population assessment in collaboration with Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)

Marine mega fauna surveys in and around the Kisite Mpunguti Marine Protected Area in collaboration with KWS and in support of Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee (KESCOM)

Coastal forest primate population surveys in collaboration with KWS and the Colobus Trust

Coastal forest faunal biodiversity surveys, anthropogenic disturbance surveys and Angolan Black and White Colobus behavioural surveys in collaboration with KWS.

Provided free local capacity building in terms of English language lessons, environmental education, support of alternative income generation initiatives and training in scientific survey techniques.

 

Participated as partners on the Year of the Dolphin committee in Kenya. Facilitated promotion of local community based organisations’ ventures, and supported ecological and cultural tourism initiatives.

Provided direct and indirect funding to local communities and enabled local communities to benefit from support provided by Expedition Members (EMs) on return to their home countries through fund-raising and donations.

© Global Vision International – 2007

i

Table of Contents
1. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 5 1.1 Global Vision International Kenya ............................................................................. 5 2. Marine Research Programme ...................................................................................... 6 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Aims.......................................................................................................................... 7 2.3 Training..................................................................................................................... 8 2.4 Methods .................................................................................................................... 9 2.4.1 Vessel-Based Forms and Methodology ............................................................12 2.4.2 Snorkel-Based Surveys ....................................................................................15 2.5 Results ....................................................................................................................16 2.6 Discussion ..............................................................................................................22 2.7 Development...........................................................................................................25 3. Terrestrial Research Programme ..............................................................................28 3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................28 3.1.1 Background ......................................................................................................28 3.1.2 Study Area .......................................................................................................29 3.2 Aims........................................................................................................................31 3.3 Methods ..................................................................................................................33 3.3.1 Line Transect Sampling ....................................................................................33 3.3.2 Primate Community Survey ..............................................................................33 3.3.3 Primate Behavioural Surveys ...........................................................................35 3.3.4 Bird Point Counts .............................................................................................36 3.3.5 Canopy Cover Survey ......................................................................................37 3.3.6 Fruit and Flower Survey ...................................................................................37 3.3.7 Butterfly Community Survey .............................................................................38 3.3.8 Casual Observations ........................................................................................38 3.3.9 Colobus Census Line Transect Surveys ...........................................................38 3.4 Results ....................................................................................................................40 3.4.1 Primate Community Survey ..............................................................................40 3.4.2 Primate Behavioural Survey .............................................................................41 3.4.3 Bird Point Counts .............................................................................................43 3.4.4 Fruit and Flower Survey ...................................................................................44 3.4.5 Canopy Surveys ...............................................................................................45 3.4.6 Butterfly Community Survey .............................................................................46 3.4.7 Casual observations .........................................................................................47 3.4.8 Primate Census Gonja and Majoreni Forest Reserves .....................................47 3.4.9 Primate Census Dzombo Forest Reserve.........................................................49 3.5 Discussion ..............................................................................................................51

© Global Vision International – 2007

ii

3.5.1 Primate Community Survey ..............................................................................51 3.5.2 Primate Behaviour Survey ................................................................................52 3.5.3 Bird Point Counts .............................................................................................54 3.5.4 Fruit and Flower ...............................................................................................54 3.5.5 Canopy Surveys ...............................................................................................54 3.5.6 Butterfly Community Survey .............................................................................55 3.5.7 Casual Observations ........................................................................................55 3.5.8 Census Surveys ...............................................................................................55 3.6 Recommendations and Future Work .......................................................................56 4. Community Development Programme ......................................................................58 4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................58 4.2 School Education ....................................................................................................59 4.3 Adult Education .......................................................................................................60 4.4 Al Hanan Orphanage ..............................................................................................61 4.5 Satellite Camp ........................................................................................................61 4.5.1 Mahandakini Satellite Camp .............................................................................62 4.5.2 Kidong Satellite Camp ......................................................................................63 4.5.3 Kasaani Satellite Camp ....................................................................................63 4.6 Capacity Building ....................................................................................................64 4.7 Employment ............................................................................................................77 4.8 GVI Charitable Trust ...............................................................................................78 4.9 Summary ................................................................................................................78 5. References ..................................................................................................................79 6. Appendices .................................................................................................................83

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. Sightings of species on tidal conditions during the non-training period of 074 16 Figure 2-2. Number of surveys conducted by group size for the different cetacean species sighted during the non-training period of 074....................................................................17 Figure 2-4. Spatial distribution of non-training sightings for Expedition 074 ......................18 Figure 2-5. Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphin sightings (n=33) recorded during the nontraining period of expedition of 074 ...................................................................................19 Figure 2-6. Distribution of Humpback Dolphin sightings (n=8) recorded during the nontraining period of expedition of 074 ...................................................................................19 Figure 2-7. Location of the casual Whale shark observation (Black, n=1) recorded during the non-training period of expedition of 074 ......................................................................20 Figure 2-8. Distribution of Bottlenose dolphin (Blue, n=18) and Humpback dolphin (Red, n=1) sightings from tourist boats during the non-training period of expedition 074 ............21 Figure 2-9. Locations of the five turtle transects for the expedition 074 ............................21 Figure 3-1. Survey transects on the Shimoni peninsular. ..................................................31

© Global Vision International – 2007

iii

Figure 3-2 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during primate community surveys (n=12) .........................................................41 Figure 3-3. Time budgets of C. a palliatus between October – December 2007 in Shimoni Forest (east) .....................................................................................................................42 Figure 3-4. Mean canopy cover for transect sections .......................................................46 Figure 3-5. Survey transects with C. a palliatus locations in the Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves ...........................................................................................................................49 Figure 3-6. Survey transects and C. a palliatus locations within the Dzombo forest Reserve .........................................................................................................................................51 Figure 4-1. Papier-mâché recycling to make chilli planters with Shimoni Primary students .........................................................................................................................................59 Figure 4-2. EMs make a fuel-efficient stove ......................................................................64

List of Tables
Table 2-1. Cetacean species present in Kenyan waters (Peddemonns 1999; Richmond 2002) andTurtle species present along the Kenyan coast. (Frazier 1975) .......................... 9 Table 2-2. Vessel-based sightings and photo-ID surveys .................................................16 Table 2-3. Number of times transects were surveyed with the total number of turtles sighted on each transect ..................................................................................................22 Table 3-1. Summary of transects in the Shimoni area. .....................................................33 Table 3-2. Summary of total counts observed during primate community surveys ............40 Table 3-3. Frequencies of behaviour events .....................................................................43 Table 3-4. Total numbers of trees in fruit and flower within the Shimoni Forest (east) between October- December 2007...................................................................................45 Table 3-5. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals .........................................47 Table 3-6. Total count and composition of C. a palliatus groups observed in the Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves ...................................................................................................48 Table 3-7. Total count and composition of C. a palliatus groups recorded within Dzombo forest reserve ...................................................................................................................50

© Global Vision International – 2007

iv

1. Introduction
1.1 Global Vision International Kenya The Global Vision International Kenya expedition was initiated in January 2006, based on Wasini Island on the South coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centred in and around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). Marine-based research is undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel, Funzi Bay and Sii Island. The terrestrial research is focused on an area of coastal forest in the South-East of Shimoni peninsula, close to Shimoni village, however during this phase surveys were also undertakn at Gonja and Dzombo forest reserves within Kwlae district in support of the national census of Angolan Black and White Colobus. The majority of activities under the community programme are focused on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. Community development activities are also being developed in Kidong, Mahandakini and Kasaani. These are rural villages based near Taveta, between the Western boundary of Tsavo West National Park and the border of Tanzania.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 5

2. Marine Research Programme
2.1 Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and covers an area of 39 square kilometres. The KMMPA includes the National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands. The KMMPA and the marine wildlife it contains are an important tourist attraction and, as a result, an important resource for Shimoni and surrounding communities. The islands within the KMMPA are surrounded by coral reefs attracting divers and snorkelers to the area. Almost every day dolphin-watching companies operating from Shimoni travel through Wasini Channel to the KMMPA (Emerton and Tessema 2001). These tourist dhows most frequently encounter Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Currently, a code of conduct has been implemented by Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), for the tour operators to follow when manoeuvring around the cetacean species, unfortunately it is not yet being fully adhered to. The levels of interaction between cetaceans and the tour operators are not being monitored or regulated in any way. The impact these activities may be having is unknown, in particular whether current levels of dolphin-based tourism are sustainable for the area.

Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of East Africa and little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species. Baseline data is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed (Stensland et al. 1998). The main objectives of the marine research programme are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on the dolphin species that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. The study area encompasses a wide range of habitats including mangrove forests, coral reefs, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds and offshore areas.

GVI Kenya’s main working partner is Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The research conducted by GVI has been shaped to satisfy the objectives of KWS, to assist them towards better management of the area. All data collected thus far is made available to KWS to aid in management plans of the study area.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 6

GVI’s marine research programme is supporting KWS to collate data by conducting vessel-based surveys. The marine programme will primarily focus on the ecology of humpback and bottlenose dolphins and the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins and mega fauna within the area and improve the scientific basis for management strategies. This information can help lead towards long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area. During this initial phase of the marine programme research has focussed on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and daily movement patterns will be analysed.

Mega fauna species are also attractive to tourists and as such a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity on a number of levels. An additional objective of the marine research programme is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine mega fauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly. GVI splits its work into expeditions of which there are four a year. Reference to Expedition 074 refers to the 4th expedition of 2007 running from the 11th October 2007 up until the 19th December 2007.

2.2 Aims During the first year of operations the GVI Kenya marine research programme did a trial run on dolphin research methodologies, to ensure that all the research methodologies used were able to obtain the relevant information, to satisfy the objectives set by KWS. The marine programme is collecting data to address the following questions on dolphins and mega fauna in Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area and its surrounding area.

From vessel-based surveys:   Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 7

     

Residency Habitat-activity relationships Diel movement & activity Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

From snorkel-based surveys:      Identification of habitat types at selected locations Distribution and relative abundance of sea turtles Seasonal variation in sea turtle distribution Cataloguing additional marine biodiversity Identification of alternative dive and snorkel sites for tourism

2.3 Training All expedition members (EMs) are trained for a two-week period in identification of dolphins and sea turtles known to inhabit the western Indian Ocean (Table 2-1.), dolphin behaviour and habitats encountered in the local area. The training includes lectures, organised study groups and in-field practice, expedition members have to pass a theoretical exam on a set species list and form usage prior to collecting data on surveys. Written exams are followed by continuous practical assessments by staff.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 8

Common Name Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Humpback Whale Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Hawksbill Turtle Green Turtle Olive Ridley Turtle* Loggerhead Turtle Leatherback Turtle

Abbreviation BND HBD SPD HBW COD RTD RSD STD PTD -

Scientific name Tursiops aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Megaptera novaeangliae Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grampus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuate Eretmochelys imbricata Chelonia mydas Leidochelys olivacea Caretta caretta Dernochelys coriacea

Table 2-1. Cetacean species present in Kenyan waters (Peddemonns 1999; Richmond 2002) andTurtle species present along the Kenyan coast. (Frazier 1975) Highlighted in bold the dolphin and turtle species encountered to date. * indicates, only 1 dead individual has been identified

2.4 Methods During expedition 074 GVI Kenya used Stingray, a 5.83m catamaran style power vessel with two 85 horsepower Yamaha two-stroke engines, as its research vessel. In addition to stingray, in expedition 074 a pilot study was undertaken using two tourist dhows (Subira and Aliklass measuring 46 and 41ft respectively) each equipped with a single 55 horsepower 2 stroke Yamaha engine to provide an additional observation platform for expedition members to collect further effort and sightings data whilst assisting in the provision of onboard environmental education of tourists. All depths were taken with a Speedtech depth sounder. All times, geographical positions and speeds were recorded using a Garmin Etrex GPS. Photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens) or using a Nikon D200 digital camera (50-500 ml lens).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 9

Photo-Identification Photo-identification (photo-ID) refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be resighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs (Parsons 2001).

Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependent on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting and unobstructed shot of dorsal fins. During a photo ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The aim during a photo ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with later analysis of photographs from different surveys (Parsons 2001).

The primary aim of photo-ID in this study will be to determine population size for the different dolphin species and habitat use for the KMMPA area. Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved into the photo-ID database. For the first year this database was copied into various users, and analysed individually by all users. Each user quality grades the photos into categories including: deleted, tail flukes, spacer shots, and quality categories, which range from 0 (poor quality, distant, out of focus, partial images) to 3 (perfect photo-ID shots). Users then identify individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photo-ID catalogue will be created in which individuals are given unique ID numbers and/or names. This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long-term basis (Parsons 2001).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 10

Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals.

Mark-Recapture Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met:  A marked animal will always be recognised if seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.  Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.  ‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured (photographed subsequently).  Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.  The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Initially a sample of individuals is photographically ‘captured’ (n1), and on a subsequent occasion, a second sample of individuals is ‘captured’ (n2) of which a number were already identified in the first sample (m 2). The proportion of individuals that are marked in the second sample can be equated with the proportion in the overall population (N) (Evans and Hammond 2004).

The mark-recapture formulae are as follows: Equation 1 (m2) = n1 n2 N

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 11

The number of individuals captured and marked is known which allows the population size to be estimated (Ň): Equation 2 Ň = n 1 n2 m2 Spatial Heterogeneity The method of spatial heterogeneity utilising GPS co-ordinates allows for the mapping of animals sighted during survey using ArcView GIS. Linking sightings data recorded on a database (e.g. Access) with ArcView has the potential to yield grid-based plots of distribution that can then be compared with remote sensing and other sources of environmental information (Evans and Hammond 2004) and behavioural data to assist in the identification of critical habitats and specific habitat functions. The information

obtained as a result of such analysis may assist conservation management initiatives and the provide guidance for the designation and location of marine park boundaries.

2.4.1 Vessel-Based Forms and Methodology Three forms were used on stingray to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size and demographics: the Event Log, Cetacean Sightings form, and the Photo ID form. A fourth form is used when mega fauna is sighted, the Mega Fauna Survey form. Similarly a single simplified form combing elements of the event log, cetacean sighting form and mega fauna survey form is completed during surveys undertaken on tourist boats. All expedition members receive appropriate training to ensure competence in the completion of all data forms. Event Log Throughout the survey day an Event Log (see Appendix 1) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with number of surveys completed and changes in environmental conditions, course and speed. If none of these features change, as the research day goes, the form is filled every quarter of the hour.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 12

Every half hour observers rotate roles and ‘view points’, every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break as Event log scribe. If dolphins are spotted all observers maintain the same position until the survey is over. The information taken by the Event log is: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Date Vessel name Time (24 hour clock) Event (see Appendix 1) GPS Co-ordinates Species (if sighted) Speed Environmental conditions (see Appendix 1) Additional comments

Cetacean Sightings Form The Sightings form (see Appendix 2) is used to record sightings of dolphins and whales. This form was put in place at the start of expedition 073 to gather simple unbiased information about habitat distribution, group size and structure, and if the sighting occurred due to exterior factors (e.g. presence of tourist vessels) or not. Once dolphins or whales are sighted and the vessel is within 10 metres, the recorder documents the following data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Time (24 hour clock) GPS Co-ordinates Dolphin Survey number (each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02, etc.) Species Depth at the start of the sighting Group size Number of calfs Number of neonates Whether a Photo ID survey was conducted or not Number of boats present (not counting research vessel) Additional comments

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 13

Photo ID Form During photo-ID the vessel manoeuvres into a better position to obtain the optimum distance and angle for photographs to be taken (Parsons 2001). Once photo-ID has commenced, the photographer informs the photo-ID scribe of the relevant frame numbers, spacer shots, distinct or identifiable individuals, and the total number of shots taken during each sighting. This information is recorded by the scribe on the photo-ID form. Staff members perform all photographic documentation in the field (See Appendix 3). Mega Fauna Survey Form The Mega fauna survey form is used to record sightings of turtles, whale sharks, manta rays, and dugongs. Species seen and the sighting location (GPS position) is documented along with additional habitat and behavioural notes where conditions allow. (See Appendix 4) The data includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Time GPS Co-ordinates Depth Sea State (Beaufort scale) Tide Species Habitat Number of individuals Additional notes

Tourist Boat Form The tourist boat form (see Appendix 5) was used to record both effort and sightings data during this expedition’s pilot study. Both cetacean and mega fauna sightings are recorded on the form, however given the differences in behaviour between species and nature of the tourism industry, bottlenose dolphins are the predominant focus of the search effort. The boat dhow form is filled in every 15 minutes and upon sighting and leaving animals. The data includes:

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 14

1. Time (24hr clock) 2. GPS Co-ordinates 3. Species 4. Number of individuals & demographics (adults, calves and neonates) 5. Dispersal 6. Tide 7. Speed 8. Cloud cover 9. Swell 10. Sea state (Beaufort scale) 11. Visability 12. Precipitation 13. Additional notes

2.4.2 Snorkel-Based Surveys Snorkel-based transect surveys were initially piloted during the second half of expedition 073 in an attempt to gather information about turtles species and their habitat use in the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Turtle sightings were successfully recorded during the preliminary stages of the pilot study therefore it has been continued during expedition 074. The surveys consist of snorkelling in buddy-pairs along a 400 metre transect. One person functions as an observer looking for turtles 5 metres either side of the transect line whilst the other person acts as a navigator for the observer using visual reference points. Snorkel transects were undertaken on 4 transects laid in expedition 073, (2 off Wasini Island, 1 off Lower Mpunguti Island and 1 off Upper Mpunguti Island), and an additional transect (transect 5) laid at Lower Mpunguti at the start of expedition 074. All transects are situated on the North side of the islands with the exception of transect 5 which is located on the south side of Lower Mpunguti. Species, number of individuals, activity, habitat and general notes were recorded.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 15

2.5 Results The data here has been analysed displaying the non-training period of the expedition in accordance with previous work and where possible showing analysis of all data collected that has been supervised by expedition marine officers.

During Expedition 074 there was a total effort of 161h.15m on vessel-based surveys, 140h.34m were spent during non-training days, 20h.41m on training days surveying the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Results for all surveys are summarised below. All vessel based sightings and photo-ID surveys are shown in Table 2-2.
Sightings BND HBD Unknown Turtle Hawksbill Turtle Total cetaceans 37 6 24 2 43 Non-training 27 6 23 2 33 Training 10 0 1 0 10 Photo ID surveys 0 0 0 0 0

Table 2-2. Vessel-based sightings and photo-ID surveys

Cetacean sightings on tide were examined with T. aduncus displaying no preference for tidal conditions being sighted only one more time on the flood tide than on the ebb tide. S. chinensis were sighted 8 occasions during expedition 074 with an equal number of sightings being recorded during flood and ebb tides (Figure 2-1.).

Figure 2-1. Sightings of species on tidal conditions during the non-training period of 074

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 16

During each cetacean survey, the number of individuals was recorded. T. aduncus were most frequently observed in groups of 6-10 animals whilst S. chinensis were most frequently observed in smaller groups consisting of 1-5 individuals. Only T. aduncus were observed in groups comprising more than ten individuals Figure 2-2).

Figure 2-2. Number of surveys conducted by group size for the different cetacean species sighted during the non-training period of 074

For the different cetacean species the number of sightings was linked with vessel effort hours (Figure 2-3). T. aduncus sightings were highest between 09:01-10:00 and 10:0111:00 with 72.7% of all sightings occurring between 09:01-11:00. S. chinensis were sighted most frequently between 08:01-09:00.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 17

Figure 2-3. Number of sightings by effort hour for the different cetacean species observed during the non-training period of 074

The spatial distribution for the research area is shown in Figure 2-4. A large number of the T. aduncus encounters were along the east side of Wasini Island, with S. chinensis being found mainly inside the Wasini channel. Out of the 25 turtle sightings of various species,11 were inside the Marine Protected Area.

Figure 2-4. Spatial distribution of non-training sightings for Expedition 074 Bottlenose Dolphins (Blue, n= 33), Humpback Dolphins (Red, n=8), and Turtles (Purple, n=25). The black box indicates the boundaries of the KMMPA.

The spatial distribution of bottlenose dolphins for expedition 074 is shown in figure 2-5.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 18

Figure 2-5. Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphin sightings (n=33) recorded during the non-training period of expedition of 074 The black box indicates the boundaries of the KMMPA.

The spatial distribution of bottlenose dolphins for expedition 074 is shown in Figure 2-5. All sightings of humpback dolphins were recorded outside of the KMMPA (Figure 2-6).

Figure 2-6. Distribution of Humpback Dolphin sightings (n=8) recorded during the non-training period of expedition of 074 The black box indicates the boundaries of the KMMPA.

In addition to the cetacean and turtle sightings recorded whilst on marine surveys, a solitary whale shark was encountered east of Wasini Island during expedition 074 (figure 2-7).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 19

Figure 2-7. Location of the casual Whale shark observation (Black, n=1) recorded during the nontraining period of expedition of 074 The black box indicates the boundaries of the KMMPA.

Further to the search effort undertaken onboard GVI’s research vessel, Stingray, an additional effort of 50hr. 45m was spent by expedition members on board tourist boats during the expedition 074 pilot study. A total of 18 bottlenose dolphin sightings were recorded tourist boats (Subira and Aliklass) (Figure 2-8). On average, the tourist boats spent 52 minutes interacting with the animals on each trip, however this does not take in to account their proximity to the animals during that time, or the number of separate encounters.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 20

Figure 2-8. Distribution of Bottlenose dolphin (Blue, n=18) and Humpback dolphin (Red, n=1) sightings from tourist boats during the non-training period of expedition 074 The black box indicates the boundaries of the KMMPA.

The turtle snorkelling transects are located on the north side of Wasini Island, north and south of Lower Mpunguti Island and north of Upper Mpunguti (labelled Mpungutiya Chini and Mpungutiya Juu respectiviely on the map) as shown in Figure 2-9.

Figure 2-9. Locations of the five turtle transects for the expedition 074 Transects 3, 4 and 5 are within the KMMPA.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 21

Turtle snorkel transects were surveyed a total of 89 times at an average of 15 minutes per transect, equating to approximately 22h.15m of observational hours. Turtle sightings were recorded on transects 2, 4 and 5 with the greatest number of turtles being observed on transect 4 during expedition 074 (Table 2-3). Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) sightings were recorded (n=6 and n=2 respectively), however it was not possible to determine the species of some turtles sighted (n=3) due to poor visibility, distance from the observer, direction of travel in relation to the animal and/or activity undertaken by the individual.
Transect 1 surveyed 16 Sighted 0 Transect 2 surveyed 16 Sighted 1 Transect 3 surveyed 17 Sighted 0 Transect 4 surveyed 18 Sighted 7 Transect 5 surveyed 18 Sighted 3

Table 2-3. Number of times transects were surveyed with the total number of turtles sighted on each transect

2.6 Discussion This expedition continued to collect baseline ecology information on cetaceans and turtles within the KMMPA and surrounding waters.

Humpback dolphins were sighted on 8 occasions during expedition 074 (no humpback dolphins were observed during the training period), with so few sightings being recorded, there is insufficient data available to draw reliable conclusions. The majority of sightings occurred within the Wasini Channel (figure 2-6) which coincides with previously observed sightings from past expeditions. The Wasini Channel is 1.6 kilometres at its widest point by 8 km’s long and the maximum depth 14 fathoms (25.60m) (Admiralty Charts and Publications #866). On average S. chinensis were sighted at a depth of 10.1 metres and very close to the shoreline or intertidal shelf, which concurs with Karczmarski et al (2000) who had 91.3% of sightings in water less than 15 m deep, and 80% of sightings less than 400 metres from the shore. The group size for this expedition ranged between 1-9 individuals with a mean number of 4.

Bottlenose dolphins were sighted most frequently along the eastern edge of Wasini Island (figure 2-5), however the data is not sufficiently strong as this area is closest to

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 22

the GVI base, where all surveys commence from. A method of weighting the data, to compare sightings with search effort in different locations within the area of interest, is required to facilitate accurate comparisons throughout the area of interest and to establish habitat preferences, thus enabling KWS to utilise this data to review KMMPA boundaries if considered necessary.

During expedition 074, 72.7% of T. aduncus sightings occurred between the hours of 09:01 and 11:00. It is possible that this data may be influenced by the fact that the GVI research vessel generally concentrates the first hour of search effort within the channel (a habitat that appears to be favoured by humpback dolphins) typically reaching the KMMPA (a habitat that appears to be preferred by bottlenose dolphins) around this time. Furthermore, tourist boats operating in the area leave Shimoni pier at around 09:00 and head out towards the KMMPA in search of dolphins. This could account for higher sightings given that the presence of tourist boats was recorded as the sighting cue for 66.67% of all bottlenose dolphin sightings recorded by GVI expedition members. The diel movements for T. aduncus in the area of interest are largely unknown. Currently, all cetacean surveys are terminated at around 12:00pm in order for expedition members to participate in other research activities however in past expeditions, cetacean surveys continued into the afternoon but resulted in few sightings. Further studies into the diel movements of bottlenose dolphins in the area of interest are needed and information from other parts of the region should be obtained to aid future comparisons.

Bottlenose dolphins were most frequently observed in groups of 6-10 animals (figure 22) however group sizes ranged from 1 to 32 individuals with an the average group size of 12 coinciding with studies of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia where the average group size was reported to be 10 (Corkeron, 1990). Similarly, this figure agrees with several coastal studies of bottlenose dolphins around the world which reveal relatively small groups that vary with activity (Shane 1990, Rogan et al 2000, Meyler 2006, Ingram 2000). Further study to examine if group size changes with activity would be an important and interesting part of any baseline data study, however attempts to introduce behavioural studies in this area have so far been unsuccessful due to the particular limitations of our research.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 23

In previous expeditions, photo-identification techniques have been used to plot a discovery curve to try to determine population size and habitat use of different dolphin species in the KMMPA and surrounding area. Unfortunately, the Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens) and Nikon D200 digital camera (50-500 ml lens) cameras utilised during previous expeditions developed technical faults and an alternative camera sourced could not be delivered in time, therefore no photoidentification surveys could be undertaken during 074.

Turtles were sighted from the research vessel during cetacean survey on 25 occasions. Whilst most of these observations were recorded as unknown turtle species, due to the distance of the animal from the vessel, and rapid speed surface/descent of the animals, on 2 occasions the observers were able to successfully indentify the individuals as Hawksbill turtles. The sightings were evenly distributed over the area of interest with 44% of the sightings occurring within the KMMPA boundaries.

To enhance our turtle monitoring programme within our area of interest, in water snorkel transect surveys were trialled over expeditions 073 and 074 to collect more data on species occurrence both inside and outside of the KMMPA. The data collected during the last 5 weeks of expedition 073 functioned as a pilot study to ensure there would be sightings whilst in the water and that the species could be successfully identified. The initial pilot study was successful in collecting data therefore the study was continued over expedition 074 to allow further testing of the selected methodology upon which further improvements may be implemented. To date 15 Hawksbill turtles (E. imbricata) (9 sightings during 073 and 6 sightings during 074) and 4 Green turtles (C. mydas) (2 sightings recorded in both expedition 073 and 074) sightings have been recorded, which differs from Wamukokya and Haller (1995) who states that C. mydas is the predominant species within Kenyan waters followed by the E. imbricata. This difference could simply be due to the position of the snorkel transects as transect 4 (accounting for 77.3% of all sightings recorded to date, 90.1% and 63.6% for expeditions 073 and 074 respectively) is situated on a diverse coral reef which is known to be the preferred habitat of E. imbricata (Richmond 2002). Currently we have had sightings on all transects except transect 3 (north of Lower Mpunguti).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 24

During expedition 074 a pilot study was undertaken onboard two tourist boats (Subira and Aliklass) operated by Dolphin Dhow. Bottlenose dolphins were sighted most frequently along the eastern edge of Wasini Island and around the Kisitie and Mpunguti Islands with 66.66% of bottlenose dolphin sightings occurring within the marine park (figure 2-8), however this data is not sufficiently strong as the tourist vessel leaves Shimoni pier around 09:00 am daily and travels east towards the KMMPA in search of dolphins resulting in a greater concentration of search effort in this area. A method of weighting the data, to compare sightings with search effort in different locations within the area of interest, is required to facilitate accurate comparisons throughout the area of interest.

In addition to the bottlenose dolphin sightings, a single humpback sighting was also recorded by GVI expedition members onboard the tourist boat. The sighting occurred in the Wasini Channel coinciding with the humpback dolphin sightings recorded from the GVI cetacean research vessel, Stingray, during the non-training period of 074 (figure 26), and sightings from past expeditions. Whilst the total number of humpback dolphin sightings recorded to date has been considerably lower than that of bottlenose dolphins, it is possible that the difference between the number of humpback and bottlenose sightings recorded whilst onboard the tourist vessel may in part be due to the nature of the dolphin-watching industry. Typically bottlenose dolphins are the predominant focus of search effort in the area due to their tendency to bow ride and interact with vessels in comparison to the more boat-shy humpback dolphin.

Finally, in addition to the survey sightings discussed above, a solitary Whale shark (Rhiniodon typus) sighting was recorded during expedition 074 (figure 2-7). This casual observation was only the third sighting of Rhiniodon typus to date providing further evidence of the presence of whale sharks in the area however there is no effort data in support of this sighting and insufficient whale shark data from previous expeditions to perform analysis on.

2.7 Development During expedition 074, a pilot study was trailed onboard a tourist vessel operated by Dolphin Dhow. The additional platform has provided a means for maximising sightings

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 25

data recorded within the KMMPA and offered the opportunity for expedition members to interact with visiting tourists to enhance current environmental awareness campaigns. The pilot study has shown signs of promise in terms of expedition members using tourist dhows as additional observation platform however there is insufficient data to date to perform in depth analysis of the data to draw conclusions that could be made to aid management decisions due to limited duration of the project. Methods of maximising data collected onboard regarding the number of dhows, dhow behaviour and time spent with dolphins should be explored. Furthermore, additional tourist operators should be approached in future expeditions to encourage the facilitation of more standardised practices with regards to the provision of marine education, potentially relieving some of the pressure currently placed upon members of crew to allow the tourists to get to close to, or swim with, dolphins.

Land-based surveys would benefit the area to assess:      Dolphin tidal and daily movement Dolphin behaviour from an unbiased platform Dolphin and boat interaction Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence

Non-intrusive land-based studies have been used in several studies to investigate preliminary population estimates (Berrow 1996, Ingram 2000) and/or changes in behaviour (including dive times) with and without presence of boats (Acevedo 1991, Shane 1990). Before this method can be re-introduced into the marine programme, a new location needs to be found or alternatively improvements to the observation platform/land watch site previously used need to be implemented to establish a position with a wider viewing angle.

Vessel-based cetacean behavioural surveys would help collate data on spatial heterogeneity, dolphin-vessel interactions and could provide us with details of habitat preference for specific behaviours. Previous attempts to compile behavioural data in the field proved unsuccessful therefore alternative methodologies need to be explored.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 26

Finally further improvements to the in water snorkel methodology need to be implemented to aid navigation in strong currents. Additionally, methods of maximising the data collected should be explored in order to collect further information on individuals’ size, habitat preference and behaviours.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 27

3. Terrestrial Research Programme
3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Background The Eastern Arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania are a remnant of a once continuous mosaic of unique forest that stretched from the Kenya-Somalia border, to the border of Tanzania and Mozambique (Clarke, 2000). Internationally recognised, this forest system is one of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots and listed as one of 11 ‘priority’ regions for international conservation investment (Myers et al 2000). These unique and diminishing forest habitats support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging, but fragmented distributions, therefore remaining vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern Arc Mountains are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests, however much less is known about the floral and faunal diversity of these areas.

The coastal forests of Shimoni (located on the southern tip of coastal Kenya) form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled as the ‘Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Floristic region’. This forest zone is found along the coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, and is formed on ancient coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. In conjunction with relatively high salinity levels and coastal climatic influences, the plant community and the structure of the forest are adapted to the substrate and favour shallow root systems, which reduce stability. This makes these forest habitats highly susceptible to erosion processes and hence at risk from the influences of deforestation in the wider Shimoni area. The specialised flora that is found in these habitats supports and sustains rare and endemic species which are of particular interest to biological conservation, and sustainable livelihoods through responsible tourism. Coastal forests continue to be under threat due to human population growth, agricultural expansion and tourist development, therefore increasing the need for a stringent management plan to be enforced, to conserve the remaining forest areas within this region (Anderson et al, 2007).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 28

3.1.2 Study Area Primary research is conducted in Shimoni forest (east) on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village to the west (04º64’900”S, 39º38’600”E) and the coast of the Indian Ocean to the south and east (04º64’300”S, 39º40’300”E), (Figure 31). The forest is locally known as ‘Mbuyu Tundu’, and will hereafter be referred to as ‘Shimoni forest (east)’. Shimoni forest (east) represents an important fragment of Kenya’s unique and indigenous coastal forest. Currently used for resource extraction and the clearing of land for farming, the area is at threat from the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly on coastal land plots. More recently, the increase in charcoal burning within Shimoni forest has become apparent, with the clearing of large areas of previous untouched forest for charcoal production.

This area of forest was selected for biological research, primarily because it represents a valuable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus), a flagship species for this region. Anderson et al, (2007) has recently highlighted Shimoni forest to be one of the key habitats for colobus, being the one of the second largest populations in Kenya. Discussions with community-based organisations in Shimoni village highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community. In particular the ‘Shimoni Youth

Conservation Project’ were keen to seek protection and promote sustainable management. As a result, GVI have developed the terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level, the forest is readily accessible and GVI are logistically able to support long-term and wide ranging biodiversity surveys and monitoring of the area.

This expedition, the terrestrial programme has been involved in a national colobus census, in collaboration with The Colobus Trust and Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), as a revision of the 4 month census undertaken by Anderson in 2001. This is to primarily asses the status and distribution of the Angolan Black and White Colobus within Kwale district, the last remaining refuge for the species in Kenya. GVI’s participation this expedition has included Dzombo and Gonja forest reserves (including Majoreni forest).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 29

Dzombo forest (4º26’S, 39º12’E) is located approximately 1.5km from the village of Dzombo, and covers 5km2 (504.4ha). The forest is protected under the Forest Reserve (1941) and was gazetted as a kaya (sacred burial ground) in 1992. Threats to the forest include seasonal burning of grassland on the South-westerly edges and agricultural encroachment (Anderson, 2001). In addition, there was significant levels of timber logging and pole cutting, and poles seen cut for firewood and charcoal production. Many access paths are situated throughout the forest, and Anderson (2001) reported snares and baboon traps located on the lower slopes of the forest in the previous census. Seventeen C. a palliatus were observed in 2001, with an estimated number of 21 present within the area. Gonja and Majoreni (4º34’E, 39º12’S) forested areas are 4.22km 2 (422ha) and 35.2ha respectively and are located on the Kenya/Tanzania border, close to Lunga Lunga. Both forests are protected under the Gonja Forest Reserve Protection (1961) and are separated by the Kenya/Tanzania tarmac road. Heavy commercial logging is seen throughout the forest, supplying the 100+ workforce/wood-carving industries on the Tanzanian border post. Majoreni forest is under threat of agricultural encroachment on the Northern boundary. Previous census data found 24 C. a palliatus in Gonja, with no individuals observed in Majoreni.

This repeat census aims to obtain up-to-date density and distribution of the species, and push forward conservation initiatives, ensuring the species’ long term survival in Kenya.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 30

Figure 3-1. Survey transects on the Shimoni peninsular.

3.2 Aims The aims of the terrestrial research programme are to monitor primate community dynamics, densities, distribution, habitat use and time budgets, with particular interest in C. a. palliatus. These surveys are complimented and quantified by the monitoring of habitat variation through analysis of floral composition, seasonal change and human disturbance. Vegetation surveys are utilised to assess floristic diversity, canopy height, canopy cover and seasonality of fruits and flowers. Monitoring of floral regeneration in relation to disturbance levels are used to assess forest recovery rates, and resource consumption including extraction of poles and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity. Butterfly surveys are additionally used to examine forest diversity and the effects of disturbance on the butterfly community. Bird diversity and habitat use

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 31

is also carried out to assess resource competition between certain avian and primate species, and gain a species list for the area. Biodiversity is additionally monitored by the recording of casual observations, used to assess and gauge species richness and the presence of other rare and endangered plants and animals. In addition, research has been undertaken in forest located within KWS Shimoni headquarters.

The Colobus census will provide an up to date version of the status and distribution of C. a palliatus, and assist in developing conservation initiatives to ensure the survival of the species and the unique forest habitats in which they are found. The eventual aim of this research is to gain community management through support with the local Shimoni community. A community-based organisation has recently been established, ‘Friends of Shimoni Forest’, and its main objectives are conservation of biodiversity; indigenous afforestation; and continued forest research. If effective community management status were obtained, research can be used to suggest management protocols whereby resource use is acceptable at specified levels, and replantation initiatives are utilised to ensure the long-term sustainability of forest resources for both the human and wildlife communities. Additional forms of income may also be derived from the forest through responsible tourism; the Angolan Black and White Colobus represents a charismatic and beautiful primate species. Guided tours through the forest would provide a source of sustainable revenue to supplement the successful community fund initiatives of the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee, and create awareness into the wider population.

Anderson (2007) has highlighted the importance of the Shimoni coastal forest as key habitat for the future of the Angolan Black and White Colobus conservation initiatives, holding potentially the second largest population of this species in Kenya. This makes the forest not only of local importance, but of national and international importance in stemming the declining population numbers of this primate in Kenya.

Due to time constraints and GVI’s commitment to the Colobus census, comprehensive vegetation surveys were unable to be completed this expedition.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 32

3.3 Methods 3.3.1 Line Transect Sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising east-west straight line transects (Figure 3-1). Parallel transects are spaced at 200 metre intervals, facilitating a 100 metre survey distance either side of each transect. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative, Primate Monitoring Protocol (Lacher 2005).

Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised accurately, and facilitate distribution mapping. A north-south ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and to aid access. The Shimoni forest (east) study area contains six transects; transect 1, the furthest south, runs approximately 100 metres from the coastal edge. The total survey area for Shimoni Forest (east) is 2.2km2 (220ha). The KWS forest area contains just one 400m transect which runs north to south, comprising 8ha. Table 3-1 summarises the total number of sections and lengths of each transect.

Forest Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east)

Transect 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total 7

Sections 17 34 48 43 39 38 219 8

Length (m) 850 1700 2400 2150 1950 1900 10950 400

KWS forest

Table 3-1. Summary of transects in the Shimoni area.

3.3.2 Primate Community Survey Three species of anthropoid coexist in the survey area. The Angolan Black and White Colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus), the Syke’s monkey (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis), and the Yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus). The primate community

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 33

surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team ensure they do not draw attention to primates undetected by the observers. This maintains consistency of effort, to enable the quantifiable analysis of data used in estimating primate densities (Buckland et al 2001).

Primate surveys are conducted along one transect at a time (and only once during each expedition) during the mornings when primates are more likely to be active and easily detected. When groups of primates are spotted, the sighting distance (distance from the observer to the first detected individual) was estimated, and all observers were tested at a distance estimation accuracy of 90%. Perpendicular distance is calibrated from the first animal seen to the centre of the group by Whitesides et al., (1988) standard correction method using the below equation: P’ = P ( 1+ ŕi ) S Where: group. P = Perpendicular distance from the transect line to the first detected ind. ŕi = Half the mean group spread. S = Sighting distance (distance from observer to first detected ind. P’ = Perpendicular distance from the transect line to the centre of the

Population size and density were calculated using the program DISTANCE 5.0 (Thomas et al 2006). Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met, including the random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded; therefore sightings of solitary individuals were not included in distance sampling analysis (however were included in the complete group counts). It is also necessary to be confident that any group positioned 0 metres from the transect line has a 100% probability of detection (Buckland et al 2001). Since the species surveyed in this study are not particularly cryptic, and often freeze rather than flee when approached, it is unlikely that such groups would go undetected; hence this assumption can be upheld with confidence.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 34

For each sighting, species, group size and demography were determined, spending up to 10 minutes with the group. Sex and age class is most easily recognized in C. a. palliatus; 0-3 months (white infant), 3-6 months (grey juvenile), >6 months (black and white adult). Small individuals with adult colouration in close association with an adult were classed as sub-adults. Sub adults were not sexed as this could not be done with confidence; gender may be deliberately obscured, to reduce intolerance of adult males towards young males (Estes, 1997). Age classes were selected on the basis of pelt colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate using relative body size. Sex was only determined in adults, with males distinguishable by a clear white stripe from buttocks to genitalia which is absent in females. Ages classes and sexes were not assumed in C. m. albogularis and P. cynocephalus except where young were seen attached to an adult, as this could not be confidently quantified.

Sighting quality was recorded and ranked as follows; 0 - primates heard but not seen, 1 group count incomplete, 2 - group count complete but demographics incomplete, 3 count and demographics complete. A 0 sighting quality was not used in the analysis, but provided information on any particular cryptic species present. Group spread of primates was recorded where possible, to estimate a mean group spread for the species sampled. In addition, tree species in which the primates were sighted was recorded, providing information on species preference, thus gaining information on habitat preference and distribution in relation to floral composition of the forest.

3.3.3 Primate Behavioural Surveys Behavioural surveys of C. a. palliatus are used primarily to investigate time budgets. However, habitat use, group structure, and group interactions, are also derived from the data collected. Through habituation, and the identification and size of group territories, these surveys will also support the development of tourism initiatives to gain sustainable income from the forest wildlife. Continuous, focal individual sampling is adopted in order to establish C. a. palliatus time budgets. Time budgets can be used to establish conditions and constraints under which animals are living. The most suitable conditions promote greater carrying capacities and

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 35

hence higher densities (Fimbel et al 2001), as well as less vulnerability to changes in habitat condition. Time budgets can also be used in examining predator pressures by analysing the relative time spent being vigilant. This data will then be used to compare between individuals, groups, forest types, and at different levels of disturbance.

Focal individuals are surveyed in ten-minute blocks, measuring behaviours which are broken into states and events. States are measured in real-time durations, as opposed to events which are recorded only as frequencies logged within each ten-minute time block. States represent behaviours of longer durations; for example feeding, sleeping, resting etc. Events represent shorter, instantaneous behaviours; for example scratching, yawning, urinating. Some tactile signals and postures are included in this survey for use in the analysis of group interactions. These include stiff-legs display, which has been identified as an agonistic display between territorial males (Estes 1991). At the end of each time block, a scan sample is conducted to identify the overall group state (>50% of the group); this is used in the analysis and discussion of the circumstances under which different individual behaviours occur and if certain behaviours occur simultaneously.

States and events are categorised under strict parameters, and outlined in the ethogram which is used to ensure consistency between observers and comparability between surveys.

Surveys are conducted at all times of the daylight hours in order to measure a representative portion of time budgets throughout the day. Data recording is only

initiated after a period of at least 10 minutes to reduce bias caused by the arrival of the observers. If the focal individual moves out of view and observers are unable to confidently identify the same individual upon reappearing, the survey is ended. There is no set survey time limit.

3.3.4 Bird Point Counts Bird species diversity, abundance and density are estimated through the use of bird point counts. East Africa represents one of 218 worldwide Endemic Bird Areas, (Stattersfield et al 1998) and birds are important components of forest ecosystems as well as indicators of habitat disturbance. Many bird species are dependent on readily

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 36

available stocks of fruits, flowers and seeds, and the presence or absence of seasonal birds indicates the seasonality of these forest commodities. Birds such as large raptors also represent the only known predators of primate species in the area, and most likely only predators of young.

Early morning point count surveys are conducted along the transect lines at 100 metre intervals. The point count is delineated by transect sections. Odd or even transect numbers are sampled, leaving a section between recordings, therefore avoiding double counts. Number and species of birds seen are recorded for ten minutes before moving onto the next point count. A five minute settle-down period of silence precedes each recording period. Bird song heard within the ten minute period is recorded using a dictaphone, and analysed from a bird song CD after surveys, aiding a species list from the visual constraints of the forest habitat.

3.3.5 Canopy Cover Survey Canopy cover is recorded in order to enable analysis of seasonal change and to describe the forest profile. This is in turn used to compliment primate and other faunal distribution surveys. Estimations of the canopy cover are recorded every 10 metres of each 50 metre section, enabling five recordings to be averaged for the section. Cover is recorded by looking straight up through inverted binoculars, estimating the percentage of the area blocked by tree canopy foliage and branches, to the nearest 5%.

3.3.6 Fruit and Flower Survey Fruits and flowers are surveyed in an effort to measure tree species seasonality, and the distribution of fruits and flowers throughout the survey area. Many forest animals rely on fruits and flowers as vital food sources; and most significantly for the aims of this project, they are vital dietary components of the primates found in the Shimoni forests.

Fruits and flowers are identified along the transect lines, recording trees within 10m of the transect line. Trees in fruit or flower are identified by the aid of a field identification sheet, composed in collaboration with a local botanist, and the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) recorded in order to assess age structure. Only woody vegetation with a

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 37

DBH over 5cm is recorded. Samples, photo’s, and detailed descriptions of any unknown tree species are taken for later identification.

3.3.7 Butterfly Community Survey Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. Butterfly canopy traps are utilised, and baited with mashed banana that has been allowed to ferment for at least 3 days. Traps are baited and left for approximately 24 hours before checking, and three canopy traps are used simultaneously on each trapping day. Traps are placed at three heights; ground (0-1m), understory (1-5m), and mid-canopy (5-10m). individual are taken for identification using Larsen (1996). Photographs of each

3.3.8 Casual Observations During all observer time in the forest, records are also made of other fauna observed and identified in the field, noting species, location, habitat, group size and other applicable notes. Indirect observations of animals such as tracks, dung or feathers are also recorded as indicators of presence. Where possible unknown species are photographed with detailed descriptions recorded, for later identification.

3.3.9 Colobus Census Line Transect Surveys Colobus census surveys were conducted in two additional forests patches. These were Dzombo and Gonja (including Majoreni) forest reserves. Methodologies for Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves remained the same as primate community surveys, however, transects at 100m spacing were utilised, and surveys were simultaneous, starting at the same time and maintaining similar speed. Transects were walked at a slow pace, stopping every 100m to watch and listen for primates (White and Edwards, 2000). Census surveys were undertaken between the hours of 6:30 and 14:00h, when primates are most active, omitting rainy days, when spotting becomes more difficult. All survey teams maintained synchronisation by the counting of paces, and kept in constant

communication using mobile phones. Each transect started from the tarmac road,

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 38

providing accuracy in the 100m spacing, and followed a south-westerly bearing until reaching the end of the forest (emerging at settlements or agricultural land). All transects were marked using a Garmin Etrex Global Positioning System (GPS), throughout the survey, allowing mapping of transects, and to record transect lengths. All groups were notified of a sighting, thus avoiding speed changes on transects. When primate groups were encountered the time, sighting distance and angle to the first individual seen were recorded, and their position marked with the GPS. No more than 10 minutes were spent with each group encountered, gathering data on species, group count, spread and composition. Observer teams re-grouped at the end of each transect to share data and eliminate ‘double counts’, by comparing similarities in team observations based on sighting times, group composition and direction of travel. Sighting quality was recorded for each group encountered. Data was discarded from sighting qualities of 0. Average primate group size was taken from sighting qualities of 2 and 3. The total population estimate for each forest was calculated by the sum of individuals from all groups, plus any solitary individuals encountered. A total of 26 transects were surveyed over 9 days, between the 5th and 15th of November 2007, totalling 38.36km in length in the Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves. Within the Dzombo forest, 100m parallel transect method could not be adopted due to difficulty regarding the elevation and terrain of the forest. It was not possible to walk completely across the forest due to large craters and steep, rocky slopes. Paths were located all the way around the forest and the majority led to the top. A preliminary survey was conducted on this survey methodology prior to the census starting. The angle of the path, and distance between paths was recorded, and the entire path walked was marked with a Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS). Paths were surveyed in the same way as in the 100m transect methodology, with the census only being conducted on the way up a path. As in Gonja, all teams counted paces and kept in constant communication via mobile phones. From mapping the GPS points on the programme TRACKMAKER, the total forest area was confidently covered. A total of 40 paths were surveyed over a period of 10 days, between the 3rd and the 13th of December, totalling 36km in length.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 39

3.4 Results 3.4.1 Primate Community Survey Primate community and distance sampling was completed once across all transect sections within the Shimoni forest (east). Using the population estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al 2006), the total C. a. palliatus population for the Shimoni forest (east) survey area (2.2 km2) is estimated at 160 individuals ± 75.6 S.E. (CI 95%: 58 – 443), at densities of 73 ind/km2 ± 34 S.E. (CI 95%: 26 -201). These estimates are derived using the distance sampling data from October – December 2007. The input data does not include sightings of solitary individuals. Only one solitary male of C. a palliatus were detected during the community survey. In addition, 1 troop of P. cynocephalus containing 3 individuals was observed during the primate community survey. Table 3-2 summarizes the primate groups encountered this expedition.

C. a. palliatus Area surveyed (km²) Number of groups Number of individuals Average group size 2.2 15 68 4.8

C. m. albogularis 2.2 4 5 1.25

P.cynocephalus 2.2 1 3 3

Table 3-2. Summary of total counts observed during primate community surveys This includes sightings of solitary individuals (Average group size was calculated omitting single sightings).

Perpendicular distances for primate groups were calculated from the data, as these are necessary for distance sampling analysis in order to produce density and population estimates. Figure 3-2 shows the distance categories at which C. a. palliatus were detected on the community survey.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 40

Figure 3-2 Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during primate community surveys (n=12)

Primate community surveys have been conducted over a yearly period, in both wet and dry seasons in Shimoni forest (east) during 2007. Using the population estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al 2006), the total C. a. palliatus population for the Shimoni forest (east) survey area (2.2 km 2) over the course of 2007 is estimated at 144 individuals ± 37.9 S.E. (CI 95%: 79 – 265), at densities of 65.7 ind/km2 ± 17.3 S.E. (CI 95%: 35.9 -120.2).

3.4.2 Primate Behavioural Survey A total of 36.4 hours of behavioural surveys were conducted on 7 different groups of C. a. palliatus. Figure 3-3 summarizes the total time budgets for all individuals. The exact number of individuals studied is unknown due to the problems associated with the identification of specific individuals. Both adult males and females were studied, and females with young. Numerous notable behaviours were recorded, including social grooming (both active and passive), contact and vocalising. Copulation was not observed this expedition, however, a male was observed aroused on one occasion. Aggressive encounters were not observed during survey, either between or within groups. Staring behaviour is recorded when the subject under survey is intently staring at the observer. This behaviour is caused by human presence and is used to prevent

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 41

inaccurate recording of vigilance (alert) behaviour. Staring behaviour also provides a measure of the effect of human presence on the subjects.

Figure 3-3. Time budgets of C. a palliatus between October – December 2007 in Shimoni Forest (east)

C. a palliatus exhibited resting behaviour for the largest percentage of the time (68.6%). Feeding behaviour was seen 11.7% of the time, whilst grooming behaviour, either giving or receiving was seen significantly less. Staring behaviour was not a major constituent of the surveys (5.5%). Table 3-3 Summarizes the frequency of behaviour events exhibited within the behaviour surveys this expedition.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 42

Behaviour Urination Defecation Yawn Teeth Display Vocalising Scratching Contact Exchange Arousal Copulation Masturbation Throwing Shaking

Frequency 3 2 2 0 1 84 5 0 1 0 0 0 0

Table 3-3. Frequencies of behaviour events

No agonistic encounters were witnessed this expedition, and no copulation or masturbation or stiff leg display (territorial advertising) performed by males. However, again, as has been found in other expeditions, a high level of scratching behaviour was witnessed during behaviour surveys (84). No behaviours outside of the ethogram were witnessed.

3.4.3 Bird Point Counts Bird point counts were conducted between the hours of 06:30 and 09:00 on transects 2, 3 and 4 only. The time required for access meant that most surveys were restricted to sections within close proximity to the north/south ‘spine’. A total time of 6.5hrs of survey time was undertaken, covering 10 transect sections .. 17 bird species were identified through sight and sound. Silvery-cheeked hornbills (Bycanistes brevis), crowned hornbills (Tockus alboterminatus suahelicus), fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus Adsimilis), green wood hoopoes (Phoeniculus purpureous) swift spp (Apus spp) spectacled weavers (Ploceus ocularis), black bellied starlings (Lamprotomis corruscus mandamus), and collared sunbirds (Hedydipna collaris), were among the most abundant species. In addition, an African fish eagle nest with chicks was observed on the Southern coastline of the forest, seen from transect 1.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 43

Species not previously recorded included African goshawk (Accipiter tachiro), black headed apalis (Apalis melanocephala) and tropical boubou (Laniarious aethiopicus).

3.4.4 Fruit and Flower Survey All transect sections were surveyed for fruits and flowers, over a total duration of 44hrs. 157 trees were recorded in fruit or flower throughout the total survey area. 11 species were identified. The majority of tree species were found in fruits, with only very few seen in flower. Most numerous species in fruit were represented by, Millettia usaramensis (66), and various Ficus spp. The majority of Trichilia emetica were seen in flower (22) (Table 3-4).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 44

Tree Species Adansonia digitata Antiaris toxicaria Carpodiptera africana Delonix regia Fernandoa magnifica Ficus sansibarica Ficus spp Ficus sur Millettia usaramensis Tamarindus indica Trichilia emetica Unidentified palm Unknown Total

Fruit 16 2 0 1 0 2 6 15 66 5 12 1 4 130

Flower 0 0 1 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 27

Total 16 2 1 1 4 6 6 15 66 5 35 1 4 157

Table 3-4. Total numbers of trees in fruit and flower within the Shimoni Forest (east) between October- December 2007

3.4.5 Canopy Surveys Canopy cover was recorded every ten metres across all transect sections. The average canopy cover for one section varied from 0% to 100%, in denominations of 5. The total average canopy cover for Shimoni forest (east) was 70%, and 57% in the KWS forest (Figure 3-4). This is lower than recorded between June to September, but slightly higher than in the beginning of the year.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 45

Figure 3-4. Mean canopy cover for transect sections Transects 1 to 6 represent Shimoni forest (east). Transect 7 represents KWS forest. Largest circle size = 100% cover.

3.4.6 Butterfly Community Survey A total of 10 trapping days (where one trapping day is counted as one trap baited for a 24 hour period) were completed this expedition. Only transects 1, 2, and 3 were surveyed during due to time constraints. Table 3-5 summarizes the species found and in what abundances. Charaxes brutus still conformed to the existing trend, being the most abundant species caught within the traps. Bicyclus safitza safitza was the next most abundant (high numbers were also seen in previous expeditions). Charaxinae are

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 46

recorded to be in highest abundance within the Shimoni Forest (east) using the existing method.

Subfamily Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Satyrinae Total caught Number of species

Species Charaxes brutus Charaxes Cithaeron Charaxes jahulsa kenyensis Bicyclus safitza safitza

Number caught 15 1 1 7 24 4

Table 3-5. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals

3.4.7 Casual observations A total of 106.5 hours was spent on casual observations of fauna during this expedition in Shimoni forest (east). 12 species of birds, 10 species of mammals, and 4 reptile species were identified. Species previously not identified include the little sparrowhawk (Accipiter minullus), a hairy bat (Myotis spp), and a bibrons burrowing asp (Lorenzo vinaguerra), found on the outskirts of the forest.

3.4.8 Primate Census Gonja and Majoreni Forest Reserves The census in Gonja provided 18 sightings of primates within the total 26 transects surveyed. C. a palliatus was sighted on 7 occasions. A total of 16 individuals were seen, 13 within the Gonja forest, and a group of three within the much smaller Majoreni forest. Four solitary males were observed during the census. No sub adult, juvenile or infant C. a palliatus were identified during the survey, with five individuals identified as unknown sex. One solitary individual was identified as female. In addition, 6 troops of P. cynocephalus and 6 troops of C. m albogularis were sighted within Gonja forest.

Population estimation using the programme DISTANCE 5.0 was not used as the data sighting observation number was too small to yield viable results (Buckland, 2001).

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 47

Only sightings of C. a palliatus were quantified during the census. Table 3-6 below displays actual group number, group size and composition of C. a palliatus within Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves without analysis. The average group size of C. a palliatus was estimated at 4.5 (omitting single sightings). Average troop size was estimated from sighting qualities of 2 and 3 only.
Sub Adults Observed Unknown Juveniles Females

Solitary

Colobus

Gonja

1

0

5

3

2

Gonja Gonja

0 0

1 1

1 1

1 1

Gonja Gonja

0 1

1 0

1 4 1

1 3

Gonja Majoreni

0 1

1 0

1 3

1 1 1 1

Total

3

4

16

5

5

6

0

0

0

Table 3-6. Total count and composition of C. a palliatus groups observed in the Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves

Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves were dry, coastal forest. Gonja river past through the reserve and was continually dry throughout the census. There was a lower canopy cover, and the vegetation comprised of thick, dry bush with minimal trees seen. The edge of the forest was densely populated, with a high degree of human disturbance seen within the reserve illustrated by very few trees and many log piles present. Least disturbed patches of the forest were located within the Northern territory, where the majority of C. a palliatus were spotted. Figure 3-5 below shows the transect’s surveyed and colobus group locations.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 48

Infants

Group

Males

White

Adult

Adult

Adult

Grey

Majoreni Forest

Gonja Forest

Kenya/Tanzania tarmac road

Figure 3-5. Survey transects with C. a palliatus locations in the Gonja and Majoreni forest reserves Group locations were plotted using a Garmin Etrex GPS.

3.4.9 Primate Census Dzombo Forest Reserve The census in Dzombo forest reserve provided 24 sightings of primates within the total 40 transects/pathways surveyed. Sightings occurred on 13 of the 40 transects surveyed. C. a palliatus were seen on 16 occasions. A total of 55 individual colobus, comprising of 11 groups and 5 solitary males were recorded. No juvenile or infant C. a palliatus were identified during the survey, and 23 individuals were of unknown age/sex class. All solitary individuals recorded were identified as males. In addition, 2 troops of P. cynocephalus were sighted, with 4 groups heard, and 6 troops of C. m albogularis sighted, 3 occasions of a 0 sighting quality. As within Gonja forest, population estimation

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 49

using the programme DISTANCE 5.0 was not used as the data sighting observation number was too small to yield viable results (Buckland, 2001). Census surveys only concerned with densities of C. a palliatus. Table 3-7 below displays actual group number, group size and composition of C. a palliatus recorded in Dzombo forest reserve. The average group size was estimated at 4.5 individuals (omitting single sightings). Average troop size was estimated only from sighting qualities of 2 and 3.
Juvenil Grey Sub ved

Colobus

1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Total 11

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 5

4 5 1 5 10 4 2 3 6 1 1 1 7 2 1 2 55

1

2 2 3

1

1 1 1 2 7 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 12 2 23 9 0 0 0 4 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 1 1

Table 3-7. Total count and composition of C. a palliatus groups recorded within Dzombo forest reserve

The forest habitat in Dzombo varied from secondary growth woodland on the lower slopes near to local agricultural land, to tall, untouched primary forest at higher

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 50

Infants

Unkno

Solitar

Group

Femal

Adults

Obser

Males

White

Adult

Adult

Adult

y

elevations. Figure 3-6 below shows the surveyed transect area (green lines) and the location of C. a palliatus troops. Locations of C. a palliatus were marked using a GPS. Most groups were located at higher elevations, furthest away from the human settlements and in least disturbed parts of the forest. Habitats and vegetation surveys were not undertaken therefore cannot be shown on the map below. A single male group was located near the edge of the forest reserve, in secondary, disturbed forest. C. a palliatus locations varied from 146m in elevation to the highest sighted at 357m elevation. The highest point of the reserve is 445m.

Figure 3-6. Survey transects and C. a palliatus locations within the Dzombo forest Reserve The red line indicates the boundary of the forest, with green lines the paths surveyed.

3.5 Discussion 3.5.1 Primate Community Survey

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 51

This is now the fourth primate community survey that has been applied in 2007, thus giving us an annual estimate of C. a palliatus population. This was estimated at 144 individuals, in the 2.2km2 Shimoni forest (east). Despite the relatively small size of the forest, it holds a large, viable population of C. a palliatus, which Anderson (2007) highlights as on of the largest and most important populations of this species in Kenya. This forest is an indigenous forest patch, with a variety of rare and endangered endemic plant and animal species. This expedition has seen a high increase in land clearance, with clearings extending 1km north and 250m west from the beginning of transect 4. In addition, charcoal burning has now emerged as a rapidly expanding form of resource use. No charcoal pits were observed before September 2007, however 16 charcoal pits were observed found between October-December 2007. This poses a new and significant threat to the C. a palliatus population due to habitat loss, from increased deforestation and human settlement. The high population of C. a palliatus residing within the Shimoni forest, and the high number of endemic plant and animal species, renders the conservation and protection of the forest of major local, national and international importance.

3.5.2 Primate Behaviour Survey Colobines have large, four chambered, polygastric stomachs, permitting fermentation by anaerobic cellulytic bacteria (Struhsaker & Leland, 1974). This ruminant like digestion allows them to exploit leaf diets generally unavailable to other primates. Most species show a greater preference for young leaves that are higher in protein, and are found high up in the canopy, suggesting why this species is found here rather than due to competition from other anthropoid species or shyness to human presence. Due to leaf cover, it becomes difficult to observe individuals at high canopy levels, explaining the low percentage of time recorded in feeding behaviours (11.7%). However, an adaption for mature, tough leaves enables this species to live in high densities, as food competition becomes relatively low and foraging time reduced. In addition, smaller groups (as seen within the study area, with average group size calculated at 4, with the maximum number recorded at 8) deplete food sources less quickly and therefore can afford to remain in one area for long periods (Fimbel et al 2001). Groups were easily located as their movements seemed minimal, and some were found in one or two trees for weeks

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 52

at a time, shown by the reduced time spent travelling. Mature leaves require effective detoxification (Kay & Davis 1994), and a high amount of energy is devoted to digestion, relating to large amounts of time spent resting, as seen within the results (68.6%). In many groups of C. a palliatus within Shimoni forest (east), two or more males have found to be present, with one all male group observed. This is believed to be temporary, and associated with male replacements or young males maturing within their natal group (Struhsaker & Leland, 1974). It has been noted in groups with multi males, that one male seems to have a thicker white stripe when compared to other males within the group. It is thought that this is related to age, representing older, dominant males. However, there is remains conjecture. A recent event involving a frequently studided group in a large clearing at the beginning of transect 4, included 3 different colobus groups all vocalizing for an hour. This clearing is expanding each expedition, with more trees cleared and charcoal pits appearing. This is may be putting additional pressure on C. a palliatus to hold territories, and it would be interesting to compare group home range living on the edges or within clearings, to territory sizes in less disturbed forest. Apart from the loud vocalizations exhibited from these groups, no aggressive encounters were witnessed. Relations within troops of colobus are peaceful and close, reflecting the placid dispositions of leaf eating monkeys (Estes 1991). Grooming behaviour was seen at very low levels. Grooming behaviour normally occur within the resting periods, early in the morning or late evening (Estes, 1997). However, when grooming was observed, females were the groomers more of the time than were males. This is expected as within C. a palliatus, males emigrate and females remain within there natal groups. Individuals that are related show high levels of grooming towards each other than towards unrelated individuals (Struhsaker & Leland, 1974). Four primate groups have can now be confidently recognized, therefore allowing comparison between group behaviour, home range and composition. Data of this type will yield interesting results for the populations residing within the forest.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 53

3.5.3 Bird Point Counts A species list for avian diversity has confidently recorded 70 species of birds within Shimoni forest (east). Two species identified within this forest, Fischers Turaco (Tauraco fischeri) and the southern banded snake eagle (Circaetus fasciolatus) are classified by IUCN as near threatened. The species’ discovery curve is still growing exponentially, expressing the importance of surveys to be continued. Previous visits from ornithologists from birdlife international have identified 117 different species within the Shimoni forest (east). Casual observations are also increasing the species list. Due to difficulties expressed by visual constraints of a forest environment, bird song identification has seen an increase in successful species identification.

3.5.4 Fruit and Flower Trichilia emetica (locally known as cape mahogany) was found fruiting in high abundance throughout the survey area, with the exception of highly disturbed re-growth forest and clearings. The most abundant tree species within fruit (October–December 2007) was found to be Millettia usaramensis, and several Ficus spp. High densities of C. a palliatus are seen resting, socializing and feeding within Trichillia emetica, Antiarias toxicaria and Millettia usaramensis, highlighting the importance of these for primate populations. Distressingly, both T. emetica and A. toxicaria are exploited, as the hard wood species is used in construction and furniture businesses.

3.5.5 Canopy Surveys Canopy surveys continue to provide valuable data on seasonality of canopy density in support of primate surveys. Mean canopy cover was lower than in previous expeditions, and may be explained by two factors. The low level of rain due to the onset of the dry season, has seen an increase in falling leaves, and clearing of the forest for farmland has been more intense.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 54

3.5.6 Butterfly Community Survey A yearly analysis of butterfly data has now been obtained sampling different microhabitats and to assess seasonal variation in the butterfly community. Casual observations have shown that a large number of butterfly species present in the forest did not frequent the traps (e.g Papilio and Pentila spp), seemingly unattracted to the existing bait. A different bait would now be beneficial, to gain information on other species residing within the forest.

3.5.7 Casual Observations Casual observations have increased estimates of diversity, and new species not previously identified have been recorded. This survey methodology has proved to be successful, yielding new species each expedition. An interesting find this expedition was a hairy bat (Myotis spp) within the daylight hours. This is an insectivorous species of a relatively large group of bats inhabiting a wide range of vegetation types and altitudes (Kingdon, 1997). No documented findings of bat species have yet been recorded within our surveys. Nocturnal surveys would therefore be useful to undertake, including bat mist netting, increasing the species lists for the area.

3.5.8 Census Surveys Census surveys conducted in Gonja forest reserve recorded a decrease in colobus number, with only 13 individuals sighted, in comparison with 24 on the 2001 census. However, a group of 3 individuals were seen in Majoreni, with none seen previously. Although this forest is large (4.22km 2) in comparison to Shimoni forest (east) (2.2km 2), the resulting colobus population was significantly low. A high amount of human disturbance was observed during the census, with few trees and much secondary regrowth. Human encroachment was seen on all sides of the forest boundaries, and burning of land apparent, with large areas of grassland present within the reserve itself. Comparisons of the forest boundary from 2001 and present show a decrease within the area, seemingly from human encroachment around the boundaries.

Dzombo forest saw an increase in Colobus number, 55 compared to the 17 observed in 2001. Again, much of the forest on the lower slopes saw areas of human disturbance,

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 55

with many access paths for fire wood collection, livestock grazing and seasonal burning on the south-western edges. Snares and baboon traps were identified in the 2001 census; however, none were discovered during the present surveys. This may explain the increase in colobus number over the past six years.

Although both forests surveyed are protected reserves under, both still appear subject to high levels of human disturbance through clearance, seasonal burning, timber and pole extraction and charcoal production. Both populations are isolated, with the next nearest forest patch containing C. a palliatus being 4.38km from Dzombo, and 15km from Gonja. Although hunting of C. a palliatus is not documented within these forest patches, a local child living at the base of Dzombo forest informed us that he had an ‘mbega’ skin (local name for colobus). C. a palliatus however, have been known to travel through, and reside in, plantations and ‘non-forest’ habitats, providing there is an arboreal pathway and a food source. It would therefore, be useful for future research to be conducted in areas between forests with known C. a palliatus, providing implications for the species population as a whole.

Further census work on other forest patches within the Kwale district is needed for completion of the census, and so that a current population estimate of C. a palliatus in Kenya can be determined.

3.6 Recommendations and Future Work A yearly analysis has been obtained for primate community. As human disturbance in the form of forest clearance and charcoal pits have significantly increased within the past three months, an assessment of C. a palliatus home range, in relation to distribution and levels of disturbance would be valuable to assess the impact on the population. Shimoni forest (west) located on the west side of the Shimoni village also holds a large population of C. a palliatus (192 counted in September 2007). Primate community surveys will provide data on this highly important and rapidly diminishing coastal forest.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 56

Trapping of butterflies using the canopy traps will be continued in Shimoni (east) and there may be value in trialling different bait types, assessing and identifying species that are not attracted to the present bait type. Complimenting the canopy traps with other survey methods, such as sweep netting should also be considered.

Casual observations continue to reveal greater faunal diversity. Although some of the large terrestrial mammals have been identified, it is thought many nocturnal species are yet to be spotted. Night/dusk walks would be beneficial, revealing nocturnal or shy species, e.g genets and civets (Family: Viverridae), and aardvarks (Orycteropus afer). Bat mist netting would provide a record of bat species within the forest, increasing the species list.

Bird surveys will be continued as the species list is still increasing. Recordings of species from song alongside sightings have proved to be efficient, enabling further identification of species.

Vegetation surveys completion needs to be obtained in Shimoni forest (east). With aid of the botanist, more plant species can be identified and a density estimation of these species presence in the forest obtained. The Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) is an endemic species of coastal forests. It is classified as data deficient. Surveys to estimate population, habitat preference and behaviour will be of great importance and aid in conservation initiatives to protect the forest.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 57

4. Community Development Programme
4.1 Introduction The community development programme falls broadly into 4 main areas; TEFL teaching in Mkwiro Primary School; TEFL teaching in adult classes to local community members; orphanage support and sustainable community projects. With regard to the TEFL teaching, the EMs received the 2-day training course on TEFL on arrival in Mkwiro focusing not only on the adult classes, but also on TEFL for children. In the first phase, the EMs designed a lesson to give to the Standard 7 and 8 classes at Mkwiro Primary School and conducted one-on-one reading classes. This training was successful with several EMs feeling confident enough to present classes as the leadteacher during the expedition. During this expedition, all of GVI’s classes with Standards 5-8 at Mkwiro Primary School have been arranged in double lessons and lessons with Standard 1-4 have been single lessons. Due to the school holidays taking up a large part of this expedition’s community time, and as the students were attending the Madrasa Islamic School, we were only able to conduct normal classroom lessons for 4 weeks during the expedition. During the holidays, we were able to use Madrasa classes for the first time for environmental and cultural education. We also conducted a drama workshop for the students in the break.

The adult classes have included simultaneous beginners and advanced classes for the men and the women had a single class. These classes continued to be popular and have continued to help build capacity for tourism, enterprises and build confidence within the village. Visits to the Al-Hanan Orphanage have been two-to-three times weekly during both the school term and in the holidays and we have been involved with the orphanage throughout the expedition with help and support as needed. Various community projects have been started or continued during this expedition, and we have worked alongside the Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group, Village Committee, Dispensary Committee, Tumaini Women’s Group and individuals to work on aspects such as fundraising, developing capacity for tourism, the village tour and developing markets and revenue for local enterprises.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 58

We worked together with Shimoni Primary School and the Olive Rehabilitation Centre in Mombasa to conduct environmental education classes on Saturdays, focussing on primate ecology this expedition. Other new developments include using the Mkwiro Primary School lesson breaks for library time involving one-on-one reading practice with the learners and spending time on base creating posters and teachers’ aids for the school, nursery school and dispensary.

Figure 4-1. Papier-mâché recycling to make chilli planters with Shimoni Primary students

4.2 School Education Following the Kenyan syllabus, we have been working on the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using these as the basis around which our lessons are planned. As it was the end of the school year, we spent the first 6 weeks of the expedition on revision chapters for the

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 59

students. We have conducted more than 21 hours of English lessons. In terms of extracurricular study, we have conducted 9.5 hours of tutorial work with Standard 8 helping them to prepare for their final exams. We continued special reading lessons with the Standard 6-8 students where they come individually to our base for one-on-one reading time. This has benefited more than 50 of the learners so far, and the individual time has motivated both the EMs and the students. The library has been opened up during the school breaks for students to come for private reading with the EMs. EMs also helped the Standard 8 students to prepare for their exams by leading the school’s night classes in the run up to the tests. When the Primary School finished their school year, we were able to arrange classes at the Madrasa Islamic School on subjects such as dolphin and primate ecology as well as cultural introductions and climatic regions of Kenya. This was a success for the students, EMs and also for the Madrasa teachers who were exposed to a new teaching style during our visits.

As our Saturday programme, we invited the Olive Rehabilitation Centre from Mombasa and Shimoni Primary School to visit our satellite camp base in Shimoni for a weekly programme of primate ecology education, recycling lesson and forest visit.

During the school holidays, we created a drama workshop for the Standard 6, 7 and 8 students, using the story of Mwauzi Tumbe, a local legend in Mkwiro. Over 4 days, the students worked with the EMs to create props, set, dialogue and costumes to present to the village. Over 150 people were present to watch the students act the play. 4.3 Adult Education During this expedition, we have conducted over 40 hours of classes to the women’s and men’s classes. The men’s class was split into beginners and advanced levels and the women returned to the format of one-level classes. The advanced classes have covered topics as diverse as Letter Writing, HIV and AIDS, Health and Safety and Reading for Fluency. With the beginners’ class, we have been working on spellings, past tense, parts of the body and sicknesses as well as vocabulary and skills relating to the student’s jobs. We have also spent time working with the Primary School teachers to teach computer lessons using a downloaded series of lessons from a British University. This is a

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 60

valuable addition to the capacity building, as the teachers are becoming increasingly able to teach the students in the Primary School on computers. 4.4 Al Hanan Orphanage We have been visiting the orphanage every Monday, Wednesday and Friday for an hour and a half each day. We have spent more than 20 hours at the orphanage during this expedition. Activities have included games, homework, reading help, sports, drawing and painting.

4.5 Satellite Camp Working in collaboration with the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), GVI successfully completed its fifth series of satellite camps with communities in former poaching

Taveta-Taita district. The 3 communities (Kidong, Mahandikini &

Kasaani) had historically poached wildlife for their own subsistence purposes, while also supplying the local and trans-boundary bush meat demand. The top threat to wildlife sustainability in the nearby Tsavo West national park and local non/protected areas, however, is the bush meat trade - an increasingly destructive and lucrative international practice surpassing habitat loss as the greatest threat to tropical wildlife (Bennet et al, 2006 as cited by Omonde 2006). Therefore, in order to negate the impact of this trade on local wildlife, and to simultaneously improve the livelihood options for ex-poaching communities, GVI continue to implement capacity-building exercises in each of the three villages. A fourth village, that of Mtakuja, had previously been involved in the satellite camps; however, due to internal problems and issues of land ownership, it was again not possible to implement a satellite camp with the group this expedition. However, after GVI recently met with Mtakuja group members, it is anticipated that the issues preventing their participation will soon be resolved.

Overall, GVI delivered approximately 62 hours of lessons to the 3 communities. These lessons also involved close guidance and supervision from 24 EMs. Attendance was generally excellent, with classes comprising between 10 – 20 members. Each satellite camp consisted of a tree-planting session, with EMs and community members planting a cumulative total of 87 trees in the expedition. Each group was also taught on how to produce fuel-efficient stoves, with all materials being locally-sourced. With these efforts,

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 61

it is anticipated that the groups will be able to generate income from tree products, save money and time on fuel purchase and collection, improve health and well-being while also improving the condition of the local eco-system. Summaries from each satellite camp will now be presented.

4.5.1 Mahandakini Satellite Camp The Mahandikini Youth Network for Animal Welfare and Rights (herein Mahandikini group) are looking to substitute poaching with a bee-keeping enterprise, with 65 beehives having recently been delivered from the Kenyan company Honeycare. The first satellite camp had a strong income-generation theme to it, with EMs delivering a class focusing on ways to start a small-scale business. EMs and group members then together identified service/product needs within Mahandakini community, and how group members using their resources could fill these needs. This was particularly productive, as it highlighted areas in which Mahandakini group members could fill certain service gaps (i.e. by providing bicycle service/repairs, by providing fuel from distant Taveta to farmers using generators). The satellite camp also involved a tree-planting session, as well as a tomato-processing workshop. The Mahandakini group members produce a glut of tomatoes which annually go to waste. This is mainly due to lack of preservation and storage options. So, the focus was on preserving and adding value to tomatoes. Sundrying techniques were carried out by EMs and group members (fig 4.3), as were processes to create products from tomatoes (tomato jam, tomato chutney and tomato ketchup). Following this, there were workshops on how to properly clean and sterilize used glass jars, with techniques also shown on how to fill jars with tomato products (with hygiene, safety and optimal preservation kept in mind). With these new skills, the group are now interested in determining the potential for selling tomato products in Mahandakini and further a field in Taveta.

As Mtakuja could not be involved in the satellite camp this expedition, it was decided to use Mahandakini as a substitute village. This satellite camp involved EMs discussing matters to do with smoke inhalation, and immediate actions that could be taken to reduce indoor smoke from cooking fires. This class was led by two EM’s, and involved a lot of discussion and debate about current cooking methods and ways in which they could change. Another component of this satellite camp was the delivery of a seed-bank

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 62

lesson. With a seed bank basically being a storage system for seeds, and with Mahandakini looking to initiate a tree nursery, the lesson was very appropriate. The lesson introduced ideas to the group on how to initiate a seed bank, such as when to organise seed collections, methods of storage, stock-taking of seeds and holding seed fairs. One important aspect was for the group to collate all members’ knowledge on tree and plant species, such as planting and harvesting periods, as well as seed harvesting periods. The group are also looking to build on this information by utilizing expert advice from nearby tree nurseries, thus better informing future practices.

4.5.2 Kidong Satellite Camp The Kidong Conservation and Development Community-based Organisation (herein Kidong group) are aspiring to create a cultural centre, with the hope that tourism revenues provide a viable alternative income. The satellite camp this expedition concentrated on another objective of the group, that being of energy. EMs and group members successfully planted out 23 seedlings of different species, with the anticipated benefits being income-generation from tree products, saved money and time on fuel purchase and collection, timber for construction of the cultural centre while reducing impacts of deforestation on the local environment. Another component of the satellite camp was a fuel-efficient stove workshop. Firstly, group members and EMs demonstrated how to make the special mud for the stove (fig 4.2). This was then applied around a mould of tree stumps, which would later be removed to create cavities for wood and heat. The potential benefits are up to 70% savings on firewood, quicker cooking times, reduced smoke in the kitchen (promoting health) and the ability to cook on two stoves instead of one. Another positive is that all materials for the stove are locally available and cost nothing

4.5.3 Kasaani Satellite Camp The Kasaani Group for Animal Protection (herein Kasaani group) are keen to initiate a bee-keeping project in their locality; having recently received 65 beehives from Kenyanbased company Honeycare. Due to the location of Kasaani being very close to the border of Tsavo West National Park, they are accordingly suffering from high-levels of human-wildlife conflict. So, it was apt to introduce methods in reducing conflict with wild

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 63

animals. Mixing elephant dung with crushed chilli, EM’s demonstrated to group members a new technique which has been deterring elephants from crops. With chilli being locallyavailable and easily grown, the Kasaani group now have an effective and economical way of guarding food crops from wild animals. Other elements of this satellite camp were a business class, a tree-planting session, a fuel-efficient stove workshop and ways to reduce smoke inhalation in kitchen environs.

Fig 4-2. EMs make a fuel-efficient stove

Fig 4-3. Preparing tomatoes for sun-drying

4.6 Capacity Building The Capacity Building section of the expedition has been a huge success this expedition, with lots of projects being pushed forwards or completed. A cooking class run by 5 local women has transformed from an idea to a fledgling business with marketing posters being displayed in the last week of the expedition. Another community member has been helped by GVI to start a new business making model dhow boats. He is now making money and has several orders underway thanks to his own hard work and the help of EMs with marketing and business planning.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 64

The Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group have been able to make and sell products at the Shimoni jetty to tourists towards the end of the expedition thanks to on-going efforts of GVI and the group. We invited the group’s chairman to GVI during our capacity building time to learn computer and fundraising skills and to act as a liaison between GVI and the group. The stall is now selling all products which are ‘Made in Mkwiro’, and other individuals are also making money from the arrangement. This is a huge step forward for the tourism capacity of the village, and the group have been motivated. Meetings have continued with Mkwiro Dispensary Committee to develop an effective proposal for the donation available from Timberland Clothing Company to find a sustainable way to fund the Mkwiro nurse. Having decided that running a ferry service will no longer be financially viable due to other new operators, Mkwiro Dispensary Committee are considering investing in an minibus to operate a public transport service between Shimoni and Likoni. However there is a significant shortfall form the moeny available and the committee have as yet been unable to propose a solution to this or a workable alternative. We have taken on three Kenyans as part of the National Scholarship Programme this expedition. Nigel de Mello and Ekens Okemwa are students from KWS Training Institute studying for diplomas in Wildlife Management and Environmental Management respectively. Hassan Amiri from Mkwiro village also joined us for the second five weeks, having finished his High School certificates. As well as generally strengthening the relationship between GVI and Mkwiro village, the additional knowledge and skills will hugely benefit Hassan.

In addition the chairman of Mahandakini group joined us for 2 weeks to improve his leadership skills and gain experience of working in English, budgeting and project management. 4.7 Employment Currently, there are several local staff employed by GVI: Marine staff: 1

Boat drivers/security: 5

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 65

Base security:

3

The expedition members get a great deal of added enjoyment and understanding of the local culture and way of life by working closely with these local staff. We are also helping to build capacity within our local staff by helping them to improve their English and offering computer lessons and practice when machines are available. GVI also supports local enterprises in the community including bread and samosa makers, the village tailor and curio sellers who brings a stall to base.

4.8 GVI Charitable Trust GVI has helped to sponsor 5 children to secondary school in full this expedition through donations to the expedition through GVI CT. The Orphanage committee have asked for the remainder of money previously pledged to the orphanage to go towards buying metal beds for the boys which has now been done. Our relationship with the orphanage remains strong and all parties are very appreciative of GVI CT. Some of our EMs used their Interest Group time to investigate further fundraising for the orphanage, school, dispensary and other projects in the village.

4.9 Summary GVI’s involvement in the local community in Mkwiro as well as in Shimoni and Wasini through English teaching, capacity building and help with the orphanage has made a tangible difference to the lives of the community members. Next expedition we hope to continue to improve the amount of reading, computer access and English language being received in the students’ free time by actively helping out in the new school resource centre. We are also looking forward to continuing the business ideas and fundraising help and increasing the capacity building activities amongst the adults.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 66

5. References
Anderson, J., 2001. Status, distribution and conservation of the Angola black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in coastal Kenya. A report for Wakuluzu, Friends of the Colobus Trust, P.O. Box 5380, 80401, Diani Beach, Kenya. Anderson, J., Rowcliffe, J.M. and Cowlishaw, G. 2007. The Angola Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in Kenya: Historical range contraction and current conservation status. American Journal of Primatology. 69, 664-680.

Acevedo, A., 1991. Behaviour and movements of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the entrance to Ensenada De La Paz, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 17(3), 137-147.

Admiralty Charts and Publications number 866, Edition 4: 1950, Plans in Tanganykia and Kenya.

Berrow, S. D., Holmes, B. and Kiely, O.R., 1996. Distribution and abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Shannon Estuary. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L., 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York.

Carwadine, M. 2000. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Dorling Kindersley Limited, London, pp. 18, 77.

Clarke, G. P. 2000. Defining the Eastern African Coastal Forests. pp. 9-27. In (Burgess, N. D., Clarke, G. P. (eds)) Coastal Forests of East Africa. Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. IUCN.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 67

Corkeron, P.J., 1990. Aspects of the behavioural ecology of inshore dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Sousa chinensis in Moreton Bay, Australia, in The Bottlenose Dolphin, S. Leatherwood S., Reeves R. R., (Eds.), Academic Press., San Diego, pp. 285-293.

Emerton L., Tessema Y., 2001. Economic constraints to the management of marine protected areas: the case of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti National Reserve, Kenya. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.

Estes, R. D., 1991. The behaviour guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primate. University of California Press, California.

Evans, P.G.H., Hammond, P.S., 2004. Monitoring cetaceans in European waters. Mammal Review. 34,1, 131-156.

Fashing, P.J., Cords, M., 2000. Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: An evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests. American Journal of Primatology 50, 139-152.

Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., Mulindahabi, F., 2001. An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology 39, 83-92.

Frazier, J., 1975. Marine turtles of the Western Indian Ocean. Oryx 13, 164-175.

Ingram, S. 2000. The Ecology and Conservation of Bottlenose Dolphins in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland. Submitted as P.H.D. to N.U.I., Cork.

IUCN, 2004. IUCN Red List of threatened species. http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlist.htm

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 68

Kay, R.N.B., Davies, A.G. Digestive physiology. In: Davies, A.G., Oates, J.F. (Eds.) 1994. Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour, and evolution. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Karczmarski, L., Cockcroft V.G., McLachlan A., 2000. Habitat use and preferences of Indo-pacific humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Marine Mammal Science 16, 65-79.

Kingdon, J., 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Academic Press. London. Lacher, T.E., 2005. Tropical ecology, assessment and monitoring (TEAM) initiative. Primate monitoring protocol. Conservation International.

Larsen, T.B., 1996. Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History. Oxford University Press, New York. Meyler, S., 2006. Aspects of the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncates, in the Shannon Estuary. National University of Ireland, Library Journal 24(4).

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J., 2000. Biodiversity hotpots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403, 853 – 858.

Omondi, R., 2006. A project proposal for the Tsavo West National Park Community Game Scouts. Kenyan Wildlife Service. Parsons, K.M., 2001. Procedural guideline No. 4-5 Using photo-ID for assessing bottlenose dolphin abundance and behaviour, in: Marine JNCC Marine Monitoring Handbook. 1-21.

Richmond, M.D.. (Ed.) 2002. A Field Guide to the Seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands. Sida/SAREC – University of Dar es Salam, pp. 461.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 69

Shane, S. H.,1990. Behaviour and Ecology of the bottlenose dolphin at Sanibel Island, Florida., in: Leatherwood, S and Reeves, R.R. (Eds.)The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, pp. 245-266.

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J., Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK.

Stensland, E., Berggren, P., R, Johnstone., 1998. Marine Mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment. Ambio. 27-8, 771-774.

Stuhsaker, T, T. and Leland, L. 1974. Colobines: Infanticide by Adult Males. pp 83-98. In (Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham. R.W. and Struhsaker. T. T. (eds)) Primate Societies. The university of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Thomas, S.C. 1990. Population densities and patterns of habitat use among anthropoid primates in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Biotropica 23, 68-83.

Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Bishop, J.R.B. and Marques, T.A. 2006. Distance 5.0. Release 2. Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/ Wamukokya, G.M., Haller. R.D. 1995. The status of sea turtle conservation in Kenya. A paper presented during the 15 th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, USA, February 1995. White, L. & Edwards, A., 2000. Methods for assessing the status of animal populations. pp 225-227. In (White, L & Edwards, A. (eds)) Conservation research in the African rain forests. Multipress, Libreville, Gabon.

Whitesides, G. H., Oats, J.F., Green, S. M. & Kluberdanz, R. P. 1988. Estimating primate densities from transects in a West African rainforest- a comparison of techniques. Journal of Animal Ecology. 57, 345-367.

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 70

6. Appendices

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 71

Appendix A

EVENT LOG
DATE: Time (24hrs) Event VESSEL: South 04° STAFF (Initials): East 039° OBSERVERS (Initials): PAGE ______OF______ Environmental Conditions Precip T I Wind D Comments

Effort Trans Bearing WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide #

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other/15 minute recording 09 - End of survey day

Effort Type: Beaufort Cloud Cover: LT - Line Transect 0 - Glass Measure in eigths CW- Casual watch 01- Ripples e.g. 0/8 - clear DS - Dedicated search 02 - small waveletss 4/8 - half sky o/c PI - Photo ID 03 - occasional whitecaps 8/8 - over cast 04 - Frequent whitecaps Visibility (km): 05 - Many whitecaps Boat Speed: Swell: 0-1 heavy rain (use GPS) 0 - no/weak swell 1-10 1 - intermediate swell >10 2 - strong swell

Precipitation Type N - None R - Rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

- Intensitity I - Intermittent C - continuous

CHECKED Initials

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 51

Appendix B

Sightings Form
Date: Vessel: Skipper: Recorder:

Entered onto computer □
CHECKED (initials)

Group size Survey number Distance Angle to Tide to sighting Ebb/Flo Latitude Longitude Effort Sighting MFS/ sighting (P or S) od Time South 04° East 039° type number DS Species Min Max Best

Spotted because PhotoDhows? ID? Yes/No Yes/No

Number of Boats Comments

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 52

Appendix C

Date (YYYYMM-DD) Roll #:

Photographe rs Initials

DS or MFS #

Vessel Initials (SR or ET)

Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number (MFS or DS): Start time: End time: Photographer: Camera: Scribe: Frame # Notes

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 67

Appendix D

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 68

Appendix E

LAND BASED SIGHTINGS: ENVIRONMENT AND BOAT
DATE: Time (24hrs) OBSERVERS: Environmental Conditions Wind Swell BFT Direction PAGE ______OF______ Vis Tide Precip T I No. of Vessels Boat Traffic Number of each type of vessel i.e. Comments

Observers

Cloud

Cloud Cover: Beaufort: 0 - Glass Measure in eigths e.g. 0/8 - clear 01- Ripples 4/8 - half the sky overcast- small waveletss 02 8/8 - over cast 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps Swell: 05 - Many whitecaps 0 - no/weak swell 1 - intermediate swell 2 - strong swell
© Global Vision International – 2007

Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10

Precipitation Type N - none R - rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

Intensitity I - intermittent C - continuous

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

Entered on computer

Checked (Initials)

Page 69

Appendix F
LAND BASED: SIGHTINGS
DATE: Sighting Time (24 hrs) observer's initials OBSERVERS (Initials): Dolphins and Megafauna Bearing Sighting Distance Species Min Group size Max Best Tide (ebb or flood) Plot # on chart PAGE ______OF______

Comments

Bearing Read by observer from compass at bottom of binocular view

Distance Use reticles in binoculars counting down from the top of the horizon or shoreline

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common Count short reticles as StD - Striped halves PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species

Tide: E - Ebb - High to low F - Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 70

Appendix G
LANDBASE SURVEY: DOLPHIN BEHAVIOUR PAGE: OF DATE: OBSERVERS: Record every 5 min./after each dive cycle from 1st sighting # Group size Vessel #Tourist Vessels Dive Dive type dhows Time Spp Spread present Type Duration Min Max Best

# dhows swim with dolphins

Split into View subObstructed groups by boats (Yes or (Yes or No) No)

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species
© Global Vision International – 2007

Dive Type Rg - Regular Td - Tail-out Pd - Peduncle Rs - Rapid Surface Rt - Rooster Tail Lp - Leap Pp - Porpoise Snag - Snag

Spread Tig - Tight (< 2 m) Mod - Moderate (2 - <5 m) Spr - Spread (5 -10 m) Wsp - Widespread (>10 m)

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

Page 71

Appendix H

Date:

Time start:

Time finish:

Weather: Wind: still / light breeze / firm breeze / storm Cloud cover (0/8-8/8):

Team's full names: GPS start: GPS finish:
Time sighted Common name

Location:

Precipitation: dry / rain / showers

Scientific name

No. individuals

Notes / description (if unsure I.D.)

© Global Vision International – 2007

Page 72

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.