Nouns Nouns are names for: o People – man, Laura, woman o Places – home, store, Rome o Animals – dogs
, hamsters, cat o Things – computer, book There are: o Common nouns such as: building, planet, boy o Proper nouns such as: Empire State Building, Earth, Jason There are two types of nouns: o Count noun: a store, a book ─ A count noun can be a singular and a plural For example: Two books – some books – a lot of books – many books – a few o Non count nouns: water, honesty ─ In grammar, non‐count nouns cannot be counted. ─ If a verb follows a non‐count noun, it is always singular. ─ Also, it never takes the indefinite article a/an. Plural Nouns For most regular plurals an –s should be added to the word. o For example: apples, coins, etc. ─ When the singular ends in s, sh, ch, x, z add an –es ─ When the singular ends in an o, add –s There are exceptions such as tomato – tomatoes potato – potatoes hero – heroes ─ When a singular ends in –y (preceded by a vowel) only –s is added like toy – toys ─ When a singular ends in –y (preceded by a consonant) –ies is added like baby ‐ babies 2 Personal Pronouns o There are subject pronouns that refer to the subject such as: I we you you he/she/it they ─ for example: the subject of a sentence *She screamed. o There are object pronouns that refer to the object of the verb such as: me us you you him/her/it them ─ for example: *Sarah gave me some chocolate. o There are possessive pronouns that indicate ownership such as: mine ours yours yours his/hers/its theirs ─ for example: *These cookies are mine. o There are reflexive pronouns that refer to the subject such as:
adjectives and adverbs. behind. place. o Pronouns take the place of a noun ─ Noun substitutes: boy – he book – it Sue – she Adjectives o Adjectives give information about nouns an pronouns o Adjectives answer questions about nouns/pronouns such as How many? What kind of? Which? o Adjectives don’t change form to agree with the word they modify. besides. about. ─ Common prepositions after. across. or time. also. as if. except. Peter struggled with the English language. o They answer questions such as Where? When? How? Why? o They usually combine with nouns or noun phrases to form a prepositional phrase. or an entire clause or sentence o Adverbs are sometimes formed by adding –ly to an adjective ─ The paper was badly written.
. however. off. by. unless. Prepositions o Prepositions are words that show a relationship between two things. etc. There are three classes of adverbs: ─ Simple adverbs that convey degree. furthermore. he mastered it eventually Common conjunctive adverbs: accordingly. among. of. with. around. on.myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself/herself/itself themselves ─ for example: *I did it myself. etc. against. within. until. o There are indefinite pronouns which are non‐specific: everyone nobody everything somebody anyone someone anything etc. during. among. consequently. manner. otherwise. When do you plan to get here? ─ Conjunctive adverbs that connect independent clauses. anyhow. down. by. They answer questions such as How? Where? When? ─ Interrogative adverbs that ask a question. through.
3 Adverbs o Adverbs give information about verbs.
. Conjunctions o Coordinating Conjunctions ─ Create a relationship between two or more parts ─ Used to join parts of a sentence ─ Common Conjunctions And – signals an addition of equal importance But – signals a contrast So – signals a result For – signals a reason Or – signals a choice Yet‐ signals a contrast o Correlative Conjunctions ─ Not only + noun + but also + noun ─ Either + noun + or + noun ─ Neither + noun + nor + noun For example: Either you go or you do not. o It adapts its form to show time. when. where. has. ─ Common subordinating conjunctions: after. or will be doing. 4 ─ When the subjects are connected by both. does. whenever. and would. 3. if. might. until. Helping Verbs ─ Are added to another verb to add clarification to the meaning. o It varies its form to indicate how a sentence is going to be constructed or expressed. Both my brother and I live in the United States. statements contrary to fact. do. they take a plural verb. so that. unless. since. as. o It modifies its form to agree with the subject. had. used for statements and questions about actual events and things. For example: Even though she was new. she navigated through the school. as in hypothetical situations. 2. must. though. because. used to convey commands or to make requests. Imperative mood. although. For example: You’ll find what you’re looking for around the corner. For example: If I were two inches taller. did. o Subordinating Conjunctions ─ Used to introduce adverbial clauses and link them to the main clause. In the English language there are three different settings of mood: 1. expressions of hopes and desires. does. For example: Both + noun + and + noun. o It expresses whether the subject performs or receives the action in a sentence. will do. ─ They include any form of the verb ‘to be’ as well as the following forms of common verbs: can. should. could. while Verbs o A verb informs what the subject is. used to express possibility. did. will. I could go on the roller coaster. have. Subjunctive mood. shall. ─ Can be used to begin a sentence. was. Indicative mood. before.
an hour Used when the noun is unknown. am being. ─ Definite Articles (The) Point to a specific item or person of a group or entity. Active vs. a girl ‘an’ is used with a noun that begins with a vowel sound. then you need an article. If the referral is specific. a linking verb helps the word at the end of the sentence describe or name the subject. was. o There are two types of articles: definite and indefinite. The fish was caught by Monica. For example: Maria is a clothing designer. I have a question. can be. for example: I love books. Examples: For an object: Please shut the window. and were. ─ Indefinite Articles (a/an) Used with singular count nouns only. The subject of the sentence is the doer of the action For example: Monica caught the fish. have been. For example: I have an exam tomorrow.
. ─ Rather than showing action. is. For a person: The woman over there is my sister. We will meet tomorrow. then no article is needed. ─ Passive voice The subject receives the action of the sentence rather than performing the action. It is a form of the verb ‘to be’ and a past participle verb. 5 ─ Is a form of the verb ‘to be’ as in: am. Intransitive Verbs ─ One that does not need a direct object but can have an indirect object. However. are. an appointment. For example: a book. Used in front of the names of countries or objects. What happened? Linking Verbs ─ Joins the subject to the predicate. Monica caught the fish. For example: an apple. Articles o Articles are words that modify nouns. a piece of chocolate. Transitive Verbs ─ Is one that needs a direct object. for example: I love the book that is on the table. if the referral is for general items. Passive ─ Active voice The subject of the sentence performs or acts out the verb.
Alpha Teach Yourself: Grammar and Style in 24 Hours. Dennis E. 2000.
.Reference: Han. Indianapolis: Pearson Education. Pamela R. and Hensley.