Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited

Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’, M-69, LGF, Greater Kailash Part-II, New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519, Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.com

PREFACE Welding is the process of joining two or more similar or dis-similar materials with or without the application of heat and /or Pressure with or without using the filler materials. Electric Arc welding is the most technologically advanced flexible process, which is accepted for joining all most all the materials in the sphere of life. In Electric Arc welding, an electric Power source is employed to convert the input Electrical energy into Heat energy for melting the materials to be joined and the filler wire.

Figure 1. – Basic Elements of an Arc Welding Power Source The development of Welding power sources took place through the following steps :       AC Tapped Primary transformers followed by Moving Core transformer were used. With the availabilities of Ferrite core transformer material, Moving Coils Transformers are also being used for AC output for welding. The demand of Radiographic quality, Zero defect welding generates more & more requirement of using DC welding current. Three Phase Induction Motor Generators having higher maintenance due to rotary parts were used to produce Ripple free DC output for welding. With the invention of Straight & Reserve polarity diodes, Static machines using transformers and rectifier stack are used for the DC output. These Magnetic Amplified Rectifiers using DC Shunt coils controls are heavier in construction and call for higher maintenance. The control of DC output was fine tuned with the innovation of Power Thyristors. Use of high frequency Poly-phase Transformers with Mono-block Thyristors reduce the size of the welding machine and increased the efficiency, which are also being used today. Computer hardware also assisted to explore the possibilities of using pre-programmed Chips for data memory storage and also render assistances in controlling the ultimate welding parameters. High Frequency Ferrite Core Transformers were used with increased efficiency & negligible Power loss. With the advent of Solid state electronics, more & more advanced switching devices having faster dynamic response such as BJT, MOSFET and IGBT were also used with PWM controls, which gave birth of Solid State Programmable Welding Power Sources.

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Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited
Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’, M-69, LGF, Greater Kailash Part-II, New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519, Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.com

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION Electric Arc welding involves low-voltage, high-current arcs between an electrode and the work piece. The means of reducing power system voltage in Figure 1 by means of a transformer, rectifier, or Motor Generator A. Welding Transformer:Figure 2 shows the basic elements of a welding transformer and associated components. For a transformer, the significant relationships between winding turns and input and output voltages and currents are as follows:N1 E1 I2 ----- = ---- = ---N2 E2 I1 Where N1 = N2 = E1 = E2 = I1 = I2 = the number of turns on the primary winding of the transformer. the number of turns on the secondary winding the input voltage the output voltage the input current the output (load) current. ……………………………………..…………………….. Equation -1

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Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited
Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’, M-69, LGF, Greater Kailash Part-II, New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519, Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.com

Figure 2 – Principal Electrical Elements of a Transformer Power Supply

Fig 2:- Principal Electrical element of a Welding Transformer Taps in the transformer secondary winding may be used to change the number of turns in the secondary, as shown in Figure 3, to vary the open circuit (no-load) output voltage. Tapped transformer permits the selection of the number of turns, N2, in secondary winding of transformer.

Fig 3 – Welding Transformer with Tapped Secondary Winding

When the number of turns is decreased on the secondary, output voltage is lowered because a smaller proportion of the transformer secondary winding is in use. The tap selection, therefore, controls open circuit voltage. As shown by the equation No 1, the primary-secondary current ratio Page 3 of 34

This is called current control or. as shown in Figure 4. the output voltage is very close to that required by the arc. however. Some types of power sources use a combination of these arrangements. EA. slope control. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. an impedance source is inserted in series with the transformer secondary windings to provide this characteristic. LGF. Adjustment of the value of the series impedance controls its voltage drop and the relation of load current to load voltage. Adjustment in the value of reactance gives slight control of the relation of load current to load voltage.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. the voltage drop. increases greatly as the load current is increased. causes a large reduction in the arc voltage. Greater Kailash Part-II. Page 4 of 34 . Fig 4 – Typical Series Impedance Control of Output Current In constant-current power supplies. Ex. A transformer may be designed so that the tap selection will directly adjust the output volt-ampere slope characteristics of a proper welding condition. across the impedance (reactor) increases only slightly as the load current increases. large secondary (welding) currents can be obtained from relatively low line currents. This method of slope control with simple reactors also serves a s a method to control with simple reactors also serves as a method to control voltage with saturable reactors or magnetic amplifiers. in some cases.com is inversely proportional to the primary-secondary voltage ratio. The increase in voltage drop. In constant-voltage power sources. Ex. The reduction in load voltage is small. The voltage drop Ex. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. M-69. with the taps adjusting the open circuit (or no-load) voltage of the welding machine and the impedance providing the desired volt-ampere slope characteristics. More often. across the impedance shown in Figure 4. Thus. Voltage Eo essentially equals the no-load (open-circuit) voltage of the power supply.

An advantage of a reactor is that it consumes little or no power. even though current flows through it and a voltage can be measured across it. Variable inductive reactance or variable mutual inductance may be used to control the volt-ampere characteristics in typical transformer or transformer-rectifier type arc welding power sources. For example. in the resistor to supply (25x100 =5000) 5000 W to the arc due to the reason that in the resistive circuit.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Greater Kailash Part-II. The equivalent impedance of a variable inductive reactance or mutual inductance is located in the AC circuit of the power source in series with the secondary circuit of the transformer.com Fig 5 – Ideal Vector Relationship of the Alternating Voltage Output Using reactor Control Figure 5 shows an ideal vector relationship of the alternating voltages for the circuit of Figure 4 when a reactor is used as an impedance device. there are only the iron and copper losses. the voltage drop across the reactor is about 69V when the load (equivalent to a resistor) voltage is 40V. The vectorial addition is necessary because the alternating load and impedance voltages are not in time phase. The voltage drop across series impedance in an AC circuit is added vectorially to the load voltage to equal the transformer secondary voltage. Page 5 of 34 . as shown in Figure 4. By varying the voltage drop across the impedance. 200A would need to dissipate (80-25 = 55) 55V x 200A or 11000 watts (W). LGF. This is an advantage with GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and SMAW (Shielded metal arc welding) processes. the open circuit voltage of the transformer is 80V. In a resistive circuit (no reactance). phase shift accounts for the greatly reduced power loss. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. In the reactor circuit. In the reactor circuit. Another major advantage of inductive reactance is that the phase shift produced in the alternating current by the reactor improves AC arc stability for a given open circuit voltage. M-69. the voltage and current are in the phase. which are very small in comparison. For the example. When resistors are used. the voltage drop across the resistor could be added arithmetically to the load voltage to equal the output voltage of the transformer. power is lost and temperature rises. The voltage drop across the impedance plus the load voltage equals the no-load voltage only when added vectorially. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. This peculiar characteristic (vectorial addition) of impedance voltage in AC circuits is related to the fact that both reactors and resistances may be used to produce a drooping voltage characteristic. the load voltage may be changed. a welding machine with an constant-current characteristic having 80V open circuit voltage and a power of 25V.

Page 6 of 34 . a specific volt-ampere curve can be plotted. as the screw is turned. Most AC transformers of this design have a fixed-position secondary coil. Because various welding applications have different welding power requirements. Similarly. while the other one is fixed in position. This can be done by moving the coils relative to each other or by using a movable shunt that can be inserted or withdrawn from the transformer. when the two coils are closer together.com The reactance of a reactor can be varied by many ways. In addition to adjusting reactance. First way is by changing taps on a coil or by other electrical/mechanical schemes. This is the main control feature of such power supplies. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. the coil moves closer to or farther from the secondary coil. The transformer-rectifier type of arc welding power supply usually incorporates a stabilizing inductance or choke. These methods change the magnetic coupling of the coils to produce adjustable mutual inductance. Either the primary coil or the secondary coil may be movable. The methods commonly used to control the welding circuit output are as follows:MOVABLE-COIL CONTROL A movable coil transformer consists essentially of an elongated core on which are located primary and secondary coils. the more vertical is the voltampere output curve and the lower the maximum short-circuit current value. The varying distance between the two coils regulates the inductive coupling of the magnetic lines of force between them. The more the distance between two coils. means for control of welding current the welding transformer power source. LGF. Thus. mutual inductance between the primary and secondary coils can also be adjusted. located in the DC welding circuit. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. for any given value of inductive reactance. Greater Kailash Part-II. to improve arc stability. The primary coils are normally attached to a lead screw and.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. M-69. AC STATIC WELDING POWER SOURCES Alternating current power sources normally are single-phase transformers that connect to AC input power lines and transform the input voltage and amperage to levels suitable for arc welding. the maximum short-circuit current is higher and the slope of the volt-ampere output curve is less steep. Varying the reactance alters the voltage drop across the reactor.

Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. Another form of movable coil employs a pivot motion. The volt-ampere curve is indicated at maximum output with less slope than the curve of second figure. Greater Kailash Part-II.com Fig 7 – Movable-Coil AC Power Source Figure 7 shows one form of a movable-coil transformer with the coils far apart for minimum output and a steep slope of the volt-ampere curve. Page 7 of 34 . LGF. M-69. When the coils are aligned with one coil nested inside the other. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. output is at maximum. When the two coils are at a right angle to each other. The first figure shows the coils as close together as possible. output is at a minimum.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’.

Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. As illustrated above.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Greater Kailash Part-II. Minimum current output is obtained when the shunt is fully in place. the slope of the volt-ampere curve increases and the available welding current is decreased. as shown in Figure 8. Here the output current is at its maximum. Fig 8 – Movable-Shunt AC Power Source As the shunt is moved into position between the primary and secondary coils. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. It is made of the same material as that used for the transformer core. Control is obtained with a laminated iron core shunt that is moved between the primary and secondary coils.com MOVABLE-SHUT CONTROL In this design. With the iron shunt between the primary and secondary coils. the arrangement of the magnetic lines of force. Page 8 of 34 . LGF. the primary coils and the secondary coils are fixed in position. or magnetic flux. is unobstructed when the iron shunt is separated from the primary and secondary coils. some magnetic lines of force are diverted through the iron shunt rather than to the secondary coils. M-69.

Greater Kailash Part-II. thus. Basic construction is some-what similar to the movable-shunt type. welding current is reduced. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Fig. The result is a low inductive reactance that permits a large welding current to flow.9. as shown by broken lines in Figure 10. the increase in permeability causes an increase in inductive reactance and. except that the shunt is permanently located inside the main core and the secondary coils are tapped to permit adjustment of the number of turns. Tapped Secondary Control MOVABLE-CORE REACTOR The movable core reactor type of AC welding machine consists of a constant-voltage transformer and a reactor in series. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. also. causing welding current to increase. When the movable-core section is advanced into the stationary core. the permeability of the magnetic path is very low due to the air gap. Page 9 of 34 . When the movable section of the core is in a withdrawn position. M-69. They are the least expensive and most universally used of all welding power supplies.com TAPPED SECONDARY COIL CONTROL A tapped secondary coil may be used for control of the volt-ampere output of a transformer as shown in Figure 9. Fig 10 – Movable Core Reactor Type AC Power Source The machine is diagramed in Figure 10. LGF. The inductance of the reactor is varied by mechanically moving a section of its iron core. Decreasing secondary turns reduces open circuit voltage and. the inductance of the transformer.

or a combination of both. saturable-reactor power source is diagramed in Figure 11. M-69. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. This type of control circuit makes remote control of output from the power source relatively easy. Another is to insert a large choke in the DC control circuit. One method of reducing this distortion is by introducing an air gap in the reactor core. low amperage DC circuit to change the effective magnetic characteristics of reactor cores. will produce desirable results.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. The DC control circuit to the reactor system allows adjusting the output voltampere curve from minimum to maximum.com SATURABLE REACTOR CONTROL A saturable reactor control is an electrical control which uses a low voltage. transformer action would cause high circulating currents to be present in the control circuit. LGF. Saturable reactors tend to cause severe distortion of the sine wave supplied by the transformer. Greater Kailash Part-II. The volt-ampere characteristics are determined by the transformer and the saturable-reactor configurations. If this were not done. and it normally requires less maintenance than the mechanical controls. The reactor coils are connected in opposition to the DC control coils. This is not desirable for gas tungsten arc welding because the wave form for that process is important. the instantaneous voltages and currents tend to cancel out. A self-saturating saturable reactor is referred to as a magnetic amplifier because a relatively small control power change will produce a sizeable output power change. Page 10 of 34 . Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. With the opposing connection. Fig 11 – Saturable Reactor Type AC Welding Power Source A simple. Either method.

large amount of iron.Nc --------Nw ……………………………………… Equation 2 Iw = where Iw = Ic = Nc = Nw = change in welding current. either a large amount of iron or a relatively large number of turns. The term ampere-turns is defined as the number of turns in the coil multiplied by the current in amperes flowing through the coil. For a low minimum current. If a large number of turns are used. or high control currents. creating multi-range machines. The amount of change can be approximated with the following equation:Ic. LGF. A change in current. To reduce the requirement for large control coils. are required.com The amount of current adjustment in a saturable reactor is based on the ampere-turns of the various coils. are necessary. Greater Kailash Part-II. In the basic saturable reactor. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. To increase output in the welding circuit. correspondingly higher minimum currents. in the control circuit number of turns in the control circuit number of turns in the welding current circuit The minimum current of the power source is established by the number of turns in the welding current reactor coils and the amount of iron in the reactor core. a current must be made to flow in the control circuit. M-69. the saturable reactors often employ taps on the welding current coils. the law of equal ampere-turns applies.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. thus. The higher ranges would have fewer turns in these windings and. A. or both. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. then either a large number of control turns or a high control current. or both. Page 11 of 34 .

An inductor or filter reactor is not usually needed to improve arc stability with this type of welding equipment. and welding current is generated. A DC generator consists of a rotor and stator. The DC amperage is normally no more than 10 to 15 A and very often is less. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Rotary DC Welding Alternators Rotating machinery is also used as a source of power for arc welding. This current controls the output of the DC generator series or bucking field winding that supplies the welding current. the several turns of series winding on the field poles of the rotating generator provide more than enough inductance to ensure satisfactory arc stability. Greater Kailash Part-II. Polarity can be reversed by changing the interconnection between the exciter and the main field. The magnetic field coils conduct a small amount of DC to maintain the necessary continuous magnetic field required for power generation. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. (2) two end bearings to support the rotor and shaft load. It holds the magnetic field coils of the generator. WELDING RECTIFIERS 1. such as an internal combustion engine or an electric motor. it is the armature that is the current-carrying conductor. generators which produce direct current and alternators which produce alternating current. Page 12 of 34 .com B. In the DC generator. These machines are divided into two types. (3) an armature which includes the laminated armature iron core and the current-carrying armature coils. It is in the armature coils that welding power is generated. LGF. and (4) a commutator. The rotation of the field generates AC welding power in these coils. The no-load output voltage of a DC generator may be controlled with a relatively small variable current in the main or shunt field winding. The mechanical power may be obtained from various sources.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. The magnetic field coils are located in the stator. Slip rings are used to conduct low DC power into the rotating member to produce a rotating magnetic field. M-69. The rotor assembly is comprised of (1) a through shaft. The stator (stationary portion) has the welding current coils wound in slots in the iron core. The stator is the stationary portion of the generator within which the rotor assembly turns. Instead. These machines differ from standard DC generators in that the alternator rotor assembly contains the magnetic field coils (Figure 12) instead of the stator coils as in other generators (Figure 13). This configuration precludes the necessity of the commutator and the brushes used with DC output generators. The armature turns within the stator and its magnetic field system.

the normal method is to provide a tapped reactor for broad control of current ranges.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. Page 13 of 34 . in combination with control of the alternator magnetic field to produce fine control within these ranges. Fig 13 – Schematic view of a Generator showing the magnetic field contained in the stator assembly The frequency of the output welding current is controlled by the speed of rotation of the rotor assembly and by the number of poles in the alternator design. whereas a four-pole alternator design must operate at 1800 rpm to produce 50 Hz current. M-69. However. Greater Kailash Part-II. Saturable reactors and moving-core reactors may be used for output control of these units. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. These controls are shown in Figure 14.com Fig 12 – Schematic view of an Alternator showing the magnetic field contained in the Rotor Assembly. LGF. A two-pole alternator must operate at 3600 rpm to produce60Hz current.

It is a group of conducting bars arranged parallel to the rotating shaft to make switching contact with asset of stationary carbon brushes. or “collector bars”.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Greater Kailash Part-II. The commutator is located at one end of the armature. and the heavy welding current winding is wound into the stator. The latter may be considered as terminals. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Each copper bar has a machined and polished top surface. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. the commutator performs the function of mechanical rectification. for the alternating current generated from the armature. M-69. These bars are connected to the armature conductors. but on separate copper commutator bars. The whole arrangement is constructed in proper synchronization with the magnetic field so that. The purpose of the commutator is to carry both half-cycles of the generated AC sine wave. LGF.com Fig 14 – Schematic view of an alternator type power supply showing a tapped reactor for coarse current control and adjustable magnetic field ampere for fine output current control The armature conductors of a welding generator are relatively heavy because they carry the welding current. Contact brushes ride on that top surface to pick up each halfcycle of the generated alternating current. An alternator power source is very similar. The commutator is a system of copper bars mounted on the rotor shaft. These machines are also called revolving or rotating field machines. Each of the copper commutator bars is insulated from all the other copper bars. except that generally the magnetic field coils are wound on the rotor. as the armature rotates. The conductors are soft-soldered to the individual commutator bars. Page 14 of 34 . The AC voltage produced by the armature coils moving through the magnetic field of the stator is carried to copper commutator bars through electrical conductors from the armature coils.

Voltage frequency depends on the engine speed. graphics. which requires external rectification for DC application. An alternator usually has brushes and slip rings to provide the low DC power to the field coils. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. and small copper flakes. Either may use a small auxiliary alternator or generator. 120 or 120/240 V AC is usually available. this auxiliary power is usually 115 V DC. In the case of a generator. M-69. Greater Kailash Part-II. Placing the heavy conductors in the stator eliminates the need for carbon brushes and a commutator to carry high current. LGF. with the rotor on the same shaft as the main rotor. will also change the open circuit voltage. Page 15 of 34 . however. It may be said that the brush-commutator arrangement is a type of mechanical rectifier since it does change the generated alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). The output. using silicon diodes. An alternator or generator may be either self-excited or separately-excited. With an alternator-type power source. Rectification is usually done with a bridge.com The carbon contact brushes pick up each half-cycle of generated alternating current and direct it into a conductor as direct current. the open circuit voltage will normally be substantially lower than at the high end of the range. depending on the source of the field power. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. Both single and three-phase alternators are available to supply AC to the necessary rectifier systems. The fine adjustment. because it regulates the strength of the magnetic field. It is not usual practice in alternators to feed back a portion of the welding current to the field circuit. When adjusted near the bottom of the range.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Most of the brushes used are an alloy of carbon. a portion of exciter field power is available to operate tools or lights necessary to the welding operation. A rheostat or other control is usually placed in the field circuit to adjust the internal magnetic field strength for fine adjustment of power output. The DC characteristics are similar to those of single and three phase transformerrectifier units. On many engine-driven units. to provide exciting power. is AC.

The basic machine does not often have the dynamic response required for welding and hence the same are obtained from taps on a reactor in the AC portion of the circuit.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Generators that are compound would with separate and continuous current and voltage controls can provide the operator with a selection of volt-ampere curves at nearly any amperage capability within the total range of machine. This can assist in weld-pool control. Greater Kailash Part-II. Thus. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. particularly for out-of-position work. This allows the welder to regulate the welder to regulate the welding current to some degree by varying the arc length. With lower open circuit voltage.com Fig 15 – Volt Ampere Relationship for a typical constant current rotating type power source. Figure 15 shows a family of volt-ampere curve characteristics for either an alternator or generatortype power supply. This adjusts the generator power source to provide a static volt-ampere characteristic that can be “tailored” to the job throughout most of its range. a suitable inductor is generally inserted in series connection in one leg of the DC output from the rectifier. LGF. the slope of the curve is less. M-69. Welding generators do not normally require an inductor. There is a limited range of overlap normally associated with rotating equipment where the desired welding current can be obtained over a range of open circuit voltages. Some welding generators carry this feature beyond the limited steps described above. Thus. the welder can set the desired arc voltage with one control and the arc current with another. Page 16 of 34 .

New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. M-69.Effect of current control variations on Generator Output Fig 17 – Effect of voltage control variations on Generator Output Welding power sources are available that produce both constant current and constant voltage. Fig 16 .Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. These units are used for field applications where both are needed at the job site and electrical power supply is not available. LGF. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. Page 17 of 34 . Greater Kailash Part-II.com The volt-ampere curves that result when each control is changed independently are shown in Figure 16 and 17.

com 2. the control currents can be reduced and control coils can be smaller. The control windings are polarity sensitive. In this way.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Static Magnetic Amplifier Control Rectifier Technically. the load ampere-turns are used to assist the control ampere-turns in magnetizing the cores. It is called a magnetic amplifier because it uses the output current of the power supply to provide additional magnetization of the reactors. Fig 19 – Magnetic Amplifier Welding Current Control. the ranges of control can be much broader than those possible with an ordinary saturable reactor control. LGF. A smaller amount of control ampere-turns will cause a correspondingly larger welding current to flow because the welding current will essentially “turn itself on”. it can be seen that by using a different connection for the welding current coils and rectifying diodes in series with the coils. In Figure 19. M-69. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. While magnetic amplifier machines often are multi-range. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. Page 18 of 34 . Greater Kailash Part-II. the magnetic amplifier is a self-saturating saturable reactor.

com 3. the device becomes a diode. Welding power source diodes are usually selected with a blocking rating at least twice the open circuit voltage in order to provide a safe operating margin. LGF. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. The SCR is a diode variation with a trigger called a gate. Methods had been developed for treating certain materials such as silicon to modify their electrical properties. Therefore. but a high. capacitor. once it conducts. SOLID STATE CONTROL RECTIFIERS:Solid state physics . current-carrying capacity. etc. B. a diode allows current to flow in one direction only. When this happens. the diode temperature can increase enough to cause failure. reliability and efficiency. Using a proper arrangement of diodes. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. One of the most important of these devices is the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) also called a Thyristor. Early welding machines used selenium rectifiers. DIODE :A single rectifying element is called a diode. Today. or other electronic device to suppress voltage transients that could damage the rectifiers. When placed in an electric circuit. formerly used to control the output of welding transformers. Diodes have limits as to the amount of voltage they can block in the reverse direction (anode negative and cathode positive). However. as shown in Figure 16. Most rectifier power sources have a resistor. M-69. it is possible to convert AC to DC. and will conduct current as long as the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. diodes are normally mounted on heat sinks (aluminum plates) to remove that heat. Transformer-rectifier or DC Alternator power sources uses on rectifiers to convert AC to DC. Greater Kailash Part-II.the science of the crystalline solid is being used in manufacturing these devices and hence known as Solid State Control Devices. Such solid-state devices have now replaced saturable reactors. which is a one-way electrical valve. An SCR is nonconducting until a positive electrical signal is applied to the gate. A. most rectifiers are made of silicon for reasons of economy. The resistance to current flow through a diode results in a voltage drop across the component and generates heat within the diode. This is expressed as the voltage rating of the device. moving shunts. when the anode of the diode is positive with respect to the cathode. Unless this heat is dissipated. Conduction will stop only if the voltage applied to the anode becomes negative with respect to the Page 19 of 34 . reverse-voltage transient could damage it.. moving coils. A diode can accommodate current peaks well beyond its normal steady state rating. the current cannot be turned off by a signal to the gate.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR) – THRYISTOR Solid-state devices with special characteristics are also used to directly control welding power by altering the welding current or voltage wave form.

At the end of that half-cycle. A significant interval may exist Page 20 of 34 . again applying power to the load circuit. Conduction will not take place again until a positive voltage is applied to the anode and another gate signal is received. Using the action of a gate signal to selectively turn on the SCR. and is proportional to the shaded area under the wave form envelope. Fig 21 – Single Phase DC Power Source Using an SCR Bridge for Control When high power is required. Fig 20 – Silicon Controlled Rectifier The main use of SCR is in phase control mode with transformers. it is necessary to precisely time where. the output of welding power source can be controlled. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. The result is shown in Figure 22. during the time that point B is positive with respective to point E. conduction is to initiate. a negative voltage will be impressed across SCR 1 and SCR 4. In Figure 21. no current will flow until both SCR 1 and SCR 4 receive a gate signal to turn on. The resulting power is supplied in pulses to the load. a gate signal applied to SCR 2 and SCR 3 by the control will cause these two to conduct. LGF. current will flow through the load. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. when the polarity of B and E reverses.com cathode. M-69. With point E positive with respect to point B.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. and they will turn off. Greater Kailash Part-II. This is known as phase control. conduction is started early in the half-cycle and in case of low power requirement. A typical phase control SCR circuit is shown in Figure 20. conduction is delayed until later in a half-cycle. At that instant. To adjust power in the load. in any given half-cycle.

allowing welding power to be held precisely as set. The nature of the feedback depends on the parameter to be controlled and the degree of control required. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Most of SCR phase controlled welding power sources are three-phase machines. Such power sources have distinct features because the output characteristics are controlled electronically. however SCRs are used in a three phase circuit. That signal controls the precise arc voltage at any instant so that the control can properly time and sequence the initiation of the SCR to hold the preset voltage. wave filtering is required. Volt-ampere curves can be shaped & tailored for a particular welding process or its application. even if the input line voltage varies. Page 21 of 34 . New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. the feedback must consist of some signal that is proportional to arc voltage. The inductance (Z) would be sized accordingly. Therefore. Z was shown in the load circuit. Fig 22 – Phase Control Using an SCR Bridge In Figure 21 a large inductance. Such machines can adapt their state characteristic to any welding process. For a single phase circuit to operate over a significant range of control. the nonconducting intervals would be reduced significantly. automatic line-voltage compensation is very easily accomplished. is necessary must be precisely controlled for welding service. LGF. For example. Greater Kailash Part-II. To provide constant-voltage characteristics. M-69. For this reason three-phase SCR systems are more practical for welding power sources.com when no power is supplied to the load. Z must be very large to smooth out the pulses enough to increase the conductance times. Timing of the gate signals and feedback. The same effect is achieved with constant current by using a current reference. especially at low-power levels. This can stop the electric arc. If.

New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519.com Other capabilities are pulsing. Because of greater current ripple this configuration requires a larger inductor than the six SCR units. Page 22 of 34 . and a high initial current or voltage pulse at the start of the weld. With a 50 Hz main frequency this arrangement produces a 360 Hz ripple frequency under load. Fig 23 – Three Phase Bridge Using Six SCRs (Full Wave Control) Several SCR configurations can be used for arc welding.e. For that reason it has a slower dynamic response. commutate.. controlled arc voltage with respect to current. Greater Kailash Part-II. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. LGF. each half-cycle of the three-phase output is controlled separately. controlled current with respect to arc voltage. Fig 24 – Three Phase Hybrid Using Three SCRs and Four Diodes (Half-Wave Control) Figure 24 diagrams a three-phase bridge rectifier with three diodes and three SCRs. This offers greater economy over the six SCR units because it uses fewer SCRs and a lower cost control unit. i. called a freewheeling diode. can be added to re-circulate the inductive currents from the inductor so that the SCRs will turn off. A fourth diode. Figure 23 shows a three-phase bridge with six SCR devices. in fact. M-69. It also provides precise control and quick response. Dynamic response is enhanced because it reduces the size of the inductor needed to smooth out the welding current.

com C. there is a corresponding small conduction. The transistor differs from the SCR in several ways. the use of transistors is limited to power supplies requiring precise control of a number of variables. TRANSISTORS The transistor is another solid-state device which is used in welding power supplies. the volume of the passive components can be kept as low as possible. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. M-69. Unlike the SCR. Since transistors do not have the current-carrying capacity of SCRs. IGBT In the case of welding power sources the high switching frequency is necessary so that. IGBT stands for Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor Fig-25: Characteristics of Power devices commonly used for manufacturing of inverter power sources Fig -26 Page 23 of 34 . When a small signal is applied. The concept IGBT represents further advancement of the power MOSFET with the goal of reducing the turn-on resistance. there is a correspondingly large conduction. Having the optimal characteristics. apart from the noise consideration. Figure 26 and 27 illustrate the details of IGBT. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. several may be required to yield the output of one SCR. This can be done with new power semiconductor devices called IGBT modules. Figure 25 illustrate the characteristic differences between the switching devices. there is no conduction. with a large signal. which are notable for both their switching performance and their high current-carrying capacity. LGF. With no signal. Greater Kailash Part-II. One is that conduction through the device is proportional to the control signal applied. use of IGBT as a switching device for inverter circuit has found a new dimension in manufacturing of Welding Power Sources. Due to economic reason. the control can turn off the device without waiting for polarity reversal or an “off” time.

very fast switching devices that convert the DC back to AC. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. LGF. Various attempts have been made to reduce their weight and size. operation of the two transistors is fundamentally different. the high power. In Pulse Width Modulation. The high frequency AC then goes through a transformer to lower the voltage. the welding current is controlled by varying the frequency supplied to the main transformer. 50 Hz into direct current (DC) power usable for welding. the switching speed increased with the adopt abilities for higher voltage and currents which are essential requirements for welding power sources. the IGBT being a minority carrier device. SOLID-STATE INVERTER What is an Inverter? Inverter circuitry has been used for quite sometime in drive systems. but with the improved availabilities of solid state switching devices such as BJT. welding output is controlled by varying the conduction time of the switching device. the response time varies also. M-69. The terminal called collector is. With the advent of Solid State Electronics. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. controls and recreation vehicles. Page 24 of 34 . Frequency modulation and Pulse width modulation methods are being used to take advantage of transistors in welding power sources. In early 80’s high power Thyristors were employed in manufacturing the inverters. The lower voltage high frequency AC goes to a second rectifier and is changed to DC. Sensing and control circuits monitor the unit output. actually. 1 Ph or 3 Ph. Since the frequency is changing. Since the frequency & the response time are constant. Enhancement mode). The size of the transformer and inductor must be more for the lowest operating frequency. but a very high frequency (between 20 to 100 KHz). reliable.com Fig-27: Silicon cross-section of an IGBT with its equivalent circuit and symbol (N-channel. battery charges.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. the emitter of the PNP. cost effective switching devices were made available which also make the technology adoptable for welding power sources. compare the output to input commands and cause the output to match the input by controlling the inverter. This goes through a filter and becomes the DC output. aircraft industries. the primary power goes immediately to a rectifier that changes the AC to DC. D. An inverter welding power source changes the primary power line 415/220 Volt. The primary elements to weight to mass ratio in any welding power source are the magnetic (main transformer and filter inductor). Greater Kailash Part-II. the size of the transformer and inductor will be much less for the highest operating frequency. In inverter. MOSFET and IGBT. The DC then goes into the high power. In spite of its similarity to the crosssection of a power MOSFET. With frequency modulation.

ton tp ………………………………………….. An inverter-based power source is smaller. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. the voltage out (V out) equals voltage in (Vin). Inverter circuits control the output power using the principle of time ratio control (TRC). requires less electricity than conventional welding power sources.Equation 3 ton .Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. The average value of Vout is as follows: Vout = Thus : Vout = where ton = toff = tp = Vin . This operation of switching “on” and “off” is sometimes referred to as Switch Mode Operation. Figure 28 illustrates a simple TRC circuit which controls the output to a load such as a welding arc. the substitution of aluminum windings for copper. Since transformer size is inversely proportional to applied frequency and hence the reductions upto 75 percent in power source size and weight are possible using inverter circuits. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. The use of an inverter circuit can produce significant reduction in size and weight of these components as well as decrease their electrical losses. Conventional welding power sources use transformers operating from a line frequency of 50 Hz. more compact. M-69. Fig 28 – Simplified Diagram of an Inverter Circuit used to demonstrate the principle of time ratio control. when switch is off. or they are switched “off” and blocking. ton ton + toff one time (conducting) off time (blocking) ton + toff (or time of 1 cycle) Page 25 of 34 . and offers a faster response time. Greater Kailash Part-II. When switch is on.com for example. An inverter is a circuit which uses solid-state devices (SCR’s or transistors) to convert DC into high-frequency AC. toff ton + toff or Vin . The solidstate devices (semiconductors) in an inverter act as switches. TRC is the regulation of the “on” and “off” times of the switches to control the output. Vin + O . Vout = 0. LGF. they are either switched “on” and conducting. usually in the range of 1 KHz to 100 KHz.

the frequency (f) of the on/off cycles is defined as: l f = ---tp Thus. Since the on/off cycle is repeated for every tp interval. Page 26 of 34 . The switching of the semiconductors takes place between 1 kHz and 100 kHz depending on the component used and method of control. the TRC formula can now be written as :Vout = Vin . By varying ton the inverter uses pulse-width modulated TRC.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. ton . In another variation used for welding.com Vout t is controlled by regulating the time ratio ton / tp. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. Greater Kailash Part-II. Both frequency modulation and pulse width modulation have been used in commercially available Arc welding inverters. using semiconductor switches. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. inverts it into high-frequency square wave AC. the inverter produces sine waves in a resonant technology. M-69. Incoming three-phase or singlephase 50 Hz power is converted to DC by a full wave rectifier. Fig 29 – Inverter diagram showing power supply sections and voltage wave forms Figure 28 is a block diagram of an inverter used for DC welding. f The TRC formula leads two methods of controlling an inverter welding power source. with frequency modulation control. Another method of inverter control called frequency modulation TRC varies f. LGF. This DC is applied to the inverter which.

the inverter produces a unique set of advantages not attainable from conventional units. Fig . the AC is rectified to DC for welding. Greater Kailash Part-II. must be considered since they may affect the power supply performance. with appropriate options. The next step is a rectifier assembly that changes the AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current).com This high-frequency voltage allows the use of a smaller step down transformer.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. LGF. Sensing circuits monitor the output and compare the output to input control signals (power source setting). New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. The capabilities of the semiconductors and particular circuit topology determine response time and switching frequency. 30 shows a simplified diagram of the major components of both a conventional and inverter power source and the change in the electrical power by each component. other variables. M-69. such as length of weld cables. these sources can provide pulsed outputs. After being transformed. These circuits control the output by adjusting the output of the rectifier assembly. Faster response times are generally associated with the higher switching and control frequencies. resulting in more stable arcs and superior arc performance. In the conventional closed-loop-welding power source. ADVANTAGES However. This goes through a filter and becomes the DC output. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. .30 – Comparison of components conventional and inverter power sources Page 27 of 34 . Fig. However. primary power goes directly to a transformer which lowers the line voltage without changing the phase (Ph) or frequency (Hz). Solid-state controls enable the operator to select either constant-current or constant-voltage output and.

the smaller the transformer. and efficiency for conventional power sources and an inverter at the same welding output. LGF. the operating frequency has been changed to 20.350 Amp 60% duty cycle Inverter Unit & a 450 Amp 100% duty cycle conventional Rectifier unit Energy Efficiency Inverters are more energy efficient than conventional power sources. This allows the inverter transformer (and consequently the total inverter power source) to be much smaller and lighter than the conventional unit. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. most inefficient component. shows an inverter unit for a 350 Amp 60% duty cycle and a transformer Rectifier for a 450 Amp 100% duty cycle conventional unit and. Transformer size is inversely proportional to operating frequency – the higher the operating frequency. The smaller size and lower weight of inverters gives them greater portability – and they use less floor. Fig – 32 Page 28 of 34 . M-69.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Greater Kailash Part-II. Figure 31. Much of the reason is related to the difference in transformers. In the inverter. From 200 A to 500 A inverters are much more efficient. heaviest. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Table-1. the transformer operating at 50Hz frequency is the largest.com Size and weight In conventional power sources.000 Hz (from 50 Hz line) or over 400 times higher than the 50 Hz operating frequency of the conventional unit. Fig 31 . Figure 32 shows the energy loss in inverter vis-à-vis conventional rectifier. shows the input KVA.

0 2.5 3. the smaller the number of units that can be attached to the line. At 200 Amps output the inverter uses approximately one-half the input KVA. Greater Kailash Part-II. Here the inverter has a significant advantage. 10 Watts Power consumption [ % Savings ] 62% 65% 62% 1 2 3 4 2. Motor Generator Set IGBT Inverter 6.5 10.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Output welding current (Amps) 200A 300A 400A 500A Output required (KW) 5.3% >200W >200W >220W >250W <10W <10W <10W <10W Table -2 Comparison of Electrical Power Requirement Between IGBT Inverter & Motor Generators S. the larger size of the line or.98 26. Inverter No load loss (watts) Conv.4% 82.0 KW Input KVA Required Conv.6 KW 9.60 <20. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.0 Not measurable but approx. Table-1 Electrical Efficiency – Conventional V/s Inverter Power Sources S.6 KW 14. The higher the primary line current.20 75. Electrode Dia in mm Power consumption Units/Hrs. Inverter A B C D 15. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519.0 4.80 < 8. for a given line size.No.com Input KVA determines the amount of primary line current required.5 4.00mm At No-Load Table-3 Future Trend of Inverter Technology Item / Subject High Power Factor Low EMI Stage Input Inverter Conventional Technology Condenser input smoothing Hard switching PWM converter Fast Recovery Diode Thyristor BJT MOSFET Future Trend Switching mode rectifier Soft switching PWM converter Resonant converter Soft Recovery Diode MOS Gate Thyristor IGBT High Speed Control Smaller Size Rectifier Inverter Page 29 of 34 .15mm 4.5 8.No.59 20.7% 80. LGF.50mm 3.4 KW 20. M-69. Inverter Efficiency (%) Conv.0% 81.00 30.90 <14.9% 89. This will allow for more units to be placed on an already installed primary line.3% 85% 88% 88.40 < 9.

000 cycles per second for the inverter unit. Table-2 illustrates the electrical power requirement between inverter and motor generator. M-69. and control.000 times per second. The control circuitry can change the conventional unit output approximately 360 times per second and the inverter unit 20. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Page 30 of 34 . stability. LGF. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. and to the power switches operating at 20. The larger transformer of the conventional unit has more built-in inductance (resistance to change) than the smaller inverter transformer.000 cycles per second for the inverter unit. The control circuitry switches are operating at 20. that the sensing and control feed back is to the rectifier assembly operating at 50 cycles per second on 3 Ph power for the conventional unit.com Use of inverters will decrease the welding energy cost. Greater Kailash Part-II. These two conditions allow the inverter power source to give enhanced performance. Fig 33: Comparison in spatter generation rate of various types of welding power sources in GMA welding. Performance The major advantage of inverters is a significant increase in arc performance.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Note in Figure-26.

LGF.com Multi-process Capabilities Power sources of conventional design that could be used for several processes are not usually available. Something had to be compromised for one process to obtain acceptable results for another process. multiple processes are built into a single unit with maximum performance characteristics and full range for each process without compromising any process. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. suitable for Pulse Tig for Pulse Mig and Synergic Pulse Mig Welding Process including air arc gauging as and when required. Multiple output connections and special switches settings were required with higher operator understanding. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. With inverter design. The modular concept enables the users to update the simple inverter. Generally. M-69. GTAW and GMAWP.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Greater Kailash Part-II. by addition of function panels for each module. they were acceptable for each process in a given range but they could not give full range performance for each process. Page 31 of 34 . A simple switch allows process selection and the same output control sets the output for MMAW. Fig 34 .An inverter Power source with Built-in wire-feeder for Programmable Synergic Pulse Mig with U/I & I/I Controls with MMA & GTA welding facilities. Utmost care should be taken to introduce the Inverter Power sources in shop floor.

Do not just give the machine to the operator and expect him to find the correct settings.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. The GMAW-P (Pulse) process has a very different sound compared to short circuit. The small size can pose a question. Describe the desired goals. Each control knob should be explained as to function and if it applies to the application. An inverter presents four very new different things to the operator that should be explained before actual welding. and why. LGF. which are not to be used. “How can this smaller unit give as must power as this big one?” The arc and the machine will have a different sound. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. Welding testing and procedure qualification:Generally the machine settings to obtain the desired goals with an inverter will not be the same as with a conventional power source. Step -2. Step-3. Since most inverters are multi-process. he will attempt to find out for himself. communicate to the operator why an inverter is being tested. Page 32 of 34 . meet code requirements. or reduce costs through greater productivity and/or improved efficiency. and accomplish the desired goals. M-69. operators should know which are to be used. New settings and new travel speeds must be tested to comply with requirements for weld quality.com Following steps should be carefully followed to ripe the technological advantages of Inverters over and above the conventional rectifiers:- Step 1. Determine a proposed range of settings that give quality welds. Operator training:First. Make the operator a partner in the project. Coordination with shop floor management:Every new product put on the shop floor must solve a problem that cannot be solved with present product. Greater Kailash Part-II. The “arc sound” is used as gauge of acceptability. The benefits to be achieved upon by shop management. If an operator is not instructed about each control.

Usually. By using inverter power source. will be the real problems. the cost of welding can be easily brought down with significant improvement in weld quality. Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding. due to its higher efficiency. etc. Conclusion Digitally controlled Inverter based welding power source has come to stay in the welding industry throughout the world. Hence these equipment are suitable for outdoor as well as shop floor usage. poor feed rolls. M-69. LGF. Inverters usually “work” or “don’t work”.com Step-4. contaminated tungsten. negligible no-load losses and lower power consumption and higher Arc stability. It is a matter of pride that Indian fabrication industries had already started using inverter power sources to uplift the ultimate welding quality with reduced input cost. Training of maintenance personnel :Inverters should not be described as “a box of circuit boards”. Inverters generally conform to IP-23 specifications and CE & S marked. Page 33 of 34 . The tendency is to blame the inverter for everything that is not right. New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519. There is nothing in-between. common problems such as poor wire feeding. Greater Kailash Part-II. A good house-keeping can short out all these minor problems. and overheating conditions by turning the unit of before damage can occur.Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’. dead shorting. poor electrical connections. Many are designed to protect themselves from primary line spikes. because of its compact size and light weight.

New Delhi-110048 Tel: +91(0)11-292221519.“Recent Advances in Welding Power system for automated welding” – International Institute of Welding.1960. Jackson CE . . 7. Rankin T . LGF.“Review of New Design of Power sources for Arc welding Process” . January 1995.“Development of Inverter Welding Power Sources”. Page 34 of 34 . . Fax: +91(0)11-29212930 Email: info@automationindiawelding.“New Power Source design breaks the traditional welding”.“ Micro computer control of Synergic Pulse Mig Welding” .“ The Science of Arc Welding” . Mukhopadhyay GL .Docket XII-F-217-80. C Shira . June 1985. USA 2. etc . 8. International Institute of Welding. July 1998.“ A review on Recent Advances in Arc Welding Power sources in Japan” . Welding Journal . 4.Indian Welding Journal. December 1981. Needham JC .Docket 199/82. 6. Adam”s Lecture.Welding Journal. Greater Kailash Part-II. 5. 3. Amin M .com Bibliography / Reference:1. November 1982. May 1990. The Welding Institute. USA. M-69. Masao Ushio.Welding Journal. Hideyuki Yamamoto. USA. . 1980. The Welding Institute.Docket 166/81. Lucas W .“Converter Power Supplies – more options for Arc welding” .Automation India Welding Technology (P) Limited Central Marketing Office: ‘Shanti Nivas’.

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