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Nouns Nouns are names for: o People man, Laura, woman o Places home, store, Rome o Animals dogs,

gs, hamsters, cat o Things computer, book There are: o Common nouns such as: building, planet, boy o Proper nouns such as: Empire State Building, Earth, Jason There are two types of nouns: o Count noun: a store, a book A count noun can be a singular and a plural For example: Two books some books a lot of books many books a few o Non count nouns: water, honesty In grammar, noncount nouns cannot be counted. If a verb follows a noncount noun, it is always singular. Also, it never takes the indefinite article a/an. Plural Nouns For most regular plurals an s should be added to the word. o For example: apples, coins, etc. When the singular ends in s, sh, ch, x, z add an es When the singular ends in an o, add s There are exceptions such as tomato tomatoes potato potatoes hero heroes When a singular ends in y (preceded by a vowel) only s is added like toy toys When a singular ends in y (preceded by a consonant) ies is added like baby babies 2 Personal Pronouns o There are subject pronouns that refer to the subject such as: I we you you he/she/it they for example: the subject of a sentence *She screamed. o There are object pronouns that refer to the object of the verb such as: me us you you him/her/it them for example: *Sarah gave me some chocolate. o There are possessive pronouns that indicate ownership such as: mine ours yours yours his/hers/its theirs for example: *These cookies are mine. o There are reflexive pronouns that refer to the subject such as:

myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself/herself/itself themselves for example: *I did it myself. o There are indefinite pronouns which are nonspecific: everyone nobody everything somebody anyone someone anything etc. o Pronouns take the place of a noun Noun substitutes: boy he book it Sue she Adjectives o Adjectives give information about nouns an pronouns o Adjectives answer questions about nouns/pronouns such as How many? What kind of? Which? o Adjectives dont change form to agree with the word they modify.

3 Adverbs o Adverbs give information about verbs, adjectives and adverbs, or an entire clause or sentence o Adverbs are sometimes formed by adding ly to an adjective The paper was badly written. There are three classes of adverbs: Simple adverbs that convey degree, manner, place, or time. They answer questions such as How? Where? When? Interrogative adverbs that ask a question. When do you plan to get here? Conjunctive adverbs that connect independent clauses. Peter struggled with the English language; however, he mastered it eventually Common conjunctive adverbs: accordingly, also, anyhow, besides, consequently, furthermore, otherwise, etc. Prepositions o Prepositions are words that show a relationship between two things. Common prepositions after, about, against, around, as if, among, unless, except, behind, until, of, by, on, down, with, within, through, during, among, across, by, off, etc. o They answer questions such as Where? When? How? Why? o They usually combine with nouns or noun phrases to form a prepositional phrase.

For example: Youll find what youre looking for around the corner. Conjunctions o Coordinating Conjunctions Create a relationship between two or more parts Used to join parts of a sentence Common Conjunctions And signals an addition of equal importance But signals a contrast So signals a result For signals a reason Or signals a choice Yet signals a contrast o Correlative Conjunctions Not only + noun + but also + noun Either + noun + or + noun Neither + noun + nor + noun For example: Either you go or you do not. 4 When the subjects are connected by both, they take a plural verb. For example: Both + noun + and + noun. Both my brother and I live in the United States. o Subordinating Conjunctions Used to introduce adverbial clauses and link them to the main clause. Can be used to begin a sentence. For example: Even though she was new, she navigated through the school. Common subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, because, before, if, since, so that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, while Verbs o A verb informs what the subject is, did, does, was, will do, or will be doing. o It adapts its form to show time. o It modifies its form to agree with the subject. o It varies its form to indicate how a sentence is going to be constructed or expressed. o It expresses whether the subject performs or receives the action in a sentence. In the English language there are three different settings of mood: 1. Indicative mood, used for statements and questions about actual events and things. 2. Imperative mood, used to convey commands or to make requests. 3. Subjunctive mood, used to express possibility, as in hypothetical situations, expressions of hopes and desires, statements contrary to fact. For example: If I were two inches taller, I could go on the roller coaster. Helping Verbs Are added to another verb to add clarification to the meaning. They include any form of the verb to be as well as the following forms of common verbs: can, could, do, does, did, have, has, had, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.

We will meet tomorrow. Transitive Verbs Is one that needs a direct object. Monica caught the fish. Intransitive Verbs One that does not need a direct object but can have an indirect object. What happened? Linking Verbs Joins the subject to the predicate. Rather than showing action, a linking verb helps the word at the end of the sentence describe or name the subject. 5 Is a form of the verb to be as in: am, am being, are, can be, have been, is, was, and were. For example: Maria is a clothing designer. Active vs. Passive Active voice The subject of the sentence performs or acts out the verb. The subject of the sentence is the doer of the action For example: Monica caught the fish. Passive voice The subject receives the action of the sentence rather than performing the action. It is a form of the verb to be and a past participle verb. The fish was caught by Monica. Articles o Articles are words that modify nouns. o There are two types of articles: definite and indefinite. Definite Articles (The) Point to a specific item or person of a group or entity. Examples: For an object: Please shut the window. For a person: The woman over there is my sister. Used in front of the names of countries or objects. If the referral is specific, then you need an article, for example: I love the book that is on the table. However, if the referral is for general items, then no article is needed, for example: I love books. Indefinite Articles (a/an) Used with singular count nouns only. For example: a book, a piece of chocolate, a girl an is used with a noun that begins with a vowel sound. For example: an apple, an appointment, an hour Used when the noun is unknown. For example: I have an exam tomorrow. I have a question.

Reference: Han, Pamela R. and Hensley, Dennis E. Alpha Teach Yourself: Grammar and Style in 24 Hours. Indianapolis: Pearson Education, 2000.