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i)

Short Term Solvency or Liquidity Ratios

Short-term Solvency Ratios attempt to measure the ability of a firm to meet its short-term financial obligations. In other words, these ratios seek to determine the ability of a firm to avoid financial distress in the short-run
Current ratio = Current assets / Current liabilities Quick ratio = (Current assets inventory) / Current liabilities Cash ratio = Cash / current liabilities Net Working Capital = Net working capital / total assets Internal measure = Current assets / average daily operating costs Working Capital = Total Assets Total Liabilities

ii)

Long Term Solvency or Financial Leverage Ratios

Financial leverage tries to estimate the percentage change in net income for a one percent change in operating income.

Total debt ratio = (Total assets total equity) / Total assets Debt to Assets Ratio= Total debt (Liability) / total Assets Debt to Equity ratio = Total debt (Liability) / total equity Equity Multiplier = Total assets / total equity Long term debt ratio = Long term debt / (Long term debt + total equity) Times interest earned = Earnings before Interest & Taxes / Interest Cash coverage ratio = (Earnings before Interest & Taxes + Depreciation) / Interest

iii)

Asset use or turnover ratios

Asset turnover measures a firm's efficiency at using its assets in generating sales or revenue - the higher the number the better. It also indicates pricing strategy: companies with low profit margins tend to have high asset turnover, while those with high profit margins have low asset turnover.

Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Inventory Days sales in Inventory = 365 days / Inventory turnover Receivables turnover = Sales / Accounts receivable Days sales in receivables = 365 days / Receivables turnover Net Working Capital (NWC) turnover = Sales / Net Working Capital Fixed asset turnover = Sales / net fixed assets Total asset turnover = Sales / total assets

iv)

Profitability Ratios

rofitability ratios measure the company's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return

Profit margin = Net income / Sales Return on Assets (ROA) = Net income / total assets Return on Equity (ROE) = Net income / Total equity ROE = (Net Income / Sales) x (Sales / Assets) x (Assets / Equity)

v)

Market Value Ratios

Market ratios measure investor response to owning a company's stock and also the cost of issuing stock. These are concerned with the return on investment for shareholders, and with the relationship between return and the value of an investment in companys shares.

Price to Earnings ratio = Price per share / Earnings per share Market-to-book ratio = Market value per share / book value per share