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Unlike carbolic acid and all the other chemical antiseptics it had no toxic effect at all on leucocytes. 28- What are Leucocytes and who discovered them? How does natural immunity in human body work? Who painted out for the first time that leucocytes fight against invading germs? A Russian bacteriologist, Metchnikoff discovered that the body’s natural immunity against diseases was the white blood cells. He called them Leucocytes. He showed that when disease creating germs enter into human body, white cells from the whole surrounding area rush to join and battle against the invaders and the disease is nothing but a fight between the germs and leucocytes. 29- How natural resistance of the body works against invading germs? When disease causing germs enter the body, they are immensely attacked by hosts of white cells from the whole neighborhood. If they are killed completely, disease is not caused, However, if the invading germs dominantly destroy the leucocytes, the body show symptoms of the disease. 30- Narrate how Lysozyme was discovered? Who discovered it? In 1922, Fleming accidentally discovered a natural antiseptic manufactured by the body. Fleming was examining his own nasal secretion when he discovered a substance that destroyed microbes on the culture plate. He called it "Lysozyme". It was the forerunner of Penicillin. It can be called the first antiseptic discovered until then, which was harmless to the body cells. 31- What were lysozymes? Lysozymes were natural antiseptics which destroyed germs and yet had no harmful effect on leucocytes. It was the first antiseptic discovered that was harmless to the cells of the body. 32- Explain the conditions in which fungus penicillin grows? Under what conditions Fungus penicillin grows better? Mould or a fungus grows on wet bread or cheese in high moisture during winter season. 33- What is the difference between chemical antiseptics and antibiotics? When a chemical antiseptic enters in a body, it not only kills the disease causing germs but healthy body cells and white body cells or leucocytes. Contrary to this, an antibiotic has no toxic effect on leucocytes or body cells. It is a killer of destructive germs; it is a great preserver of white cells. It increases the natural immunity against germs. Basically, an antibiotic is a growth inhibiting treatment of disease. 34- Why in the beginning, the use of penicillin was difficult? When was penicillin first used? Who concentrated Penicillin in the purified form? Just after the discovery of penicillin, its use was too difficult because it is highly unstable in its crude form and it could not have been concentrated. From 1928 to 1939 experiment had been made arid finally in 1940; Oxford team was able to solve this problem by concentrating penicillin. In 1941, first human case was treated with penicillin. 35- What was the special obstacle in treatment of diseases by penicillin? Penicillin couldn't be used in the treatment of disease until a means for concentrating it was discovered. 36- What did Fleming meant by the phrase, "hit on" penicillin? Talking about the first stage of his discovery Fleming said, "the very first stage in the discovery was due to a stroke of good fortune" so, he used the phrase, "hit on" penicillin. 37- How was Fleming honored and respected after the discovery of penicillin? In 1944, Fleming was knighted and awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1945. Governments and universities all over the world showered him with honor. 38- What was response of Fleming when he was honored for the discovery? Where ever Fleming would go, people honored him as a hero, In this situation Fleming reported as, "Every where I go people thank me for saving their lives. I don’t know why they do it. I didn’t do anything; Nature makes penicillin. I just found it." 39- How did Americans react to see the laboratory of Fleming? What were comments of an American who visited laboratory of A Fleming? When the American visited the laboratory of Fleming, they were surprised and amazed. One of them called it black room of an old-fashioned drug-store. They find it hard to believe that penicillin could have been discovered there. 40- What were Fleming’s comments when he visited a well-equipped advance laboratory? After visiting an advanced laboratory, Fleming remarked, "Wonderful, but penicillin can never have been discovered in a lab, like this." 41- What was ultimate effect of Fleming’s discovery on the scientists to come? Fleming himself said, "the greatest benefit penicillin has conferred is not to the drug itself bent the fact that its discovery has stimulated the new research to find something better". 11- Mustafa Kamal (Wilfrid F. Castle) 1- What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the allies after world war one? After the first world war the Allies began controlling Turkish government. Sultan was weak and helpless so he was following the orders of Allies. Allied officers were supervising the police and the poets and the normal machinery of the government, sultan’s government had become a puppet show. 2- Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia? The First World War was over but Turkey was forcibly occupied by Allied Forces including Great Britain, Greek and Italy. These Allies had condemned the Ottoman Empire to be partitioned to the very walls of Istanbul. The situation in Turkey had gone so deplorable that Allied Officers and Padishah were concerned abut the situation in which, even the normal machinery of the government was hindered. Riots in the streets of Anatolia were increasing day by day. At this time far away in Eastern Anatolia, one Kiyazim Karabekar with some undefeated remnants of the Ottoman Army began to obstruct the Allied control officers, refusing to disband his men and even in the streets of Anatolia towns their, bearing changed. This caused great concern not only among the Allies but in Istanbul itself. Someone must go as the representative of the Padishah and deal with the situation on the spot. A strong and capable solider was needed to curb down the revolt there. Mustafa Kamal was the man most suitable for the job. Therefore, he was appointed as Governor General of
the Eastern Provinces and sent to Anatolia to curb the rebels at the spot on 15 May 1919. 3- What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire? The terms of peace which Allies made Turkey to sign were so destructive that the country would have been literally reduced to small parts. Even the treaty was a useless one because the rest of Turkey was to be partitioned among the Allies. As such, the patriots called its signatories traitors and old fools and the nation rejected the old government altogether except their own, new government, set up at Ankara. Therefore, there was none to put the shameful treaty into practice. The Greeks launched a severe attack on nationalist forces, which under Mustafa Kamal pushed the Allied forces back with great losses, Mustafa Kamal setting the next goal of reaching the Mediterranean which succeeded in six days. 4- Write a note on Mustafa Kamal's activities in Anatolia? Anatolia was the starting point of tough resistance against the enemy. Therefore, Mustafa Kamal, who was the Governor General of the Eastern Provinces, including the troublesome area, was sent there to crush patriotic military activities, But when this ship entered the Black Sea, the enemy came to suspect his real motive. Mustafa Kamal convinced them that at heart, he was also against the enemy and wanted to support the Anatalian patriots. Mustafa Kamal was so secretive and active that he did not let the enemy know his intention of going there, the latter suspecting at too late. After reaching the coast of Anatolia, Mustafa Kamal met the commander of a few troops, at Amisa. He held a secret meeting with the patriots and drew a plan for future resistance against the enemy. Accordingly, it was decided that small bands of armed men should stop the advance of Greek troops attacking the area; patriots should provide protection to the former without any kind of help from Istanbul. As the central government was a puppet in the hands of the enemy, a temporary government was formed in Anatolia to represent free Turkey. In short, he made maximum efforts to unite the Turkish people against the Allied and win their freedom. Mustafa Kamal toured the villages rousing the people against the enemy and setting up centers for this purpose. 5- Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople? When Mustafa Kamal reached Anatolia, the true patriots rallied round him. Here he met the commander Ali Faut and sketched out his plan of resistance. He also made an extensive tour of the villages and towns and organized people for resistance. When Sultan Mehmet came to know about Mustafa Kamal activities he ordered him to return to Istumbul. 6- What was Mustafa Kamal’s reply? Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia were a great threat to the plan of the allies and Sultan. When Sultan ordered him to return to Istambul immediately. He refused to go back and invited Sultan to come and lead the patriots against the foreigners, he replied, "I shall stay in Anatolia until the nation has won its independence." 7- How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself? On Mustafa Kamal’s refusal to return to Istanbul, Mehmet made a very clever plan, more to trap and paralyze the patriots. Apparently, he wanted to gratify their wishes. He declared that he was willing to call a meeting of the government of the patriot's choice for which its representatives would have to shift all their activities to Istanbul and let Mustafa Kamal realize his ideas there. Mehmet thought that Mustafa Kamal would thus stop opposing him, as he even otherwise, was the shadow of God, whom the Turkish people thought till then; believe their duty to obey him blindly. They could not imagine being able to survive without a Sultan. Mustafa Kamal had to struggle hard to argue them out of this deep-seated prejudice-bringing them round to the view that only an elected parliament set up for the time being in Anatolia could solve the country’s and their problems without any Sultan. 8- Why did his plan fail? As the patriotic delegates were in lstambul, Mustafa Kamal made good use of their absence. Once again he got busy in resistance campaigns. For the next few weeks he built up army formations in the interior parts of the country. People from all walks of life were ready to sacrifice their lives for this noble cause. His leadership infused a new spirit in patriots and the situation became more serious for allies and they had to withdraw their troops from many places. They also had to abandon the important railway junction at Esleshehir which was turned into ammunition factory by the patriots. In this way Sultan’s plan to put down Mustafa Kamal and the movement of freedom was failed. Now the hour struck when Kamal boldly announced to world that it was the Grand National Assembly, located in Ankara, which would decide the fate of Turkey until the foreign occupiers of the country left it. An Executive Council was set up to run the government of the country. Mustafa Kamal declared that Turkey was independent, sovereign state over which Allies had no right. 9- What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies? In May 1920 the allies published their terms of peace which was in fact a definite plan to dismember the Ottoman empire. The control of Arab territories was to be handed over the league of Nation. The control of Arab territories was to be handed over to the League of Nation. Anatolia, a Turkish province, was to become a part of Armenia, while Izmir was created as new district of Greece. The French were to have their share in the loot by getting Cecilia. So much so, the Ottoman capital was to become an international centre, to be jointly controlled by Britain, France and Italy. Only a piece of "Turkey in Europe" was to constitute Turkey in the hinterland of Istanbul. 10- Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat. According to the plan of Allies the Greeks attacked Turk patriots on 21st August 1921. There was a ferocious fight between them which was continued to two weeks. The battle took place in the hilly area above the Sakarya River on the 12th of September. Mustafa Kamal was commander-in-chief of the Turks. They fought bravely against the Greeks and pushed them back to Mediterranean. The defeated and exhausted Greek troops began escaping from lzmir. 11- Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul. On the November 4, 1922, the Ottoman Cabinet was suddenly over thrown by Rifat so that it had to resign marking the end of the last vestige of kingship in Turkey. Now Mehmet was left no choice but to escape from the country. He had only one trusted servant, an old conductor of his orchestra. Through him, he sought the protection of Sir Charles Harrington. On 17th November 1922 a motor vehicle drew up at a side door of the palace some baggage was brought out of the palace and kept in the car. A British officer took the old gentlemen’s umbrella as he entered the vehicle. At last the ambulance drove away and Sultan departed from Istanbul forever. 12- Sum up in a few sentences, the work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation-builder. Mustafa Kamal was a great reformer. Atatürk initiated expansive reforms, such as abolishing polygamy and granting new rights for women. He also abolished corruption, improved public education, and modernized industries. He wanted to put his country on the road to progress and prosperity. Soon after assuming power, he decided to carry out certain revolutionary reforms. His first object was to educate