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Pulau Desa is a resort island which also a well known tourist hotspot. To reach to the island, the only transport available is by ferry. The only jetty on the island is Jetty B while the nearest jetty from the mainland is Jetty A. The distance between these two jetties is 36km apart. The bearing of Jetty B is 60 from Jetty A. The Marine Sailing is a company that provides ferry services to the customers. There are three ferries namely Ferry A, Ferry B and Ferry C travel between Jetty A and Jetty B daily. The operating time for the company is between 0600 hours to 1800 hours. The company has to plan an operating schedule for the 3 ferries. The schedule must be planned in such a way so that no two ferries will embark at any jetty at the same time. Besides that, the schedule must also consider the duration of the embarkation and disembarkation for each ferry at the jetty is 20 minutes. In the arrangement of the operating schedule of the ferries, the company must also consider the velocity of the current of the sea which always changes from time to time. As for the average speed of a ferry is 10m/s in still water. The water current flows from west to east from 0600 hours to 1200 hours. The water current flows from east to west from 1200 hours to 1800 hours. To ensure that the ferry will embark at Jetty A or Jetty C, the course of the ferry must be calculated correctly. Every trip needs a calculation to be made as the velocity of the current changes from time to time. Therefore, we have to take into consideration of the velocity of the current of that instant. Failing to do so will cause the ferry procrastination. To calculate the course, we shall use vector method because velocity is a vector quantity.

Methodology

To solve the problem face by the company, we have to use vector methods as follow: Vector is a quantity which has both magnitude and direction. Any vector can be resolved into two components that is horizontal and

vertical component.

y = V cos

x = V sin

The addition of two vectors VA and VB is the resultant force which can be obtain as follow: In graph form:

VA cos

VB cos

VA

VB

VA cos

VB sin

VR sin

VR

VR sin

VB sin VB cos

=

(1)

VR sin VR cos

(2)

The resultant velocity, VR will be the actual course of the moving ferry which is under the influence of two velocities, VA and VB.

RESULTS

Velocity represents the direction and speed of a moving object. A ferry moving in the sea is subjected to its own velocity and the velocity of the current. The actual direction and speed of the ferry is the resultant velocity obtained by the addition of the two velocities. Jetty A on the mainland and Jetty B on the resort island are 36 km apart. The bearing of the Jetty B is 060 from Jetty A. A ferry, with an average speed of 10 ms in still water, travels between Jetty A and Jetty B. 1 (a) Suppose that the current flows from west to east with a speed of v ms, where v < 10. Using vector method show that the course on which the ferry must be steered in order to travel from Jetty A to Jetty B is east of north, where =60 sin[ the journey is Solution:

N

Jetty B

60 36km = 36000m

Jetty A

Vf 10 sin

Vc

VR cos 60

10 cos

60 VR

VR sin 60

10 sin + 10 cos

Vc 0

VR sin 60 VR cos 60

1 2

10 sin cos 60 + Vc cos 60 = 10 cos sin 60 Vc cos 60 = 10 sin 60 cos 10 cos 60 sin Vc = 10[sin (60)] = sin (60) 60 = sin ( ) ) v= t= t= = minutes

= 60 sin (

(b) Suppose that the current flows from east to west with a speed of v ms, where v < 10.Using a vector method, find similar expression for the course on which the ferry must be steered in order to travel from Jetty A to Jetty B and the time taken for the journey. Solution:

VR cos 60 10 cos Vf

Vc

60

VR

10 sin

VR sin 60

10 sin 10 cos -

Vc 0

VR sin 60 VR cos 60

1 2

10 sin cos 60 Vc cos 60 = 10 cos sin 60 Vc cos 60 = 10 sin 60 cos 10 cos 60 sin Vc = 10[sin (60)]

= sin (60)

60 = sin (

) )

= 60 + sin (

v= t= t= = minutes

2 Write down the course on which the ferry must be steered in order to return from Jetty B to Jetty A and the time taken for the return journey in the case where the current flows from west to east and the case where the current from east to west. Solutions:

N

Jetty B 36km 36000m =

60

Jetty A

VR cos 60 10 sin 10 cos

+

c

Vc

VR sin 60 60

10 sin 10 cos

Vc 0

VR sin 60 VR cos 60

1 2

Vc cos 60 = 10 sin 60 cos 10 cos 60 sin Vc = 10[sin (60)] = sin (60) 60 = sin ( ) )

= 60 + sin (

v= t= t= = minutes

-10 sin

10 sin 10 cos

-10 cos

Vc

Vc 0 1 2

VR sin 60 VR cos 60

- VR cos 60

- VR sin 60 60

10 sin cos 60 + Vc cos 60 = 10 cos sin 60 Vc cos 60 = 10 sin 60 cos 10 cos 60 sin Vc = 10[sin (60)] = sin (60) 60 = sin ( ) )

= 60 sin (

v= t= t= = minutes

3 The velocity of the current on a day is shown in the graph below, where positive values of v mean that the current flows from west to east.

For each journey, the speed of the current may be assumed to be uniform and is taken as the speed at the beginning of the journey. The duration of embarkation and disembarkation at each jetty is 20 minutes. Prepare a possible schedule for the ferry showing the departure and arrival time between 0600 hours and 1800 hours at Jetty A and Jetty B. Using the formula: Jetty A to Jetty B, 0600-1200 hours = 60 sin ( 1200-1800 hours = 60 + sin ( ) ) Jetty B to Jetty A, 0600-1200 hours = 60 + sin ( 1200-1800 hours = 60 sin ( ) )

Time taken, t =

minutes

Departure Time At A 0600 0732 0924 1059 1243 1426 1601 1752 At B

Time taken, t 51.36 52 71.41 72 54.03 55 63.92 64 62.73 63 54.03 55 70.67 71 51.36 52

Arrival Time At A 0844 1019 1203 1346 1521 1712 1844 At B 0652

*There is a 40 minutes time interval between the arrival time and the next departure time because of embarkation and disembarkation of ferries at each jetty.

4 There are three such ferries plying between Jetty A and Jetty B each day. Each jetty allows embarkation and disembarkation of only one ferry at a time. Based on the possible schedule you obtained in part 3,prepare an operating schedule for the three ferries showing the departure time between 0600 hours and 1800 hours at Jetty A and Jetty B. *Same calculation has been made to calculate the time taken for each ferry to travel between the jetties. *The duration of embarkation and disembarkation at each jetty is 20 minutes. Using the formula: Jetty A to Jetty B, 0600-1200 hours = 60 sin ( 1200-1800 hours = 60 + sin ( ) ) Jetty B to Jetty A, 0600-1200 hours = 60 + sin ( 1200-1800 hours = 60 sin ( ) )

Time taken, t =

minutes

Departure Time At A 0600 0732 0924 1059 1243 1426 1601 1752 At B 2.0 1.8 1.3 0.7 0.5 1.3 1.7 2.0 54.26 65.16 56.27 62.01 61.43 56.27 64.88 54.26 51.36 52 71.41 72 54.03 55 63.92 64 62.73 63 54.03 55 70.67 71 51.36 52 1844 1521 1712 1203 1346 0844 1019 Velocity, Vc Angle, Time taken, t Arrival Time At A At B 0652

Departure Time At A 0700 0832 1022 1158 1338 1524 1657 At B 1.9 1.6 0.9 0 1.0 1.6 1.9 54.55 64.59 57.42 60.00 62.87 55.41 65.45 51.72 52 69.91 70 55.71 56 60.00 65.79 66 52.84 53 72.20 73 1617 1810 1258 1444 0942 1118 Velocity, Vc Angle, Time taken, t Arrival Time At A At B 0752

Departure Time At A 0754 0927 1115 1253 1430 1618 1751 At B 0600

Time taken, t 73.01 74 52.46 53 67.78 68 57.06 58 56.16 57 67.78 68 52.10 53 73.01 74

Arrival Time At A 0714 0847 1035 1213 1350 1538 1711 1905 At B

Ferry A B C A B C A B C A B C A Arrival Time (hours) 0714 0844 0942 1035 1203 1258 1350 1521 1617 1711 1844 Departure Time (hours) 0600 0700 0754 0924 1022 1115 1243 1338 1430 1601 1657 1751 -

Jetty B

Ferry C A B C A B C A B C A B C

Arrival Time (hours) 0652 0752 0847 1019 1118 1213 1346 1444 1538 1712 1810 1905

Departure Time (hours) 0600 0732 0832 0927 1059 1158 1253 1426 1524 1618 1752 -

Conclusion

In sum, there are a few assumptions have been made in this assignment. Throughout the whole journey the velocity of the current is constant and it is not strong enough to affect the velocity of ferry. Also the velocity of the current and the duration of the journey had only been taken approximately and it is inaccurate. Furthermore the operating schedule made was based on normal weather. As a result, the schedule prepared can only use for reference purpose. The equation used to calculate the angle from Jetty A to Jetty B is = 60 - sin ( ) and from Jetty B to Jetty A is = 60 + sin ( )

from 0600 to 1200. While from 1200 to 1800, the equation used to calculate the angle from Jetty A to Jetty B is = 60 + sin ( from Jetty B to Jetty A is = 60 + sin ( ) and

The duration of the journey from Jetty A to B takes a shorter time in the morning compare to the afternoon. This is because the current acts on same direction as the ferry and it drives the ferry to travel faster. On the contrary, when current acts in opposite direction as the ferry, it slows down the ferry. In vice versa, the duration of the journey from Jetty B to A takes a longer time in the morning compare to the afternoon. According to the schedule, Ferry B departs at one hour after the departure of Ferry A as to avoid both ferries embark at Jetty B at the same time. The duration of embarkation and disembarkation at each jetty is 20 minutes. The schedule has to re-plan for the second day as velocity of current will be different in the next day and the ferries have parked at different jetty after operation.

Declaration

This is to certify that the assignment report submitted is based on my own work.

Signature:

Date: 17/9/2012

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