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P.PRAVIN KUMAR 97155-84896

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An Engine is a pirme mover with the help of which heat energy obtained from the fuel, is converted into Mechanical Energy





depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel, typically with the oxygen from the air, although other oxidizers such as nitrous oxide may be employed. Also see stoichiometry. The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from petroleum. These include the fuels known as dieselfuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Most internal combustion engines designed for gasoline can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications except for the fuel delivery components. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Some can also run on hydrogen gas. All internal combustion engines must achieve ignition in their cylinders to create combustion. Typically engines use either a spark ignition (SI) method or a compression ignition (CI) system. In the past, other methods using hot tubes or flames have been used.

Internal combustion engine

.... an internal combustion engine in which air is compressed to a temperature sufficiently high to ignite fuel injected into the cylinder where the combustion actuates a piston. Websters Dictionary

. This exothermic reaction creates gases at

high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement of solid parts of the engine, by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself. The term Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is almost always used to refer specifically to reciprocating piston engines, Wankel engines and similar designs in which combustion is intermittent. However, continuous combustion engines, such as jet engines, most rockets and many gas turbines are also internal combustion engines.


Fuels for IC engines:

Conventional Non-Conventional

Two stroke :
Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes (one up, one down) for every power stroke Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles, lawnmowers, weedwhackers, chain saws, jet skis, mopeds, outboard motors, and many motorcycles.

Modern trends in Internal Combustion Engines:

Internal combustion engines can contain any number of cylinders, with

Four Stroke:
The cycle is completed in four strokes of the piston or in two revolution of the crankshaft. This is known as four stroke engine. . The steps involved here are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Intake stroke Compression stroke: Combustion stroke: Exhaust stroke

numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 (Lycoming R-7755) have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual

Advantages of four stroke engine:

It has long life when compere to two stroke engine They consume fuel efficiently They produce less of pollution when compare to two stroke engine

reciprocating masses (that is, the mass of each piston can be less), thus making a smoother-running engine (since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons' moving up and down). Second, with a greater displacement and more pistons, more fuel can be combusted and there can be more combustion events (that is, more power strokes) in a given

period of time, meaning that such an engine can generate more torque than a similar engine with fewer cylinders. The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power. engines For using high-performance current gasoline and

Motorcycles commonly have from one to four cylinders, with a few high performance models having six (though some 'novelties' exist with 8, 10 and 12). Snowmobiles usually have two cylinders. Some larger (not necessarily highperformance, but also touring machines) have four. Small portable appliances such as chainsaws, generators, and domestic lawn mowers most commonly have one cylinder, although two-cylinder chainsaws exist.


technology (such as the engines found in modern automobiles), there seems to be a break point around 10 or 12 cylinders, after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and

Ignition System:
An internal combustion engine can be classified by its ignition system. Today most engines use an electrical or compression heating system for ignition. However, outside flame and hot-tube systems have been used historically

efficiency, although exceptions such as the W16 engine from Volkswagen exist. Most car engines have four to eight cylinders, with some high performance cars having ten, twelve, or even sixteen, and some very small cars and trucks having two or three. Radial aircraft engines, now obsolete, had from three to 28 cylinders. An example is the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. A row contains an odd number of cylinders, so an even number indicates a two- or four-row engine. The largest of these was the Lycoming R7755 with 36 cylinders (four rows of nine cylinders), but it did not enter production.




Emission Combustion

Futuristic Engines :


IC engines can deliver power in the range from 0.01 kW to 20x10^3 kW, depending on their displacement.

Since the earliest days of the internal combustion engine, spark plugs have provided the ignition source for the air/fuel mixture. Over the years, spark plugs have gotten smaller, and the use of exotic metals in

Laser Ignition
An alternative solution to standard spark plug is the use of pulsed laser, focused to create plasma, representing the laser ignition. Laser ignition, or laser-induced starting ignition, is the process of

their electrodes has extended plug life to 100,000 miles or more. But spark plugs still have a conductive center electrode surrounded by a ceramic insulator, and one or more ground electrodes at the tip. Ignition still occurs as a result of a high voltage spark jumping the gap between the electrodes. Some day, todays spark plugs may be replaced by an entirely new kind of technology: Laser Ignition. Research-ers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been running internal combustion engines with laser ignition systems to study the advantages of

combustion by the stimulus of a laser light source. Spark creation due to the local deposition of energy energy and the losses Ignition itself based on a positive balance between the deposited

sparkless ignition on emissions, fuel economy and engine durability.











Removing the spark plugs and projecting a high-power laser beam into the combustion chamber opens up a whole new world of possibilities. With a laser, ignition occurs when the energy in the laser beam breaks down (ionizes) air molecules causing them to generate a plasma discharge. The hot plasma ignites the air/fuel mixture without actually creating a spark. The plasma discharge happens very quickly, taking only 10 to 100 nanoseconds (a nanosecond is one billionth of a second!). A conventional spark, by comparison, typically

One advantage of laser ignition is that the beam can be projected anywhere inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the point of ignition can be optimized for the most efficient burn. Starting the flame kernel more toward the center of the combustion

chamber can improve fuel economy, power and emissions.It could even occur directly within the discharge cone of a high-pressure direct fuel injector. With laser ignition, there are no electrodes to obstruct the propagation of the flame front inside the combustion chamber. The laser-ignition internal combustion engine wherein the fuel particles are introduced into the combustion chamber in a particle group movement path, and wherein the condensing optical member provides that the laser beams guided into the combustion chamber by the optical member pass through the particle group movement path. The extremely quick burst of energy created by the hot plasma discharge also means multiple ignitions could be triggered by rapidly pulsing the laser beam. Some ignition systems use multiple sparks now to reduce misfires and emissions, but the laser ignition could do it many times faster, and with a degree of timing precision unavailable with todays spark ignition technology. Another advantage of using a lasergenerated plasma discharge to ignite the air/fuel mixture instead of a spark is that much leaner air/fuel mixtures can be used. This has obvious benefits for fuel economy

and emissions. It also works better than a spark for alternative fuels such as propane and natural gas. Yet another advantage of laser

ignition is that there are no electrodes to wear out or foul. The energy created by the beam itself blasts away any deposits that might form on the lens, keeping it clean. The laboratory laser ignition systems that have been developed thus far have a long way to go before theyre ready for production. But the basic technology has proven itself, so it may only be a matter of time before laser ignition systems start appearing on real-world applications like natural gas and propanefueled industrial stationary engines, with automotive applications to follow.

the internal combustion engine further comprises a piston which reciprocates in a cylinder bore of the internal combustion engine, the piston comprising a piston

combustion-chamber side surface forming a portion of the combustion chamber surface, the piston combustion-chamber side surface comprising the irradiated surface portion, andwherein the condensing optical member condenses the laser beams on the irradiated surface portion when the piston is positioned at least close to a top dead center position. Laser ignition, which uses laser diodes to generate the laser beams, will work with standard 12-volt electrical systems. Colorado State University has reportedly developed a special high-energy glass fiber optic cable that can route the laser beams directly into the combustion chambers.

An ignition scope can be your best friend here for quickly identifying ignition misfires. A lower-than-normal firing voltage usually indicates a fouled plug while a higher-than-normal firing voltage often indicates a lean fuel mixture in the cylinder. Hooking up a scope on an engine with a coilon-plug (COP) ignition system can take some time, and requires inductive coil adapters, but it will allow you to see whats actually going on with the ignition system. A scan tool can also help your diagnosis by showing you the short-term and long-term fuel trim numbers. If the engine is running lean, you know the problem is a lean misfire, not an ignition misfire. You can also use a scan tool to compare injector duration times, which can help you find a dirty or dead injector.

Back to Reality:
Misfiring can occur if a plug is worn or fouled. But, many times, misfires have nothing to do with ignition or the lack thereof. Misfires can also be caused by fuel delivery problems (dirty or dead fuel injectors, or low fuel pressure), or loss of compression (a burned exhaust valve or blown head gasket). If the Check Engine light is on, therefore, because the OBD II system has detected an excessive level of misfires, further diagnosis is always required to identify the cause.

Plug Life:

Though most long-life spark plugs today have recommended service intervals of

100,000 miles, plug fouling as a result of short-trip driving, which may prevent the plugs from getting hot enough to burn off deposits, may cause driveability and emissions problems that require changing the plugs much sooner. With standard spark plugs, electrode wear and fouling typically limit plug life to about 30,000 to 45,000 miles. So every couple of years, the plugs need to be changed to restore like-new ignition reliability and performance. Thats why the automakers have mostly gone to long-life spark plugs. By using wear-resistant metals such as platinum, iridium and yttrium, the electrodes can withstand much higher operating temperatures than standard nickel alloy electrodes. This reduces wear and makes possible change intervals of up to 100,000 miles or more. The thermal properties of platinum and iridium electrodes give many long-life plugs a wider heat range. This allows the plugs to run hot enough to keep themselves clean without getting so hot they risk causing preignition or detonation. It also allows spark plug suppliers to cover more engine applications with fewer plug numbers.

They also maintain fuel economy, performance and emissions longer. Long-life plugs should always be replaced with the same spark plugs. And on older vehicles that were not factory-equipped with long-life plugs, platinum or iridium plugs should be recommended as an ignition upgrade. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of premium replacement plugs from which to choose. Many plug suppliers not only have platinum and/or iridium alloy electrodes, but also special electrode configurations such as multiple ground electrodes, surface gap electrodes and specially shaped ground electrodes that reduce misfires and improve ignition reliability. The center electrode has also gotten smaller in some platinum and iridium spark plugs, partly to reduce production costs











aluminum heads should be changed when the engine is cold or warm to the touch (never hot) to minimize the risk of damaging the plug threads in the head. Be sure to use penetrating oil to help loosen stubborn plugs, and never use an air ratchet for plug removal.

Advantages of Laser Ignition:

Arbitrary position of the ignition plasma Absence of quenching effects Simple regulation of the ignition energy Easy possibility of multipoint ignition

Conclusion of Laser Ignition:

Going down a number (colder) may reduce the tendency engines, to preignite in and performance engines.. supercharged Minimum laser pulse energy (MPE) for ignition is decreases with increasing initial pressure The time of pressure rise in case of laser ignition is shorter than the spark ignition

turbocharged engines, and hard-working

Current advances in internal combustion(IC) engine technology should improve fuel efficiency while reducing the size of IC engines.

Improved fuel efficiency and reduced size will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions and hopefully reform the negative opinion many hold of the IC engine. In the February 2010 issue of article ,Better

power to move them or stop them, using less fuel and emitting fewer green house gases Combining an improved internal combustion engine in hybrids can only improve the overall performance of the vehicle . Several automobile manufacturers are to implement laser fired ignition system in their vehicles. Ford said that it plans to implement the new technology into its top of the range vehicles within the next few years, and then make the laser ignition system available for its remaining models sometime thereafter.

Scientific American

Mileage Now, new technologies for improving IC engine performance are examined and discussed. The potential modifications will improve fuel economy and reduce the size and weight of future engines. IC engines currently convert only 20-25 percent of the energy in liquid fuels into power to run the car. Other technologies like hydrogen fuel cell and electric engines convert a much higher percentage of available energy into power. would Different proposed changes improve IC efficiency by

increments of one to over seven percent for each new technology. Turbocharging can improve fuel economy by five to seven and a half percent while reducing engine size and weight. Smaller lighter engines mean lighter cars. Lighter cars require less