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A bit of

history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Lecture 2:
Bayesian Computation
Hedibert Freitas Lopes
The University of Chicago Booth School of Business
5807 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637
http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/hedibert.lopes
hlopes@ChicagoBooth.edu
1 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Outline
1 A bit of history
2 MC integration
3 MC via IS
4 Rejection method
5 SIR method
6 MH algorithms
7 Simulated annealing
8 Gibbs sampler
9 SUR model
10 BVAR
11 References
2 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
MC in the 40s and 50s
Stan Ulam soon realized that computers could be used in this
fashion to answer questions of neutron diusion and
mathematical physics;
He contacted John Von Neumann and they developed many
Monte Carlo algorithms (importance sampling, rejection
sampling, etc);
In the 1940s Nick Metropolis and Klari Von Neumann designed
new controls for the state-of-the-art computer (ENIAC);
Metropolis and Ulam (1949) The Monte Carlo method. Journal of the American Statistical Association.
Metropolis et al. (1953) Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines. Journal of Chemical
Physics.
3 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Monte Carlo methods
We introduce several Monte Carlo (MC) methods for
integrating and/or sampling from nontrivial densities.
MC integration
Simple MC integration
MC integration via importance sampling (IS)
MC sampling
Rejection method
Sampling importance resampling (SIR)
Iterative MC sampling
Metropolis-Hastings algorithms
Simulated annealing
Gibbs sampler
Based on the book by Gamerman and Lopes (1996).
4 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
A few references
MC integration (Geweke, 1989)
Rejection methods (Gilks and Wild, 1992)
SIR (Smith and Gelfand, 1992)
Metropolis-Hastings algorithm (Hastings, 1970)
Simulated annealing (Metropolis et al., 1953)
Gibbs sampler (Gelfand and Smith, 1990)
5 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Two main tasks
1 Compute high dimensional integrals:
E

[h()] =
_
h()()d
2 Obtain
a sample {
1
, . . . ,
n
} from ()
when only
a sample {

1
, . . . ,

m
} from q()
is available.
q() is known as the proposal/auxiliary density.
6 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Bayes via MC
MC methods appear frequently, but not exclusively, in modern
Bayesian statistics.
Posterior and predictive densities are hard to sample from:
Posterior : () =
f (x|)p()
f (x)
Predictive : f (x) =
_
f (x|)p()d
Other important integrals and/or functionals of the posterior
and predictive densities are:
Posterior modes: max

();
Posterior moments: E

[g()];
Density estimation: (g());
Bayes factors: f (x|M
0
)/f (x|M
1
);
Decision: max
d
_
U(d, )()d.
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A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
MC integration
The objective here is to compute moments
E

[h()] =
_
h()()d
If
1
, . . . ,
n
is a random sample from () then

h
mc
=
1
n
n

i =1
h(
i
) E

[h()] as n .
If, additionally, E

[h
2
()] < , then
V

h
mc
] =
1
n
_
{h() E

[h()]}
2
()d
and
v
mc
=
1
n
2
n

i =1
(h(
i
)

h
mc
)
2
V

h
mc
] as n .
8 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example i. MC integration
The objective here is to compute
1
p =
_
1
0
[cos(50) + sin(20)]
2
d
by noticing that the above integral can be rewritten as
E

[h()] =
_
h()()d
where h() = [cos(50) + sin(20)]
2
and () = 1 is the
density of a U(0, 1). Therefore
p =
1
n
n

i =1
h(
i
)
where
1
, . . . ,
n
are i.i.d. from U(0, 1).
1
True value is 0.965.
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A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References

h
((

))
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
1
2
3
4
Sample size (log10)
p
0
.
0
0
.
4
0
.
8
1
.
2
1 2 3 4 5 6
10 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
MC via IS
The objective is still the same, ie to compute
E

[h()] =
_
h()()d
by noticing that
E

[h()] =
_
h()()
q()
q()d
where q() is an importance function.
11 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
If
1
, . . . ,
n
is a random sample from q() then

h
is
=
1
n
n

i =1
h(
i
)(
i
)
q(
i
)
E

[h()]
as n .
Ideally, q() should be
As close as possible to h()(), and
Easy to sample from.
12 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example ii. Cauchy tail
The objective here is to estimate
p = Pr ( > 2) =
_

2
1
(1 +
2
)
d = 0.1475836
where is a standard Cauchy random variable.
A natural MC estimator of p is
p
1
=
1
n
n

i =1
I {
i
(2, )}
where
1
, . . . ,
n
Cauchy(0,1).
13 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
A more elaborated estimator based on a change of variables
from to u = 1/ is
p
2
=
1
n
n

i =1
u
2
i
2[1 + u
2
i
]
where u
1
, . . . , u
n
U(0, 1/2).
14 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
The true value is p = 0.147584.
n p
1
p
2
v
1/2
1
v
1/2
2
100 0.100000 0.1467304 0.030000 0.001004
1000 0.137000 0.1475540 0.010873 0.000305
10000 0.148500 0.1477151 0.003556 0.000098
100000 0.149100 0.1475591 0.001126 0.000031
1000000 0.147711 0.1475870 0.000355 0.000010
With only n = 1000 draws, p
2
has roughly the same precision
that p
1
, which is based on 1000n draws, ie. three orders of
magnitude.
15 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Rejection method
The objective is to draw from a target density
() = c

()
when only draws from an auxiliary density
q() = c
q
q()
is available, for normalizing constants c

and c
q
.
If there exist a constant A < such that
0
()
A q()
1 for all
then q() becomes a blanketing density or an envelope and A
the envelope constant.
16 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Blanket distribution
6 4 2 0 2 4 6
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
0
.
5
pi (target)
q (proposal)
Aq
17 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Bad draw
6 4 2 0 2 4 6
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
0
.
5
pi (target)
q (proposal)
Aq
q
q
pi/Aq=0.41
18 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Good draw
6 4 2 0 2 4 6
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
0
.
5
pi (target)
q (proposal)
Aq
q
q
pi/Aq=0.89
19 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Acceptance probability
6 4 2 0 2 4 6
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8

A
c
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
20 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Algorithm
Drawing from ().
1 Draw

from q();
2 Draw u from U(0, 1);
3 Accept

if u
(

)
A q(

)
;
4 Repeat 1, 2 and 3 until n draws are accepted.
Normalizing constants c

and c
q
are not needed.
The theoretical acceptance rate is
c
q
Ac

.
The smaller the A, the larger the acceptance rate.
21 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example iii. Sampling N(0, 1)
Enveloping the standard normal density
() =
1

2
exp{0.5
2
}
by a Cauchy density q
C
() = 1/((1 +
2
)), or a uniform
density q
U
() = 0.05 for (10, 10).
Bad proposal:The maximum of ()/q
U
() is roughly
A
U
= 7.98 for (10, 10). The theoretical acceptance rate
is 12.53%.
Good proposal: The max of ()/q
C
() is equal to
A
C
=
_
2/e 1.53. The theoretical acceptance rate is
65.35%.
22 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
UNIFORM PROPOSAL
4 2 0 2 4
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
CAUCHY PROPOSAL
4 2 0 2 4
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
Empirical rates: 0.1265 (Uniform) and 0.6483 (Cauchy)
Theoretical rates: 0.1253 (Uniform) and 0.6535 (Cauchy)
23 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
SIR method
No need to rely on the existance of A!
Algorithm
1 Draw

1
, . . . ,

n
from q()
2 Compute (unnormalized) weights

i
= (

i
)/q(

i
) i = 1, . . . , n
3 Sample from {

1
, . . . ,

n
} such that
Pr ( =

i
)
i
i = 1, . . . , n.
4 Repeat m times step 3.
Rule of thumb: n/m = 20.
Ideally,
i
= 1/n and Var () = 0.
24 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example iii. revisited
UNIFORM PROPOSAL
4 2 0 2 4
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
CAUCHY PROPOSAL
4 2 0 2 4
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
Fraction of redraws: 0.391 (Uniform) and 0.1335 (Cauchy)
Variance of weights: 4.675 (Uniform) and 0.332 (Cauchy)
25 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example iv. 3-component mixture
Assume that we are interested in sampling from
() =
1
p
N
(;
1
,
1
) +
2
p
N
(;
2
,
2
) +
3
p
N
(;
3
,
3
)
where p
N
(; , ) is the density of a bivariate normal
distribution with mean vector and covariance matrix . The
mean vectors are

1
= (1, 4)


2
= (4, 2)


3
= (6.5, 2),
the covariance matrices are

1
=
_
1.0 0.9
0.9 1.0
_
and
2
=
3
=
_
1.0 0.5
0.5 1.0
_
,
and weights
1
=
2
=
3
= 1/3.
26 / 92
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MC
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MC via IS
Rejection
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SIR method
MH
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
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References
Target ()

2
2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6
27 / 92
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MC
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Rejection
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MH
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Simulated
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SUR model
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References
Target ()
th
e
ta
1
5
0
5
10
15
t
h
e
t
a
2
10
5
0
5
10
15
f
(
t
h
e
t
a
)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
28 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Proposal q()
5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
1

2
q() N(, ) where

2
= (4, 2)

and = 9
_
1.0 0.25
0.25 1.0
_
29 / 92
A bit of
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MC
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MC via IS
Rejection
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SIR method
MH
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Simulated
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Rejection method
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5
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1

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5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
1

2
Acceptance rate: 9.91% of n = 10, 000 draws.
30 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
SIR method
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5 0 5 10 15

1
0

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2
Fraction of redraws: 29.45% of (n = 10, 000, m = 2, 000).
31 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Rejection & SIR
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2 0 2 4 6 8
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2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6
1

2
32 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example v. 2-component mixture
Let us now assume that
() =
1
p
N
(;
1
,
1
) +
3
p
N
(;
3
,
3
)
where mean vectors are

1
= (1, 4)


3
= (6.5, 2),
the covariance matrices are

1
=
_
1.0 0.9
0.9 1.0
_
and
3
=
_
1.0 0.5
0.5 1.0
_
,
and weights
1
= 1/3 and
3
= 2/3.
33 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Target ()

2
2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6
34 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Target ()
th
e
ta
1
5
0
5
10
15
t
h
e
t
a
2
10
5
0
5
10
15
f
(
t
h
e
t
a
)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
35 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Proposal q()
5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
1

2
36 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Rejection method
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5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
1

2
Acceptance rate: 10.1% of n = 10, 000 draws.
37 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
SIR method
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5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
1

2
Fraction of redraws: 37.15% of (n = 10, 000, m = 2, 000).
38 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Rejection & SIR
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2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
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1

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2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6
1

2
39 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
MCMC history
Dongarra and Sullivan (2000) list the top algorithms with the
greatest inuence on the development and practice of science
and engineering in the 20th century (in chronological order):
Metropolis Algorithm for Monte Carlo
Simplex Method for Linear Programming
Krylov Subspace Iteration Methods
The Decompositional Approach to Matrix Computations
The Fortran Optimizing Compiler
QR Algorithm for Computing Eigenvalues
Quicksort Algorithm for Sorting
Fast Fourier Transform
40 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
70s and 80s
Metropolis-Hastings:
Hastings (1970) and his student Peskun (1973) showed that
Metropolis and the more general Metropolis-Hastings algorithm
are particular instances of a larger family of algorithms.
Gibbs sampler:
Besag (1974) Spatial Interaction and the Statistical Analysis of Lattice Systems.
Geman and Geman (1984) Stochastic relaxation, Gibbs distributions and the Bayesian restoration of images.
Pearl (1987) Evidential reasoning using stochastic simulation.
Tanner and Wong (1987). The calculation of posterior distributions by data augmentation.
Gelfand and Smith (1990) Sampling-based approaches to calculating marginal densities.
41 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
MH algorithms
A sequence {
(0)
,
(1)
,
(2)
, . . . } is drawn from a Markov chain
whose limiting equilibrium distribution is the posterior
distribution, ().
Algorithm
1 Initial value:
(0)
2 Proposed move:

q(

|
(i 1)
)
3 Acceptance scheme:

(i )
=
_

com prob.

(i 1)
com prob. 1
where
= min
_
1,
(

)
(
(i 1)
)
q(
(i 1)
|

)
q(

|
(i 1)
)
_
42 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Special cases
1 Symmetric chains: q(|

) = q(

|)
= min
_
1,
(

)
()
_
2 Independence chains: q(|

) = q()
= min
_
1,
(

)
()
_
where (

) = (

)/q(

).
43 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Random walk Metropolis
The most famous symmetric chain is the random walk
Metropolis:
q(|

) = q(|

|)
Hill climbing: when
= min
_
1,
(

)
()
_
a value

with higher density (

) greater than () is
automatically accepted.
44 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example iv. RW Metropolis
0 2 4 6 8
0
2
4
6

2
0 2 4 6 8
0
2
4
6

2
0 2 4 6 8
0
2
4
6

2
0 2 4 6 8
0
2
4
6

2
q(|
i
) N(
i
, 0.25
2
).
45 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example iv. Ind. Metropolis
2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6

2
2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6

2
2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6

2
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2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6

2
q() q
SIR
() N(, ).
46 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example iv. Autocorrelations
Iterations

1
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
2
4
6
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

2
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
2
4
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

1
0 500 1000 1500 2000

2
0
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4
6
8
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
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0
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0
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1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

2
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
2
4
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
47 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example v. RW Metropolis
5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
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1
0
1
5
1

2
5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
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1

2
48 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example v. Ind. Metropolis
q
qqq
qqqqq
qq
qq
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5 0 5 10 15

1
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5
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1

2
q
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5 0 5 10 15

1
0

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
1

2
49 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example v. Autocorrelations
Iterations

1
0 500 1000 1500 2000
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

2
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
2
4
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

1
0 500 1000 1500 2000

2
0
2
4
6
8
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

2
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
2
4
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

1
0 500 1000 1500 2000

5
0
5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

2
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
5
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

1
0 500 1000 1500 2000

5
0
5
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
Iterations

2
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
5
1
0
1
5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
0
.8
1
.0
Lag
A
C
F
50 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example vi. tuning selection
Tthe target distribution is a two-component mixture of
bivariate normal densities, ie:
() = 0.7f
N
(;
1
,
1
) + 0.3f
N
(;
2
,
2
).
where

1
= (4.0, 5.0)

2
= (0.7, 3.5)

1
=
_
1.0 0.7
0.7 1.0
_

2
=
_
1.0 0.7
0.7 1.0
_
.
51 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Target distribution

2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.3
0
.4

0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0
.9

2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
2
0
2
4
6
0
2
4
6
8
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

1
52 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
RW Metropolis
q(, ) = f
N
(; , I
2
) and =tuning.
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2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=0.01
Initial value=(4,5)
Acceptance rate=93.8%
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2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=1
Initial value=(4,5)
Acceptance rate=48.5%
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqq
qqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqq
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qqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=100
Initial value=(4,5)
Acceptance rate=2.4%
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2 0 2 4 6
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tuning=0.01
Initial value=(0,7)
Acceptance rate=93.3%
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2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=1
Initial value=(0,7)
Acceptance rate=49.3%
qqq
q
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=100
Initial value=(0,7)
Acceptance rate=2.4%
53 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
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54 / 92
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MH
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q
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2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=0.5
Initial value=(4,5)
Acceptance rate=9.9%
Acceptance rate=9.9%
qqqqqqqqqqqqq
q
q
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2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=5
Initial value=(4,5)
Acceptance rate=30.9%
Acceptance rate=30.9%
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=50
Initial value=(4,5)
Acceptance rate=5%
Acceptance rate=5%
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqq
2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=0.5
Initial value=(0,7)
Acceptance rate=29.4%
Acceptance rate=29.4%
q
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q qq
qqqqqqqqqq
2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=5
Initial value=(0,7)
Acceptance rate=32.2%
Acceptance rate=32.2%
qqq
qqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
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qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq
qqqqqqq
qqqqqqqqqqqq
q
2 0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
tuning=50
Initial value=(0,7)
Acceptance rate=4.3%
Acceptance rate=4.3%
55 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Autocorrelations
0 50 100 150 200
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
lag
Tuning=0.5
Initial value=(4,5)
0 50 100 150 200
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
lag
Tuning=5
Initial value=(4,5)
0 50 100 150 200
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
lag
Tuning=50
Initial value=(4,5)
0 50 100 150 200
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
lag
Tuning=0.5
Initial value=(0,7)
0 50 100 150 200
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
lag
Tuning=5
Initial value=(0,7)
0 50 100 150 200
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
lag
Tuning=50
Initial value=(0,7)
56 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Simulated annealing
Simulated annealing
2
is an optimization technique designed to
nd maxima of functions.
It can be seen as a M-H algorithm that tempers with the target
distribution:
q() ()
1/T
where the constant T > 1 receives the physical interpretation
of system temperature, hence the nomenclature used
(Jennison, 1993).
The heated distribution q is attened with respect to and its
density gets closer to the uniform distribution, which is
particularly relevant for the case of a distribution with distant
modes.
By attening the modes, the moves required to cover
adequately the parameter space become more likely.
2
Kirkpatrick, Gelatt and Vecchi (1983)
57 / 92
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Simulated
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example vii: Nonlinear surface
Assume that the goal is to nd the mode/maximum of
(
1
,
2
)
4

i =1
e
(
1
+
2
x
i
)y
i
(1 + e

1
+
2
x
i
)
5
,
with x = (0.863, 0.296, 0.053, 0.727) and y = (0, 1, 3, 5).
The simulated annealing algorithm is implemented for four
initial values:
(5, 30) (2, 40) (4, 10) (6, 0)
and two cooling schedules:
T
i
= 1/i and T
i
= 1/[10 log(1 + i )].
The proposal distribution is q(|
(i )
) = f
N
(;
(i )
, 0.05
2
I
2
).
58 / 92
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SUR model
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References
Ti=1/i
1

2
4 2 0 2 4 6

1
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0

1
Iterations
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

2
0
2
4
6

2
Iterations
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

1
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
Ti=1/[10log(i+1)]
1

2
4 2 0 2 4 6

1
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0

1
Iterations
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

2
0
2
4
6

2
Iterations
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

1
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
Newton-Raphson mode: (0.87, 7.91).
T
i
= 1/i : mode is (0.88, 7.99) when (
(0)
1
,
(0)
2
) = (5, 30).
59 / 92
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SUR model
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References
3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
0
.
8
2
0
.
8
6
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
4

1
Iterations
3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
7
.
7
7
.
9
8
.
1

2
Iterations
60 / 92
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Simulated
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SUR model
BVAR
References
Gibbs sampler
Technically, the Gibbs sampler is an MCMC scheme whose
transition kernel is the product of the full conditional
distributions.
Algorithm
1 Start at
(0)
= (
(0)
1
,
(0)
2
, . . .)
2 Sample the components of
(j )
iteratively:

(j )
1
(
1
|
(j 1)
2
,
(j 1)
3
, . . .)

(j )
2
(
2
|
(j )
1
,
(j 1)
3
, . . .)

(j )
3
(
3
|
(j )
1
,
(j )
2
, . . .)
.
.
.
The Gibbs sampler opened up a new way of approaching
statistical modeling by combining simpler structures (the full
conditional models) to address the more general structure (the
full model).
61 / 92
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SUR model
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References
Example viii: Bivariate normal
Assume that the target distribution is the bivariate normal with
mean vector and covariance matrix given by
=
_

1

2
_
and =
_

2
1

12

12

2
2
_
,
respectively.
In this case, the two full conditionals are given by

1
|
2
N
_

1
+

12

2
2
(
2

2
),
2
1


2
12

2
2
_
and

2
|
1
N
_

2
+

12

2
1
(
1

1
),
2
2


2
12

2
1
_
62 / 92
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SUR model
BVAR
References

1
=
2
= 0

2
1
=
2
2
= 1

12
= 0.95

2
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4
63 / 92
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SUR model
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References
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4

2
64 / 92
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References
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4

2
65 / 92
A bit of
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SUR model
BVAR
References
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4
1

2
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4
1

2
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4
1

2
4 2 0 2 4

2
0
2
4
1

2
0 10 20 30 40
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 10 20 30 40
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 10 20 30 40
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 10 20 30 40
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
Lag
A
C
F
Middle frame: Based on M = 21, 000 consecutive draws.
Bottom frame: Based on M = 1000 draws, after initial
M
0
= 1000 draws and saving every 20th draws.
66 / 92
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
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4 2 0 2

2
0
2
4
1

1
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
4 2 0 2 4
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4

2
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
4 2 0 2 4
0
.
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
67 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example: Seemingly Unrelated
Regressions
Investments
Grunfeld (1958), Boot and White (1960) and Zellner
(1962,1963) study
I
mt
=
m1
+
m2
F
mt
+
m3
C
mt
+
mt
Should the parameters be the same across rms?
Do the
mt
share unobserved common factors?
Staking the observation for rm m:
y
m
= X
m

m
+
m
68 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Capital asset pricing
For a given security, the CAPM species that
r
mt
r
ft
=
m
+
m
(r
mt
r
ft
) +
mt
for return on security m, r
mt
, return on a risk-free security, r
ft
,
and market return, r
mt
.
Are the disturbances correlated across securities?
Are the
m
s and/or
m
s related in any way?
Staking the observation for security m:
y
m
= X
m

m
+
m
69 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Gross State Product
Greene (2008) examines (his examples 9.9 and 9.12) Munnells
(1990) model for output by the 48 continental US states:
log GSP
mt
=
m1
+
m2
log pcap
mt
+
m3
log hwy
mt
+
m4
log water
mt
+
m5
log util
mt
+
m6
log emp
mt
+
m7
unemp
mt
+
mt
Should the coecient vector be the same across states?
Should the disturbances correlated across states?
Should the disturbances correlated across time?
Staking the observation for state m:
y
m
= X
m

m
+
m
70 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
SUR
For m = 1, . . . , M and t = 1, . . . , T
y
mt
= x

mt

m
+
mt
,
with x
mt
a k
m
-dimensional vector of regressors.
Let us stack all equations:
y
t
= (y
1t
, . . . , y
Mt
)

(M 1)

t
= (
1t
, . . . ,
Mt
)

(M 1)
= (

1
, . . . ,

M
)

(k 1)
X
t
= diag(x

1t
, . . . , x

Mt
) (M k)
where k =

M
m=1
k
m
. Therefore,
y
t
= X
t
+
t
71 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
We can now stack all observations t = 1, . . . , T together:
y = (y
1
, . . . , y
T
)

= (
t
, . . . ,
T
)

X = (X

1
, . . . , X

T
)

,
such that
y = X +.
NLRM:
mt
are i.i.d. N(0,
2
) for all m and t.
SUR:
t
are i.i.d. N(0, ) for all t.
This leads to N(0, ), where
= diag(, . . . , ) = I
T

is an MT MT block-diagonal covariance matrix.
72 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Prior distribution
Conditionally conjugate prior for and =
1
:
p(, ) = p()p(),
where
N(
0
, V
0
)
and
Wishart(
0
,
0
).
See Dreze and Richard (1983) and Richard and Steel (1988) for
further discussion regarding alternative prior specications.
73 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
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SIR method
MH
algorithms
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annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Full conditionals
The full conditional distributions are
|y, X, N(
1
, V
1
)
|y, X, Wishart(
1
,
1
)
where
1
=
0
+ T,
V
1
1
= V
1
0
+
T

t=1
X

t
X
t
V
1
1

1
= V
1
0

0
+
n

t=1
X

t
y
t

1
1
=
1
0
+
T

t=1
(y
t
X
t
)(y
t
X
t
)

74 / 92
A bit of
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MC
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MC via IS
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algorithms
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Grunfelds (1958) data
M=10 U.S. rms over T=20 years, 1935-1954.
3
Variables:
FN = Firm Number; YR = Year;
I = Annual real gross investment;
F = Real value of the rm (shares outstanding); and
C = Real value of the capital stock.
Firms:
General Electric, Westinghouse,
U.S. Steel, Diamond Match,
Atlantic Rening, Union Oil,
Goodyear, General Motors,
Chrysler and IBM
3
Zellner (1971), pages 240-246.
75 / 92
A bit of
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MC
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MC via IS
Rejection
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SIR method
MH
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
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References
Individual regressions
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
50 100 150 200
5
0
1
0
0
1
5
0
2
0
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
General Electric
s2=777.45
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
20 40 60 80
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
Westinghouse
s2=104.31
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
qq
q
q q
q
q
q
q
200 300 400 500 600
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
U.S. Steel
s2=9299.6
q
q
q
qq q
q
q
q
q q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
1 2 3 4 5 6
1
2
3
4
5
6
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
Diamond Match
s2=1.18
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
40 50 60 70 80 90
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
Atlantic Refining
s2=82.17
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
Union Oil
s2=88.67
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q q
20 30 40 50 60
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
Goodyear
s2=82.79
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
2
0
0
4
0
0
6
0
0
8
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
4
0
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
General Motors
s2=8423.88
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
50 100 150
5
0
1
0
0
1
5
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
Chrysler
s2=176.32
q
q
qq
q
q
q q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
Real gross
F
itte
d
re
a
l g
ro
s
s
IBM
s2=65.33
76 / 92
A bit of
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
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References
Regression coecients
General Electric
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

1
0
0

5
0
0
5
0
Westinghouse
BETA1
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
0
0
.0
2
0
.0
4
0
.0
6
U.S. Steel
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

0
.0
5
0
.0
0
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
0
.1
5
0
.2
0
Diamond Match
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

1
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
Atlantic Refining
BETA1
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
2
0
.0
4
0
.0
6
0
.0
8
Union Oil
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

0
.1
5

0
.0
5
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
Goodyear
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

1
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
General Motors
BETA1
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
0
.1
5
0
.2
0
Chrysler
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

0
.6

0
.4

0
.2
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
IBM
BETA1
0 200 600 1000

5
0
5
1
0
1
5
General Electric
BETA2
0 200 600 1000

0
.2
0

0
.1
0
0
.0
0
0
.0
5
Westinghouse
BETA2
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
0
.2
0
.4
0
.6
U.S. Steel
BETA2
0 200 600 1000
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
Diamond Match
BETA2
0 200 600 1000

0
.1
0
.0
0
.1
0
.2
Atlantic Refining
BETA2
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
0
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
Union Oil
BETA2
0 200 600 1000

4
0

2
0
0
2
0
4
0
Goodyear
BETA2
0 200 600 1000

0
.1
0
.0
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
General Motors
BETA2
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
0
.1
5
Chrysler
BETA2
0 200 600 1000

4
0

2
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
IBM
BETA2
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
0
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
0
.1
5
General Electric
BETA3
0 200 600 1000

0
.0
5
0
.0
0
0
.0
5
0
.1
0
0
.1
5
0
.2
0
Westinghouse
BETA3
0 200 600 1000

3
0
0

2
0
0

1
0
0
0
U.S. Steel
BETA3
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
6
0
.0
8
0
.1
0
0
.1
2
0
.1
4
0
.1
6
Diamond Match
BETA3
0 200 600 1000
0
.2
0
0
.3
0
0
.4
0
0
.5
0
Atlantic Refining
BETA3
0 200 600 1000

2
0
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
Union Oil
BETA3
0 200 600 1000

0
.0
2
0
.0
2
0
.0
6
0
.1
0
Goodyear
BETA3
0 200 600 1000
0
.1
0
0
.2
0
0
.3
0
0
.4
0
General Motors
BETA3
0 200 600 1000

1
0
0
1
0
2
0
Chrysler
BETA3
0 200 600 1000
0
.0
6
0
.0
8
0
.1
0
0
.1
2
0
.1
4
0
.1
6
0
.1
8
IBM
BETA3
0 200 600 1000

0
.2

0
.1
0
.0
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
77 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
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algorithms
Simulated
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
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References
Standard deviations
0 200 400 600 800 1000
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
General Electric
0 200 400 600 800 1000
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
Westinghouse
0 200 400 600 800 1000
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
U.S. Steel
0 200 400 600 800 1000
1
.0
1
.5
2
.0
2
.5
Diamond Match
0 200 400 600 800 1000
1
0
1
5
2
0
Atlantic Refining
0 200 400 600 800 1000
6
8
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
Union Oil
0 200 400 600 800 1000
6
8
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
Goodyear
0 200 400 600 800 1000
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
General Motors
0 200 400 600 800 1000
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
Chrysler
0 200 400 600 800 1000
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
IBM
78 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
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algorithms
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SUR model
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References
Correlations
0.2 0.6 1.0
0
2
4
General Electric
Westinghouse
0.2 0.2 0.6
0
.
0
2
.
0
General Electric
U.S. Steel
0.2 0.2 0.6
0
.
0
1
.
5
General Electric
Diamond Match
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
General Electric
Atlantic Refining
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
General Electric
Union Oil
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
General Electric
Goodyear
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
General Electric
General Motors
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
General Electric
Chrysler
0.2 0.2 0.6
0
.
0
1
.
5
General Electric
IBM
0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
0
2
4
Westinghouse
U.S. Steel
0.2 0.2 0.6 1.0
0
.
0
1
.
5
Westinghouse
Diamond Match
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Westinghouse
Atlantic Refining
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Westinghouse
Union Oil
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Westinghouse
Goodyear
0.6 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Westinghouse
General Motors
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Westinghouse
Chrysler
0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Westinghouse
IBM
0.2 0.2 0.6 1.0
0
.
0
2
.
0
U.S. Steel
Diamond Match
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
U.S. Steel
Atlantic Refining
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
U.S. Steel
Union Oil
0.5 0.5 1.0
0
.
0
1
.
0
U.S. Steel
Goodyear
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
U.S. Steel
General Motors
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
U.S. Steel
Chrysler
0.2 0.2 0.6 1.0
0
.
0
1
.
5
U.S. Steel
IBM
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
Diamond Match
Atlantic Refining
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
Diamond Match
Union Oil
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Diamond Match
Goodyear
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Diamond Match
General Motors
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Diamond Match
Chrysler
0.2 0.2 0.6 1.0
0
.
0
1
.
5
Diamond Match
IBM
0.5 0.5 1.0
0
.
0
1
.
0
Atlantic Refining
Union Oil
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Atlantic Refining
Goodyear
0.8 0.2 0.2
0
.
0
1
.
5
Atlantic Refining
General Motors
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
Atlantic Refining
Chrysler
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Atlantic Refining
IBM
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Union Oil
Goodyear
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Union Oil
General Motors
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Union Oil
Chrysler
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Union Oil
IBM
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
0
.
0
1
.
5
Goodyear
General Motors
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
5
Goodyear
Chrysler
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
Goodyear
IBM
0.8 0.2 0.2
0
.
0
1
.
5
General Motors
Chrysler
0.5 0.0 0.5
0
.
0
1
.
0
General Motors
IBM
0.5 0.5 1.0
0
.
0
1
.
0
Chrysler
IBM
79 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
SUR references
Boot and De Wit (1960) Investment Demand: An Empirical
Contribution to the Aggregation. Problem, International
Economic Review, 1, 3-30.
Zellner (1971) An Introduction to Bayesian Inference and
Econometrics, Wiley.
Koop (2003) Bayesian Econometrics, Wiley.
Kleiber and Zeileis (2010) The Grunfeld Data at 50, German
Economic Review, 11(4), 404-417.
80 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Example: Bivariate BVAR(1)
Let y
t
= (y
t1
, y
t2
)

contain 2 time series observed at time t.


The (basic) VAR(1) can be written as
(y
t
|y
t1
, B, ) N(By
t1
, )
where
B =
_

11

12

21

22
_
and =
_

2
1

12

12

2
2
_
81 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
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SUR model
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References
VAR(1) as a SUR model
The above VAR(1) model can be rewritten as a SUR model as
(y
t
|z
t
, , ) N(z
t
, )
where
z
t
=
_
y
t1,1
y
t1,2
0 0
0 0 y
t1,1
y
t1,2
_
and
=
_
_
_
_

11

12

21

22
_
_
_
_
.
Therefore,
(y|, ) N(Z, )
where y = (y

1
, . . . , y

T
)

and Z = (z

1
, . . . , z

T
)

.
82 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
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Simulated
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SUR model
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References
Prior of (, )
We assume that and are independent a priori.
Prior of :
N(b
0
, B
0
).
Prior of :
IW(v
0
, V
0
).
This conditionally conjugate prior DOES NOT lead to closed
form posterior inference, but the implementation of the Gibbs
sampler is straightforward.
83 / 92
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MC
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SUR model
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References
Full conditional of
It is easy to see that
p(|, y) exp
_
0.5
_

B
1
0
2

B
1
0

0
_
exp
_
0.5
_

1
Z 2

1
y
_
.
Therefore,
|, , y N(
1
, V
1
)
where

1
= B
1
(B
1
0

0
+ Z

1
y) and B
1
1
= B
1
0
+ Z

1
Z.
84 / 92
A bit of
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MC
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MC via IS
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Full conditional of
It is easy to see that
p(|, y) ||
q+v
0
+1
2
exp
n
0.5tr(
1
V
0
)
o
||
q+T+1
2
exp
(
0.5
T
X
t=1
(y
t
z
t
)

1
(y
t
z
t
)
)
.
Therefore,
|, y IW(v
1
, V
1
)
where v
1
= v
0
+ T and
S = V
0
+
T

t=1
(y
t
z
t
)(y
t
z
t
)

.
85 / 92
A bit of
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MC
integration
MC via IS
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References
Simulated data
We simulated n = 360 observations (30 years of monthly data)
from the above bivariate VAR(1) with
B =
_
0.85 0.10
0.00 0.95
_
and
=
_
1.0 0.2
0.2 1.0
_
86 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
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SIR method
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algorithms
Simulated
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Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Data
Time Series
Time
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

2
0
2
4
6
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
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6 4 2 0 2 4 6

2
0
2
4
6
Y1
Y
2
87 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Posterior inference
The prior hyperparameters are
b
0
= 0
4
and B
0
= 1000I
4
and
v
0
= 5 and V
0
= 0.001
We started the Gibbs sampler with B
(0)
= B (true value).
We runt he Gibbs sampler for M = 10, 000 iterations.
88 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
p(B|data)
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
.
7
5
0
.
8
0
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
5
Iterations
B11
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
.
0
0
0
.
0
5
0
.
1
0
0
.
1
5
Iterations
B12
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

0
.
1
0

0
.
0
5
0
.
0
0
0
.
0
5
Iterations
B21
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
5
1
.
0
0
Iterations
B22
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95
0
5
1
0
1
5
Pr(B11>1)=0
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
0
5
1
0
1
5
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.10 0.05 0.00 0.05
0
5
1
0
1
5
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00
0
5
1
0
1
5
Pr(B22>1)=0.0012
89 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
p(|data)
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
.
7
0
.
8
0
.
9
1
.
0
1
.
1
1
.
2
Iterations
S11
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
.
4
Iterations
S21
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
.
7
0
.
8
0
.
9
1
.
0
1
.
1
1
.
2
Iterations
S22
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
0
2
4
6
8
D
e
n
s
it
y
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
90 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Book references
1 Ripley (1987) Stochastic Simulation. Wiley. (Chapters 5 and 7).
2 Thisted (1988) Elements of Statistical Computing. Chapman & Hall/CRC. (Chapter 5).
3 Gentle (1998) Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods. Springer. (Chapter 5).
4 Liu (2001) Monte Carlo Strategies in Scientic Computing. Springer. (Chapters 2, 5 and 6).
5 Robert and Casella (2004) Monte Carlo Statistical Methods. Springer. (Chapters 3, 4 and 7).
6 Givens and Hoeting (2005) Computational Statistics. Wiley. (Chapters 6, 7 and 8).
7 Gamerman and Lopes (2006) MCMC: Stochastic Simulation for Bayesian Inference. Chapman &
Hall/CRC. (Chapters 3, 5 and 6).
8 Rizzo (2008) Statistical Computing with R. Chapman & Hall/CRC. (Chapters 5 and 9).
9 Rubinstein and Kroese (2008) Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method. Wiley. (Chapters 5 and 6).
10 Robert and Casella (2010) Introducing Monte Carlo Methods with R. Springer. (Chapters 3, 6 and
7).
91 / 92
A bit of
history
MC
integration
MC via IS
Rejection
method
SIR method
MH
algorithms
Simulated
annealing
Gibbs sampler
SUR model
BVAR
References
Seminal papers
1 Metropolis and Ulam (1949) The Monte Carlo method. JASA, 44, 335-341.
2 Metropolis, Rosenbluth, Rosenbluth, Teller and Teller (1953) Equation of state calculations by fast
computing machines. Journal of Chemical Physics, Number 21, 1087-1092.
3 Hastings (1970) Monte Carlo sampling methods using Markov chains and their applications.
Biometrika, 57, 97-109.
4 Peskun (1973) Optimum Monte-Carlo sampling using Markov chains. Biometrika, 60, 607-612.
5 Besag (1974) Spatial interaction and the statistical analysis of lattice systems. Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, Series B, 36, 192-236.
6 Geman and Geman (1984) Stochastic relaxation, Gibbs distributions and the Bayesian restoration of
images. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 6, 721-741.
7 Jennison (1993) Discussion of the meeting on Gibbs sampling and other Markov chain Monte Carlo
methods. JRSS-B, 55, 54-6.
8 Kirkpatrick, Gelatt and Vecchi (1983) Optimization by simulated annealing. Science, 220, 671-80.
9 Pearl (1987) Evidential reasoning using stochastic simulation. Articial Intelligence, 32, 245-257.
10 Tanner and Wong (1987) The calculation of posterior distributions by data augmentation. JASA, 82,
528-550.
11 Geweke (1989) Bayesian inference in econometric models using Monte Carlo integration.
Econometrica, 57, 1317-1339.
12 Gelfand and Smith (1990) Sampling-based approaches to calculating marginal densities, JASA, 85,
398-409.
13 Casella and George (1992) Explaining the Gibbs sampler. The American Statistician,46,167-174.
14 Smith and Gelfand (1992) Bayesian statistics without tears: a sampling-resampling perspective.
American Statistician, 46, 84-88.
15 Gilks and Wild (1992) Adaptive rejection sampling for Gibbs sampling. Applied Statistics, 41, 337-48.
16 Chib and Greenberg (1995) Understanding the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The American
Statistician, 49, 327-335.
17 Dongarra and Sullivan (2000) Guest editors introduction: The top 10 algorithms. Computing in
Science and Engineering, 2, 22-23.
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