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AE 1350

They’re Everywhere!

• • • • • • • Wings Tail Surfaces (Vertical Fin & Horizontal Stabilizer) Propellers and Turbofans Helicopter Rotors Compressors and Turbines Wind Turbines Hydrofoils

(wing-like devices which can lift a boat above waterline)

Anatomy of an Airfoil

Equal amounts of thickness above/below camber line (normal to Camber Line) Camber Line (line of mid points) Trailing Edge

Leading Edge Chord Line (straight from leading edge to trailing edge)

Anatomy of an Airfoil

Thickness (t)

Chord (c)

Specifying an Airfoil

• First: Camber line is drawn from the chord line

– Note: Symmetric airfoils have no camber

• Second: Thickness Distribution which is added to the camber line, normal to the camber line

Symmetric

Cambered

**Example Airfoil: NACA 0012
**

• From the NACA 4-digit series of airfoils

– 1st digit is camber as percent of chord, 2nd digit is distance of max camber from leading edge in tenths of chord, 3rd and 4th digits are maximum thickness as percent of chord – So, this is an airfoil with no camber, and 12% thickness – This series uses the following equation to specify the shape:

2 3 4 y t ⎡ x x ⎛ x⎞ ⎤ ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ = − 0.126 − 0.3537⎜ ⎟ + 0.2843⎜ ⎟ − 0.1015⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢0.2969 c 0.2 ⎢ c c ⎝c⎠ ⎥ ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ ⎦ ⎣

y/c t = 0.12 x/c

**Airfoil at Angle of Attack (α)
**

Lift per unit span (L’)

Drag per unit span (D’)

V∞

α

• Angle of attack is defined as the angle between the freestream and the chord line, given the symbol α • The component of aerodynamic forces per unit of span (e.g. per foot of wing span) normal to the freestream, is called the sectional lift force, and is given the symbol L' • The component along the freestream (per unit of span) is called the sectional drag force, and is given the symbol D'

**Airfoil at Angle of Attack (α)
**

Lift per unit span (L’)

Drag per unit span (D’)

V∞

Cho

rd ( c)

D′ 1 ρV∞2 c 2

**• The sectional lift and drag coefficients are defined by:
**

Cl = L′ 1 ρV∞2 c 2 Cd =

• Where c is the airfoil chord

Characteristics of Cl vs. α

Stall Cl Slope ≈ 2π if α is in radians and flow incompressible

Angle of zero lift

α = α0

Angle of Attack, α

**Angle of Zero Lift Depends on Camber
**

Cambered airfoil Cl

Angle of zero lift

α = α0

Symmetric Airfoil

α

**Model for Cl at Low α (No Stall)
**

Incompressible Flow: Cl = 2π (α − α 0 ) Compressible Flow: Cl =

2π 1− M

2 ∞

(α − α 0 ) =

Cl ,incompressible

2 1− M ∞

• If we know how an airfoil behaves in low speed, incompressible flow, we can easily estimate how the lift will be altered in high speed flight (thin airfoil theory) • This relation works until the Mach number over the airfoil exceeds 1 somewhere

Drag is caused by

• Skin Friction - The air molecules try to drag the airfoil with them (due to viscosity) • Form Drag - The flow separates near the trailing edge, due to the shape of the body; This causes low pressures, pulling the object back • Wave Drag - Shock waves form over the airfoil, converting energy of the flow into heat, causing drag • …and one more we need to be in 3 dimensions to talk about… (Induced Drag)

**Skin Friction and the Boundary Layer
**

Particles away from the airfoil move unhindered Particles near the airfoil stick to the surface, and try to slow down the nearby particles

This region of low speed flow is called the boundary layer

A tug of war results – airfoil is dragged back with the flow (skin friction)

Laminar Flow

Airfoil Surface • For laminar flow:

This slope determines the drag

– Streamlines move in an orderly fashion - layer by layer – The mixing between layers is due to molecular motion, and is very slow – Drag per unit area is proportional to the slope of the velocity profile at the wall – Drag is relatively small

Turbulent Flow

**• For turbulent flow:
**

– highly unsteady, three-dimensional, and chaotic – It can still be viewed in a time-averaged manner

• For example, at each point in the flow, we can measure velocities once every millisecond to collect 1000 samples and average

“Time-Averaged” Turbulent Flow

• Velocity varies rapidly near the wall due to increased mixing • The slope is higher, so skin friction is higher • Paradoxically: Because separation properties are different, form drag could actually be lower and max lift higher

**Will it be Laminar or Turbulent?
**

• Reynolds number • Surface roughness • State of flow

(if its already turbulent, it’s not going to become laminar)

• Pressure gradient • …and other factors… • On a typical wing, flow is laminar near the leading edge, but eventually trips to turbulent for (typically) most of the surface

**Drag vs. Mach (Compressibility)
**

Cd Wave Drag (mostly)

Skin Friction

M

**Other Popular Airfoil Shapes
**

• NACA 23012

– 5-digit series

• Laminar flow

– Keep more laminar flow

• Supercritical

– Delay drag rise (wave drag)

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