# Simulation of injection molding

with crystallization and viscoelastic model
Introduction
Filling stage of injection molding :
Interaction between various mechanisms

• Problem definition
• Projection method
• Examples
• Conclusion

Outlines
• Momentum and incompressibility equations
• Viscoelastic behavior
• Mass balance
• Crystallization equation
• Heat transfer

Problem definition
Problem definition
• Momentum and incompressibility equations
div o = 0
div v = 0
v = 0
p = 0
O
t + ÷ = o 1 p
) 1 (λ
τ
1
) S : v grad λ(
t d
λ d
) 3 / 1 S (
τ
1
S ) v grad : S ( 2 v grad . S S . v grad
t d
S d
s s q 2
s
Φ , ) 3 / 1 S ( (t) λ Φ G
4
15
τ
s
b
T
b a
b
b
2 2
b 0
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ + =
+
= ÷ =
Problem definition
• Momentum and incompressibility equations
• Viscoelastic behavior : PomPom model [McLeish and Larson 98]
Problem definition
Discretization technique : DEVSS [Guenette and Fortin 95]
( )
0 D 2 D 2
0 ) v ( div
2 / v grad v grad D
, 0 ) 3 / 1 S ( (t) λ Φ G
4
15
D 2 D 2 1 p div
T
2 2
b 0
= n ÷ n -
= -
+ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + n ÷ n + ÷ -
v
i

p, D
ij

S
ij
, ì
FEM
DTG
Problem definition

•Mass balance

0 I grad v
t
I
= +
c
c
v
i

p, D
ij

S
ij
, ì, I
FEM
DTG
Problem definition
Crystallinity equation [Poitou and Ammar 2001]
y
) y (
t
x
), y (
tion transforma e conserativ 0
t
x
x
) x (
y ), x (
) f exp( 1 ), , S , f ( x
*
*
T
c
m c
÷ =
A
A
m -
· =
A
A
-
c
+ c
= + -
÷ ÷ = o ì = -
y
) y (
y
) y (
y
) y (
dt
df
*
f
* *
S
c
m c
÷
c
m c
÷
c
m c
÷ =
ì
v
i

p, D
ij

S
ij
, ì, I, f
FEM
DTG
Problem definition
Heat transfer equation
T T
dt
x d
T
y
T
dt
x d
y D : q div
dt
dT
C
c
c
+ ÷ t + ÷ = p
Natural viscoelastic and crystallization dissipation

T
Interpolation ??
Resolution technique ??
Projection method
Diffusion problem
(FEM)
Convection problem
(mesh convection)
Actualization
¬ Projection
Projection method
Illustration on a pure convection problem
Convection problem
(mesh convection)
Actualization
¬ Projection
Projection method
parabolic
velocity field
Initial distribution of convected fields
---------
--------
Projection method
T
p

T
1

T
2

T
3

convected mesh
node of the
old mesh
c
n
-------
------
-----
Projection method
• Lagrangian convection
• One actualization possible for ‘n’ convection iteration
• No CFL conditions
• Chose of the time step ?
--------------------
--------------------
--------------------
-
Comparison
Projection DTG
Continuous field
Discontinuous field
Interpolation degree
Possibility of occasional actualization
Stability conditions (large time step)
Small time step
+
-
+
+
+
--
-
+
-
-
-
-
Examples
Non-isothermal cavity filling
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Domain mesh
Stretch field
Crystallinity field
Examples
Application to the injection molding of
a part with a bifurcation
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of crystallinity field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Evolution of temperature field
Velocity field
Velocity field
Stretch field
Stretch field
Orientation field
Orientation field
Conclusion
• Same advantages of BLPM [Wapperom and Keunings 00]
• Application to flow front determination (I) ??
Definition of ‘I’ on the mold wall ??
• Application to orientation and stretch convection ??