In presenting this English-Bisaya Grammar I do not pretend to be considered an author, my only aspiration is to be useful to my Américan brethren in the priesthood, in order that they in turn, may be so to the Bisaya people. The priest for the Bisaya people must be one who will devote all his attention to them, live among them, study their ways, their character, their tendencies, and therefore, the study of their dialect is absolutely necessary to him, since they, for the most part, do not know how to speak either Spanish or English. In preparing this compilation I have used every effort to do it as well as possible, but I am only a pupil in both the English and Bisaya languages, and I believe, the work is not as perfect as would be desired, but I indulge a hope that the kindness of my readers will excuse my faults.
Page 4

Bisaya Alphabet.
The letters made use of in the Bisaya alphabet, are twenty in number as follows: A. Ah. N. B. C. D. O. E. P. G. Q. H. S. I. T. L. U. M. Y. EE (griega).

Bay. Thay. Ng. Ñ

Day. A or ay. Hay. Atchay. EE. Ai-lay. Ai-may. Coo. Es say. Tay. OO.

Ai-nay. ,,

Ai-nyay. Oh. Pay.

The vowels are A, E, I, O, U, and Y at the end of a word. The vowels are never silent, except U in the syllables que, qui, the sound of which corresponds to that heard in the English words Kedge, Keep, Key. A sounds always like A in alam. B sounds like B in back C before a, o, u, sounds like K in English, as—caadlaoon—The dawn of the day— Coco—Nail of the fingers. D at the beginning of a word or in the middle, if preceded by a consonant, is pronounced like in English. At the end of a word or between two vowels has a sound between D and R, which may be obtained by placing the tip of the tongue against the higher teeth turning the thick part towards the roof of the mouth. G has always a very smooth sound like in English before a, o, u, as—ginicanan, forefathers—gintoon-an, scholar.

H has a slight aspirated sound like a very faintly aspirated h in English in the words horse, hog—as—hocom, judge—habagat, a strong wind—hilanat, fever. E, I these vowels although sound like in English, nevertheless, natives confound them very often: the same shall be said of the vowels O and U; and Page 5this is the reason why the P. John Felix's Dictionary employs but I and O, instead E, I—O, U. L sounds like in English, as—lamdag, brightness—libac, backbiting. M sounds like in English: as—mata, eye—motó-top. N sounds like in English; as—nipis, fine, thin. Ng this letter has no equivalent in English, and it must be heard from the natives. Ñ this letter has a strong nasal sound resembling that of n in the English word “poniard” out of Bohol province, where it is pronounced as in the English word— manger and written ny: as, caninyo, bonyag, instead of caniño, boñag. O sounds like in English; as—olan, rain—úhao, thirst. P sounds as in English:—pito, seven—ponó, fill. Q is alway followed by u, and pronounced like K; as, quinabuhi, life, quilay, eyebrow, quilquil, scratching. S has always a harsh, hissing sound like ss in English. There is not a word in Bisaya beginning with s followed by a consonant.

T sounds as in English, as—tabang, help, tiao, joke. U sounds like in English in the words "proof, goose" but it is frequently confounded with O. (See I and E on the preceding page). Y sounds like ee in English at the end of a word; but before a vowel, or between two vowels, sounds like in the English words "joke, jolt" as—yabó, pour.—This letter when after a noun or pronoun, if the same noun or pronoun, is employed instead of the particle ang, being as it does, an article of appellative nouns. Examples: I did that—acó ang nagbuhat niana, or, acoy nagbuhat niana—What is the reason of that.—¿Onsa ba ang hingtungdan niana? or ¿Onsay hingtungdan niana?
Page 6

First Lesson.
1.a The article in the Bisaya dialect is divided into determinate and indeterminate and of the proper names. 2.a The determinate article is ang for singular, and ang mga or sa mga according to the cases for plural. 3.a The indeterminate article is usa, one for the singular; and uban, pila or mapila, some for the plural. 4.a The article of the proper names is si for both masculine and feminine.

Declension of the Articles.
DEFINITE ARTICLE. SINGULAR. N. G. D. Ac. Vc. Abl. PLURAL. N. G. D. Ac. Vc. Abl. The Of the To the The Oh With the dogs. dogs. dogs. dogs. dogs. dogs. Ang mga Sa mga Sa mga Sa mga Sa mga Sa mga iro. iro. iro. iro. iro. iro. The Of the To the The Oh With the dog. dog. dog. dog. dog. dog. Ang Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa iro. iro. iro. iro. iro. iro.


Peter.a The English compounded words. wooden. Joseph and his friends.—My Mother. Ang usa ug ang usa PLURAL. as:—The woodencross. change the affix en into nga. ang uban dili—Some of the trees. Can Pedro. D. Remark l. Peter. One and another Page 7 Usa ca sulat. Peter.SINGULAR A letter. Can Pedro. Usa ca iro. as: N. Ac.—The female child. A dog. Can Pedro. Oy Pedro. 2. Some wish. while others do not—ang uban bu-ut. With Of To Peter. Abl. Si amoy—My eldest sister.a This article serves also to express kindness or love: as. golden etc. Vc. G. G. Si inday—The parish Priest. Ang singsing nga bulauan. Peter.a The article of the proper names is used also to point out a person and his companions. Si manang. Sila si José. THE ARTICLE OF THE PROPER NAMES SINGULAR. Ni Pedro. 3. Ang cruz nga cahoy—The golden ring. Si Pedro. Of Joseph and of his friends. Si nanay. which are there—Pipila sa mga cahuy dihá. Si tatay. ila ni José.— My father. N. Peter. .

ang imong mga sapin. Declension. 2. it is employed the article sa—Thus: The water vat. By using different words: Ex.a When it refers to the property of any one. the wife.a The plural is formed in Bisaya by placing mga after the article ang or sa.—John's hat.a Rem. the girl. ang amahan. thus—My friends. the dog. Examples of the article. the father: ang inahan. but when it is indeterminate. as: Bring the money. does not distinguish the gender. By the suffixes lalaqui and babaye.a When we point out the destination of a thing.a When the possessive case is placed before the name.ang iro nga lalaqui. N. . The cats Of the cats To the cats The cats Oh cats With the cats Ang mga iring Sa mga iring Sa mga iring Sa mga iring Mga iring Sa mga iring 2.—The bottle of wine. the boy. Ex. the mother. D. Taga-an mo acó ug salapi. G. Magdala ca sa sapi. but there are two ways of distinguishing the masculine and feminine in this dialect: 1. PLURAL. 1. ang acong mga higala—Your shoes.ang asaua. ang bata nga babaye. it must be placed between ang and mga. Vc. 3. Abl. Ang botella sa vino. the articleug must be used. Ang tadyao sa tubig. ang bana. she dog. 5. The Bisaya article like the English. the husband. 6. Ang calo ni Juan.4.a The article sa is employed. ang iro nga babaye. when the Page 8thing it refers to is determinate. Give me money. Ac. it is as follows. ang bata nga lalaqui.

we shall occupy ourselves with their formation. or ang sa balay ni Pedro—Bring the rice: Magdala ca ug bugas—My mother and sister are at John's cottage. (ang acong sinina)?—Have you much money?—I have much money—Where is your sister?—She is at the garden (tanaman sa mga bulac)—Where is your father?—He is here. Of the nouns. Tua sia sa bulangan—Has he much money?.Pipila lamang ca dacó—Let us go. Ari na came—That man is a drunkard. so much diverse and usual. ang calag ni José—John's ground. sir. Daghan ba ang iang salapi?—He has but a few coins. Palainom man sia. Acóman—Who is the owner? ¿Quinsa ba ang tagia? —Where is your son?. but can not express it without any other word. but not a drunkard. Angacong mga igso-on salapia-*non Page 9man—Are you Peter's father?. Si nanay ug si inday tua sa camalig ni Juan—My brothers are rich. Tala na quitá—Good by. Supposing the pupil knows the classification of the nouns into proper. common or appellative &. Icao ba ang amahan ni Pedro?—I am. ¿Quinsa ba canang mgatao?—They are my friends. to which the root must be united.—Have you the salt?—I have the salt—Have you my salt?—I have your salt.Page 10 The root is the word which contains in itself the signification of the thing. . apan dili palahubóg—Where is my father?. ang sa can Pedro nga balay.. Ania dinhi—Who are those men?. A great number of nouns and verbs are compounded in Bisaya by means of roots and particles. Mao ang acong mga higala. which we call a particle.— Have you the soap?—I have the soap—Which (onsa nga) soap have you?—I have your soap—Which shirt have you?—I have my shirt. Exercise. ¿Hain ba ang acong amahan?—Here he is.Joseph's soul. I have the bread: Have you your bread?—I have my bread. Hain ba ang imong anac?—He is at the cockfight. Palahubóg man canang tao—He is a drinker. ang yuta ni Juan. being as it is. I Have you the bread?—Yes. Second Lesson. or ang can Juan nga yuta—Who is at Peter's house.

and those pointing out the essence of the things. casagingan. Ang palasulat. are formed the nouns of quality. Humanity.a With the particles mag and man are formed substantive and adjective nouns. Ang pagca Dios. Ang magbubuhat. 6.a With the particle isigca before the root. thus: The writer. The tippler The writer. Divinity. Ang caayo. are formed collective nouns. The surgeon. and nouns of place.a With the particle ca before. and an after. 2.1. Hardness.a With the particle ca at the beginning of the root. 7.— Ang caputi. as: My like. are formed the abstract nouns. Kindness. The maker. as: . are formed several substantives. duplicating the first syllable of the roots. cacahoyan—Banana plantation. are formed correlative nouns. Ang pagca taoo.a By placing the particle pagca before the roots. Ang magtatahi. Ang magsusulat. Ang pagca guhi. Ang palainom. as: The drunk. as: Sweetness. Mercy. Ang catam-is. The tailor. are formed nouns expressing the owner of a thing. 4. Ang manlilimos. Ang calo-oy. as:—Grove. 3.a With tag before the root. The almsgiver. Ang isigcataoo co. Ang mananambal. With the particle pala before. as:—Whiteness. placing the possessive pronoun in genitive case. 5. Page 11 Ang palahubóg.

Taga di-in ca ba? Taga España man acó. serves to ask some one about his town. To the neck. Taga salug. Harvest time. Tagilongsod. Ang pagcabanhao. Ang tagcalibutan. 8. Walking or to walk. Of which town? From Cornago. 11. tagani—tinani. it shows the time of those operations.a Placing the particle tagi before the root it points out permanency on a place. 9. Ang pagcamatay. as: To the knee. or tig-ani. tagolan. tiginit. Taga tohod. Taga di-in ca nga longsod? Taga Cornago. as: Inhabitant of a place. Ang tagbalay. Dying or to die. thus: Rain time. Ang pagbasa.a Putting this same particle before the words signifying the seasons of the year or the atmospherical changes. The master of the vessel. 10.a Taga signifies also until. Ex: Making or to make. In some provinces are used also in this same sense. Ang paglacao.a By means of the articles pag and pagca are formed the verbal substantives. Page 12 Ang pagbuhat. Ang tagsacayan. as: Where are you from? I am from Spain. Reading or to read. 12. the particles tig and tin. and points out the end of the action. As far as the floor. .The owner of the house. The owner of the world.a The particle taga before the nouns of countries or nations. Taga liug. points out the time of these changes: and placing it before words signifying the farming-works. Warm time. Resuscitating or to resuscitate.

Ang tubig sa subá miabut tagahaoac. ang mga gapas. sa mga gapas. Love your neighbour. Sa tigadlao ayo pagtanom ug pagpugás. Ang caayo sa tugás ana-a sa cagahi nia. sa mga gapas. ¿Hain ba ang acong libro? ¿Hain ba ang libro co? Ania man canaco. God is the Maker of all things. ¿Onsay imo dihá? Iyahay lang quitá. G. Hardness is the molave merit. cay gisugo sa Dios. D. To the cotton. for that is a commandment of God. Ayao icao dumo-ol sa palahubóg. To the cottons. The cotton. sa gapas. D. Who has my book? Where is my book? I have it. ang gapas. PLURAL N. Page 13 Exercise. Where is the horse? I do not know. II . Mahagugma ca sa imong isigcataoo. Of the cotton. Practical examples Don't approach the intoxicated man. Of the cottons. SINGULAR. Tagibanua. Mao man cana unta. N. The cottons. Don't sow nor plant in warm time. Ang Dios mao ang Magbubuhat sa ngatanan.Countryman. ¿Hain ba ang cabayo? Ambut lamang. The river water reaches as far as the waist. G. So must it be. sa gapas. Declension of the common nouns. How does that concern you? Every oneself.

Napolo ug usá. I thank you—Where are you from?—I am from Spain—Of which town?—From Conago—Who (quinsa) has my book?—I have it—Who is that young Lady?—She is Miss Kate—Where is my trunk (caban)?—The servant has it—Have you my fine glasses?—I have them—Have you the fine horses of my neighbours?—I have not them—Who are you?—I am John—Are you Peter's father?—I am. Pito. Napolo ug lima. Upat. Twenty. . Napolo ug pito. Thirteen. Seven. Napolo ug siam. distributives and vicenales. Eighteen. Napolo ug unum. Lima. and are the followings: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 40 One. Catlo-an. Two. Ten. Six. Siam. Duha. Eight. Nineteen.Good morning. Nine. Caluha-an. Seventeen.Page 14 Napolo ug ualo. Eleven. The father Encina divides the numbers into primitives. Capat-an. Napolo. Three. Twelve. OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS. The primitive numerals are those which serve to count. Four. Napolo ug tolo. Unum. Napolo ug duha. Forty. Third Lesson. Thirty. Ualo. ordinals. Tolo. Napolo ug upat. Fourteen. Usá. Fifteen. Five. how are you?—Very well. Sixteen.

Ang icaduha. upat ca adlao. Ang icalima. 2d.Page 15 Ordinal Numbers. the first syllable. Remarks: 1.50 60 70 8O 90 100 101 200 300 1000 1001 2000 Fifty. One hundred. Two thousand. Casiam-an. Usa ca libo. a thousand"*. Napolo ca bata. thus: Usa cataoo. Duha ca gatus. ex: The year 1898. Eighty. Usa ca gatus. usa ca libo. Usa ca libo ug usá. Caualo-an. Caluha-an ca cabayo. as we have seen. 2. 5th. Sixty. One thousand and one. Twenty horses. 4th. when points out any quantity. Duha ca libo. The denaries are formed by putting before unity the particle ca and an after. Ninety. 7th. Three hundred. Two hundred and twenty guns. Usa ca libo ca taoo. One thousand men. Seventy. 1st. Usa ca gatus ug usá. Ang icapito. Canum-an. Duha ca gatus caluha an ug duha ca fusil. One thousand. Capito-an. 6th. Lima ca gatus casiam-an ug usa ca soldalo.a The unity begins by a consonant duplicates. Five hundred and ninety one soldiers. Tolo ca gatus. Calim-an. Ten children. . 3d. Ang nahaona. Expressions like "eighteen hundred" must be translated as: —one thousand eight hundred.a The English forms "a hundred.— Napolo ca pisos. are rendered into Bisaya by usa ca gatus. Ang icatolo-tlo.—Usa ca libo ualo ca gatus casiaman ug usa. Ca serves also to join the numbers to the nouns. One hundred and one Two hundred. Ang icaunum. Ang icaupat-pat.

Viernes. Ang icapolo ug upat Ang icapolo ug lima. Ang icacaupatan Ang icacalim-an Ang icausa ca gatus. Ang icacatloan.—Ang semana. 40th. 30th. Miercoles. Jueves.—Sa icaunum ca adlao sa bulan sa Marzo sa usa ca libo siam ca gatus ng usa ca tuig. (The months and the days of the week are taken from the Spanish language). Ang icacaluhaan. Saturday. 50th. . January. 20th. 11th. Martes. 21th. Ang icasiam.—¿Icapila quita caron?—To-day is the sixth of March of the year 1901. 12th. Ang icacaluhaan ug usa. Tuesday. Ang icaualo. 9th. 10th. Ang icapolo ug usa. Sabado. 15th. Domingo. Ang icapolo. 14th.—Ang bulan. Sunday. Wednesday. Enero. Friday. Months of the year. Ang icapolo ug duha. What is the date to day. The week. Ang icapolo ug tolo. The month. Page 16 Lunes. Thursday. 100th. The day. Days of the week Monday.8th.—Ang adlao. 13th.

A week. A day. Sa á la una y media. Day after to-morrow. Usa ca bahin. Mayo. Usa ca semana. Cahapon sa usa ca adlao. . At a quarter past one. Usa ca siglo. Cuarto sa la una. Ugma damlag. Abril. At half past one. Diciembre. Octubre. April. A month. An hour. Last year. Junio. Usa ca bulan. Partitive Numbers The partitive numbers are formed by adding to the cardinals—ca bahin—thus: One part. Tuig nga miagui. Last week. Caron adlao. Usa ca minuto. Canianhi. Cahapon. To day. Sa á la una y cuarto. September.February. Yesterday. Agosto. Usa ca horas. Three days ago. A century. December. Day before yesterday. July. May. Next year. Ugma. Setiembre. At a quarter to one. A year. October. Tuig nga muabut. Usa ca adlao. August. Page 17 Febrero. June. To-morrow. A minute. Julio. Marzo. Noviembre. Usa ca tuig. March. November. Semana nga miagui.

Ex: The half of the heirdom belongs to me. Ang tagsa ca taoo pagahocman sa Dios. How many times have you read the letter? Sa nacapila ba icao nagbasa sa sulat? . Twenty after twenty. ¿Sa tagpila guisoholan mo sila? Sa tagpito ca sicapat. Ang ica upat.Naca for past tense. Each man shall be judged by God. Sa nacadaghan. nut. How many times have you weeped? Five times. One hundred times. Twice. One fourth. Ang ca tunga. Three times. and maca for the future: Thus: Once. Ang ica tlo.Bahinan mo sila sa catunga sa lubi. Sa nacapila ba icao naghilac? Sa nacalima. Distributive numbers The distributive numbers are formed by putting tag or tinag before the cardinal numbers.Page 18 Naca or macatolo. one of which is contained in the other. Divide among them the half of the cocoa. are formed in Bisaya by putting the particle naca or maca before the cardinal numbers. Two after two. One third. Naca or macaduha. Ang catunga sa cabilin nahatungud canaco. Vicenal Numbers The vicenal or proportional numbers. Tagcaluhaan. Naca or maca usa ca gatus. Four times. so called for explaining the proportion between two unities. Naca or macausa. Tagurha or tinagurha. thus: One after one. Ipalumbay mo ang mga bata sa tinagsa. What wages did you pay them? Seven shillings to each one.The half. Naca or macaupat. Many times. Tagsa or tinagsa. Put the children in a row one by one.

We. you. Camé Camó. Duna bay isda sa Longsod? Duna man ug daghan isda. Sila. What have you at home? We have rice and fish. The Bisaya pronouns are divided into personal. Declension of the personal pronouns . Thou. she. I. How old are you? I am twenty seven years old.How many times have you visited church? Sa nacapila ba icao nagduao sa Singbahan? Seven times Are there some fish in the village? There are a good plenty of fish. demonstrative. Bata pa icao. You. ca. Acó Icao. They. and I get up at sunrise. PLURAL. Hain ba ang sinina mo? Fourth Lesson OF THE PRONOUNS. He. Where is your shirt? III Exercise Where is my book!—Under the chair—Where is my hat?—It is on the table—Is it on the table?—No. Sa nacapito. Quitá. it is upon the bed—Did you read the book?—I did not—How many books have you written?—I have written one—How many times have you read the letter?—Many times—How many times have you weeped?—Five times—How much is your daily wage?—Two dimes—How old are you?—I am twenty seven years old —How old is she?—She is not yet twenty years old—Have you burnt yourself?— Each man has his taste—Have you a mind to sleep?—No: I have a Page 19mind to speak—Do you fear this man?—I don't fear him—At what o'clock do you go to bed? —I go to bed at sunset. Sia. The personal pronouns are: SINGULAR. How much is your daily wage? Two dimes. You are a young man yet. Pila ca tuig ang edad mo? Caluhaan ug pito ca tuig ang acong edad. possessive and relative. Tagpila ang imong sohol sa usa ca adlao? Duha ca sevillana (peseta) Onsa ba ang ana-a sa iño? Ania sa amo bugás ug isda.

are placed before the nouns and verbs. Ila. Of me. You will weep. Don't lie. ato. G. naco. Of him. Sila. Camé. Iñó.) ang mga cristianos. They. quitá. co. D. ca. Aron ca mahibalo. I. Icao magadala. niñó Caniñó. Person SINGULAR. forgive us sinners. Guino-o pasayloa camé. PLURAL. Dili ca magbacac. nimo. Canimo. Sia. N. ta. Cania. To you. Thou or you. The pronoun Icao may be used indifferently before or after the verbs. Imo. she. Page 20 3d. to whom he is speaking. her. Iya. Canila. nia. 2d. (1) Quitá is used when the speaker excludes not those. N. namo. Camó. canato. To him. You. G. Icao magahilac. G. and those begin by a consonant must be put after them: thus: . you. Acó. Of you. PLURAL. N. always after them. D. in other cases. her. To them. Of them. To us. Quitá (when all Christians. Person SINGULAR. Of thee or you. The nominative case ca must be placed before the verbs in the negative and final sentences. Canamo. We.First Person SINGULAR. Of us. second and third persons begin by a vowel. Acó. To thee. Both singular and plural objective cases of the first. He. nila. To make known to you. Lord. We the Christians. PLURAL. Canaco. D. Icao. ta. (1) Amo. and camé when he does. You will carry. To me.

This. Of this near. You are my beloved. both from the speaker and from thePage 22person spoken to. His vessel. Niari Caring mga.. This near.) Niadtong mga. . PLURAL. Of this. for pointing out clearly the distinction between them. Cari. Of that. Ang salapi mo. Those near. Of those. That. Our country. It is also Cana..) niadto. Niaron. Of these. D. They also serve for distinguishing between substantives exprosed or understood. and when employed with substantives. Caron.My shoes. N. Declension. PLURAL. SINGULAR. G.. to the persons or things nearest to the persons spoken to: cadto. Niini. Ang imong sahid. Niining mga. Niini.. N. G. Quining mga.) Cadtong mga. Hinigugma co icao. Niana.. Of now. Now. Quini. (far.. To these. Nianang mga (far. cadto. Niaring mga. Ang atong yuta.. Your net. refers to the persons or things nearest to the speaker: cana. Ang sacayan nia. Page 21 Ang acong mga sapin. Demonstrative pronouns. Niining mga. To this. (far from the speaker) Those. Remark Quini. The demonstrative pronouns are used instead of repeating the substantives. Of those near. SINGULAR. These.. Canang mga (far. Your money.. is used to point out persons or things distant.

The adverb caron. when speaking of events long time ago past. The relative—interrogative pronouns. Relative pronouns. is employed also as a demonstrative pronoun: thus: This morning. when begin by a vowel. and are always joined to a noun before it. and after. Your religion. Ang religion niñó. Possessive pronouns. Noon. when by a consonant. He arrived yesterday about this time. These women. Quining mga babaye.employed this pronoun. ¿Quinsa? ¿Onsa? ¿Hain? Who is that man? Who is there? Quinsa ba canang taoo? Quinsa ba dihá? . Have you this pen or that? I have neither this nor that. Ang iñong mga sapin. Ang atong balay. Are formed by the genitives of the personal pronouns. Na-a ba canimo quining pluma cun cadto ba? Uala canaco quini ug cadto. apan ani-a canaco cari. Afternoon. Your shoes. are: Who? What? Which? Page 23 Caron buntag. Nacabut sia cahapon maingon niaron. Our house. Ex: My hat. as: In those days. This woman. but in genitive case. Ang sinina mo. Caron gabi-i Quining babaye. Your shirt.—Niadtong mga tiempo. Ang mga sacup nia.—Interrogative. but I have this other. This night. His parishioners. Odto. Ang acong calo. Hapon.

The man whom I saw yesterday has fallen Ang tao nga naquita co cahapon naholog sa from the cocoa-tree. . Remark: 1. has not signification. Exercise IV. but I have this other.Page 24 Fifth Lesson.Which of you? What is that? Who has the money? Remark Quinsa ba caniño? Onsa ba cana? Hain ba ang salapi? The particle ba. are translated into Bisaya by nga. When did you buy it?—Yesterday—Where do you intend to take me to?—What is the date to day?—To day is the twenty first—I speak to those to whom you have spoken. but serves to point out the interrogative and dubitative sentences.a The Bisaya adjectives are formed by putting before the root the particle Ma as: Wiser. The relative pronouns simple. lubí. Where did you speak to them?—I spoke to them at the street. Where are you going?—I am going into the church—Have you this pen or that?—I have neither this nor that. Of the adjective. as: I saw him bathing himself. When did he arrive?—He arrived yesterday about this time—Where is she? She is at home—Do you speak Bisaya?—Not yet—I have bought the horse of which you spoke to me. Maalam. Daco man ang castigo nga ipahamtang canimo sa infierno. Dreadful shall be the punishment you shall have into hell Naquita co sia nga naligo.

han are formed the followings: Sick-ill Envious. Sad. an.a Putting after these adjectives the syllables on. between the first two syllables of the root. Pretty. hon. Pale. Masaquit-on.a By putting the particles on. Hamobo. Hingaon. Mangialaman.a Inserting la. 5. Wise. Maluspad-on. ang placing on. Hinginom. Often feeder. Maayo. . an. Adunahan. Rich. Tabian. li. Tambocon. Maanindut. 2. 6. Pock marked. after the root. Talker. and an after. Halayo.a With the particle ha before are formed adjectives of distance: by means of the particle hi are formed those pointing out frequency in the action: thus: Short. han.Good. Worshipful. Often drinker. 3. Butihon. Mamingao-on. hon. Ugly. as: Worthy. Mangilooyan. Masinahon.a Are also formed adjectives of quality by putting mangi before the root. as: Merciful. 4. Mangil-ad. are formed adjectives signifying qualities both moral and physical: ex. lo. Far. after the last are formed adjectives of quality. Silingbahon. Talahoron. Fat.

I saw an awful snake. and I have met also with the men to whom you have spoken The wise men understand the high explanations. as: Poisonous. Ex: The wise men understand the high explanations. The merciful man helps to his Ang taoo nga mangilooyan nacatabang sa isig-catao neighbour. V. Obedient. Ang mga maquinaad-*manon nacatuquib sa mga hata-as nga mgacasayodan. Mapaubsanon.a Inserting pa between ma and the first syllable of the root. before the root. Matinahoron. Dreadful. and also by means of pa. Macalilisang. and adding on to the last.a With the particle Maca. are formed adjectives of quality.Page 25 7. and duplicating the first syllable of the root are formed adjectives. Naquita co ug usá ca halas nga macalilisang. 9.Page 26 . nia. and adding on to the last. Haughty.a With the particle ma before the root and inserting in between the first two syllables. I see the children to whom you have given the books. thus: Respectful. Macahihilo. The merciful man helps to his neighbour—What have you to do?—I have to speak to the men—When have you to speak to them?—This evening—At what o'clock?—At half past eight—Have you my shirt or my sister's?—I have both—Have you the golden ribbons of my mother?—I have not them—Who has them?—My sister has them—Do you wish to go out?—I wish not to go out—Why?—Because I am sick. are formed adjectives of quality. Palabilabihon. Masinugtanon. 8. as: Humble.

5. as: Worthless woman. Babayeha.a When this letter a is added. Sayop nga diutay. Small house. and also. serves to point out that the subject or object is unknown to us. Matam-istam-is. 4. l. are formed diminutives expressing contempt or disregard. Malomaisug. after the first letter of the root. Somewhat bitter. by placing the syllables la. as: Somewhat sweet. Small eyes.a The adjectives of ma.a The same adjectives become diminutives by duplicating the root. Diutay nga cabayo. Somewhat fat. The diminutives are formed in Bisaya by means of the adjective diutay. When they have but two syllables. but not in contemptible sense. Slight fault.Sixth Lesson DIMINUTIVE ADJECTIVES. 2. lo. Matolotambuc. Ex: Small horse. Mata mata.a The diminutive adjectives not only express diminution. Cabayoa. Mapait-pait. li. Balay balay. to the nouns. are formed by duplicating the root. 3. as: What kind of medicine is that? What kind of tree is that? ¿Onsa nga tambala cana? ¿Onsa ba ang calainan nianang cahuya? .a Adding a. become diminutives by putting before. but also an accessory idea of either tenderness. Nag. the particle malo. as: Somewhat valiant. love or contempt.

Less. Worst. Ang labing dacó. and that is the smallest cari mao anglab ng diutay sa ngatanan. As much. Smallest. Small. sa. Diriot pa. that is Quining libro diutay man. Labi pa. culang pa. but that is larger. Better. Bad. Maayo. and to the inferiority. Ang labing maayo. to the equality ingon. Worse. More. Not as much. Diutay pa. Diriot pa ang acong salapi sa iya. Less. than. Magsama sa cadaghan. Larger. Largest. Labi pang maayo. Very much. This book is small. apan cadto labi pang dacó. Well. cadto labi pang diutay. Diutay. Best. Dautan. More. Labi pang dautan. daghan pa. .Page 27 Degrees of Comparison The degrees of comparison are formed in Bisaya by adding to the superiority Lapi pa. sa. Good. as we have seen. Labi pa nga dacó. Dili ingon. Quining calo dacó man. ug. Diutay pa. Labi pa. than.Page 28 Dacó. as. Smaller. Ang labi nga dautan. Labi pa nga diutay. Ex. Ang labing diutay. Ex: Have you as many friends as I? ¿Magsama ba sa cadaghan sa mga higala mo ug ang aco? I have less money than he. Large. Caayo or uyamut. ug smaller. This hat is large. of all.

Page 29 Labi pang tacus higugmaon ang catahod-an sa pagcadaghan sa catigayonan 4. 2. and than. and the second adverb as into ug. and than. Honor is more precious that riches. God is the best Father. culang. like in the comparatives of majority and of inferiority: Ex. Do your children write as much as we? Do you read as often as I? As early as you. and also into dili. Ang amahan mo culang sa quinaadman sa aco. I have less rice than coffee.a The comparative of inferiority is formed by translating the adverbs less by diutay. Ang Dios mao ang lobing maayo nga Amahan. Your father is less wise tan mine.Is your hat as large as mine? It is not so large as your. and than into sa. as: Ex: Have you as many friends as ¿Magsama ba ang cadaghan sa mga higala mo I? ug ang aco? 3. and both terms of comparison in nominative case. may be also rendered by daghan pa. ingon nga.a The relation of majority more. Your ring is not so nice as my mother's. Ang singsing mo dili ingon nga maanindut sa can nanay. into sa. but in this case.a The comparative of equality is formed by translating the adverbs as or so into magsama. Remarks l.a The comparative of superiority is formed by translating more by labi pa. by sa or dili. . both terms of comparison must be placed in nominative case. Ex. diriut pa. ¿Ang imong calo dacó ba ingon sa aco? Diutay pa sa imo? Ang Pagsulat sa imong mga anac tagingon ba sa pagsulat namo? ¿Nagabasa ca ba sa masubsub ingon canaco? Masayo ingon canimo. Diriut pa ang acong bugás sa capé.

Good horse.Ex: I have more silver than gold. 2. These particles are the followings: Nga. Daghan pa ang acong salapi sa bulaoan co. VI I have as much money as you—Have you as many friends as I?—We have less money than they—This book is small. pronouns and adjectives. Diutay pa ang mga sapin co. called unitive particles. we shall have a short speech about some ligaments. ex: . and for joining together the sentences. l. but that is larger—Is your hat as large as mine? It is larger than yours—Do your children write as much as we?—They write more than you—My father has more silver than gold—Your ring is not so nice as my mother's—Your father is less wise than mine—I have less rice than coffee—Do you read as often as I? —Do you listen to what your brother tell you?—Yes.Page 30 When the preceding word ends by a vowel the letter a of nga.a This particle (when it is not used as relative) serves to link the pronouns with the nouns and the adjectives. joining ng to the vowel. Before coming to the end of this part of the nouns. and that is the smallest of all— This hat is large. must be suppressed. I listen to it—God is the best Father. Maanindut nga balay. Maayong cabayo. or (dili ang bulaoan co). and to give them a particular energy. that is smaller.a Serves also for joining both the sentences and verbs with the adverbs. dili ang acong mga calo. I have less shoes than hats. Seventh Lesson UNITIVE PARTICLES. which serve for uniting elegantly the nouns. as: Pretty house.

It serves also to link the cardinal numbers: Ex: Buy rice. Ug It is employed instead of the article in the objective cases of indefinite objects. Ten thousand. Napolo ug pito. Nauala ang mga totolo ca cabayo naco. Napolo ca libo. and in compounded sentences when are employed instead of objective case. This particle links the cardinal numbers with the nouns: Ex.a him. Seventeen. All my neighbour's children died of Ang mga anac sa acong silingan plague. Remark. I have a mind to buy one more horse—Have you as much good as bad paper?—I have as much of the one as of the other—Have our neighbours as much honey as sugar?— Uala na ing macapatigayon. You speak as much as I—They have not so many toys as books—Have you as many books as I?—I have fewer than you—Has our friend as many birds as chickens?—He has more of the former than of the latter—Are we right in speaking?—You are not wrong in speaking. nahurut ug camatay sa salot. Pag 8). Have I a knife? VII.Come bak early. I doubt very much I may forgive Malisud cahá nga pasaylo-an co sia (V. but not mind to work—Have you still a mind to buy any thing?—Yes. My three horses were removed out of sight. Bumalic cang masayó. Ing. 3. Naluya acó ug pagbuhat. Ca. when it is spoken in indeterminate sense. but you are wrong in cutting my trees—Have you time to work? —1 have time. There is not now who may seek. ¿Duna ba acó ing usá ca cuchillo? . Serves for joining the sentences and the objective Page 31cases. The work weaks me Pumalit ca ug bugás.

Sila mao. and sometimes by means of the employment of both nominative and genitive cases. man. man. man. The verb is the most important part of all languages. Indicative mood—Present Tense. Camé. We are. I am. reciprocal and reflexive. Man. Sia mao. it is necessary a perfect acquaintance with it. neuter. They are expressed by means of particles. Conjugation of the verb TO BE—Mao. adverbs. passive. Did you go to Spain? I did not. The Bisaya dialect has not verbs. Eighth Lesson THE VERB. PLURAL. Camó mao. In Bisaya the verbs is divided into substantive. when the sentences are not of the verb TO BE. as we shall explain. to speak with somewhat perfection the Bisaya dialect. conjunctions. They are. . and also the most difficult. Thou art. ex. is euphonic. and they must be formed by adding to the roots particles. By this reason. Acó mao. SINGULAR.They have more honey than sugar—Have your sons as many slippers as shirts?— They have more of the latter than of the former—I have a favour to beg of you. The verb TO BE and its like TO HAVE. MAN. are irregulars in their conjugation. man. it is necessary to use a very new form. Nacaadto ca ba sa España? Uala man acó umadto. which shall be placed either before of after. You are. He is. Icao mao. Rem. man. adjective.Page 32 Of the substantive verb TO BE—MAO. The particle man. man. and to form their sentences. quitá mao.

5. Conditional Future. FUTURE I shall or will be serious. 4.a As auxiliaries of the verb Man. in another cases are employed cun. ug. IMPERATIVE. 3.a To point out the subjunctive mood is used unta. Be serious. I should be saint. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. before the subject it refers to. l. Salapian man acó sa tuig nga miagui.Page 34 . by placing the attribute. masantos unta. are employed the article ang before or after the noun. Magbuutan ca. but it does the determining. or the particle Y after the subjective case.a It will be observed by the preceding conjugation. does not point out by itself the tense.a The particle Man—To be. Are formed also sentences of the verb Man.PAST TENSE. I would be saint. is used but in the present tense of indicative mood. I was rich the last year. that the particle Mao—To be. when the sentences are obtative. or pa. INDEFINITE FUTURE. Santos man acó unta cun macatuman unta acó sa mga sugo sa Dios. It is necessary you be saint. Rem.a The same must be said of the particle Nay. if I fulfilled God's law. Buutan man acó. may it be a noun or a whole sentence. Quinahanglan nga masantos ca. Page 33 Maayo man acó sa bata pa acó. 2. Cun mapaubsanon acó unta. If I were humble. I was good when I was younger.

sir: he sends for some wine —Whom does your neighbour send for?—He sends for the physician—Does your servant take off his shirt to make the fire?—He takes it off to make it. Manindut man ang mga bulac. innocence and candour—Where are you from?—I am from Aloran. all the flowers are pretty. and the father of the souls—Are pretty the flowers?—Yes. How? is ill my behave? God is the Almighty. and my younger from Tagbilaran—Do you wish to send one more horse to our friends?—I wish to send many more to them—Are you going for any thing?—I am going for some thing—What are you going for?—I am going for some wine—Does your father send for any thing?—Yes.—The Priest is God's succeeder. ang amahan sa mga calág. cun maayo ba acó. virginity. Ang Pare mao ang ilis sa Dios. cun dili ba? Magbuutan ca bayá sa balay sa magtoto-on. Good should be. Cariot da. before the adjective are formed also these kind of sentences. Tua.a With pagca or mag. Are you a chattering fellow? What countryman is he? God is every where. Acoy magabuhat. chastity. Who is the Priest?. The flowers are pretty. . I am who shall go. about my good or bad behaviour? Behave well at teacher's house.6. Ninth Lesson TO BE—Ani-a. my parents are from Cornago. then it is the symbol of purity. Maayo unta. Diay? ¿dautan ba acó? Ang Dios maoy macagagahum sa ngatanan. Acoy moadto didto. my eldest brother from Page 35Oroquieta. A moment. VIII. ¿Quinsa nay macalipay canaco? ¡Pagca maanindut nga laraoan! ¿Onsay labut mo. na-a or Ana-a. ¿Hinultihon ca ba? ¿Tagadi-in ba sia? Ang Dios ana-a sa bisan di-in. but the lily is the most beautiful. Who will be my comforter? What a beautiful effigy! What does concern you. A few examples may elucidate these remarks: The priest is God's succeeder. and also the Father of the souls. I will make it. ug mao man usab.

Page 36 Ania man acó. It is necessary you be there. (dihá) Tua man silá. are used in Bisaya dinhi. He is there. FUTURE. to be here: na-a orana-a. here: diha. They are there (further) PAST TENSE.When the verb TO BE points out TO BE IN A PLACE. (didto) Dinhi man acó sa didto ca pa. Didto man acó cahapon. when you was there. (didto) Ania man quitá or camé (dinhi) Naa man camó. I am here. Instead of the English adverbs HERE. Subjunctive Mood Didto unta acó. to be far from the speaker. cun buut ca pa unta. (further) I was there yesterday. FUTURE. Thou art there. The indicative present does not need adverbs of place. ABSOLUTE INDEFINITE. I will be there to-morrow. is translated into Bisaya by ani-a. (further) We are here. (dinhi) Naa ca man. I was here. I would be there. You are there. . (dihá) Tua man sia. Quinahanglan nga didto ca. Didto man acó ngma. CONDITIONAL FUTURE. INDICATIVE PRESENT. there: didto. THERE. there (further). if you were pleased. to be there: and tua.

when I was well or strong.That I might be here. When the verb TO BE. becomes verb by means of the particle ma of the neuter verbs. He will or shall be ill to-morrow. He was sick. Being he sick. Cun masaquit acó unta. PAST TENSE. Diha camó. sa pagca maayo co ug laoas. Being there. CONDITIONAL FUTURE. Sa didto acó. GERUND. I am sick. I saw him. Dinhi unta acó. ABSOLUTE FUTURE. points out the actual conditions of persons or things. the root pointing out such a condition. icao magalima unta canaco. you would care of me. Cun didto pa unta acó. . IMPERATIVE MOOD. If I were sick. naquita co sia. Rem. CONDITIONATE INDEFINITE. GERUND. you). Masaquit sia ugma. INDICATIVE MOOD. mga tambal. Masaquit sia. was not willing to take Sa iyang pagcasaquit uala sia buut uminom sa the medicines. If I were there. Be there (ye. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB TO HAVE. Masaquit man acó.

canaco. Page 38and Didto. INDICATIVE MOOD—PRESENT TENSE. Have you money? I have some money. ihatag to you. placing the person in ablative case immediately after the adverb or particle. it. according to the persons. The others tenses of this conjugation. Ania canaco ang sinina. I would give it Cun dinhi pa unta canaco ang singsing. with the person in nominative or genitive case. na-a or ana-a. If I had the ring. I shall or will have the hat tomorrow. is translated into Bisaya by May. for the seconds. Cahapon dinhi canaco ang calo. Dihá. INDICATIVE MOOD—PRESENT TENSE. I had the hat yesterday. Ugma dinhi na canaco ang calo. dinhi man with me. Cahapon duna ma acong salapi. PAST TENSE.) l. ug icao ualá. ¿May salapi ca ba? Dunay acong salapi . Ugma duna may acong salapi. and you had not. for first persons. and tua.The verb TO HAVE in a determinate sense is translated into Bisaya by ania. ABSOLUTE FUTURE. cun paliton co unta. for the thirds. Duna or Aduna. TO HAVE—(IN PARTITIVE SENSE. They have the hat. co unta canimo. Rem. PAST TENSE. Tua canila ang calo. I would have the fan. When you were looking after the shirt it was Sa pagpangita mo sa sinina. I have the shirt. are formed by means of the adverbs Dinhi. I had money yesterday. I shall have money tomorrow. if I bought Dinhi unta canaco ang paypay.a The verb TO HAVE in partitive sense.

I if had money. thus. Cun dunay bugás unta. 2. Having money. I was cold yesterday. uala unta ug gutum . dunay bugás. Cahapon guitugnao acó ug icao gui-initan. but Cahapon dunay bugás sa longsod. ¿Duna bay usá ca taoo sa dalan? Duna man caluha-an. Page 39 Icao duna unta ug salapi. ihatag co unta canimo. all is easy. apan ualaysalapi. Cahapon nainitan acó. GERUND. I am cold. I was warm yesterday. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. and you warm. cun magtrabajo ca unta. there would be not Sa bulan nga miagui. There is no body in the street. there was not money. There was rice yesterday at the town. You will or shall be warm. Ualay taoo sa dalan. Mainitan ca. if you worked. ang ngatanan mahimo. You might have money. Duna INDICATIVE MOOD—PRESENT TENSE.a When speaking of immaterials things. If there were rice. The impersonal expression—There—To be. Is there a man in the street? There are twenty. I would give it to you. Natugnao man acó. The last month there was rice. 3.CONDITIONAL FUTURE.a The root Tugnao admits gui instead of Ma and the root Init admits also gui with the passive of an. the root becomes verb with the particle Na of neuter verbs. Cun dunay unta acó ug salapi. Sa pagca dunay salapi.

are formed by means of roots and particles equivalents to the four tenses. tea or coffee?—I take coffee—Do you take coffee every morning?—I take coffee every morning and every evening—What does your father take?—He drinks chocolate—How far did the children go this morning?—As far as their cousin's —Has any one stolen any thing from you?—Some one has stolen a fine horse from me. in this dialect all the last syllables are like. are Naga and its compounds: Nagaca. In order to aid the scholars in the knowledge and formation of the tenses. when you speak to my father?—I always take it off—What do you take in the morning. When does your father intend to depart?—He intends to depart to day—At what o'clock?—At four o'clock—Where is he going?—He goes to Madrid—Does the butcher kill oxen?—He kills sheep instead of killing oxen—Do you always take off your hat. by means of the particle Naga. The pupils shall not lose of sight. as we have said. The particles we refer to. Past participle. and many others we shall use at their place. The verbs. Present. being only changed the persons. INDICATIVE MOOD. that. Pagpili. Future and Imperative of the Bisaya conjugation. mi. Chosen. which is the most common.hunger at the province. . Pinili. as we shall see in the conjugation. we shall conjugate here a verb in active voice.Page 41 TO CHOOSE—PAGPILI. The other tenses are formed with the particles of the four primitives. To choose. Gerund. Nagapa. Sa pagpili. Nagapaca. Naca. Page 40 sa provincia. Infinitive. Past. Choosing. Tenth Lesson THE ADJECTIVE VERBS.

Choose. Camó nagapili. Let him choose. Magpili sia. PLUPERFECT. Nagapili acó. . I choose. Thou shalt or wilt choose. Camé (or quitá) nagapili. I have chosen. They choose. IMPERFECT PRETERIT. Thou choosest. &. I had chosen. (when) Thou chosest. I shall have chosen. Acó magapili. Nagpili ca na cahá IMPERATIVE. Page 42 Acó nagapili. He (she) chooses. Sia nagapili. You choose. Icao nagapili. Icao magapili. (sa) Nagpili acó. We choose. Nagpili ca Nagpili na acó. Thou hast chosen. I chose. PERFECT FUTURE. He had chosen. Nagpili na cahá acó. Human na icao nagpili. Thou hadst chosen. (sa) Nagapili ca. Ubus na sia nagpili. Thou shalt have chosen. IMPERFECT FUTURE. Magpili ca. Sila nagapili. PAST PERFECT.PRESENT TENSE. I shall or will choose.

Ug magpili pa quitá. Magpili acó unta. If we might have chosen. That they may choose. If you might hare chosen. Nga nagpili camó. PLUPERFECT. ug dili. Let them choose. That he may choose. That I may choose or not. That thou mightest choose. Nga siay nagpili. That he might choose. Nga nagpili ca na unta. That you may have chosen. . Ug camó untay magapili. That we may choose. Ug acó pay magapili. PERFECT PRETERIT. Cun acó pay nacagpili. Ug sila pa lamang magpili. Nagpili quitá (or camé) unta. Ug magapili pa lamang sia. Nga camó unta magpili. cun ualá. Nga quitá magpili. Magpili sila. Apat sia magpili. Page 43 Magpili camó. If thou mightest have chosen. Cun nacagpili unta camó. Ug icao unta magapili. Nga magpili ca. That he may have chosen. That we may have chosen. That you may choose. That they may have chosen. If I might have chosen. or not That thou mayest have chosen. Cun icao diay nacagpili. Nga nagpili acó unta. That they might choose. Cun nacagpili pa unta sia. Cun nacagpili unta quitá. That I may have chosen. That we might choose. That thou mayest choose. IMPERFECT PRETERIT. Nga nagpili sila. That I might choose. If he might have chosen. That you might choose. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD—PRESENT. Nga sila unta magpili.Choose.

Which of you will accompany me? Will you sew the shirt? I will not sew it. when exclamatory. If you shall &. Who will read this letter? Icao musingba caron. Cun camó na ogaling nagpili. Ang macatuman sa mga sugo sa Dios. ¿Quinsa ba caniñó ang muuban canaco? Magatahi ca ba sa sinina? Dili acó magatahi. Ug dao magapili quitá. the active sentences have however a very important place at the conversation. If thou shalt &. Rem. will obtain the everlasting life. are not characteristic signs of this mood. interrogative or emphatical.If they might have chosen. and very often we speak in subjunctive without them. If he shall choose. Page 44The same must be said when the sentence is about an indeterminate thing. If I shall or will have chosen. If I shall or will choose. Ug dao sila ang magapili. If we shall choose. Cun sia ogaling nagpili na. Although the passive voice is the most usual in the Bisaya Dialect. Who does observe God's commandments. ¿Quinsa ba ang magabasa niining sulat? . Ex: You shall hear mass now. Cun sila diay nacagpili. If we shall &. Ug dao magapili ca. If you shall choose. If thou shalt choose. express or tácite. If they shall choose. cun dili ang igso-on co nga babaye. PERFECT FUTURE. Cun dao sila na ogaling nagpili. IMPERFECT FUTURE. Ug dao camó magapili. and when points out a part of a whole. It must be observed that the adverbs and conjunctions we have made use of in subjunctive mood. Cun icao ogaling nagpili na. macadangat sapaghimaya nga dayon sa Langit. If they shall & have chosen. If he shall &. Cun dao nagpili acó ogaling. Ug dao acó ang magapili. the sentence is active. that when the speech begins by a nominative agent. Cun camé ogaling nagpili na. but my sister. Ug dao sia magapili. and therefore it is necessary to know.

he spends his time in drinking and playing— Who are the men that have just arrived?—They are Russians—Is your father arrived at last?—Every body says that he is arrived but I have not seen him yet—Has the Physician hurt your son?—He has hurt him. and do you not can go to Church?—I am not able to go the Church. the study of this speaking mood is of great importance. Passive the first or passive of I (ee). is formed by placing the particle Gui before the root for present and past tenses. because I am sick—Will you can endure it?—Do not pretend to be a learned man. If I know how to read or not what does Cun mahibaló acó magbasa cun dili ba ¿onsay it concern you? labut mo niana? X. and placing before the root one of the particles of future tense and An after. for present and past tenses. The imperative mood is formed by putting An after the root. for he has cut his finger. Three are the passives or moods of expressing the verbs in passive voice. The Bisaya dialect being almost completely passive. The second passive or of On. Conjugation of the Passives PASSIVE OF I. The third passive or of An is formed by putting the particle Gui before the root and An after.Look for a child from the school. The passive of I (ee) is formed by putting Guibefore the root for present and past tenses. Mangita ca ug usa ca bata sa escuelahan.Page 45 Eleventh Lesson OF THE PASSIVES. Passive the second or of On. and I (ee) for future and imperative. (EE) . and the third passive or of An. because your own wit avails but little—Do you wish to work?—I wish to work and they let me not—Where is your wife?—I do not know—When did you see her?—I saw her at seven o'clock in the morning—Whom are you speaking to? I am speaking to my sister—Do you speak to her every day?—What does this man spend his time in?—He is a good for nothing fellow. and Onafter. the future is formed by duplicating the first syllable of the root. the future by duplicating the first syllable of the root putting On after: or by placing one of the particles of future tense before the root. Can you walk.

. Sulaton mo caná. PASSIVE OF ON. Sa pagsulat nila. or it has been written by them. To be written by them. INFINITIVE. It is. Ibilin co sia.PRESENT AND PAST TENSES. It is or has been opened by me. PRESENT AND PAST TENSES. INFINITIVE. Let it be written by them. FUTURE. Sa pagbilin cania. I leave him or he has been left by me. FUTURE. PRESENT AND PAST TENSES. Will be written by them. FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE. Susulaton nila. or let him be left by me. Guilucaban co. Page 46 Guibilin co sia. Susulaton or pagasulaton nila. He will be left. PASSIVE OF AN. IMPERATIVE. Write that. IMPERATIVE. Guisulat nila. When he left him.

and has brought you a fine horse—Has he told his groom to bring it to me?—He has told him to bring it to you—¿What do you think Page 48of that horse?—I think that it is a fine and good one. which is the more difficult part. because it very cold.Will be opened by me. it is absolutely necessary to understand when and how every one of the passives must be used. Sell the plantation of cocoa-trees. In order to make easy to the learners the use of the passive tenses. Page 47 Lulucaban or pagalucaban co. cay matugnao ca-ayo. Boboan mo ang mga tanóm. we shall explain them as clearly as possible by Examples. Rem. Count the cows. and afterwards to the ball—When did that man go down in to the well?—He went down into it this morning . To speak well the Bisaya dialect. We have sold it now. for he is lit for any thing—Has your brother returned at last from Spain?—He has returned thence. Taboni ang bata. XI. Guibaligya na namo. Lucaban mo. Order to have them searched at one. and four are out of Gui-isip na namo ug culang pa ug upat ca sight yet. Papangitaa lamang sa madali. Isipon mo ang mga vaca. ¿Halayo ba ang imong guilactan? Guilactan co cutub sa balay sa acong igsoon. Are you pleased with your servant?—I am much pleased with him. Ibaligya mo ang calubihan. The other tenses are formed by means of conjunctions and adverbs of the active conjugation. Let it be opened by you. cay mainit ca-ayo. bo-oc. since are so many the moods and so diverse their syntax. Water the plants. We have counted them. and beg you to lead it to my brother's that he may see it—In what did you spend your time yesterday?-I went to my father's in law. IMPERATIVE. and also the mechanism of their sentences. Did you go very far? I am gone as far as my brother's. IMPERSONAL IMPERATIVE. Cover the child. Lucabi or Lucabi caná. Be that opened. because it is very warm.

the future.—Has he come up again yet?—He came up an hour ago—Where is your brother?— He is in his room—Will you tell him to come down (nga manaug sia)?—I will tell him so. macatuman acó sa acong pagbu-ut. Daoato caná. Guihatag co na cania ang libro. the future doubling the first syllable of the root and putting On after.Page 49 PASSIVE OF AN. Pamolongan mo sia. the present and past tenses are formed by placing Gui before the root. placing the receiver person in nominative case. the donor in genitive. and the imperative mood by placing On after the root. Twelfth Lesson SOME RULES UPON THE PASSIVES AND THEIR SENTENCES. I gave him the book. by duplicating the first syllable of the root and by adding An to it. detriment. but he is not dressed. It is employed when the agent person attracts towards itself to the patient person. before the root and An after it. The sentences of this passive are formed by putting Gui before the root for the present and past tenses. The present and past tenses are formed with gui. and the imperative mood by puttingAn after the root. It is employed when the agent person excercises its action upon a place or quasiplace. Guipanig-ingnan co sia. . Passive of I. Please accept that. Bisan asa acó ibutang nila. Wherever they may place me I will follow my own mind. When it is spoken by means of this passive. I imitate him. This passive points out the harm. Speak to him. putting the said place or quasi-place in nominative case. and I(ee) for the future and imperative. and in accusative with ug or sathe favour or harm. obsequiousness or favour made to another. Examples: Pull off that herb. PASSIVE OF ON. (ee) This passive is made use of when the agent person exercises its action removing from itself the patient person. Ibton mo canang balili.

Icao nagsulat. for the lessons must be learned well to make no faults in the exercises—It is all the same. they all before the root. Sila magasulat. I write. Magsulat camó. Thirteenth Lesson OF THE PARTICLES NAGA. but her feet are cold—What is the matter with your cousin?—fem —Her leg hurts her—What is the matter with this woman?—Her tongue hurts her. They may be also formed by puttingPaga before the root for future tense.a This particle admits the three above mentioned passives. for they went a hunting and a fishing every day—You have learned your lesson: why has not your sister learned hers?—She has taken a walk with my mother. 2. you have not studied your lessons well. Lesson mentioned. XII Sagdi acó. and Pag for the imperative. and some times after. Examples: . but she will learn it to-morrow—When will you correct my exercises?—I will correct them when you bring me those of your sister—Do you think you have made faults in them?—I do not know—If you have made faults. the most usual in the Bisaya dialect has the same signification as the root to which is joined.Please to explain it to me. so that she could not learn it. (pl. Acó nagasulat. maga for the future. the particles at 12th. Its tenses are formed with naga for the present time. or shall write. if you do not correct them to day—I shall not learn them before to-morrow —You must not make any faults in your exercises.) Pagsulat. They will. On what lived our ancestors?—They lived on fish and game. and mag for the imperative mood. for you have all you want in order to make none—Who is there?—Page 50It is I—Who are those men?—I do not know— Of what country are they?—They are Americans—Why do you sit near the fire?— My hands and feet are cold. and its tenses are formed by placing some times before.a The particle Naga. nag for past. As: To write. l. You wrote. Write. that is the reason why I sit near the fire—Are your sister's hands cold?—No.

I write or wrote. Time to.PRESENT AND PAST. 4. signifies to use them or to put on them. 5. the second passive will be employed. 6. thus: He wears shoes. Play on the piano. Binisayaon mo or pagbinisayaon mo canang libro. Sia nagasapin. Gahúm sa. Put on your hat.a This particle signifies to do what the root to which precedes points out. Sulaton or pagsulaton mo. but when addressing a person. Write. Magpiano ca. Maglinatin ca canaco. . Magcalo ca. Page 51 Guisulat co. Dili acó nimo quinatchilaan. Tiempo sa. Sulaton or pagasulaton co. the third must be used. FUTURE. but in many ways.a Before roots of musical instruments. and in this case.a When it is joined to the nouns of nations and in is inserted between the first two syllables of the root.a Placing it before the nouns of dress. IMPERATIVE. Ex: Speak to me in Latin. Translate that book into Bisaya. garment or garb. as: Play you on the guitar? She harps. as we shall demonstrate. Speak not to me in Spanish language. signifies to speak or to translate into that nation's language. 3. signifies to play on them. I will or shall write. ¿Nagasesta ca ba? Sia naga-arpa. Courage to.

To buy. and said in urging him: "Alas. Dunay tiempo. Cahadluc sa. my sister. if thou wert in thy father-in-law's place. Sire. and that of the third by i. CALLED IMPERSONAL. my dear brother. ¿Duna ba camó ug tiempo sa pagbuhat? We have time but not mind to work. To break. Pagbuhat. Have you a mind to buy my horse? Nahagugma ba camó mupalit sa acong cabayo? I am afraid to break the glass XIII." said Louis XIV. Ualay catarungan sa. and the verb in imperative mood. I have a mind to work. Their sentences are formed by placing the object in nominative case. if I said that word?"—If the men should come. you have but to say one word. Pagbo-ong. because does not Page 53mention the person: wherefore. but I assure you that had I known that you were not sick. to recommend to the first President a lawsuit which he had against his father-inlaw. Wish or mind to. it would be necessary to give them something to drink—If he could do this he would do that—I have always flattered myself. To tear.a The second and third passives have a second imperative called impersonal. because I went awalking without you. pagpolong. but I inquired at your physician's after your health. To be wrong in. their sentences are called impersonals.To be right in. Afraid to. Ex: . Nahagugma acó magbuhat. Fourteenth Lesson OF THE IMPERATIVE. Have you time to work. Nahadluc acó magbo-ong sa vaso." "Well. 1. apan dili camé mahagugma. "it is not that which embarrasses me. that you are angry with me. but I now see that I have been mistaken—I have heard. Nahagugma or gugma sa. and he told me that you had been keeping your bed the last eight days. To work. The imperative of the second passive ends by a. and thy father-in-law in thine. wouldst thou be glad.Page 52 Pagpalit. I should have come for you. Pagsulti. To speak. as he was going to bed. that you loved me as much as I love you. Catarungan sa. but tell me. One of the valet de Chambres of Louis XIV requested that prince. Pagguisi.

Be not turbulent. is translated into Bisaya by Ayao or uala Ex: It was not met. the English not. Higugmaon ug buhaton ta ang catarungan ug mapaladanquitá niini ug sa umalabut nga quinabuhi. is not compounded with the particle Pag. that the Bisaya conjugation has but four tenses. Put not out the candle. and we shall be happy both in this life and in the next. Cry not to me. we make use of all the tenses. . Light the globe. Tabañgi camé. tao nga ana-a sa calisud. Hudta cana. We have said. and comfort Bayri ang mga utang niñó ug lipayon niñó ang mga the afflicted.a When the sentence is negative. Write it. Sulata. Louis. Hulata acó. maingon caniñó. Ayao pagpalnga ang candela. Taoga si Sr. Wait for me. Call to Mr.Kill the dog.a The impersonal imperative of the passive of an. PRESENT PARTICIPLES OR GERUNDS. but in order to make the scholar Page 54acquainted with the tenses. Put an end to that. Patia ang iró. Examples: This morning when you was preaching. 2. Help us. Louis. Uala hiquiti. were the children playing. Read that book. The sentences of present participle are formed some times by placing sa and Pag before the root. 3. the English conjugation must be referred to. Dagcuti ang globo. Our Lord spended his night-time in praying Canina sa pag-oali mo nagduladula ang mga bata. Ex: Pay what you owe. Let us love and practise virtue. Basaha canang libro. Ayao pagsinggiti. Ayao pagsamoca. Love God and your neighbour as Higugmaon niño ang Dios ng ang isigcatao niñó yourselves. Ang Guinoo ta guicabuntagan sa pagampo.

the Empress Theresa asked him if he believed that the Princess of N. labon nga pagasingbahon nila unta. whom he had seen the day before. Would you have money if your father were here?—Should have some if he were here —A French officer having arrived at the court of Vienna. was really the handsomest woman in the world. 4.a The Gerunds are formed also with the adverb labon nga. XIV. my heart was gladded. for I have not seen them six years ago. him. When you departed he grew sad. and the subordinate is formed with the particle Na or Maoy and the particle of future Iga Ex: When seeing you. and their sentences are formed by placing the leading verb in nominative with Pag before the root. the latter in infinitive mood. I will sit down also.3. seeing they should adore o.a The infinitive sentences are composed of leading verb and subordinate verb. as: The sinners despise to our Guipasaipad-an sa mga macasasalá ang atong GuinoLord. 1.o By means of verbal nouns are formed also gerunds called of time or causals. I want to take a wife Bu-ut acó magtahi. . replied the officer. nalipay ang casingcasing co. Ang pagtan-ao co canimo.—Is she dead?—She is not dead—What has become of her? —She is gone to Manila—What has become of your sisters?—I can not tell what has become of them. Fifteenth Lesson INFINITIVE SENTENCES. as: I want to sew. I thought so yesterday—What has become of your uncle?—I will tell you what has become of him: here is the chair upon which he often sat—Is he dead?—He is dead— When did he die?—He died three weeks ago—I am very sorry at it—Why do you not sid down?—If you will sit down to my side. as Page 56was said: Madam. I shall go along with you—WIll you tell me what has become of your sister?—I will tell you what has become of here. Bu-ut acó mangasaoa. Ang pag-guican mo namingao sia. but if you go. and the verb in future or in subjunctive.

6. Ambut cun macabuhat acó niana. is Page 55rendered . ¿Maayo ba ang pagsayao? Quinahanglan ang pagadto sa escuelahan. either active or passive. Example: The excessive rain does not suit. for. 5. to invite. can or to be able. extress or tacit. in order to. Mianhi acó cay aron magduao acó sa oyo-an co. Nadaoat namo ug orden ni Amba cay aron ihatud namo ang buhis. that I must learn to count. I pray to be loved by the people. preceded by the article ang.2. which is translated into Bisaya by cun. to wit: Is it decent to dance? It is necessary to go to school It is indecorous to bathe before people. is the conjunction if. these sentences are called finals. the sentences are also of to be.Page 57 Bu-ut acó nga mulacao ca. and are translated into Bisaya by cay aron. is used as a substantive with the particle pag or pagca in nominative. 3. Signifying to incite. it is translated by the potential Naca.a When the governed verb is preceded by the propositions to.a In this manner are formed these sentences with the neuter verbs. I doubt that I can make it. and the subordinate verb must be placed in subjunctive mood or in future. Mi-ingon ang Magtoto-on canaco nga magto-on acó sapagisip. Nangadye acó cay aron higugmaon acó sa mga taoo.Dili Angay nga muadto ca sa bulungan. fight My teacher told me. In a same way are they formed. Dili angay ang hinlabihan nga pag-ulan. Mangil-ad man ang pagcaligo sa atubangan sa mga tao.a When the leading verb is one of the auxiliary may. this pronoun is translated into Bisaya by nga. I wish you to talk I wish you to write me. and the subordinate verb. active or passive. being the governed verb translated by subjunctive mood. Nagatinguhá acó nga musulat ca canaco. Ex: It is not suit you go to the cock. when between leading and subordinate verbs.a When the sentences have between both leading and subordinate verbs a relative pronoun. Examples: I did come here for visiting my uncle. We have been ordered by the Governor to carry (pay) the tax.a When the leading verb is the verb to be. 4.

or t. Bespeak a cane for me. to be fond of or to give one's mind to. Si Francisco naquimalooy canaco. Ang mga bata naquigsulti canaco sa Singbahan. changes in composition these letters into g.a When the first syllable is b or p. Singgit. and the component particle drops the n. Duao. namuhat: To speak.namolat. The most important changes which the scholar is advised attentively to study to avoid ambiguity are these: l. naninggit— To visit. but the particle drops the final n.a When the initials are d. . by Naga and Pa. as: To see. which particles before the root include in themselves the signification of the governed verb. s. si Antonio naquigsayao canaco. Tuyo. Quita nan-gita. to let. When do you intend to have my habits ¿Anus-a ba icao magapatahi sa acong mga sewed? hábito? Will you consent to be deceived by that Palimbong ca ba nianang bacacon? liar? Allow not your daughter to go to the ball. to Naquig. Mother. Remark upon the change of letters. nanuyo. and when to allow. Anthony is inviting me to dance. Francis begs me to have pity on him. I have got the rice plantation made. as: To make—Buhat. 2. nanuao. it is changed into m. and those beginning with m. thus: To be angry. XV Ayao mapasayao sa imong anac. namolong: To grow dark—Molat.Page 56 3. retain this letter. Examples: Did you can go up to the bellfry? ¿Nacasacá ca ba sa campanario? Will you be able to carry away that rice ¿Macadalá ca ba nianang baluyot sa bugás? bag? The children incite me to speak into church. Pabuhaton mo ug usa ca songcod canaco.a Roots beginning by c or qu. when to implore. when signifies to have made. is translated by Naqui. must be rendered by Napa. Po-long. Guipatanóm co na ang basacan. Nanay. change the said syllables into n.—To cry.

a Before some verbs has the signification of to wish. for I will return it to him as soon as I have read it. The particle Pa which is also an adverb of time and mood. to give more force to the sentence. Where will you go. ¿Asa icao paingon? Pauli acó sa amo. still. we shall explain it here. asa icao pa-ingon? Palangit acó gayud. everybody. and I hope that your friend will not be displeased. I know.Why do you open the door?—Do you not see how it smokes here?—I see it. ug dili acó tagathey say. I want to have some money so as to buy Pahatag man acó ug salapi nga igapalit co ug a fine shirt. that is the reason why I open the door—When will you shut it?—I will shut it as soon as the smoke is gone—Is it useful to speak much?—When we wish to learn a foreign language it is useful to speak a great deal—Is it as useful to write as to speak? —It is more useful to speak than to write. but I wanted it. an cay parayegconó. Pahilog lamang acó. as: Where are you going? I turn to home. when you die? I shall ascend into heaven. and they give me not. to desire and to allow that Page 57the signification of the root may take place on the subject. but in order to learn a language one must do both—Is it useful to write all that one says?—That is useless—Where did you take this book from?—I took it out of the room of your friend—Is it right to take the books of other people?—It is not right. it is vanity. . Pare. for usá ca maanindat nga sinina. l. Sa pagcamatay mo. to try. Sixteenth Lesson PA.a Before nouns of place signifies to go there. and is sometimes used only redundantly. 2. has a very important place in the Bisaya dialect. notwithstanding. but you must open the window instead of opening the door—The window does not open easily. Father. and signifies yet. before speaking of the verbals particles to which is joined to form the sentences. For the benefit of learners. as: The haughty wishes to be requested by Ang palabilabihon pa-ampo guihapon. give me only the Extremaunction.

is used to exaggerate the phrase. I will not speak to him—How is this said?—That can not be said in Bisaya—Children must be accustomed early to the Ug dili pa unta.a Serves also to point out the beginning and the end of an action. Ex: I was called. XVI. But for. But for he is a gambler this man would be so good as your brother.3. placing the thing or the object refers to. 4. Page 58 Bisan pa ngani dili acó pa sugal nila. Bisan pa ngani latuson acó nila. Quining tao maingoningon ug bu-utan sa igsoon mo. This man has altered a great deal—Where did you be born?—I will not to answer you —If you do not make your appearance before him. notwithstanding. dili acó mutingog. I will have not answer. Nagalingaolingao sia ug nasaquit pa man. Ex: Although they allow me not to play. thus: You also deceive me? He is a gambler and thief. before. tool. musugal acó gayud. Acoy magato-on canimo ug quinachila. cahuy. I will play. He is sick and does play. Although they may punish me. . Ex: This is the axe with which you have Mao quini ang oasay nga iga or icaputul mo sa to cut the tree. for all that &*. ug tugutan pa acó. answers to the English conjunctions though. or mean with which a thing is done. These particles signify the instrument. ug dili pa unta sia nga sugarol. Igo pa acó miabut. They answer to the future of the passive mood. Icao pa nagalimbong canaco? Sia sugarol man ug caoatan pa. and in this case. 5.a It is employed also as a joining conjunction. If you allow me. I will teach you Spanish. IGA OR ICA.a Bisan pa ngani. guita-*oag acó nila. when I had just arrived.

. before the root. I order to sew the shirt. to have done what the root points out. ACTIVE VOICE—PRESENT. Silá magapabuhat. I bespoke. PRESENT TENSE. . because I am not in the habit of speaking it—The man laughs and weeps by turns—If I knew what you have done. and signifies to allow. Guipatahi co ang sinina. Magpatahi ca sa mananahi.. will you allow me to go to the shore?—I do not permit you to go there—Do it in haste—Why does Ferdinand complain of his wife?—Thomas complains of Fructuosa and Fructuosa of Thomas —Who is right?—They are both wrong. They will bespeak. I bespeak. PAST TENSE. the future and imperative with Ipa. before. The active tenses are formed according to the rules laid down for naga adding invariably pa. for Thomas wishes to take Fructuosa's toys and Fructuosa Thomas's. FUTURE. to order.a This particle admits the three passives according to the above mentioned rules for each of them.labor—I am accustomed to write—I cannot express myself in Bisaya. and the infinitive mood with Pagpa. Acó nagpabuhat.Page 59 Seventeenth Lesson NAGAPA. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Acó nagapabuhat 2.. The present and past tenses of the first passive are formed by placing Guipa. Order the tailor to sew. This particle is formed from the particles naga and pa.

a The sentences of this first passive are formed by placing in nominative case the object of the commandment. Order the shirt to be sewed. 3. and in dative. PRESENT. FUTURE. You will order the shirt to be sewed. 4. before the root. Ipatahi mo ang sinina. are formed with Guipa. Ipadalá mo cania quining sulat sa correo.PAST TENSE. and the infinitive mood with Pagpa. I make it known. Tell the servant to bring the portmanteau. and On after. Page 60 Guipatahi co ang sinina. a The present and past tenses of the second passive. Ipahatud mo canila ug compay sa cabayo. before. Tell him to carry this letter to the post-office. Send them for grass for the horse. PAST. . it is on Ipasacá mo sa bata ang maleta nga the coach. Pahibaloon mo. I made it known. the errand. tua didto sa coche. in genitive the orderer. Ipatahi mo ang sinina. FUTURE. up stairs. the future and imperative by putting Pa before the root. I have had the shirt sewed. Guipahibalo co. the verb in passive voice. Page 61 Guipahibalo co. You will make it known. IMPERATIVE.

Ex: I ordered the servant to call the tailor. if there be. in passive voice. When God be pleased to take us into Cun padangaton quitá sa Dios sa heaven. sa as a proof of your presence in my tima-an sa acong paghinumdum canimo. the errand person. You will order to sweep. pasilhigi. Order to sweep. before the root and An after: the future and the imperative with Pa before. are formed by putting Guipa. 6. I order or I ordered to sweep. Pahibaloon mo. Ipadangat mo acó unta sa imong balay. Guipasilhigan co. we shall enjoy with langit. because Patahion mo sa sinina ang imong igso-on. and in accusative that who performs the thing. in genitive. thoughts. pahibaloa.a The sentences of this passive are formed by placing the spot. Pasilhigan mo. and in accusative the errand.a The present and past tenses of passive the third. pagahiagomanta ang mga ca-ayohan nga everlasting pleasures. nga pabayran acó canila sa hocom compel them to restore me the one sa usá ca gatús ca pisos nga guicauat nila canaco. Would to God. . and An after.IMPERATIVE MOOD. langitnon. Dauata ang regalo nga guipadalá co canimo. to pay the workmen three mex a day. and the infinitive mood by placing Pagpa. Did you order to buy the hemp I recommended you? Guipa-anhi co sa bata ang magtatahi. Try to carry me to your house. Please accept the present I send you. Guipapalit mo ba ang lanot nga guitogon co canimo? Order your sister to sew the shirt. person or thing in nominative case. the verb in the third passive. caymasáquitsáquit acó. the Easter is approaching. Make it known. Guipasoholan co canimo ang mga magbubuhattagotlo capisos ang adlao.a The sentences of this passive are formed by putting the object upon which the action falls in nominative case: the verb. cay hadool na ang Pasco. before the root. for I do not feel very well. Pasilhigan mo. that the Judge Agad pa unta. the orderer in genitive. Examples: I have told you. in dative the errand-boy. 5. Page 62 7.

a The negative sentences are formed in Bisaya by means of the adverbs Dili. and is formed like Dili. a white one and a black one—How far does this road lead?—It leads as far as Baclayon—Where does your friend live?—He lives on this side of the road—Is the garden of your sister on this or that side of the wood?—It is on that side—Would you be sorry if your mother were to arrived to day?—I should rather be gladded for it—Are you angry with me?—No: I am angry with Miss.hundred dollars they have stolen from me. Ayao. cay dili acómahagugma niana. 8. Page 63 Maghunahuna ca sa mga caolahian mo ug dili icao macasalá. Compel me not to eat because I am not fond of that. is made use of. Examples: Think about the four last things. patabangan mo acó sa imong ig-agao sa paglulan sa mga lubi sa sacayan. uala and ayao. and its sentences are formed with the particle pag. Dili is employed in the future sentences. Uala. and is formed with the particles of imperative mood. Ug ma-arang sa imong buut. and sometimes withmag. Have the kindness to tell your cousin to help me to load the cocoa-nuts into the vessel. Valeriane who went to the ball without telling me a word of it. XVII. and you will not sin. when the sentence is of past time. and sometimes of indicative. Caniha sa buntag uala icao sumingba. Eighteenth Lesson . Ayao icao maglugus canaco sa pagcaon. is employed to forbid any thing. How far are we going?—We are going as far as the Church—Are you going as far as the river?—No: I am going as far as Dauis—Have you ever stolen any thing?—I have never stolen any thing—Do you dye any thing?—I dye my hat—What color do you dye it?—I dye it black—Do you get your hat dyed?—I get it dyed green—What hat has the boy?—He has two hats. You did not hear mass this morning.

Guicabuntagan sia sa pagampo.a This particle is composed of Naga and Pa and its active tenses are formed according to the rules above mentioned for Naga adding paca invariably. Caluha-an ca pisos (bulaoan). 3. This particle admits but the second and third passives and signifies to feign what the root signifies. Ayao camé pacabu-angbuangan. Better. Ma-ayo cay. and on after the root. and the future and imperative. Not yet. 4. Ma-ayo ang imong sologoon cay sa aco. with Paca. l.a When in the sentence there is an expression pointing out doubt or incertitude. as: He spent the night in praying. before. Si San José guipaca-amahan sa atong Guinoong Jesucristo. Your servant is better than mine. ualá pa. Dili pa. for the present and past tenses. Our Lord Jesus Christ became man in Ang atong Guino-ong Jesucristo nagpacatao the chaste womb of the Virgin Mary. Do not pretend to be mad. Paca-amahanon co icao. sa ulay nga tian ni Maria Virgen. signifies to do heartily what the root signifies.Page 65 Does the child return you your book? Guiuli ba sa batang diutay canimo ang libro mo? . and then is rendered into Bisaya by Guica. He does.a This particle is employed also when we make use of a thing out of its natural employment. less we esteem you as such a one. The passive voice is formed with Guipaca or Pinaca. ma-ayo sa.NAGAPACA. Examples: How much can that horse be worth? ¿Pilay bale cahá nianang cabayo? It is worth twenty dollars. tingali oña pacabu-angbu-angon icao namo. Guipacapayong co ang calo co nga halapad. Guiuli na. Thus: My broad hat serves me for an umbrella. But when added to abstracts nouns or to neuter verbs. A bottle serves me for a candlestick.a Before nouns of time signifies to do till the root points out. it is translated into Bisaya byCahá. I will consider you as a father to me. Ex: Page 64 Saint Joseph was considered as the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Pinacacandelero co ang usá ca boteya. 2.

Odto. and the future and imperative with maca. Ang pamahao. The dinner. I do not laugh at every body— Does your daughter resemble any one?—She resembles no one—Can you not get rid of that man?—I can not get rid of him. are usednacag and macag respectively. what the root to which precedes points out.a This particle is divided into potential and causal. containing in itself the faculty of doing. Whose? Whose hat is this? The afternoon. The breakfast. 3. Instead of naca and maca. for he will absolutely follow me—Has he not lost his wits?—It may be—What does he ask you for?—I do not know— Whose gun is that?—It is my uncle's—Who are those men? —The one who is dressed in white is my neighbour. Is it right to laugh thus at every body?. are not translated into Bisaya. are there not?—Milton asked a Roman "Not so many as when you were there" answered the Roman. Ang panihapon. Ang paníodto. Nineteenth Lesson NACA. and the future and imperative by means of ma.I laugh at your clothes. to be able. when the signification of the root is often done. After me. These rules will be more easily understood by the following examples: The wounded horse can already walk a Ang cabayong guisamad-an nacalacao- . signifies to do in fact. the present and past are formed with na. Noon. ¿Dis-a? Guican acó sa Tagbilaran. who has given my neighbour a blow with a stick—Are there many learned in Roma. The supper.Where are you coming from? From what place? I am coming from Tagbilaran. The potential naca. Sa human na acó. Page 66This is the reason why the English verbs to can. When speaking in passive voice. ¿Quinsa? Quinsa ba ang tag-iya ni-ining calo? Ang hapon. XVIII. ¿Di-in ca guican? ¿Di-in?. and who is dressed with black it is the son of the physician. In the active voice the present and past tenses are formed with the particle naca.

I would buy a Ug ma-arang pa acó. ualámacahilac. I have murmured against you very often. but subordinated to another. Did you dare to rob your master? Tigulang na acó. The sick man is already able to get up. and it is employed in both material and moral acceptations. I think. signifies vigour. How is the sick? He is so so. signifies to possess the power of doing any thing. I can not sleep. Ang masaquiton nacatindug na. When my Father died. mahimo sa Dios. mu-palit acó unta ug usa ca mafine horse. ¿Comusta ang masaquit? Arang-arang na sia. Examples: If I could afford. lacao na. and some times in composition with naca. I could make it. Macahimo acó unta. Ug ma-arang sa imong bu-ut. as: Can you make it? What is impossible with men. They will be not able to overtake him. courage. God can do. ¿Macapalit ca ba nianang cabayo? Arang co paliton. give me some medicine. Arang. Nacaglibác acó canimo sa masubsub.Page 67 If you please. ang acong Inahán able to weep. cay tua na sa he is. 2. signifies to possess power of doing any thing. strength. to be able. Can you afford to buy that horse? I can afford it. Dili acó macagcaon.a Besides the particle naca. ¿Ngano nacagahúm ca sa pagpangauat sa imong agalon? Himo. the Bisaya dialect has some other words compensatory of the English verbs. for Dili na sia cahá maapas. Gahúm. but I have not tools. I can not eat. ayong cabayo. halayo. as: I am an old man. such as arang. gahúm and himo employed sometimes alone. my Mother was not Sa pagcamatay ni Tatay. acó ug tambal.little. tagai. Macahimo ca ba niana? Ang dili mahimo sa mga taoo. or uala na acoy gahúm. to can. far distant. Dili acó macatolog. apan uala acoy hilimoan. .

he looks displeased—Why do you look so sad?—I have experienced great misfortunes—You must not afflict yourself so much. . Our Lord Jesus Christ left to his ministers the power of forgiving sins.Is it possible? It is possible. The active voice is conjugated according to the rules laid down for naca potential. XIX. The present and past tenses of this passive are formed by putting guica. the future and imperative with ca. before. instead of receiving me with pleasure. near the high road—When shall we go to swim?—This evening if you please—Will you wait for me before the city gate?—I shall wait for you there. It is also a nominative of this particle the cause or place where the effect is produced. that which the root signifies. before the root and an after. The authority. The potential naca. because I do not go to see him. but I do not like to go to his house. bless me. Mahimo ba? Mahimo man. is compounded but with roots of active verbs. when the nominative produces on the accusative. Ang mga ilis ni Jesucristo guitaga-an nia sa cagamhanan sapagpa-saylo sa mga salá. Cagamhanan. why do you cry so? Twentieth Lesson NACA-CAUSAL. Why do you associate with those people?—I associate with them because they are useful to me—If you continue to associate with them you will get Page 68into bad scrapes. but I beg you not to forget it— You know that I never forget my promises—Is this man angry with you?—I think he is angry with me. The scholar must pay particular attention to this particle in order to use it properly in its two acceptations. for when I go there. for they have many enemies—Do you know a good place to swim in?—I know one—Where is it?—On the side of the river behind the wood. and the causal with those of neuter verbs and of adjective nouns. for you know that we must yield to necessity—But. before and an after: and the infinitive mood placing pagca or ca. This particle is made use of.

¿Onsa ba ang guicamatyan sa igso-on mo? Ang hilanat maoy guica-matyan nia. Can you drink as much wine as milk? Bu-ut acó muhatag canimo sa acong cacao. Ang tambal maoy guica-*ayohan sa masaquit. Macainom ba camó sa vino ug sa gatas nga magsama sa cadaghan? . with an invariably after the root. For what reason? Why did you become sick? Giucasaquitan sa taong ma-*tarung ang mga saquit sa iyangisigcataoo.Page 70 ¿Onsay hinungdan cay? ¿Onsay hinungdan cay gui-*saquit ca? Will you give me the cocoa you ¿Bu-ut ca ba muhatag canaco sa cacao nga na-a have? canimo? I will give it to you. Examples: What did your brother die of? He died of fever. both in active and passive voices. 2. The recoleto P. guicamatyan sa atong Guino-ong J. The just man. and ang. 3. The medicine &. The medicine did well with the sick. PASSIVE. must be always inserted between. Zueco. Examples:Page 69 Of what illness did John die? He was struck with fever. that the verb mao. instead of guica. the subjective and the objective cases stand invariably. when speaking with the particle naca causal. Why? Because. Ang tambal maoy naca-ayo sa masaquit. the verb maoy or mao. Our Lord Jesus Christ died nailed Ang usa ca macaulao nga Cruz maoy to a shameful cross. Remark.a When speaking with this particle the natives insert between the subject and the verb. Cay. ¿Ngano?. changing only the verb. of great authority on the matter says.C. ¿Onsay namatyan or guica-*matyan ni Juan? Ang hilanat maoy namatyan nia. ¿Mano?.a When speaking by means of this particle in passive voice.Remark. to express with more energy and precision the causality idea. At Cebú and Bohol provinces is very often used na. pities his neighbours sufferings. Thus: ACTIVE.

cadaghan. before the root for present tense. it is necessary to have knowledge of. The particle mi. why I do not know to speak as well as you?—I will tell you: you would speak as well as I if you were not so timid. Whom do you wish to answer? I wish to answer my good friends. but if you had studied well your lessons. Can our neighbours children work? They can. I am coming to work to-morrow. ¿Onsa ba ang guicatao-an niñó? Ang Macagagahúm sa nga-*tanan. It is formed by putting mi. What is the price of this cloth?—I sell it at six reals (tolo ca cahate) the rod—It seems to me very dear—Will you have the kindness to show me some other pieces of that new cloth?—I am ready to serve you—Does this rea*d cloth suit you?—It does not suit me—Why so?—Because it is too dear—Are you learning Bisaya?—Yes. if you were sure to make not faults. The imperative mood is formed . Muanhi acó ugma cay aron magbuhat acó. apan dili sila bu-ut. and mu for the future. you would be not timid. min for past. I beg of you to introduce me to him—I should like to know. he teaches English to the natives. should be timid. wherefore. signifies to do what the root points out. and is ordinarily compounded with verbs denoting motion. you would not be afraid to speak. and also Spanish to his American friends—I wish to make his acquaintance. I am learning it—Page 71Who is your teacher?—A Recoleto Father—Does he teach also English?—Yes. but are not willing to work. and it is very natural that he who does not know well what he has learned. ¿Macabuhat ba ang mga anac sa mga silingan ta? Macabuhat sila. ¿Hain ba ang anac mo? Tua sa dalan. Twenty First Lesson MI. ¿Quinsa ba ang bu-ut nimo baslan? Bu-ut acó magbalus sa acong mga higalang ma-ayo. XX. because in order to speak well.We can drink as much of the one Macainom camé sa usa ug sa usa nga magsama sa as of the other. Where is your son? He is at the street Why do you laugh? The Almighty God.

a The particle na. Dumali ca. Take care. cay guipa-*abut ca man sa agalon co. Who has arrived at the town? I wish to enter. in order to speak with the Captain. and the verb in its correspondent tense. sa pagsulti sa Capitan. ¿Bu-ut ba camó uminom bisan onsa? Dili acó bu-ut muinom bisan onsa. Make haste. Nasunug ang acong balay. Maholog ca bayá. Ex: When will the steamer arrive? My father arrived yesterday.Page 72 ¿Bu-ut ba camó cumaon? Bu-ut camé cumaon. but we do not wish to drink. before the root and an after. Sa pag-agui co didto sa cacahuyan nahologan acó sa usá casangá. My house was destroyed by the fire. for the future tense. Ex: Going through the forest a branch came upon me. ¿Quinsa ba ang minabut sa longsod? Musulud unta acó. In passive voice the tenses are formed by placing na. and died Guihangus sia ug nalumus.with um before the root. for the future. but when with a consonant. Do you wish to dine? We wish to eat. This particle serves also to point out the place or cuasi-place of the action. is joined to the neuter verbs and signifies what the root points out. NA l. and died. and ma. 2. it is my master waiting you. for present and past. ¿Anus-a ba muabut ang vapor? Cahapon minabut si C*atay. In active voice is made use of na for present and past tenses. These passive particle sentences are formed by putting in subjective case the place or cuasiplace. ummust be placed between the first and the second radical letters. He was struck with asthma. He fell from the cocoa-tree. before the root and an after.a The neuter verbs of action. of asphyxia. when begins with a vowel. Do you wish to drink any thing? I do not wish to drink any thing. Naholog sa lubí ug namatay. as:Page 73 . that you do not fall. apan dili camé buut uminom. are formed by means of the particles of active verbs maga or mi. and of ma.

Talagsa ra. Of what illness did your brother die?—He died of fever—How is your brother?—My brother is not Page 74longer living. Na. Enough. formerly. Dili sa guihapon. Nacadaghan. Already. when I was in Tagbilaran—Of what illness did he die?—He died of small-pox—How is the mother of your friend?—She is not well. Never. never (past. Heretofore. Yet. Hata-as na ang adlao. Tagsa ra. Sugud. Dili pa. ¿Anus-a magasoroy-soroy ang imong amahan? Nagalacao-lacao sia sa masayó ingon canimo. Lacat-lacat. Too. ¿Hinlabihan ba ang imong pagsulti? Dili: casarangan ang acong pagsulti. . she had an attack of ague the day before yesterday. As-a guidalá acó nimó? Dad-on ta icao sa camalig sa amahan co. The bird flew away. To walk. No. ¿Nagasoroy-soroy ca ba? Nagasoroy-soroy acó. Pa. Sa canhi pa. Dili pa acó magasulti. It is too late. I speak moderately. Not yet. Nacaduha. Sa masayó. Where are you taking me to? I will take you to my father's yard. Uala pa. Minsacá acó.I did go up. Hinlabihan. Many times. Early. Igo. Buntag pa man. Masayó. Do you speak Bisaya yet? Not yet. Canhi pa. Do you speak more than enough. XXI. ¿Macapila? Nacausa. When does your father walk? He walks as early as you. How many times? One. Lacao-lacao. It is early.) Seldom. Soroy-soroy. (future. I do not speak yet. our friend. ¿Nagasulti ca na ba ug Binsaya? Dili pa. and this morning the fever has returned—Do your pupils learn their exercises by heart?—They will rather tear them than learn them by heart—Why does the mother of our servant shed tears?—She sheds tears because the Father.) No. Twice. he died last week—He was very well last year. Uala. Are you walking? I am walking. ¿Nacapila?. Ang langgam minlupad.

The present and past tenses are formed by means of nanag.who used to give her alms. To dispute.Page 75 Forgive them. is employed when the agent is more than one. Pagpasalamat. to contend about some thing. as: The children are waiting for their teacher. When speaking in passive voice. (to God or the Saints) To thank. Guican ¿Anus-a camó bu-ut muguican? Bu-ut camé muguican caron. before and onafter. died four days ago—Of what illness did he die?—He died oppressed by his old age—Will you help me to work when we go to Panglao?—I will help you to work. Ang mga bata managbasa. Nagadios magbayad acó canimo sa cabudlay mo tungud canaco. Pasaylo-a sila. lisan. The children will read. to go out. The particle nanag. Pagdios magbayad. if you help me now to get a livelihood—How does your sister like those oranges?—She likes them very well. before the root. pagindig-indig. cay ualá sila mahibaló saguipanagbuhat nila. for they know not what they do. Ang mga calabao nanagpanggubá sa siclat. with panag. To thank. How high?. Ang mga bata nanaghulat sa ilang magtotoon. . and the future and imperative with manag. The carabaos have destroyed the circle. ¿Onsa ba ang cata-ason? ¿Onsa ba ang cahitas-on sa imong balay? Pagbaui sa quinabuhi. Twenty Second Lesson NANAG. Our Lord Jesus Christ redeemed us all. from the power of the devil. mao ilang guilafirst. Quitáng tanan gnipanglucat sa atong J. (to the men) I thank you for the trouble you have taken for me.C. About what are these people disputing? ¿Onsay guilalisan nianang mga tao? They are disputing about who shall go Cun quinsa ba ang mu-*ona. but she says that they are a little too sweet —Do you wish to dine here?—I will dine here. sacabihagan sa yaoa. provided that you had prepared a good meal. At what time do you wish to leave? We wish to leave now. Paglalis. the present and past are formed by putting guipanag. and the future and imperative. To depart. of what height? Of what height is your house? To save anybody's life.

In passive voice is made use of guipa. Remark. very usual in this particle. Dili pa ngani. Manlohod camé. as: The sick talks nonsense. The roots compounded with the particle nan. for the latter. are formed withnan.a Lesson. which the learned is desired to consult.They are contending about the signification of the Bisaya word. and study the next lesson—How does your brother manage to learn Bisaya without a dictionary?—He manages it very desterously— Have you already seen my son?—I have not seen him yet—How is he?—He is very well. but in such a case. you will not be able to recognize him. and the future and imperative with man. is made use of to point out the continuance of an action. if the first syllable of the root is a consonant. Are you a judge of horses?—I am a judge of horses—Will you buy one for me?—If you will give me the money I will buy you two—Is that man a judge of cloth?—He is not a good judge of it—How do you manage to do that?—I will show you how I manage it—What must I do for my lesson of to morrow?—You will make a fair copy of your exercises. may be also recompounded with the particle nacapotential. By no means. do three others. and I believe we shall have to-day a storm—It may be—The wind Nacapangyamyam ang masaquit. is explained about the end of the 15. The particle nan. not even. The use of the change of letters. to give particular energy to the object. Ang mga lalaqui nacapanglohod. Zueco. according to its active conjugation. Lagui. pang. and ofpa. and the root. for he has grown very tall in a short time —What kind of Page 77weather is it?—It is very warm—Is it long time since we had any rain?—No. and also when the agent Page 76person is more than one. The men are kneeling The women will kneel Kneel down. The active tenses present and past. XXII. Dili gayud mahimo. Nanagindig-indig sila tungud sa polong binisaya. He has not even money enough to buy Dili pa ngani igo ang salapi nia sa pagpalit ug some wine. must be inserted between naca. vino. Even. Ang mga babaye nanlohod. NAN. says the P. . "Lagui". Page 58. for the former tenses.

The children will excite themselves to fight. to fight. Examples: I invite you to go up to the tower. When the action falls upon the subject. Ang mga cabayo naquigaoay. Ang mga bata maquigaoay. and the future and imperative with maqui. to implore. to exhort. for future. Naquigsacá acó canimo sa latorre. points out. to entreat.rises. This man has been challenging me Nagapaquigaoay quining tao canaco. It may be recomposed with the particle naga. being napaqui. To excite. Examples: The beggars are asking alms. do you hear it?—Yes. The present and past tenses of active voice. it is thundering. and the future and imperative with maquig. The signification does not undergo any change. and paqui or mapaqui for the imperative mood. This particle like the preceding naquig. mapaqui. then God does not Paquimalo-oy ca sa Dios. I beg you to explain this to me. Pedro? Beg God's mercy. Agdá Excite your heart to the repentance Agdahon mo ang imong casingcasing of your sins. naqui is translated into napaqui. changing also the initial n into p. This particle signifies to beg. may be recomposed with naga. Paquisayran mo acó niini. I hear it: but the storm is still too far— Not so far as you think—Do you not see how it lightens?—Bless me! what a shower! —If we go into some place. cay ang . and is employed with reciprocal verbs. Did you ask help from Mr. to fancy or to give one's mind to that which the root refers to. The horses excite themselves to quarrel. signifies to stimulate to perform what the root points out. Twenty Third Lesson NAQUIG. for the present and past. NAQUI. we shall be sheltered from the storm. ¿Napaquitabang ca ba can Sr. Peter? Ang mga hangul naquilimos or nagapaquilimos. sa paghinulsul sa mga salá mo. The Page 78present and past of this particle are conjugated by means of naqui. and those implying company in the action. but in this case changes the letter n into p. The particle naquig. and also. are formed by means of naquig.

. To get into a bad scrape That man is ever getting into bad scrapes. I received a letter from your teacher in which he strongly complained of you—Do not weep—now go into your room learn your lesson. cay maayong Gilbert. To knock at the door.. To lose one's wits. You look like a federal. but he always gets out of them again. Ambut cun onsa ba ang itubág co. Gilbert.despise to the sinner who begs of Him pardon. Ang cornejo guidamagan sa iró. I do not know what to say. Sa tungud sa. because he is a good friend. let us do Ingon-ingon ug dag-oay. Ambut or inay.. Pagpaquig-higala. Ingon ug federal ang imong dag-oay. I do not know what to do. As to that.. I do not know what to answer. ambut cun onsay ipamolong co. Ambut cun asay adto-on co. This lady resembles my sister. To resemble some one. Dili pagsalig... To become acquainted with some one. apannahigaoas guihapon sia. Sa tungud canaco... This Lady has lost his wits. cun onsay bububaton co. and you will be happy both in this life and in the next—Since (cay) we wish to be happy. Pagcabu-ang. To distrust one. I do not know where to go.. and be a good boy (magma-ayo ca) otherwise (cun dili) you will get nothing for dinner—I shall be so good. and she does not know what to do. Dili quitá maeasalig sa mga tao ngatanan. my dear father. Sa tungud niana. To spring forward.. ug dili sia mahibaló sa guibuhat nia lintaon! . that you will certainly be satisfied with me—What must be do in order to be happy?—Love and practise virtue. As to me. Pagdamag. Being lately (sa usá ca adlao) in town.. As for. Dios magapasaylo samacasasalá nga maquipasaylo cania. Pagsamuc. amigos sia. As to. Canang tao nangita guihapon sa mga casamuc. Quining babaye maingonlugon ug dag-oay sa igso-on cong babaye. unhappy woman! XXIII. We must not trust every body. The dog jumps upon the rabbit.Page 79 I have become acquainted with Mr Naquighigala acó can Sr. Quining Señora nabuang.. Pagtoctoc sa pultahan.

the future and imperative mood by puttingmaha or mahi and the infinitive mood with paha or pagpaha before the root. The present and past tenses are formed with naha or nahi. or by chance. and the future and imperative with hi. or the 3d passive. Nagahiagom sia nga usá ra sa cabilin sa amahán namo. if we behave well towards them. To rest. The roots Budlay.good to the poor. cay hata-as man ca-ayo angpagsoroy-soroy niñó. I do not speak on purpose. Ang nahamutang sa pagcabutang sa gracia. for he behaves well towards every body—His father told him often: the behavior of others is but an echo of our behavior. I have trodden on you unwillingly. sa oras sa will obtain after his dead. the present and past are formed with the particle hin. and never give them any trouble—How has my son behaved towards you?— He has behaved well towards me. Pagpahimu-ut Who does live in state of grace. (ang batasan nila nga ma-ayo canato). He quite alone is enjoying of our father's inheritance.Page 80 Twenty Fourth Lesson NAHA OR NAHI. Pagpahamutang. took place out of mind. excepting the verb gugma which must be conjugated by the passive of on. The particle naha admits only the passive of an. Nahanayan acó sa pagsulti. or guihinaycan co ang pagsulti. Magpahamudlay usa camó cadiot.Page 81 Pagpahamudlay. To put one's in due place. they will also behave well towards us. When speaking in passive. to form the verbs. we must not expect. Take rest for a moment. Pardon me. EXAMPLES. the iyangcamatayon. change their initial B into M. macadangat sa quinabuhi nga . Pasaylo-a acó. then your walk was too far distant. Butang and Bu-ut. To be pleased with. and let us have pity on the unlucky (nalisdan)—Let us obey our masters. cay naha-tonób acó canimo. (dili atong pa-abuton) better from them. This particle is used to express that the action of the verb to which is joined. but if we use them ill.

this particle has no passive voice. Icao man ang nahigugma cong anác. Help one another to reap as soon as may be your ricegrounds. NASIGHI. Thou art my beloved son. Higugmaon ang Dios sa tibo-oc nga casingcasing mo. ¿Nganong napabilin ca dinhi? Mapabilin acó dinhi cutub ugma. and its active tenses are formed with nasig the present and past. It is also in lack of passive. Napabilin sia sa balay sa pagdula-dula. Nasigdumut silang du-há. Masigsabút camó. Why do you remain here? I shall remain here till tomorrow. and signifies what the root points out. it has not passive voice. Its tenses are formed with nasighi and masighi respectively. . and the imperative by means of pa. Masigtabang camó. aron madali mahumán ang pagga-ad sa iñong mga basac. NASIG. Examples: He remained at home to play. the future with mapa. Distrust of flattering words. as well as nasig signifies reciprocalness. As it may be seen by the examples. Remain here. NAPA. This particle. Ayao icao palimbong sa mga maghohopo nga mga polong. Come to an agreement between yourselves. The present and past tenses are formed with napa. but depending on any one circumstance. dayon. Pabilin ca. This particle is joined to the reflexive verbs. This particle is placed before roots of reflexive verbs. Love God with all your heart. As: They two hate each other.everlasting life. in whom I have pleased myself. nga guihimuutan co. Like the preceding. Remark. and by means of masig the Page 82future and imperative. and it is the most proper to express reciprocalness.

Thus: Nanumbalay camó guihapon. NANI. and the passive by means of guipangi: the present and past tenses and with pangi the future and imperative moods. It is used before the adverb ingon. The active tenses are formed with nanhi andmanhi. He is shaving himself. to beg. He cleans himself the teeth. Ex: You are always running from house to house. Examples: I will beg the God's grace. and you will be happy. The particle nanum. . and signifies to imitate. Page 83 Si Arturo ug si Maria nasighiugma sila. Nanhimungut sia.Love one another. is employed but with the root Laba. Nanhingiqui sia. is only used with the root Balay. Beg His assistance to be delivered from that temptation. Its tenses are formed with nangi and mangi respectively. Pangilaba mo sia aron bauion ca nianang pano*lay. Bungut and Quiqui. NANHI This particle governs only the roots Coco. This particle precedes to the roots Odto and hapon: and admits the three passives. Examples: He cuts himself the nails. which signifies to ask for protection. in this trouble Mangilaba acó sa Dios ni-ining cayugot I am feeling. and in passive voice with guipanhi and panhi respectively. nga guiantus co. The particle nangi. It is conjugated with nanig and manig and withguipanig and panig respectively. Masighigugma camó ug mapaladan camó. to beseech any thing from God or from the Saints. NANGI. NANIG. NANUM. Nanhingoco sia. Arthur and Mary love each other.

. you are health itself: you cannot look better—Please to sit down. Pagdalogdog. How do you do?—Very well at your service—And how are all at home. It is raining. eabuntagon. compounded with the particle naga or mi out of the roots init and Tugnao which are compounded with na. Pagolan. To rain like a deluge. my cousin who has just arrived. To lighten. for my watch goes very well—Who has arrived?—They say my cousin has arrived—Where does he come from?—He is coming from Manila—Has he spent a long time on the sea?—He has suffer a delay of fortnight. to inquire about your health—You do me much honor—What o'clock is it?—It is half past one—You say it is half past one. Manihapon ba camó dinhi? XXIV. has made me a present of it. and are only used in the third person singular. To thunder. Page 84 Naniodto na camé. thank God—As for you. for the weather was very bad—Have you bought this hat in Manila?—I have not bought it. To drizzle. Nagaolan man. Pagcagabi-i. Pagquilat. Pagbanagbanag. Paniodtohon mo sila. Will you take the supper here?. and by my watch (dinhi sa acong orasan) it is but half past twelve—Pardon me: (tabi canimo): it has not yet struck one—I assure you it is half-past one.We have just dined. To grow dark. Twenty Fifth Lesson IMPERSONAL VERBS. I only wished in passing. Ex: To dawn. To rain. To arrive at break of day. Serve them the dinner. your parents and your brothers?—Tolerably well. paglugung.Page 85 Pagalindahao. cagabhion. The impersonal verbs are those which express the atmospherical phenomena. Pagcabuntag. Pagolan sa mabascug. here is a chair—I will not detain you from your business I know that a merchant's time is precious—I have nothing to do at present.

If it should happen that. As long. puluy-anan. ualá acó maneither house nor man.Page 86 Bisan ogaling. In vain. hallo! That does not mean any thing. We search in vain. as. dili quitá macaquita have lost. Cun.. dili sia mutu-bág canimo.. To behave well towards. As he was always behave well Cay ma-ayo guihapon ang batasan nia canaco. Dautan ang batasan. pa. we cannot find.we will never have enough. for what we Bisan onsaon ta pagpangita. Bisan onsaon. Ma-ayo ang batasan sa. As long as you behave well. ill. Cun ma-ayo pa ang batasan mo. ug ug balay. Is it warm? No: it is cold. Bisan dacó ogaling ang pagantos ta dili pa igo sa guihapon.. ¿Mainit ba? Dili. Cun dili.. people will love you... not the caquita ug balay.... higugmaon ca. To behave ill. Unless you speak her she will not answer you. He behaves well towards his cousin. Cun cailignon pa unta. Dautan ang batasan nia sa mga higala nia.. Bisan dacó ogaling. Ma-ayo ang batasan nia sa iyang ig-agao.. matowards me. Cun pananglit. Nagaquilat ba? Nagadalogdog. Whatever be our patience.. I saw Bisan onsaon co pagtan-ao sa libut co. Although. . Unta. Cun dili ca magsulti cania. Guipadalá co canimo quining libro cay aron basahon mo. Cay aron. Would to God! Would to God it were so! May you be happy! In order to. sa naualá canato. In order that. What do you mean? I mean. ¿Onsay bu-ut ipamolong mo? Bu-ut cong ipamolong i*diay! Cana ualay casayuran. matugnao man. Agad unta nga mao cana ingon niana! Hinaut unta nga mapaladan ca! Cay aron. Hinaut unta.Is it lightening? It is thundering. ug tao ug tima-an sa least sign of dwelling. In vain I look around. Unless. He use ill his friends. Whatever. I will not use him ayo usab ang batasan co cania. I send you this book in order that you may read it.

Ingon nga. Tungund sa dacong pag-buhat. in my opinion. Tungud sa dacó. for whenever he gets into a bad scrape. as: Says St. but your brother not so: on the contrary. XXV.By dint of. signifies. when we were to hunt together. I am the more displeased with Ingon nga dili acó mu-angay sa imong batasan labi your behaviour.o Apat. Thus: In my opinion. Apat nga ualá icao muanhi. Austin. The more. Why is your mother troubled?—She troubles at receiving no news from her son who is in Spain—She must be not troubled about him. By dint of labour. Mao man cana.o Matod or polong. labi pa cay. They are eight in number. governs the subordinate verb in the subjunctive mood. night grow upon us (guicagabhian camé) very far from our house—Where did you pass the night?—At first I was very afflicted. from what I can see. 3. putting the person in genitive case. and with two or three birds he prepared the most comfortable supper—Where we awoke in the morning we were as rested and healthy as if we had slept on the most comfortable bed in the world. Twenty Sixth Lesson DEFECTIVE VERBS. . that is what he said. Matod or polong ni San Agustin. is made use of. buuti ang gui-ingon nia. he knows how to get out of it again—Last year. so that I lost my restlessness—We found at last a Page 87shepherd's hut where we spent the night—There I had opportunity to observe the cleverness of your brother—A few canes of a truss of straw served him to make a comfortable bed—He used a bottle as a candlestick. when citing the saying or sentence of any one.o Buuti. and must be placed at the end of the sentence. as. he tranquillized me. as follows: 1. The defective verbs of this dialect are employed but in coexistent past. under many obligations to me. 2. as: You had better not come. as you are pa caydaghan ang utang mong bu-ut canaco.

This verb must be always placed at the end of the sentence. Baut co.o Bantug. Cutub (hasta) sa tohod.o Bacut co. polong co. How far? How far did you go? As far as there. Ma-anindut conó sia. 8. Bantug nga namatay cahapon si Sr. Juan. The story goes. Dinhi sa luyó. ¿Abi mo ba nga ualá acó dinhi? Abi nia acoy nagaingon. Ambut hain ba ang Pare. It is employed with the first person of the absolute preterit of indicative mood. People say Mr. near. Cutub sa catapusan sa dalan. 6. Matod sa santos nga Sulát. The whole family down the very cat and dog.Page 89 Ang mga caubanan nga tanan hasta sa iring ug iró. 4. ¿Asa cutub? ¿Asa ba cutub adto icao? Didto cutub.o Abi.According to what I say or said. It is said that she is very handsome. According to what the holy Bible says. Namatay conó si señor Juan.o Ambut. .o Conó. Knee high. Down to the end of the street. 5. and answers to the English dictions "It is said" "They or people say". It is a report that the insurgents are Guibantug nga hado-ol ang mga insurrecto. On this side. Baut co nga muanhi sia sa balay. 7. I do not know where is the Father. Mr John died yesterday. as: Did you think I was not here? He thought I had told it. Page 88 Matod co. This verb is employed in the coexistent past. thus: I thought he would come home. John is died. placing the personal pronoun in genitive case.

¿Naonsa ba ang imong igso-on nga babaye? I do not know. Twenty Seventh Lesson To die. What is your name? My name is Hope. ug ang wife died also this afternoon. Ma-ayo tan-aon canang cuadro sa halayó. . aid my fault is to speak too much of their compliments. to lose life. from far. ¿Quinsay ngalan mo? Si Esperanza ang ngalan co. ¿Onsa ba ang ngalan ni-ini sa Binisaya? Ambut. How this word is written? In this manner. Inay. her. because it was out of his reach (cay canang tema dili mahimo nia)—As soon as (igo) Peter sees me.Page 90 Ingon ni-ini. In this manner. That picture is seen far off. —His brothers do the same. Mamatay man acó. he begins to speak Bisaya. but every man has his faults. for it is appointed unto men one to die. so that I often do not know what to answer. XXVI. and shall never say any thing against their reputation. Pagcamatay. What has become of your sister? Sa halayó. Thus. How this is called in Bisaya? I do not know. The man died this morning. I shall die. however.—They love me sincerely. So. because you are a liar—Do you wish to know why did not write your brother his exercise?—Because it was too difficult—He has sat up all night and has not been able to do it. cay sugo man sa Dios nga mamatay ang tao sa macausá da. Guionsa ba ang pagsulát ni-ining polong? Ingon ni-ini. cay anha ra natago ang saoa the door. but they are also generous and charitable. Why are you at variance with John?—Because he always finds faults with every thing he sees—What does that mean?—That means that I do not like to speak with you. in order to practise. I should love them still more (dacó pa ngani unta ang paghigugma co canila) if they did not make so much ceremony. (sa pagsumaysumay) and overwhelms me with attentions. therefore (busa) I love them also.Take care. sa luyó sa tacop. for the snake is behind Magbantay ca. Far off. what has become of Ambut cun naonsa ba sia. asaoa nia caron hapon. and his Ang lalaqui namatay caniha sa buntag. (bisan pa niana) they are very good people—They are not only rich and amiable.

The steamer is so far off. Easy. I suspect what you have done. ¿Hain ca ba natao? Natao man acó sa Tagbilaran. Ona. ¿Di-in ba natao ang imong igso-on nga babaye? Natao sia sa Bais Pagcaualá sa matá. He comes towards me. but always bad. On purpose. Malisud. Is it right to take the property of others? Opposite. To suspect. Masayón.Page 91 Sa atubangan ni-ining balay. He has arrived sooner than I. Rather than. Pagcatahap. Pagcatao. XXVII. ¿Ma-ayo ba ang pagcuha sa mga manggad nga dili caugalingon? Sa atubangan. May pulus. Dautan man. To lose sight off. Sia miabut pagona canaco. Difficult. that is the reason (busa man ngani) I brought you hither—I am sorry. Useless. To be born. Useful. Sa pagcalain-lain. It is bad. Guilain-lain mo ang pagsulál ug dautan guihapon ang pagsulát mo. I live opposite the Church. Ingon ca halayó ang vapor. Ualay pulus. To guess. In several manners. You have written in several manners. Nagapuyó acó atbang sa Singbahan. Where were you born? I was born in Tagbilaran. Tinuyo ¿Tinuyo (guituyo) mo ba ang paghampac sa iró co? Dapit. not to see your mother—Why do you not drink coffee?—If I were not sleepy I would drink it—Sometimes you are . Natahap acó sa imong guibuhat. Sa atbang. nga sa madali maualá sa mga matá ta. Mianhi sia dapit canaco. Where was your sister born? She was born in Bais. ¿May pulus ba ang pagsulát ca-ayo? May pulus man. Did you beat my dog on purpose? Towards. that we shall soon lose sight of it. however.Rather. Wrong. Opposite this house. Is it useful to write a good deal? It is useful. I suspected that you would be thirsty and your brother hungry.

which he could find in his shop. Twenty Eighth Lesson To be naked. God alone can do this. All over. Thunderbolt. The man then took a book. I had like to have lost my money He was very near falling.sleepy. He had liked to have died. I was there alone. He was within a hair's breadth Diriot papation sia. Linti. I should not want your spectacles. Lamang. Under the shade. Diriot maualá ang acong salapi. of being killed. Guilintian ang sacayan. The merchant gave him another pair of the best. Bisan asa. Didto acó rang usá*. sometimes cold. and having opened it. said the spectacles were not good. answered the man. One person only. Pagpamulac. He arrived poor. do you know how to read"?—If I know to read. and lost all in a macariot ugsa macariot pa naualá cania ang shorter time. Sa landong. A thunderbolt struck the boat. Let us sit down under the shade Mulingcod quitá sa landong niadtong cahuy.Page 93 Ang Dios lamang ang macabuhat ni-ini. of that tree. The flower. Bisan di-in. Pagtubo. One God and three persons. Hurút. Usá ra ca Dios ug totoló ca personas. grew rich in a Sa pagabut nia. It is a man naked there. but the man being still unable to read. Da. Ang bulac. This man pretends to sleep under the shade of this table. Diriot maholog sia. went Page 92to a merchant and asked for a pair. ngatanan. Diriot sia namatay. mahangul man sia. Any thing to be over. sometimes are you hungry and sometimes thirsty—A man having seen that old men used spectacles (nagasalamin) to read. Alone. Paghubo Didto may usá ca tao nga nahubo-an. Quining tao nagapacatolog dihá sa landong ni-*ining lamesa. Usá ra ca persona. nacasalapi sia sa short time. Humán. To blossom. . To grow. the merchant said to him: "My friend.

the four came up and said: "I hope you will not take it ill if I search you" and in doing it saw around the Emperor's neck a golden chain to which a whistle was tied. Hain ba ang imong igso-on nga babae? Tua didto sa tanaman sa mga bulac.And now: what are you going to do? Now I will say: "It is over". His attendants who were seeking him. and having arrived to a house he went in. and took it. At last. who affect to sleep. I wish in my turn to dream" and after a short musing. Quinsa ba canang dalaga? Sia man si Catalina. but the Emperor said: "my good friend. One of them got up. Onsa nga sinina ang na-a canimo? Ania canaco ang acong sinina. Onsa nga sabon ang ana-a canimo? Ania canaco ang imong sabon. Taga di-in ca nga longsod? Taga Cornago. he whistled. End. Hain ba ang acong libro? Ania canaco. Ma-ayong buntag canimo: comusta ca? Ma-ayo man acó calo-oy sa Dios. in order to rest himself. ania canaco ang pan. Taga di-in ca ba? Taga España man acó. Na-a ba canimo ang asin? Ania canaco ang asin. hastened to the house and were astonished of seeing his majesty in such a state. There were there four men. But the Emperor seeing himself out of danger (gaoas sa calisud) said: "behold. Being one day hunting the Emperor Charles V. these men who have dreamed all that they like. Na-a ba canimo ang acong asin? Ania canaco ang imong asin. Hain ba ang . The third took his purse. Ug caron: ¿onsay bubuhaton mo? Caron muingon acó: "Tapus na. before depriving me of this jewell (hias) I must teach you its virtue. lost his way in the forest. which he wishes to rob him of. Daghan ba ang imong salapi? Daghan man ang acong salapi. Human na".Page 94 Key to the Exercises I. Hain ba ang imong amahan? Ania dinhi. Then another rose and said that he had dreamed his overcoat fitted him well. ¿Na-a ba canimo ang pan? Oo. and approaching to the Emperor told him he had dreamed he should take his watch. and saying this. and took it. II. XXVIII. he said: "I have dreamed that you all four deserve to be hanged" which was not sooner spoken than executed before the house. Na-a ba canimo ang imong pan? Ania canaco ang acong pan. Na-a ba canimo ang sabon? Ania canaco ang sabon.

Na-a ba canimo quining pluma. Ang mga maquina-admanon macatuquib sa mga hata-as nga casayoran. apan ania canaco cari. cun ang sinina sa acong Page 96igso-on? Ania canaco ang usa ug usá. Na-a ba canimo ang mga matahum nga cabayo sa acong mga silingan? Ualá canaco.acong caban? Tua sa bata. Pila ba ca tuig ang iyang edad? Ualá pa sia ug caluha-an ca tuig. VI. Nahigugma ca ba matolog? Dili: nahigugma acó magsulti. Napasó ca ba? Tagsa ca tao. Anus-a ca ba magsulti canila? Caron gabi-i. Tagpila ang sohol canimo ang adlao? Tagudha ca peseta. Hain ba ang acong calo? Tua sa ibabao sa lamesa. Hain ba sia? Tua sa balay. Guipalit co ang cabayo nga guihisgutan mo canaco. Canus-a guipalit mo sia? Cahapon. Pila ca libro ang guisulát mo? Guisulát co usá. Ang tao nga maloloy-on nalo-oy sa iyang isigcatao. Onsay bubuhaton mo? Dunay acong isulti sa mga tao. Ngano? Cay masaquít acó. Tua ba ang calo co sa ibabao sa lamesa? Ualá: tua sa ibabao sa higda-an. Canus-a sia minabut? Naca-abut sia cahapon maingon niaron. Pila ba ca tuig ang imong edad? Caluha-an ug pito ca tuig ang acong edad. Nahadluc ca ba ni-ining tao? Dili acó mahadluc cania. Guisultihan co cadtong mga lalaqui nga guisultihan mo. ug hinquit-an co upod. V. Icao ba ang Amahan ni Pedro? Acó man. ¿Asa ca ba paiugón? Muadto acó didto sa Singbahán. tagsa ca gugma. Onsa nga oras ang imong paghigdá? Nagahigdá acó sa pagsalup sa adlao ug mibangon acó sa pagsubáng sa adlao. Guiquita co ang mga batang diutay nga imong guihatagan sa mga libro. Onsa nga oras? Sa á las ocho y media. IV. ang mga lalaqui nga imong guisultihan. cun cadto ba? Ualá canaco quini ug cadto. Hain guisultihan mo sila? Guisultihan co sila sa dalan. Quinsa ca ba? Acó man si Juan. ang adlao. Na-a ba canimo ang acong mga vaso nga matahum? Ania canaco. Hain ba? Tua sa acong igso-on. Sa nacapila ba icao naghilac? Sa nacalima. Na-a ba canimo ang acong sinina. Asa ca bu-ut magdalá canaco? Icapila quitá caron? Sa icacaluha-an ug usá ca adlao. Na-a ba canimo ang mga cintas nga bulaoan sa acoag inahan? Ualá canaco. ¿Hain ba ang acong libro? Sa ilalom sa silla. Mahagugma ca ba muguican? Dili acó mahagugma muguican. III. Sa nacapila ba icao nagbasa sa sulát? Sa nacadaghan na. Guibasa mo ba ang libro? Page 95Ualá co basaba. Nacapamolong ca ba ug binisaya? Ualá pa. .

. apan dili acó bu-ut. Nagabasa ca ba sa masubsub ingon canaco? Guipatalinhog mo ba ang gui-ingon canimo sa imong igso-on? Guipatalinhog co. VII. Quinsay guipacuha sa imong silingan? Guipacuha nia ang mananambal. cadto labi pang diutay ug cari mao ang labing diutay sa ngatanan. Ma-anindut ba ang mga bulac? Oo. Ang singsing mo dili ingon nga ma-anindut sa can Nanay. ¿Bu-ut mo ba ipadalá usa pa ca cabayo didto sa balay sa atong amigo? Bu-ut co ipadalí ug daghan pa. apan ualá camoy catarungan sa pagputul sa acong mga cahuy. ¿Onsa bay cuhaon mo? Mucuha acó ug vino. Daghan pa ang salapi sa acong amahan sa bulaoan nia. ¿Duha bay imong cuhaon? Mucuha acó ug bisan usá. Magsama ba ang cadaghan sa dugús sa atong mga silingan ug ang sa ilang asucar? Daghan pa ang ilang dugús sa ilang asucar. ang acong guinicanan taga Cornago. sa pagcacastos. Magsama ba ang cadaghan sa imong papel nga ma-ayo ug ang sa papel nga dautan? Magsama ang cadaghan sa usá ug ang sa usá. Diriot pa ang ílang mga libro dili ang ilang mga dula-an. Ang Dios mao ang ualay ingon nga Amahan. Quining calo dacó man. ang acong magulang taga Oroquieta ug ang acong manghod taga Tagbilaran. a pan cadto labi pang dacó. Duna acó ing ihangyo canimo. guipacuha nia ug vino. May catarungan camé sa pagsulti? May catarungan camó sa pagsulti. Bu-ut ca ba mu-*palit Page 97bisan onsa? Oo. ang mga bulac ngatanan ma-anindut man. ¿Quinsa ba ang Pare? Ang Pare mao ang ilis sa Dios ug mao man usab ang amahan sa mga calág. apan ang labing ma-anidut mao ang asucena. bu-ut acó mupalit usá pa ca cabayo. Ang imong calo dacó ba ingon sa aco? Ang acong calo dacó pa dili ang iñó. Ang pagsulat sa imong mga anac tagingon ba sa pagsulat namo? Ang pagsulat nila labi pa dili ang iñó. tungud cay sia man ang maga-asuy sa pagcaulay. VIII. sa pagcaualay salá ug sa pagcaputóng. Ang imong amahan culang (less) sa quina-adman sa amahan co. Ang imong pagsulti sama sa aco. Duna bay guipacuha sa imong amanan? Oo. Magsama ba ang cadaghan sa mga sinelas sa imong mga anac ug ang sa ilang mga sinina? Diriot pa ang ilang mga sinina dili ang ilang mga sinelas. Quining libro diutay man. Magsama ba ang cadaghanan sa mga libro mo ug ang aco? Diriot pa ang mga libro co sa imo. Duna bay imong tiempo sa pagbuhat? Dunay acong tiempo. Magsama ba ang cadaghanan sa mga higala ug ang aco? Diriot pa ang among salapi sa ila. Taga di-in ca ba? Taga Aloran man acó. Diriot pa ang acong bugás sa capé. Magsama ba ang cadaghanan sa mga langgam sa atong amigo ug ang sa iyang mga pisó? Daghan pa ang mga langgam dili ang mga pisó.Magsama ang cadaghan sa salapi co ug sa salapi mo. sa pagcaputli.

¿Onsa ba ang imong calingaoan cahapon? Naca-*adto man acó didto sa balay sa acong ugangan.Nagahubo ba sa sinina ang imong sologo-on sa pagdagcut sa calayo? Nagahubo sia sa sinina sa pagdagcut sa calayo. ¿Canus-a ba nanaog cadtong tao dihá sa atabay? Nanaog sia caniha sa buntag. apan ualá co sia maquita. IX. Mupatay ba ang carnicero ug mga vaca? Mupatay sia ug mga carnero. Muinóm ca ba ug capé. Onsa ba sa imong paghunahuna? Ma-anindut ug ma-ayo man. ug magahangyo acó canimo nga ihatud mo didto sa balay sa acong igso-on. sa acong pagsabut. miabut na ba ang imong amahan? Ang mga taong tanan muingon nga miabut na. Nacadaut* ba ang mananambal sa imong anac? Nacadaut man cania. Hain ba ang imong asaoa? Ambut. cay aron maquita nia. cay cabús icao ug hunahuna. labon nga mupatay sia unta ug mga vaca. ug dihádihá naca-adto man acó sa sayao. Bu-ut ca ba magbuhat? Bu-ut acó magbuhat ug dili acó tugutan nila. ¿Miangay ca ba sa imong sologo-on? Miangay acó ca-ayo cania. X. ¿Nacasacá na ba sia . ¿Guibocas Page 98mo ba ang calo sa pagsulti mo sa acong amahan? Guibocas co ang calo sa pagsulti cania. sa buntag? Muinóm acó ug capé. cay mahibaló sia sa ngatanan. cay nacaputul sa todlo nia. XI. Guicaoatan ca ba ug bisan onsa? Guicaoatan man acó sa usá ca cabayo nga ma-ayo. Muinóm ca ba ug capé sa buntagbuntag? Muinóm acó ug capé sa buntagbuntag ug sa hapon-hapon. Anus-a guiquita mo sia? Naquita co sia sa á las siete sa buntag. Sa catapusan. Quinsa ba ang imong guisultihan? Nagasulti acó sa acong igso-on nga babaye. Onsay gui-inóm sa imong amahan? Muinóm man sia ug chicolate. May gahúm ca ba sa pag-antos niana? Ayao ca magpacama-alam. ¿Anus-a ba muguican ang imong amahan? Caron adlao. Gui-ingón ba nia ang Page 99sologo-on nga hatdan acó nia niana? Gui-ingnon sia nga ihatud nia canimo. Asa ba sia paingon? Muadto sia sa Madrid. cun chá ba. Napauli ba ang imong igso-on guican sa España? Napauli na sia guican sa España. cay masaquít acó. ug guidad-an ca nia ug usá ca cabayo nga ma-ayo. ¿Macasoroy-soroy ca ba idiay! ug dili ca ba maca-adto sa Singbahan? Dili acó macaadto sa Singbahan. Asa ba cutub naca-adto caniha sa buntag ang mga batanar diutay? Naca-adto sila didto cutub sa balay sa ilang ig-agao. Guisultihan mo ba sia sa adlao ngatanan? Onsay calingaoan ni-ining tao? Maoy usá ca tampalasan nga nalingaolingao sa paginóm ug sa pagsugál. Quinsa ba ang mga tao nga bag-o pa minabut? Taga Rusia man sila. Onsang orasa? Sa á las cuatro.

pagusáb? Dugay na usá ca oras nga minsacá sia pagusáb (or) (nga nagusáb sia pagsacá). nga nanuyó ca canaco. Onsay guibati sa imong ig-agao? Masaquít ang iyang pa-a. apan nagamatood acó canimo. Icao nagto-on sa imong lección. bu-ut sia untá magbuhat niadto. ngano nga ualá ton-i sa imong igso-on nga babae ang iya? Nagsoroy-soroy sia uban sa acong Inahan. Cun nasayóp ca. cay quinahanglan ang pagto-*on ug ma-ayo sa mga lección. Taga di-in ba sila? Taga America man sila. Quinsa ba canang mga tao? Ambut. apan. nga imnón nila. caron nailá co. cay sa adlao-adlao nanagat ug namusil man sila. nga cun masayod acó untá nga dili ca masaquít. Ma-ayo: matod ni Luis XIV. nagalingcod acó Page 100sa dool sa calayo. nga nasayóp acó. Nagapadayeg acó guihapon. . busa. dili man caná ang cabilinggan (which embarrasses me): apan sayri acó: (tell me) cun dihá ca untá sa cabutangan sa imong ugangan ¿mahimu-ut ca untá. igso-on nga hinigugma. nga nasayóp ca dihá nianang imong mga tema? Am-*but. apan ualá pa sia mag-ilis. Anus-a ba saoayon mo ang acong mga tema? Saoayon co cun dad-an mo acó sa mga tema sa igso-on mo. busa. XII. ¿Onsay guipangabuhi sa among mga guinlioatan? Ang isdá ug ang mga langgam nga bihag mao rá ang ilang pagpangabuhi. cay na-a man canimo ang ngatanan nga quinahanglan. Quinahanglan ang dili pagcasayóp dihá sa mga tema. cay aron dili ca masayóp. Usá sa mga ayuda sa Cámara ni Luis XIV naghangyo ni-ining Principe sa paghigdá nia. ualá sia macato-on sa iyang lección. cay nahagugma ca canaco ingón sa paghigugma co canimo. XIII. cun dili saoayon mo caron. igso-on co nga hinigugma. Quinsa ba dihá? Acó man. apan mabugnao ang iyang ti-il. quinahanglan untá ang paghatag canila bisan onsa. Gun macahimo untá sia ni-ini. Bu-ut mo ba sia ingnon nga ma-*naog sia? Bu-ut acó. aron dili quitá ma-sayóp dihá sa mga tema. Nagahunahuna ca ba. Onsay saquít ni-ining babaye? Masaquít ang dila nía. ug nagingón sa paghangyo cania: "Señor:* mao rá ang imo ang pagpamolong ug usá ca polong". Ngano nga nagalingcod ca do-ol sa calayo? Matug-*nao ang acong camút ug ti-il. dili acó magato-on niana hasta ogma. Mao sa guihapon. apan ton-an nia ogmá. Mabugnao ba ang mga camút sa imong igso-on? Dili. cay nagsoroy-soroy acó sa ualay tingug co canimo. Hain ba ang igso-on mo? Tua sa iyang cuarto. Nasayod acó. nga ualo na ca-adlao ang imong paghigdá. apan nangutana acó sa balay sa imong mananambal ug ma-ayo ca ba ug laoas. ug nagingón sia canaco. ualá ca magestudio pagayo sa imong mga lección. anha-an ta icao untá. nga ipamolong co canang polong? Cun muanhi unta ang mga tao. nga itugyan nia untá sa dacó sa mga ministro ug usá ca capolonganan (lawsuit) nia contra sa iyang ugangan.

Sa pagabut se usá ca Oficial nga Frances didto sa corte sa Viena. cun dinhi untá ang imong amahan? Duna untay acong salapi. ¿Canus-a ba sia namatáy? Dugay na. ¿Duna ba untá imong salapi. cay dugay na. ¿Nganong guiablihán mo ang pultá: dili ba maquita mo nga ma-asó dinhi? Naquita co. minto-o acó niana cahapon". Ang ventana dili ma-abli ug ma-ayo. Anus-a ba sirhán mo? Sirhán co igo nga ualáy asó untá. busa guiablihán co ang ventana. Dili acó macasangput sa binisayá. ¿Namatáy ba sia? Namatáy man. Masaquít ug dacó ang acong casingcasing. ¿Onsa-onsaon ba ang pagpamolong ni-ini? Cana dili aráng ipamolong sa binisayá. ug nagasalig acó nga dili manuyó ang imong higala. guipangutana sia sa Emperatriz nga si Teresa. XV. ¿May pulus ba (ang) sa pagsulti ca-ayo? Cun bu-ut quita magto-on ug usá ca pinolongan nga dili caogalingon. cun naonsa ba sila. cun naonsa ba sia: ania man dinhi ang siya nga guilingcoran nia sa masubsub... usahay muhilac. apan quinahanglan co caná. pauli usáb acó. Anad man acó sa pagsulát. totoló ca semana. dili nga (labón) ablihán unta ang pultahán. unúm ca tuig nga ualá silá maquita. cun naonsa ang igso-on mo? Bu-ut magingón canimo cun naonsa sia. cun mito-o pa ba sia Page 101nga ang Princesa N. mulingcod acó upod. quinahanglan ang pagsulát ug ang pagsulti.Page 102 XVI.XIV. ¿Di-in nacuha mo quining libro? Nacuha co didto sa cuarto sa imong amigos. ¿Bu-ut ca ba magingón canaco. cay iuli cania igo co basaha. ¿Magsama ba ang pulus sa pagsulát ug sa pagsulti? May pulus pa sa pagsulti dili sa pagsulát. Cun mahibaló acó untá sa guibuhat mo. dili acó magsulti cania. mao gayud ang babaye nga labing maanindut sa calibutan ingón sa guibantug. ¿Guitugutan mo ba acó sa pag-adto sa baybayon? Dili ta icao pa-adto-on didto. nga naquita nia cahapon. apan quinahanglan ang pagabli sa ventana. Dalion mo caná . sa pagbuhat. ¿Ma-ayo ba ang pagcuha sa mga libro nga dili caogalingon? Dili ma-ayo.. cun dinhi sia untá. ¿Hain ba icao natao? Dili acó bu-ut inutug-an canimo. "Señora: mintubág ang Oficial. apan cun pauli ca. apan sa pagto-on ug usa ca pinolongan. Quinahanglan ang pag-anad sa mga batang diutay cutub sa pagcabata. Ang tao usahay mucataoa. ¿Ngano nga dili ca mulingcod? Cun bu-ut ca mulingcod sa acong luyó. ¿Naonsa ba sia? Na-adto man sia didto sa Manila. Cun dili icao muatubang cania. ¿Namatáy ba sia? Ualá sia mamatáy. ¿May pulus ba sa pagsulát sa ngatanán nga guipamolong? Ualáy pulus. Quining tao nalain ca-ayo. nasayod acó. ¿Naonsa ba ang imong mga igso-on? Dili macasuguilon canimo. may pulus sa pagsulti ca-ayo. ¿Naonsa ba ang imong oyo-an? Sayran ta icao. cay ualá acoy batasan sa pagsulti.

¿Masucó ca ba untá. ¿Ngano nga napado-ol ca nianang mga tao? Napado-ol acó canila. ¿Quinsa ba cadtong mga tao? Ang nagavisti ug maputi mao ang acong silingan. ¿Muadto ca ba cutub sa subá? Dili. ¿Quinsa ba ang may catarungan? Silang duhá ualáy catarungan. ¿Duna bay imong guicaoat usahay? Ualá acóy sugod mangaoat. XVIII. ¿Quinsay maingnan ug dagoay sa anác mo? Ualáy maingnan nia ug dagoay. cun muabút untá caron nga adlaoa ang imong inahan? Malipay Page 103acó untá hino-o. ¿Asa cutub quining dalan? Didto cutub sa Baclayon ¿Hain ba nagapuyó ang imong higala? Nagapuyó sia dinhi dapit sa dalan. XVII. mangita ca sa mga casamucan. Dili man daghan inaingón sa didto ca pa—mitubág ang taga Roma. cay daghanan ang ilang mga ca-aoay. nga naca-adto sa sayao sa ualáy tingug canaco. ¿Dili ca ba macapahalayó nianang taoha? Dili acó macapahalayó cania. dili acó magayubit sa inga taong tanán. cun hain dunay usa. ¿Tua ba ang tanaman sa mga bulac sa imong igso-on nga babae dinhi dapit cun didto ba dapit sa cacahuyan? Tua didto dapit. ¿Anus-a ba quita mulangoy? Carón hapon cun bu- . ¿Quinsay tag-iya nianang pusil? Ang acong oyoan maoy tag-iya. ¿Nasayod ca cun hain ba ang ma-ayong calangoyan? Nasayod acó. ¿Duna bay imong guitina? Guitina co ang acong calo. ¿Nanuyó ca ba canaco? Dili: nanuyó acó can Valeriana. ¿Asa ba cutub muadto quitá? Muadto quitá cutub sa Singbahán. (It may be). cay si Tomás bu-ut mucuha sa mga dula-an ni Fructuosa ug si Fructuosa. tungud cay bu-ut sia mag-apas canaco sa lugus (sa linugsa-nay). ang usá maputi ug ang usa maitóm. Daghan man ang mga maquina-admanon didto sa Roma. ¿Onsay guitina mo? Maitóm ang guitina co sa calo co. Cun mudayon ca pa sa pagdo-ol canila. ug ang nagavisti ug maitóm. mao ang anác sa mananambal nga nacatampaling sa acong silingan. ¿Ma-ayo ba ang pagyubit maingón niana (thus) sa mga taong tanán? Guiyubit co ang imong mga visti. ¿Onsay tuyo nia? Ambut. ¿Hain ba? Didto dapit sa tabóc sa suba sa licód sa cacahuyan do-ol sa dalan. muadto acó cutub sa Daois. XIX. ¿dili ba mato-od? —nagotana si Milton sa usá ca tao nga taga Roma. ¿Onsa nga calo ang tua sa bata? Duruhá man ang iyang calo. ¿Ngano nahigaoad si Fernando sa iyang asaoa? Si Tomás nagamahay can Fructuosa ug si Fructuosa can Tomás. ¿Ualá ba sia mabu-ang? Tingali cahá. cay may pulus acó canila.pagbuhat. ¿Guipatina mo ba ang imong calo? Verde ang guipatina co sa acong calo. (rather). bu-ut mucha sa mga dula-an ni Tomás.

cun dili ca untá mahadlucon. Ma-ayo man sia ca-ayo ug laoas sa tuig nga miagui sa didto pa acó sa Tagbilaran ¿Onsay iyang guicamatyán? Ang buti (small pox) maoy namatyán nia. labon nga daoaton acó nia sa ma-ayong dagoay. nagatodlo sia ug Ininglés sa mga Filipino. namatáy dugay na upát ca adlao. cun nagto-on ca untá ug ma-ayo sa imong mga lección. Dili ca masucó ca-ayo. ¿Onsa nga saquít ang guicamatyán sa imong igso-on? Ang hilanat maoy guicamatyán nia. Nasayod ca na man nga dili acó malimot (mahacalimot) sa acong mga sa-ad. cay ¿oonsaon ta man? Apan. guihilantan sia cahapon sa usá ca adlao (niadtong usá ca adlao) ug caniha sa buntag guibalicán sia sa hilanat (the fever has returned). tungud cay sa pagpamolong ug ma-ayo. ¿Pilay vale ni-ining panapton? Guibaligyá co caná sa tagotló ca cahate ang vara. (I think) nanuyó sia canaco. dili ang pagsaolo (They will rather tear them than learn by heart). tungud cay ang Pare nga atong amigos. nga mahadlucon sia untá.ut ca. dili ca untá mahadluc magsulti. nga nagalimós cania. ¿Quinsa ba ang imong magtoto-on? Ang acong magtoto-on maoy usa ca Pare nga Recoleto ¿Magatodló ba sia usáb ug Ininglés? Oo. ug quinaiya man sa tao nga dili mahibaló ug ma-ayo sa guito-on nia. Sa bu-ut co (it seems me) mahal ca-ayo. cay sa pagadto co. ¿Ngano nga mamingao ca ug dagoay? Dacó nga mga calisud ang guibati co. quinahanglan ang pagcasayod. dugay na usá ca semana nga namatáy. Dios co! ¿ngano naninggit ca maingón niana? XX. ¿Onsay guicamatyán nia? Ang pagcatigulang . ¿Co-*inusta Page 105ang imong igso-son? Ang acong igso-on ualá nay quinabuhi. nagato-on acó ug binisayá. dili ca untá mahadlucon. Guisaolo ba (learn by heart) sa imong mga tinon-an ang mga tema? Onahon nila ang pag-guisi. ¿Angay ba canimo quining mapola? Dili angay canaco. ¿Ngano nga nagahilác ang inahán sa atong sologo-on? Minhilac sia. ¿Bu-ut mo ba ipaquita canaco pipilá ca bulus niining usá ca panapton? Bu-ut acó magpaquita canimo niana. ingón ug dautan sia ug dagoay (he looks displeased). ¿Ngano nga dili angay canimo? Cay mahal caayo. ¿Bu-ut ca ba muhulát canaco didto sa tungud sa pultahán sa longsod? Pa-abuton ta icao didto apan nagahangyó acó canimo nga dili ca malimot. apan. cay dili acó magaduao cania. nagahangyó acó canimo nga ihatud mo acó didto sa ila Bu-ut acó untá masayod ¿ngano cay dili acó mahibaló magsulti ug ma-ayo ingón canimo? Ingnon ta. icao magsulti ug ma-ayo ingón canaco. apan dili acó mahagugma umadto didto sa ilá. cun nasayod ca pa untá nga dili ca masayóp. ¿Nanuyó ba canimo Page 104quining tao? Sa bu-ut co. ug quinachilá sa iyang mga amigos sa América Bu-ut acó macailá cania. ¿Comusta ang inahán sa imong amigos? Dili man ma-ayo. ¿Nagato-on ca ba ug binisayá? Oo. busa. XXI.

¿Nacailá ca ba sa mga cabayo? Nacailá man acó. Ang iyang amahán nag-ngón cania sa masubsub: ang batasan sa ubán dili man . XXIII. palitán ta icao ug duruhá. ¿Onsa ba ang batasan sa acong anác canimo? Ma-ayo man ang batasan nia canaco. magto-on ca sa imong lección. nagadalogdog. ¿Comusta ba sia? Ma-ayo sia ca-ayo. cun dili. ¿Nacailá ba canáng tao sa mga panapton? Dili sia macailá ca-ayo. ¿Onsa ba quining mga ocbán sa paghunahua sa imong igsoon? Ma-ayo man ca-ayo sa iyang pagsabút (she likes them very well) apan matolotam-is (matam-istam-is. ¿Naquita mo na ba ang acong anác? Ualá co pa sia maquita. ¿Onsa may atong buhaton cay aron mapaladan quitá? Higugmaon ug bubuhaton niñó ang ma-ayong buhat. Mahangin na. ug magma-ayo ca. ug magestudio ca sa lección nga sumunúd (next lesson). buhaton mo ug totoló. nga muangay ca nga tood canaco. nadungúg co apan halayó pa ca-ayo ang onús. bubuhatan ta sa ma-ayo ang mga pobres ug caloyan ta ang mga tao nga nalisdan. XXII. ¿Onsa-onsaon mo ba pagpatigayon? Bu-ut acó magpaquita canimo cun onsa-onsaon co pagpatigayon. cun guiandam mo ug ma-ayong can-on.(quinatigulang) maoy guicamatyán nia. Cay bu-ut quitá mapaladan. Magama-ayo acó gayúd. ¿Bu-ut mo ba acó palitán ug usa? Cun bu-ut ca muhatag canaco ug salapi. ¿Onsa-onsaon ba Page 106sa imong igso-on ang pagtoon ug binisayá sa ualáy diccionario? Naga ayom-ayom sia lamang (he manages it) sa dacong cacugui. nga igamahay ca-ayo nia canimo. ¿Dugay na ba nga ualá mag-olán? Dili: ug sa bu-ut co (I believe) may onús quitá carón adlaoa. matod nia. Ayao paghilác adto ca caron sa imong cuarto. dili ca macailá cania. ug dili quitá magpacasaquit canila sa guihapon. cun mutabang ca canaco pa pagpangita sa quinabuhi. dili ca maniodto caron nga adlaoa. ¿nadungúg mo ba? Oo. ¿Naquita mo ba nga nagaquilat ¡Dios co! ¡Pagcabascug sa olán! Cun musulúd quitá sa bisan di-in. Sa didto acó sa longsod sa usá ca adlao. Sugtón ta ang atong mga magtoto-on. magasalipód quitá sa onús. Dili man halayó ingón sa imong paghunahuna. ¿Bu-ut ca ba maniodto dinhi? Bu-ut acó maniodto dinhi. amahán co nga hinigugma. ug mapaladan camó dinhi sa yuta ug sa lain nga quinabuhi. Onsa may bubuhaton co cay aron mahimbaloan co ang lección. nadaoat co ug usá ca sulát sa imong magtotoon. nga ipangutana nia ugmá canaco? Ibutáng mo sa limpio ang imong mga tema. Tingali cahá. cay ma-ayo ang iyang batasan sa mga taong tanán. ¿Mutabang ca ba canaco sa pagbuhat. cay mintobó sia ca-ayo (he has grown very tall) sa didiót nga tiempo (in a short time) ¿Onsa ba carón ang tiempo? Mainit man ca-ayo. cun muadto quitá sa Panglao? Tabangan ta icao sa pagbuhat.

cun dili usa ca aningal sa atong batasan; cun ma-ayo ang atong batasan canila, dili atong pa-abuton ang batasan nila nga maayo canato.Page 107 XXIV. ¿Comusta ca? Ma-ayo man sa pagsilvi canimo cun dunay imong sugo. ¿Ug comusta didto sa iñó ang imong guinicanan ug ang imong mga igso-on? Ma-ayo man silá sa dacóng calo-oy sa Dios. Sa tungud canimo, ualáy quinahanglan sa pagpangutana, cay ma-ayo ca man ca-ayo ug ang imong dagoay mao ang labing ma-ayo sa ngatanan. ? Bu-ut ca ba maglingcod? Aniay usá ca siya. Dili acó bu-ut maglingao-lingao canimo sa imong mga buhat, nasayod acó nga mahal ca-ayo ang tiempo sa mga comerciante. Carón ualá acóy buhat; sa pag-agui co dinhi, bu-ut lamang acó mangutana ug ma-ayo ca ba ug laoas. Dios magbayad. ¿Onsa ba nga oras? La una y media. La una y media, matod mo, ug dinhi sa acong orasán, las doce y media man. Tabi canimo, ualá pa magbagting sa á la una. Nagamato-od acó canimo nga la una y media na, cay ang acong orasán nagalacao sa ma-ayo (cay ma-ayo ang paglacao sa acong orasán). ¿Quinsa ba ang naca-abut? Naca-abut ang acong ig-agao, conó. ¿Di-in ba sia guican? Guican sia sa Manila. ¿Nadugay ba sia ca-ayo didto sa dagat? Nadugay sia napoló ug limá ca adlao, cay daután ca-ayo ang tiempo. ¿Guipalít mo ba quining calo didto sa Manila? Ualá co palita, guiregalo canaco sa acong ig-agao nga bag-o pa miabut. XXV. ¿Ngano nga nasamocan ang imong inahán? Nasamocan sia tungud cay ualá sia dumaoat ug sulát sa iyang anác nga tua didto sa España. Dili sia untá masamocan tungud cania, cay bisan mangita sia guihapon sa mga casamocan mahibaló man sia maggaoás niana. Sa tuig nga miagui, sa pag-adto namo sa pagpamusil, guicagabhian camé halayó ca-ayo sa amo. ¿Hain ba camó nabuntagán? Sa sinugdan nasamocan acó ca-ayo, apan ang imong igso-on, ualá sia hino-o: nagapahinay canaco (sa acong casamuc)busa, nauad-*an Page 108acó sa casamocan. Sa catapusan, hinquit-an namo usa ca payág ug didto camé nabuntagán. Didto naqnita co ang cacugui sa imong igsoon. Pipila ca caoayan ug usá ca bugcus nga sagbut guipacahigdaan nia sa ma-ayong higda-an. Usá ca boteya guipacacandelero nia, ug sa duruhá cun totoló ba ca langgam guibuhat nia ug usá ca panihapon nga ualáy ingón. Sa paghimatá namo sa buntág, ingón ug napaholay ug ma-ayo camé maingón sa pagcatolog namo untá sa labing maayong higda-an sa calibutan. XXVI. ¿Ngano nga nanuyó (nasucó) ca can Juan? Cay nacaquita man sia guihapon ug mga sayóp sa ngatanán nga naquita nia. ¿Onsay casayoran niana? Ang casayoran niana

mao nga dili acó bu-ut magsulti canimo, cay bacacon ca man. ¿Bu-ut ca ba masayod ngano nga ualá sulata sa imong igso-on ang iyang mga tema? Cay maculi man ca-ayo. Nagtucao sia sa tibo-oc nga gabi-i, ug ualá sia macasulát niana, cay canáng tema dili mahimo nia Igo naquita acó ni Pedro, nagsugud sia sa pagsulti ug binisayá sa pagsumaysumay, ug daghanan ang iyang pagabi-abi canaco: busa usaháy dili acó mahibaló, cun onsa ba ang itubág co. Mao ra ang buhat sa iyang mga igso-on; bisan pa niana, ma-ayo man silá ca-ayo nga tao; dili lang cay sapian ug mahigugmaon silá cun dili nga malolot ug magbubuhat sila usáb sa ma-ayo. Nahagugma silá canaco sa minato-od gayud, busa man, nga guihigugma co silá usáb ug dili acó muingón guihapon nga macadaut acó canila. Dacó pa ngani untá ang paghigugma co canila, cun dili untá maga-abiabi silá ca-ayo; apan, tagsá ca tao dunay iyang mga sayóp, ug ang aco mao ang pag-hisgut sa ilang pag-abiabi. XXVII. Natahap na man acó, nga gui-uhao ca ug nga Page 109guigutum ang iniong igso-on, busa man ngani, guidalá ta camó dinhi. Bisan pa niana, masaquit ang acong bu-ut, cay dili acó muquita sa imong inahán. ¿Ngano nga dili ca muinom ug capé? Cun dili pa acó catolgon, muinom unta acó. Ubus ca na catolgon, ubus ca na matugnao; ubus ca na gutmon, ubus ca na uhao-on. Usá ca tao, sa pagquita nia nga nagasalamin ang mga tigulang sa pagbasa, naca-adto sia sa balay sa usá ca comerciante; ug nangayo man sia ug inga antiparas. Nacuha niadtong tao ug usá ca libro, ug sa human na nia ablihi, miingon sia nga dili man ma-ayo ang antiparas. Guitaga-an sia sa comerciante sa uban nga labing ma-ayo nga naquita nia sa iyang tindahan, apan, cay ualá sia usáb macabasa, nangutana cania ang comerciante "higala co, ¿nahibalo ca ba magbasa?" Cun mahibalo acó unta magbasa, matod nia, dili co unta quinahangla-non* ang imong antiparas. XXVIII. Sa pagpamusil niadto sa Emperador uga si Carlos V naualá sia didto sa cacahuyan, ug sa pag-abut nia sa usá ca balay, minsulud sia didto cay aron magpahuay. Didto niadtong balaya duna may upát ca tao nga nagapacatológ. Ang usa nagbacod, ug sa pagdo-ol nia sa Emperador nag-ingon cania nga nagdamgó sia nga caoaton nia unta ang iyang orasán, ug guicaoat nia. Dihádihá (then) nagbacod ang usá ug nag-ingón cania nga nagdamgó sia nga angay unta cania ang pagpangaoat cania sa iyang colopo, ug guicaoat nia. Ang icatoló nangaoat sa bolsa. Sa catapusan: nagbangon ang icapat ug nag-ingon cania: nagapa-abut acó nga dili ca manuyó cun susihon ta icao, ug sa pagsusi nia, iyang naquita sa li-og sa Emperador ug usá ca bulaoan nga cadena nga hinigtan sa usá ca pito nga bu-ut nia caoaton cania, apan ang Emperador nag-ingon cania: higala co nga ma-ayo, sa dili mo pa acó cuha-an ni-ining hias, ipaquita co

canimo ang iyang gahúm, ug sa pagpa-*molongPage 110nia ni-ining mga polong, nagtaghoy sia. Ang iyang mga tao nga nangita cania, nanigom didto dapit sa baláy ug naningala silá sa pagquita nila sa Emperador dihá nianang pagcabutang. Apan, ang Emperador sa pagquita nga nacagaoás na sia sa ca-*lisud mi-ingon sia: ani-a quining mga tao nga nag-*damgo sa ngatanán nga ilang bu-ut. Bu-ut acó usáb magdamgo; ug sa human na sia naghunahuna sa macadiót, mi-ingón sia: nagdamgo man acó, nga tacús bitayon silang tanán. Sa pagcahuman ni-ining mga polong. dihádihá guibitay sila sa atubangan sa balay. CatapusanPage 111

A Table of the Particles and their Passives.
Particles. Present Past. Naga. Nagapa. Naga Nagapa Nag — Nagpa Maga — Magapa Future. Mag — Magpa Imperative. Infinitive. Present Future. and Past. Mag — Magpa Gui — Guipa Guipaca Guica Guihi Na Guica — Na Guipa Paga Ipa, Pa Pag Pagpa Iga, Ica — i, on, an — i, on, an

Imp. and Infinitive.

Iga or ica. —

Nagapaca. Nagapaca Nagpaca Magapaca Magpaca Magpaca Nagaca. Nagahi. Naca. Naca. Mi. Na. Nanag. Nan. Naqui. Naquig. Naha, Nahi. Napa. Nasig. Nasighi. Nangi. Nanhi. Nagaca Nagahi Naca Naca Mi Na Nanag Nan Naqui Naquig Naba, i Napa Nasig Nasighi Nangi Nanhi Nagca Naghi Naca Naca Min Na Nanag Nan Naqui Magaca Magahi Maca Maca Mu Ma Manag Man Maqui Magca Maghi Maca Maca Um Ma Manag Man Maqui Magca Maghi Pagca Pagca — Ma Manag Man Pagpaqui

Pagpaca, Pagpaca, —, on, an Paca Paca Pagaca Pagahi Ma Ca — Ma Pa Pagca Ma — Ma Panag Pa Ipaquig Paha — — —

—, on, an

Hi, paghi —, on, an

—, —, an

Ca, pagca —, —, an

—, —, — i, on, an i, on, an

—, —, an

Guipanag Panag Guipaqui Ipaqui Hin — — — Hi — — —

Ipagpaqui i, —, an

Naquig Maquig Naha, i Maha, i Napa Nasig Nangi Nanhi Mapa Masig Mangi Manhi

Maquig Pagpaquig Guipaquig Paquig Maha, i Paha, pagpaha Pa Masig Mangi Manhi Pa Pasig Mangi Panhi

—, —, —

—, —, —

—, on, an

—, —, — i, —, —

Nasighi Masighi

Masighi Pasighi

—, —, —

Guipangi Guipangi Pangi Guipanhi Guipanhi Panhi

—, —, an

Nanig. Nanum. Nani.

Nanig Nanum Nani

Nanig Nani

Manig Mani

Manig Mani

Pagpanig Pagpani

Guipanig Guipanig Pagpanig —, —, an — Guipani — — Guipani Pani, pagpani

Nanum Manum

Manum —

—, —, —

—, on, an

Page 113

Containing a small dictionary of the words in general use for the benefit of the learners.

Ang Dios. Ang Dios nga Amahan. Ang Dios nga Anac. Ang Dios nga Espíritu Santo. Ang Santos uyamut nga Trinidad. God. God the Father. God the Son. God the Holy Ghost. The holy Trinity. Ang atong Guino-ong Jesucristo. Our Lord Ang The Jesus Manunubus. Redeemer. Christ

Ang Mamamaui. The Saviour. Ang Magbubuhat. The Creator. Ang The Macagagahúm sa Almighty. ngatanan. Ang mahal nga Virgen. The blessed Virgin.

Usá ca binuhat sa A creature. Dios. Quing tibo-oc nga The nature. calibutan. Ang calág. Ang laoas. Ang langit. The soul. The body. The heaven.

Ang Abat. The Hell. The air. Ang mga calág. Ang Pinilian. Page 114 The glory. wind. Ang Yaoa. The Purgatory. The Just. Ang Dagat.Ang himaya sa langit. Ang Purgatorio. . Ang hinocman sa The damned. Ang tubig nga ma-asgad. The Prophet. ABOUT THE ELEMENTS Ang calayo. Ang Pangolo sa banay. Ang Bulahan. Ang Matarung. The Apostle The Patriarch. The Blessed. The brackish water. The Martyr. The Phantom. Ang Manalagna. Ang Martir. The water. The Saint. The Sea. The Devil. Ang tubig. Ang Apostol. The sun. The fire. The Wicked. Ang Santos. Ang Angel. Ang hangin. Demon. The Angel. Ang Inpierno. ASTROLOGICAL NOUNS Ang adlao. The Souls in purgatory. The earth. inpierno. Ang yuta. Satan.

Ang yamúg nga mibactot tungud sa tugnao The hoar frost. The thunderbolt. Ang sidlac sa adlao. The snow. An overflow of waters. Ang panganod. Ang talisic nga mibactot tungud sa tugnao. Ang dalogdog. Ang cahayag. Ang yamúg. The star. Ang calamdag. The comet. mist. Ang mga sidlac sa adlao. Ang gabon. The utter darkness. A day. Ang linog. The dawn. The brightness. The cold. Ang tolo sa olan nga mibactot. Journey. Ang quilat. Sultry weather. Ang planeta. The rays of the sun. Ang onós. Ang alingasa. Ang cainit. The earthquake. Ang banagbanag. Ang linacuan sa usá ca adlao. Ang bito-on. The clarity. The flash. The heat. The whirlwind typhoon. The planet. The rainfall. Paglonop sa calibutan Ang balangao. Ang linti. The storm. The darkness. Ang cabugnao. Ang dag-om. warm. . The small cloud moving before the wind. hail-stone. Ang bito-on nga icogan. Ang olan. The moon. The cloud. The thunderclap. The rainbow.Page 115 The hail. THE TIME Ang higayonan. Ang cangitngit. Ang cadolom. The opportunity. The fog. Usá ca adlao.Ang bulan. The deluge. The dew. Ang bagio. Ang usá ca paglonop. The sunrise. shower.

Ang ama-ama. Ang anac nga babaye. Adlao nga igasingba. The man. Ang igso-on nga lalaqui. The grandson. The brother. Ang apohan nga babaye. The afternoon. The morning. The son. Ang tungang gabi-i. The great-granddaughter. The daughter. Adlao nga igabuhat.Page 116 A moment. Ang gabi-i. The stepfather. Ang apong babaye. Ang babaye. The father. Ang icaduha nga apo. The evening. Ang amahán. An hour. Feast of All Saints. Midnight. Ang lalaqui. Ang pasco sa pagcatao. Fast-day. The grand father. Usá ca semana. Usá ca pagpilóc. The sunset. Holiday. night. Ang icaduha nga apong babaye. Adlao nga piesta. The great-grandson. Usá ca oras. Ang apong lalaqui. THE FAMILY Ang tao. Mass-day. person. The woman. Adlao nga igapoasa. Ang anac nga lalaqui. The man. The great-grand mother. Ang odto. Ang hapon. Ang icaduha nga apo. A minute. Ang salup sa adlao. Ang apohan nga lalaqui. Ang inahán. The noon. The grand mother.Ang buntag. Ang igso-on nga babaye. Christmas. The sister. Ang icaduha nga apong babaye. The granddaughter. Work-day. . Ang piesta sa mga Santos ngatanan. Usá ca minuto. The mother. The great-grand father. A week.

The daughter-in-law. The brother-in-law.) The widow. Ang umagad. Ang ugangan. THE BODY Ang laoas. Ang ig-agao nga lalaqui. Ang amahán sa buñag. Ang oyo-an. The nephew. Ang asaoa. Ang pag-umangcon. The husband. Ang mga caubanan. Ang balo. Ang ilong tolapus. Ang inahán sa buñag. The limbs. Ang inanac sa buñag. unmarried man. Ang ig-agao itagsa. Ang abian. The cousin (male. The orphan. First cousin. The knuckles. Ang binalaye. The friend. Ang bayao. The relations. The uncle. Ang mga tolan. . The son-in-law. Ang pagcabata. The childhood. Ang pagcatigulang. maid.) The cousin (female.Ang ina-ina. Ang mga luhaluha. The godson. The godmother. The stepmother. The old age. The widowhood. Usá ca batang lalaqui. Ang olo. A girl. The wife. The head. The juncture of bones. masamong. Ang lutahan. Ang aya-an. Ang pagcahimtang sa tao. The godfather. Ang pag-umangcon nga babaye. A unmarried woman. The niece. Ang bana. helpless. Ang pagcabalo. Usá ca olitao. Usá ca dalaga. The manhood. A bachelor. The aunt.Page 117 The father-in-law. Ang ig-agao nga babaye. Usá ca batang babaye. A child (male). The body.

Ang talodtod. The ear. The mouth. Ang licod. The spine. back-bone. The features. The cerebelum. The palate. Ang dalonggan. Ang tabontabon. The nostril. Ang abaga. Ang bungut. Ang agtang. Ang naong. The lip. The eye. Ang ngipon. Ang quilay. The eye-lash. The gum (of the teeth. The eye-tooth. Ang pilocpiloc. Ang langagngag. Ang ngabil. The nose. Ang ilong pislat. The brain. The eyebrow. The jaw-bone. Ang bag-ang. Ang calimutao. The shoulder. Ang dungandungan. The flat-nose. The nape of the neck. The temple (of the head. The chin. Ang toboan. Ang apapangig. taste. Ang totonlan. wool. Ang tangcogo. Ang bohoc sa ilong. Ang soláng. The throat. Ang lag-os. The cheek.Ang otoc. The sharp nose. The apple of the eye. The crown. The back. Ang matá. The hair. Ang tingcoy.Page 118 The eye-lid. The face. Ang balahibo. The tooth. Ang aping.) The forehead. Ang ilong matalinis. Ang dila. The beard. The nap.) The tongue. Ang li-og. Ang ilong. Ang bohoc. or top of the head. The mill tooth. The neck. . Ang panaoay. Ang tango. Ang baba.

The teat. The arm. The anus (the orifice of the rectum. Ang casingcasing. Ang bologan. Ang soso. Ang too. Ang uala. Ang baga.) The foot. Ang posod. Ang quilid. The arm-pit. The nerves. The blood. The lungs. The heel. dug. The heart. Ang dugó. . The navel. The spleen. croup. The belly. The rib. The elbow.Page 119 The bladder. The ankle. veins. Ang apdo. Ang sico. The right-hand. Ang sampot. Ang todlo. Ang ticod. The calf of the leg. The breast. The wrist. Ang tian. The left-hand. Ang amimislon. The groin. Ang cotocoto. Ang popolan. Ang iloc.) The backside. The rump. The kidney. Ang gosoc. Ang igot-igot. The scapula. Ang cubal. The gall. Ang pantup. The bones. flux. The side. The urine. Ang atay. The pit of the stomach. The liver. bile. The excrement. Ang camót. The hand. The corn (on the feet. Ang singcol. Ang mga ogat. Ang lubut. Ang agulela. Ang tae.Ang bocoboco. Ang bocton. Ang ti-il. Ang dughan. Ang ihi. Ang mga bocóg. Ang biti-is. The finger.

Ang cangil-ad. Ang catahúm. Ang cataoa. The hiccough. The spittle. The fat. Ang paglabgao. The fever. Ang hilanat. Ang bigote. Ang coco. The gaping. Ang tamboc. Ang singot. The tear. Ang loa. Ang muta. The skin. The toothache. The small-pox. Ang conót. The voice. Ang calugo. The wrinkle.Page 120 The snoring.Ang pa-a. The health. Ang luha. Ang polong. The sneeze. The word. The ugliness. Ang obo. The weakness. Ang tingog. The sweat. Ang onod. Ang tohod. Ang pagsigma. SENSATIONS AND QUALITIES . Ang canioang. The thigh. The robustness. Ang lapalapa. Ang paghagoc. Ang catamboc. meat. The mucus. The nail. The lippitude. Ang otoc. CORPORAL SENSES. The beauty. Ang pagsid-oc. The knee-pan. Ang tuaytuay. hide. Ang ca-ayo sa laoas. Ang saquit sa olo. Ang panit. The moustache. Ang saquit sa bag-ang. The knee. The flesh. Ang buti. The headache. The laugh. The marrow. The wart. The sole of the foot. Ang sipon. The cough.

The science. Ang igdolongog. Ang samad. The soul. Ang sayóp. The faith. Ang pagcataoa. fault. Ang icasanasana. Ang pag-agolo. Ang ca-alam. The touch. Ang cahubac. The groaning. The love. The wound. The mistake. Ang huadhon. Ang pagsalig. Ang paghilac. Ang quina-adman. The taste. The laughing. Ang ihibalo. Ang so-ol. fancy. The itch. THE SOUL Ang calág.Ang pagquita. The griping. idea. Ang igsilinghot. Page 121 The sight. Ang cabubut-on. The forgetfullness. . The hatred. The smell. The memory. The asthma. Ang panumduman. Ang casilag. The confidence. The measles. The hope. The scab. Ang pono. The hemorrhage. The gangrene. Ang calimut. The reason. Ang pagto-o. Ang ihilicap. Ang tibdas. The imagination. The power of the soul. Ang nuca. Ang igtitilao. The wisdom. Ang mga galamhan sa calág. Ang salabutan. The hearing. Ang paglaom. The will. The understanding. The weeping. Ang gugma. Ang hibolos.

The needle-case. gaiety. The socks. Ang calcetines. clemency.Page 122 The necktie. The ear-ring. Ang dedal. Ang calo-od. wrath. Ang calipay. The thought. The chignon. The anger. . Ang singsing. The finger-ring. The envy. The fear. The hat. Ang bucala. The side comb. The shirt. The shoes. Ang sinina. The needle. SEWING MATERIALS Ang dagom. Ang pagdaet. dread. Ang hunahuna. The peace. Ang catahap. The doubt. Ang solod. Ang cayugot. CLOTHING AND SHOES Ang calo. The slander. Ang sapin. fury. The grief. Ang duhaduha. The stockings. The thimble. The petticoat. The bracelet.Ang cahadluc. Ang pinangco. anguish. The suspicion. Ang caligutgut. The reluctance. The handkerchief. Ang medias. Ang camingao. The mercy. The trousers. Ang nauas. Ang casina. The mirth. The sadness. Ang sudlay. Ang paño. Ang sudlan sa dagom. Ang butangbutang. The slippers. Ang calsones. Ang aretes. The comb with large tooth. Ang corbata. Ang sinelas. Ang calo-oy.

Ang agalon. The egg. Ang mga utan. The pepper. Ang serbesa. The rice. Ang ginebra. Ang manteca. The cake. The King. The Master. The lard. Ang vino. Ang asucal. Ang tagacan. Ang hamon. Ang sicolate. The work-basquet. Ang Hari. Vegetables. The wine. The potatoes. Ang seboyas. Ang hilo. A slice of bread The sugar.Ang gunting. DIGNITIES Ang Emperador. FOODS AND DRINKS Usá ca pan. The ham. owner. The tomatoes. The onions. The gin. Ang bugás. The salt. Ang panacot. Ang camates. The broth. Ang igagama. The Emperor. A loaf of bread. The scissors.Page 123 The beer. The chocolate. Usá ca ad-ad. Ang gatas. Ang Guino-o. Usá ca lugás. Ang sabao. The silk. The thread. The cheese. Usá ca tipac. A piece. The Lord. Ang itlog. Ang queso. . The milk. Ang patatas. Ang tubig. A needlefull of. The water. Ang asin. Ang pastel.

Ambassador. The cruets. altarlinen on which the communion bread and wine are put to be consecrated.Page 124 Coffin. Cemetery. Auditor. Church.Ang ilis sa hari. Pulpit. The assistant. Confirmation. Count. Ang calis. Marques. Chapel. Altar. Baptism. Compisal. Ang pagcalaoat. Altar mayor. Ang pagcompisal. Lungon. Ang Oidor. Baptistery. Holy Eucharisty. The Priest. Conde. Ang manteles. Marquis. High-altar. Minister of state. Ang Sacerdote. clerk. Confessionary. Earl. Mayor. Ang Alcalde. Corporal. Sacristy. Ang pagbuñag. Tribunal nga labao. Administrator. Administrador. Corporal. Sinugo sa hari. Altar. Altar-cloth. Buñagan. Lubnganan. RELIGION Singbahan. Ministro. Court of justice. Ang pagcompilma. Ang vinaheras. Ang insensario. . Ualihan. Governor. Penance. The Vice-roy. Duke. The chalice. Duque. Capiya. The thurible. Ang acólitos. Sacristía. Amba.

Ang tigib. Ang Obispo. The axe. Ang lucub. Pair of compasses. Ang compas. The holy Pope. The tenterhook. The bell-ringing. The small hammer. The clergy. Extreme-unction. Ang pagcasal. Matrimony. The chisel. Ang langsang nga quinauitan. The ruler. Ang bingcong. Ang regla.Ang paghilog. Ang gabas. The Parish priest. Ang campanario. THE CITY . The Bishop. Ang campanero. The saw. The organist. ECCLESIASTICAL DIGNITIES Ang Santos nga Papa. Ang landasan. Ang palo.Page 125 Smith's tongs. Ang uasay. Ang Cardenal. Ang Párroco. The Prelate. Ang limbas. The anvil. The adze. Ang caparian. Ang langsang. The organ. SET OF TOOLS Ang bacbac. Priesthood. Ang Ponoan. The belfry. The Archbishop. Ang quimpit. Ang pagorden. Ang Arzobispo. Holy Orders. The Cardinal. Ang Cristan. Ang organista. The file. The nail. Ang campanas. The hammer. The bells. The auger. The Parish clerk. Ang órgano.

The harbour. The bridge. Ang palacio. The stores. The palace. Ang pulta. The city hall. Ang policia. The stair-case. The prison. The lawyer. The stairs. Ang ayutamiento. Ang catindahan. Usá ca barrio. Ang dalan. The school. The parlor. The cathedral. The market. Ang cabecera. Ang sulud. steps. Ang balay. A ward. Ang tianggi. The custom-house. Ang mga parol.Usá ca longsod. The house. The street. The post-office. The window. Bed-room. Ang laoigan Ang mga goa sa longsod. The capital. Ang concejal. Sulud nga higda-an. Ang tulay. Ang correo. The suburbs. The room. Ang ang-ang. Ang salas. Ang escuelahan. Page 126 A town. The house. The floor. Usá ca policia. THE HOUSE Ang balay. The lamp post. The door. Ang salug. Ang catedral. Ang saoang. . Ang hagdan. Ang abogado. Ang aduana. Ang ventana. Ang bilanggoan. The square. The police. A policeman. The alderman.

Ang atabay. The clays pot. The lock. The bed. Ang yaue. Ang colon. Ang cabayo. Ang agio. The lounge. The key. Ang mesedora. THE FURNITURE Ang lamesa. The arm-chair. Ang butaca. The embers. Ang lamparahan. The match. The bath-room. The flame. The red-hot. Ang dapog. seat. The towel. Ang sacapuegos. The chair. Ang agipo. . Ang habol. The horse. Ang camapé. cover. The table. Ang taclob. The mat. The sheet. The well.Ang yauihanan. Ang lingcoranan. Ang dila-ab. Ang asó. The firebrand. Ang cosina. The animal.Page 127 The basin. Ang sopá. Ang sugá. Ang hunaoan. The water-closet. coal. The rocking chair. QUADRUPEDS Ang mananap. The lid. Ang pamahiran. Ang calibangan. The sofa. Ang caligoan. The smoke. The lamp. Ang banig. Ang onlan. Ang calaha. The light. The pillow. Ang baga. The hearth. The kitchen. The frying-pan. Ang higda-an.

The rabbit. falcon. Ang vaca. The crow. Ang balahibo. Ang nati sa carnero. The cock. . Ang banóg. The buffalo. The deer. The cow. The squirrel. mouse. The foot. The hen. Ang cornejo. bull. Ang ti-il. The horn. Ang boot. Ang perico. The pigeon. upper part of the leg. The ox. Ang iring. hair. The calf. The snout. Bird of prey. Ang osa. raven. Ang luconlucon. Ang pisó. Ang panon. basin. Ang oac. The tail. Ang icog. The rat. Ang salapati. Baboy nga ihalas. Ang panit. The mane. The wool. Ang baboy. The skin. Ang manoc. Ang balucag.Ang iró. The lamb. Ang coco. Ang canding. side. Ang sangquil. Ang manaol. Boar. The chicken. Ang nati sa vaca. The goat. Ang simud. Ang sonoy. The hoof. Ang calabao. The flock. The dog. FOWLS AND BIRDS Ang langgam. The parrot. The cat. Ang songay. The ham. The pig. Ang ilagá. The bird.Page 128 The eagle. nail. The kite. Ang toro.

Ang cuyabog. Ang tocmoc. Ang tulihao. Ang itic. Ang pungog. Ang cabúg. Cabiao. Ang sayao-sayao. Ang pavo. Ang gorrion. Ang canario. Ang songo. Ang pacó. Ang quigol. Ang salag. Ang halua, tangcal. Ang tagoc.

The young pigeon. The turtle-dove. The witwall. The duck. The owl. A big bat. Bat The swallow. The turkey. The sparrow. The canary. The beak. The wing. The tail. The nest. The cage. The bird-lime.

Ang buhaga. Ang halas. Ang saoa. Ang tiquí. Ang talotó. Ang ibid. Ang baqui. Ang banayao. Ang olahipan. Ang alibangbang. Quinhason. Ang tabangcay. Ang olud. Uati. Bitoc. Ang laoalaoa. Ang hormigas. The cricket. The snake. The boa-serpent. The lizard (indian). The eft. A kind of lizard. The frog. The scorpion. The centipede. The butterfly. Any small shellfish. The snail. The worm.Page 129 Worm bred in the earth. Worm bred in the body. The cobweb-spider. The ants.

Solong. Ang gangis. Ang dolon. Ang lugton. Ang banagan. Ang pulga. Ang dughó. Ang coto. Ang lusá. Ang langao. Ang namóc. Ang limatoc. Ang lapinig. Ang putiocan. Panon sa putiocan. Ang soyod. Ang odlan. Ang dugús.

A kind of ants. The grass hopper. The locust. The locust brood. The lobster. The flea. The bug-bed bug. The louse. The nit. The fly. The gnat. The leech. The wasp. The bee. Swarm of bees. The sting. The honeycomb. The honey.

Ang isda. Ang bongansiso. Ang lumbalumba. Ang tangigi. Ang anduhao. Ang balitobong. Ang tamban. Ang talabá. Ang alimango. Ang tatus. Ang pasayan. Ang tuay. Ang guinamús. Ang bacalao. Ang tipaca. Ang himbis. The fish. The whale. The tunny. The gilt. The mackerel. The salmon. The sardine. The oyster. The craw-fish. The crab. The shrimp. The clams. The brine-fish. The cod-fish. The shell.Page 130 The scale.

Ang bocóg. Ang hasang.

The fish-bone. The tonsil.

Ang bulac. Ang rosa. Ang puyus. Ang violeta. Ang clavel. Ang dahon. Ang salingsing. The flower. The rose. The bud. The violet. The pink. The leaf. The stem.

Ang limon. Ang ocban. Ang siriguelas. Ang tibod, milon. Ang atimon. Ang saging. Ang rábano. Ang ongcug. Ang apio. Ang libgos. Ang tamboali. Ang tabios, mongos. Ang cubasa. Ang parras. Ang palia. Ang manga. Ang coles. Ang higos. The lemon. The orange. The plum. The melon. The water-melon. The banana. The radish. The cucumber. The celery. The mushroom. The squash. A kind of lentils. The pumpkin. The grapes. A bitter vegetable very stomachic. The manga-fruit. The cabbage. The figs.

Ang banua, oma. Ang hacienda. The land, field. The farm.Page 131

The swamp. . The strait. Ang tanóm. Ang tanaman. The brook. Ang lanao. The tree. Ang sulangan. Ang lapoc. The quagmire. The valley. The seed. The ebb-tide. The harvest. Ang honas. The plain. Ang sangá. Ang calapocan. Ang baquilid. The grain. The stone. Ang galab.Ang buquid. Ang subá. Ang bunayan. The mountain. The gulf. mud. The shovel. SEA Ang dagat. The fruit. Ang capatagan. Ang daplin. The river. Ang bonga. The sickle. The cave. Ang daro. The plant. Ang dugá. Ang cahoy. Ang dagami. Ang langob. Ang lasang. The straw. Ang pala. The clay. Ang sarol. The garden. The branch. The meadow. The creek. The ear of corn. Ang sapá. Ang ualóg. The shore. Ang laod. Ang balás. Ang lugás. Ang binhi. The forest. The sand. Ang ohay. The sea. The plow. The hoe. Ang bató. Ang looc. The sap. The hill. Ang inani.

timon. A kind of canoa. The helm. Baroto. The prow of a ship. Paciencie. Ang sinipit. A kind of canoa. Ang onos. Ang gayon. Canoa. Ca-ulay. Ang bagio. Ang onayan. Ang quilid. Madness. Ang bansalan. bow. VIRTUES AND VICES Catarungan. Charity. Pangco. Ang layag. The swell of the sea. A long-boat with oars. The anchor. The side of a ship. Paghigugma. Caputli. Poop. Cabu-ang. Ca-ligdon. Calalang. Pagilob. The oar. Gravity. Artifice. Paglaom. Truth. Ca-ulao. Hope. Cadaot. The vessel. The flood-tide. Generosity. Ang sacayan. . The typhoon. The keel of a ship. Ca-ugdan. Baranggayan. Salisipan. Oling. Ca-mato-od. Honesty. gaod. Ca-ayo.Ang taob. Modesty. Ang balod. The sail. Pagto-o. rubder. A kind of canoa. Purity. Ang dolong. Ca-lolot. bugsay. stern. Bilos. chastity. Shame. Faith.Page 132 The storm. Vice. Virtue. Charity. craft.

Pagpatay sa caogalingon nga laoas. Ang pagbia sa paglaom. Gluttony. Backbiting. Limbong. A player. Revolution. Paghinangop sa Dios.Page 133 Adultery. Treachery. Paghimu-ut. Causic. Suicide. Pagcaualay pagtamud. Cahacug sa pagcaon. Prodigality. Cataspoc. Usá ca palautang. Catacá. mercy. Casaba. Cahubog. Pagtamay sa Dios. . Ticas. Impiety. Paglibac. Robbery. crime. Pagpalabilabi. Covetousness. Homicide. Tampalasan. Ang ualay pagto-o. Incredulity. Cowardice. crime. unthankfulness. Caulag. Pagpangaoat. Piety. Laziness. Tumult. Usá ca sugarol. anger. A boaster. Catalao. cheat. A deceitful man. Ingratitude. Usá ca malolot. Lewdness. Usá ca daguinotan. Pagpatay sa tao. A rascal. Cahacug. Pagsapao. Bacac.Casina. A lier. Despair. Trick. Avaricious. Usá ca matistis. Pride. Malicious. Lie. Fraud. Pleasure. gay man. pity. Usá ca bacacon. Cagobót. Envy. Pagbudhi. Slowness. Intoxication. A open-handed. Usá ca bañaga. Usá ca andacon. A mercy.

Very dense. Tall. Matul-id. Hart. Ualay solud. Low. Bad. Thin. small. Empty. Ualay quina-adman. Da-an. Big. Gentle. Mapait. Masingpot. New. Twisted. Full. Magahi. Baliquig. Unjust. Wise. Dautan. Tight. Fine. Balicó. Bitter. lean. Gucab. Mabaga. great. Dagcó. ancient. Hago-ot. solid. Light. Matarung. Just. stupid. Sweet. Big. Matamboc. Matam-is. Right. light. Hamobó. thick applied to woven goods. Malomo. Old. Manipis.THE MOST IMPORTANT ADJECTIVES Ma-ayo. . Pono. Hata-as. Diutay. Narrow. Corpulent. Masigpit. learned. Maculi. Small. Halagpad. Maquina-admanon. Mahumuc. Supang. Bulky person. thin. Difficult. Manioang. high.Page 134 Ignorant. thick. fat. Hollow. little. Good. Soft. Talamayon. bulky. Masayon. Easy. Bag-o. Maga-an. Wide. lofty. Contemptible.

Buctot. Happy. light. dull. Strong (house). Freshness. Mabugnao. Pon-on. handless. Gacod. Malig-on. Ualay palad. Dry. Dirty. Butí. Maaslom. Scabby. Mato-od. Maisug. Mahugao. Sour. Maanindut. Damp. Mainit. Dumb. Mamala. Rough. hot. cold. humid. Humpbacked. False. Itchy.Page 135 Wet. Stutterer. Mangil-ad. Dili mato-od. Matahúm. Hangol. Opao. Poor. Bungol. Butá sa picas. Nuca. Blind. Certain. Deaf. mute. . Saltish. Maluya. Lulid. Dupalog. Bulahan. Butá. Squinting-squint. Beautiful. Cold. Pretty. Mama. Lucky. Bald. Virulent. Warm. Maligsi. Maomal. Ugly. Lame. sharp. Palad-an. Clear. clear. Mahaoan. Weak. Nimble. Unfortunate. Pi-ang. Mabasa. One-eyed. Strong (man).Maasgad. Crippled. Libat. Matugnao.

Disobedient. Serious. Mahinoclogon. Masinabuton. Shameful. Abian. Revengeful. Malolot. Prudent. Ualay panagana. Merry fellow. Tigpamalus. Quarrelsome. Maulay. Masuco. Haughty. Sala-an. Sad. Bu-ut. fretful. Capricious. Merciful. Matistis. Intelligent. Tigbacac. Maquigaoayon. Tapolan. Mangahason. Masuquihon. Friend. Maligdon. enemy. Mabangis. Lying. Satisfied. Lazy. Mabusug.Page 136 Innocent.Masulub-on. Clumsy. Guilty. lazy. Malomo ug cagauian. Glutted. Palabilabihon. Stubborn. Simpathetic. . Angry. Maibugon. Matinahoron. Mausicon. mad. Burung. Insolent. Lampingasan. Spendthrift. Ualay salá. Maolag. Impudent. Fool. Foe. Idle. Ualay buhat. barefaced. Chaste. Imprudent. gloomy. Hingaon. Bu-ang. Tamastamason. Cruel. Ca-aoay. Mahupong. Audacious. Lewd. Melancholy. Malimbongon. Generous. clever. Corteous. Magahi ug bu-ut. Great eater. Mau-ulao-on. Mamingao-on. Cheat.

To correct. Pagpanás. Paghubad. White. To study. Pagto-on. Pagtapus. Velde.Maputi. To sign. To learn by heart. Asul. To write. Pagsingcamut sa pagto-on. Pagestudio. To blot. Red. Pagsaysay. Pagdumdum. Violet. Morado. to discover. To read. Pagbasa. To continue. Blue. To know. Pagtocod. To forget. Black. Paggama sa hunahuna. To teach. Maitom. Pagdayon. To finish. Pagsaoay. Pagsulat. Maitomitom. .Page 137 To learn. Pagfirma. Pagsayop. Yellow. Mapola. To invent. pagsaolo. To have notice of. Brown. Paghoad. To copy. Pagcugui sa pagto-on. To mistake. To remember. To translate. Pagsugud. To compose. THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS Study. To explain. Green. To perfect. Pagtodlo. To begin. Paghibalo. Paghingpit. Pagto-on sa olo. To apply one's self to study. To be diligent to learn. Madalag. Pagcalimút. Pagalam.

Pagpamato-od Paglimod.Pagsanasana. To scream. Pagtiabao. tell. Pagpangutana. To obey. report. Pagsugilon. Pagtubag. Pagpamolong. To speak. Pagbadlong. Pagpacama-ayo. Pagsultisulti. Pagbalibad. To talk. To ask. To approve. To order. To call. To upbraid. TO EAT AND DRINK . To say. To deny. To wrangle. To defend. To proclaim. Pagtaoag. Pagpanagana. Pagcasaba. To blame. To declare.Page 138 To be silent. To tell. To excuse. Pagsangyao. To make know. To cry out. Pagpalaban. To certify. question To answer. To reprehend. Pagsaoay. Pagindigindig. Pagingon. Paghilom. Pagpahibalo. To foreknow. To refer. Pagsinggit. To pronounce. relate. Pagaoay. Pagsugil. cry. To dispute. Pagpacadautan. Pagtug-an. To preach. To advise. Pagsugut. Pagsogo. CONVERSATION Pagloas. Pagbantug. To reject. Paguali. To form an idea.

Paguhao. Paghimogso. Dili paghilis sa quinaon. To make old. To drink. Pagusap. sip. To divide. Pagsoyop.Page 139 Indigestion. To swallow. LIFE Pagcatao. To nourish. Pagtolon. To fatten. To suck. To invite. To become widow. To dinner. To be pregnant. To marry. lap. cut. To intoxicate. Pagcatobo. To taste. To give suck. Pagpulus sa quinaon. Pagnioang. Pagpanihapon. Pagbalo. Paghigop. To be thirsty. To sip. To bring forth. Pagcabuhi. Pagpangaon. Pagpicas. Pagdapit. Pagpoasa. To grow. Paginom. Pagcahubóg. To sup. Pagad-ad. Pagtigulang. Pagcamatay. Pagtilao. To be born. wed. Pagtamboc. Pagtilap. Pagpasoso. Pagmiño.Paggutum. To eat. cut. To breakfast. To live. Pagpaniodto. To chew. To be hungry. . To carve. To bring forth. Pagmabdos. To fast. To weaken. To baptise. To lick. Paganac. To die. Pagbuñag. Pagpamahao.

To weep. To wash one's self the face. To bury. To inherit. Pagcatalog. . to get up from a bed. yawn. Pagpamati. To shave. To smile. To bathe. rock. To laugh. To sneeze. To hiss. Pagtucao. To watch. Pagtabiog. Pagcabanhao. Pagbahaon. To snore. Pagpanghupao.Pagluboug. Pagngisi-ngisi. To arise. Pagpatalinghog. To sleep. Paglua. TOILET Pagalut. puff. Pagsonod sa cabilin. long for. To gape. Paghoyop. Paghilac. NATURAL ACTIONS Pagcataoa. Pagtaghoy. To listen. To wash one's self the face. Pagvisti. bacod. to keep awake. Paghubo. whistle. Paghilamus. To dress. Paghunao. To sigh. To blow. Pagbangon. Paglabgab. Paghimatá. Pagpanghayhay. To be attentive. To take off the dress. To revive. To stir. To sigh. salivate. hearken. Pagligo. To go to bed.Page 140 To awake. Pagpucao. To wake. luda. Paghagoc. BED Paghigda. To spit.

kindly. Pagcaodas. Pagtoroc sa bonga sa singot. Pagdayeg. Paghubag. Pagsinghot. Paghimmu-ut. To fondle. Pagsilot. perspire. To wish. To praise. To love. Paglami. To court. To blame. Pagsaoay. To breat. Paghampac. . To swell. Pagdongog. Pagbadlong. Pagibid-ibid. To kiss. to be with rash. To see. touch (bad sense). Pagcalibang. To scratch. To smell nasty. Paggacus. To be fleabitten. To vomit blood. Pagsingot. Pagihi. To smell. To behold. Pagabi-abi. Pagamoma. Pagcastigo. To sweat. To touch. To be pleased with. Pagolo-olo. To smell well. look. To give a relish.Pagsignga. greet. inflate. Pagquita. To hear. Paghicap. To advise. salute. To whip. to be full of fleabites. To make water. Paghaluc. To go to stool. LOVE AND HATRED Paghigugma. Pagotot. To mulct. To chastise. Pagcabahó. Paglua sa dugó. a zest. Pagcahumút. will. Pagtan-ao. Page 141 To blow one's nose. To break wind. To embrace. Pagbu-ut. To flatter.

To damage. To complain. Pagdaut-daut. To be won. Pagbaui. To scoff.Pagtamay. To pay. To wrangle. To wound. Pagsogot. To curse. slander. To reproach. To reward. To dare to. To hang. Pagbonó. Pagdomot. Pagagao. To excuse. Pagbitay. To ransom. . Pagbayad. Pagsumbong. Pagpanulay. Pagsamoc. To hate. To sentence. Pagcaoat. spoil. Pagmahay. Paghocom. again. Pagpasangil. betray. Pagtonglo. To despoil. To kill. Paghomot. Pagpasaylo. Pagcasilag. Pagpangahas. To help. To wound.Page 142 To tempt. Pagbalidad. To trouble. Pagbonal. To be shamed. Pagbalus. Pagdayeg. To accuse. To despise. Pagbilanggo. To capture. Pagtubus. Pagtabang. Pagpatay. Pagsamad. To conquer. To beat with a stick. To abandon. Pagdaug Pagpadaug. Pagpaquigaoay. To brag. To pardon. To revenge. Pagbia. Pagcaulao. To threaten. To obey. hurt. To redeem. Pagyubit. To bear rancour to. To rob. Pagbalus ug ma-ayo.

To meditate. To procure.Page 143 To fear. To grow blind. To conceive. Pagpanghinaot. Pagcabildo. To instruct. Pagpo-ol. To wait. To disemble. MEMORY AND UNDERSTANDING Pagcabut sa hunahuna. Pagcahadluc. To think. To tell lies. desire. To explain. try. Pagsusi. Paglipay. To be saddened. Pagbutá. To know. To be weary. To be frightened. To have knowledge of. Paghanip sa hunahuna. To be frightened. To be gladded. Pagsayod. Pagpalandong. Pagbu-ut. hide. To be learned. Pagasoy. Pagmatngon. submit. Pagsingcot. Pagcaculba. Paghunahuna. Pagalam. To deliberate. Pagbacac. To hit upon. To be afflicted. Pagoyon. Pagtag-an. Pagtimbang sa bu-ut. To attend. To be pleased.Pagigpit. To search. To agree. Pagpa-abut. To confederate. To compress the neck in the instrument called a garrote. To imitate. To wish. Pagcasobó. Pagcamingaa. To be afflicted. Paghimu-ut. cloak. To inquire. copy. . Paghibalo. Pagtingoha. Pagcalisang. To exaggerate. To desire. Pagpaningon. Pagpaquigsabút. Pagcayugot. Pagila.

To amuse one's self. purge.Pagsuco. To grow better. Paglingaolingao. Paglocso. Pagyamyam. To amuse. To purify. To jump down. To talk nonsense. Pagpoypoy. Pagdalagan sa cabayo. Pagsacay sa cabayo. To soften anger. jump. win. To be confined to one's bed on acount of sickness. To grow worse. Paghigda sa banig. To dance. Pagcanta. Page 144 To take care of a sick. ILLNESS Pagalima sa masaquit. Paghonad sa samad. To become quiet. To ride. Pagdalagan. To gain. Pagpungot. Pagpacadaog. To run. To leap. Pagayo-ayo. To become angry. Pagambac. Pagsayao. Pagpageringa. RECREATIONS Pagduladula. Pagsamut. To breathe one's last. Pagpurga. Pagtampoy sa dugó. Paglucmay. To fall back. To play. Pagcaligutgut. To be in a rage. To see the fathom of the wound. Pagtugna sa samad. To medicine. To trot. To syringe. To lose. Pagbughat. Pagtambal. Pagdula. To stop blood. Pagtingá. to make a horse trot. . To wash a wound. To grow angry. To sing. Pagdaog. expire.

work. Pagpangdol. come in. ship. follow. To go. Pagcanaog. To raise. Pagsaca. To make. To move one's self. Pagsulud. Pagholog. Paglacao. close. To walk. escape. Pagadto. To return (there). To come. To slide. Pagsandig. To return (here). Pagsibut. Pagirug. To retire. Pagtindug. To seize. To fall. Pagtonob. Pagpauli. To lean upon. To fly. Paganhi. To shut. . Paglabay. To pass by. HANDIWORKS Pagbuhat. Paglicay. Pagbalic. Paglibodlibod.Page 145 To go out. Pagandam. To descend. Pagpiyong. To deviate. To go backward. To stumble.MOVEMENTS Paglihoc Pagtandug. Paggoa. Pagsonod. Pagpado-ol. To bid one fare well. Paglusot. To move. Pagsira. Pagagi. To tread. To approach. To loiter about. To make ready. Pagpanamilit. To ascend. To go though. To proceed. To shut the eyes. Pagdacup. Pagpahalayo. To enter. pass for.

Pagpugas. To untie. To raise. To gather the corn at harvest time. To shut the hand. To hide. To open the legs. Paglagpad. expand. Pagtagcus. Paggalab. To wide. Pagnganga. Pagcomcom. Paggahi. Paghumod. To dig. Paghugao. To reap. . To plant. Pagdaro. To shut the mouth. elevate. To ooze. Paghumoc. To weigh. Pagpaita-as. To cover. To uncover. To heave. To open the mouth. Pagbadbad. Paghunob. Pagbasa. Pagbalictos. Pagtago. hold up. To harden. Pagyabó. Pagbuclad. Pagcomsod. To soften. To find. Pagsacoat. Pagaoas. Pagtanom. Pagtabon. To dampen. To wetted. Pagbucas.Page 146 To knot. To pour. To plough. To extend. Pagcalot sa yuta. Pagpicot. To diminish. To overflow. Pagondoc. Pagtimbang. Pagani. Pagumol. Pagbila. Pagbucá. Pagpacaquita. To open the eyes.Pagtac-om. To sow. To shut the legs. Pagbunglay. To weed. To open one's hand. To wet. Pagosoag. To heap. To stain. To tie.

Page 147 To soil. Pagpuyo sa ualay buhat. Pagsilhig. Pagtapac. To sweep. To destroy. Pagtahi. parch. Paglit-ag. Pagpo-oc sa bulaoan. To air. Pagbilic. Pagpahid. To set (a jewel). To engrave. To be idle. To paint. To build. To nail. To rinse the glasses. Pagbugnao. To embroider. sketch. To patch. Pagbolda. To mark. To swab. To sew. Pagpatic. To rub. Pagpalit. To catch birds with knots. Pagpaoga. To fold. To embellish. Paglog-o. To gild.Pagbuling. To cleanse. Pagbadlis. Paglampaso. Paghinlo. To dry. refresh. Pagpamala. Pagpintal. To plate with silver. To draw. waste. To white wash. To apply one's self to trade. Pagbuho. Pagpo-oc sa salapi. To heat. Pagliloc. TO BUY AND SELL Pagpaquicomercio. To buy. Pagputi. note. Pagguba. Paglangsang. . mend. To cool. Paginit. To pierce. Paghalup. Pagpiló. scour. Pagtocod. Paghugas. To spin.

To adjust the price. to agree. To dispatch. Pagpaquigsabut sa bili.Page 148 To profane. To meditate. Pagpanumpa. Pagbutang sa bili. Pagcompisal. Pagbayad. To sell. Paghangyo. Pagpacasala. Paghapá. To communicate. To fault. Paghulam. To keep the holy day. violate. To blaspheme. To be condemned. Paghalin. To economize. To apostatize. To owe. To adore. To hear mass. To kneel down. Pagbali. Pagdangat sa langit. Pagpalangdong. Pagcasayop. To pray.Pagbaligya. Pagpatampalas sa Dios. Pagusic. Pagbia sa pagcacristianos. To haggle. To swear. To tax. To repent. To supplicate. Pagpoto. Paghinulsul. Pagsantos sa piesta. Pagdaginot. ABOUT THE WORSHIP TO GOD Pagsingba. To squander. To prostrate one's self. Paglohod. Pagpangadye. Pagpautang. . Pagcalaoat. Pagtambong sa misa. To be salved. to make oath. To pay. To lend. beg. To value. rate at. To sin. Pagpangamoyo. To confess. To ruin. To borrow. Pagbalic sa Dios. Pagamong-among sa mga butang nga cristianos. To return to God. Pagholog sa inpierno. Pagpahulam. Pagbili. To be valuable.

To snow. Pagolan sa mga tolo nga mibactot.ABOUT THE TIME Pagdag-om. Paglinti. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bisaya Alphabet First Lesson—Of the article Second Lesson—Of the Noun Third Lessen—Of the Cardinal Numbers o Ordinal Numbers o Partitive and distributive Numbers and Vicenal numbers Fourth Lesson—Of the Pronouns o Demonstrative Pronouns o Possessive Pronouns o Relative Pronouns Fifth Lesson—Of the Adjective Sixth Lesson—Diminutive Adjectives Degrees of Comparison Seventh Lesson—Unitive Particles Eighth Lesson—The Verb Ninth Lesson—Of the verb To be o The verb To have Tenth Lesson—The adjective Verbs Eleventh Lesson—Of the Passives Twelfth Lesson—Some rules upon the Passives Thirteenth Lesson—Of the Particles Fourteenth Lesson—Of the Imperative and Impersonal . To thunder. Pagadlao. Pagolan. Page 149 To be cloudy. To lighten. Pagalindahao. To drizzle. To be dried. To hail. Paghulao. To be clear. Pagolan sa olan nga natibo-oc. Pagquilat. Pagdalogdog. To rain. INDEX. To thunder strike.

5 8 13 14 14 17 21 22 32 37 41 55 55 58 1 1 1 2 1 1 10 22 22 20 4 25 20 6 33 18 4 25 9 29 Enhlish Elderst. Nanhi. Column. Pasivo. Conmandmen. Things.• Present Participles or Gerunds • Fifteenth Lesson—Infinitive Sentences • Sixteenth Lesson—Of the particles Pa and Iga • Seventeenth Lesson—Of the Particle NagapaPage 150 • Eighteenth Lesson—Of the Particle Nagapaca títí • Nineteenth Lesson—Of the Particle Naca • Twentieth Lesson—Of the particle Naca causal • Twenty first Lesson—Of the Particles Mi and Na • Twenty second Lesson—Of the particles Nanag and Nan • Twenty third Lesson—Of the particles Naquig—Naqui • Twenty fourth Lesson—Of the particles Naha. Says. Awails. Avails. Guino-o pasayloa came. Passive. Tings. Nasighi. Commandment. Next. . Nine. Expresed. Kills. Line. Napa. Nani • Twenty fifth Lesson—Impersonal Verbs • Twenty sixth Lesson—Defective Verbs • Twenty seventh Lesson—Practical Sentences • Twenty eighth Lesson—Practical Sentences • Key to the Exercises • Table of the Particles and their Passives Page 151 ERRATA Pag. English. Scholar. Nasig. Nanig. Nanum. Elder. Scolar. Oar Lord spended. Kill. Nahi. Expressed. Nangi. Young. Guino-o pasaylo-a camé nga mga macasasala. Younh. Our Lord spent. Nex. Must be said. Nive.

Molicious. 140 2 141 2 142 2 150 1 2 151 1 . Have knoledge of. peaple.64 69 88 100 118 1 1 7 28 36 8 1 27 25 35 7 23 10 I orderer. sa mga higala ug ang aco. Camingao. Pagparayeg. Clean. the Bisaya dialect. the Bisay adialect. o) Pagdayeg. Paciencie. Patience. Malicious. people. Hav knoledge of. sa mga higala mo ug ang aco. Clear. A Table. I ordered. A Tabla.(2. Camingaa.

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