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Analysis criteria 1. Finite element model analyses 2. Beam model analyses 3. Structural detail analysis

1) Model construction (Elements & Net scantling) 2) Model extension Model longitudinal extension Ships more than 170 m in length

In the case of structural symmetry with respect to the ship's centreline longitudinal plane, the hull structures may be modelled over half the ship's breadth.

Finite element modelling criteria Modelling of primary supporting members The analysis of primary supporting members based on fine mesh models, as defined in, is to be carried out by applying one of the following procedures (see Fig ), depending on the computer resources:

an analysis of the whole three dimensional model based on a fine mesh an analysis of the whole three dimensional model based on a coarse mesh, as defined in , from which the nodal displacements or forces are obtained to be used as boundary conditions for analyses based on fine mesh models of primary supporting members, e.g.: o transverse rings o double bottom girders o side girders o deck girders o primary supporting members of transverse bulkheads o primary supporting members which appear from the analysis of the whole model to be highly stressed.

Mesh selection Finite element models are generally to be based on linear assumptions. The mesh is to be executed using membrane or shell elements, with or without mid-side nodes. Meshing is to be carried out following uniformity criteria among the different elements. In general, for some of the most common elements, the quadrilateral elements are to be such that the ratio between the longer side length and the shorter side length does not exceed 4 and, in any case, is less than 2 for most elements. Their angles are to be greater than 60 and less than 120. The triangular element angles are to be greater than 30 and less than 120. Coarse mesh

ordinary stiffeners contributing to the hull girder longitudinal strength and which are not individually represented in the model are to be modelled by rod elements and grouped at regular intervals webs of primary supporting members may be modelled with only one element on their height face plates may be simulated with bars having the same cross-section the plating between two primary supporting members may be modelled with one element stripe holes for the passage of ordinary stiffeners or small pipes may be disregarded manholes (and similar discontinuities) in the webs of primary supporting members may be disregarded, but the element thickness is to be reduced in proportion to the hole height and the web height ratio.

Fine mesh

webs of primary members are to be modelled with at least three elements on their height the plating between two primary supporting members is to be modelled with at least two element stripes the ratio between the longer side and the shorter side of elements is to be less than 3 in the areas expected to be highly stressed holes for the passage of ordinary stiffeners may be disregarded.

Mesh for the analysis of structural details The structural modelling is to be accurate; the mesh dimensions are to be such as to enable a faithful representation of the stress gradients. The use of membrane elements is only allowed when significant bending effects are not present; in other cases, elements with general behaviour are to be used.

Boundary conditions of the whole three dimensional model Structural model extended over at least three cargo tank/hold lengths The whole three dimensional model is assumed to be fixed at one end, while shear forces and bending moments are applied at the other end to ensure equilibrium. At the free end section, rigid constraint conditions are to be applied to all nodes located on longitudinal members, in such a way that the transverse section remains plane after deformation. When the hull structure is modelled over half the ship"s breadth, in way of the ship's centreline longitudinal plane, symmetry or anti-symmetry boundary conditions as specified in Tab 1 are to be applied, depending on the loads applied to the model (symmetrical or anti-symmetrical, respectively). Table 1 - Symmetry and anti-symmetry conditions in way of the ship's centreline longitudinal plane Boundary conditions Symmetry Anti-symmetry Boundary conditions Symmetry Anti-symmetry X fixed free DISPLACEMENTS in directions(1) X free fixed Y fixed free Z free fixed

(1) X, Y and Z directions and axes are defined with respect to the reference co-ordinate system in Ch 1, Sec 2, [4] .

Structural models extended over one cargo tank/hold length Symmetry conditions are to be applied at the fore and aft ends of the model, as specified in Tab 2 When the hull structure is modelled over half the ship"s breadth, in way of the ship's centreline longitudinal plane, symmetry or anti-symmetry boundary conditions as specified in Tab 1 are to be applied, depending on the loads applied to the model (symmetrical or anti-symmetrical, respectively).

Vertical supports are to be fitted at the nodes positioned in way of the connection of the transverse bulkheads with longitudinal bulkheads, if any, or with sides. Table 2 - Symmetry conditions at the model fore and aft ends DISPLACEMENTS in ROTATION around axes (1): directions (1): X fixed Y free Z free X free Y fixed Z fixed

(1) X, Y and Z directions and axes are defined with respect to the reference co-ordinate system in Ch 1, Sec 2, [4] .

Primary supporting members load model Loading conditions and load cases in intact conditions The still water and wave loads are to be calculated for the most severe loading conditions as given in the loading manual, with a view to maximising the stresses in the longitudinal structure and primary supporting members. The following loading conditions are generally to be considered:

homogeneous loading conditions at draught T non-homogeneous loading conditions at draught T, when applicable partial loading conditions at the relevant draught ballast conditions at the relevant draught.

The wave local and hull girder loads are to be calculated in the mutually exclusive load cases "a", "b", "c" and "d" in

Loading conditions and load cases in flooding conditions When applicable, the pressures in flooding conditions are to be calculated according to Still water and inertial pressures Unless otherwise specified, the still water and inertial pressures to be considered as acting on platings (excluding bottom and side shell platings) which constitute boundaries of compartments not intended to carry liquids are obtained, in kN/m2, from the formulae in Tab 13

Flooding - Still water and inertial pressures Still water pressure pSF , in kN/m2 g (zF - z) without being taken less than 0,4 g d0 Note 1: zF : Z co-ordinate, in m, of the freeboard deck at side in way of the transverse section considered. Where the results of damage stability calculations are available, the deepest equilibrium waterline may be considered in lieu of the freeboard deck; in this case, the Society may require transient conditions to be taken into account 0,6 aZ1 (zF - z) Inertial pressure pWF , in kN/m2

Lightweight The lightweight of the modelled portion of the hull is to be uniformly distributed over the length of the model in order to obtain the actual longitudinal distribution of the still water bending moment

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