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METHODOLOGY OF SCIENCE

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SCIENCE CHEMISTRY
O-LEVEL 2012
A1.

QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTED ANSWERS


The table gives the laboratory tests for four gases. Complete the table. gas chlorine ammonia oxygen sulfur dioxide [ A2. Iron will rust. (a) (i) Give two properties of iron. [2] test insert damp litmus insert damp red litmus pass into acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution insert glowing splint result [3]

bleaches/ paper bleaches/ turns litmus white turns litmus blue bursts into flame

solution turns from orange to green ]

Acceptable: - it is malleable states - it is able to conduct electricity in any states - it has high melting and boiling point - it forms coloured compounds - it is a good catalytic substance - it can be extracted by carbon reduction - it produces hydrogen gas when added to acids (ii) Describe how machines made of iron can be prevented from rusting. By using zinc as galvanising to protect iron. Acceptable: - by fully coating the machines with a layer of grease/oil. (b) A student wants to find out what is required for rusting and records the results of the experiment after some time. Tube A Tube B Tube C Tube D Tube E : : : : : iron nails in a sealed tube containing oil and boiled distilled water; no rust iron nails in a sealed tube containing dry air and some drying agent; no rust iron nails in an unsealed tube containing air and water; nails rusted copper nails in an unsealed tube containing air and water; no rust iron nails in an unsealed tube containing air and seawater; nails rusted badly. [1]

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[1]

(i)

Which tube contained no water? B

(ii)

What do the results of tube C and D show? Iron, when exposed to air and water, will rust but copper, when exposed to air and water, does not rust. ( ) ;

[1]

(iii)

Rust appeared in C. Suggest which substance found in air is required for rusting to take place? Oxygen

[1]

(iv)

Machines made of iron if left near the sea rusts more quickly than those left inland. How do the results of the experiment support the observation? seawater, Tube E, which shows that iron nails when left exposed to air and seawater, has the most extensive rusting process.

[1]

A3.

Use the Periodic Table provided. (a) What is the common name given to elements in: Group 0 : Group I : [ (b) : Noble gases Alkali metals ] [3] [2]

Answer the questions below using ideas of electronic structures. (i) Why do elements in Group 0 lack chemical reactivity? The elements have full shell electronic structures and hence do not need nobleto gain or lose electrons to obtain stable noble-gas configuration. (ii) Why are chlorine, bromine and iodine found in the same group? All 3 elements have 7 valence electrons and hence need to gain 1 electron nobleconfiguration. into their valence shell to obtain stable noble-gas configuration. Thus, VII. they are all grouped in Group VII.

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(iii)

Explain why the elements change from metallic to non-metallic character across the period from lithium to fluorine. Across the period, the no. of valence electrons in the atoms of element of Increases. Increases. Hence the elements change from tendency of losing valence electrons to gaining of electrons to form ions, becoming from metallic to nonnon-metallic in character.

(c)

Give the formula of the compound formed. (i) [ (ii) [ when an element from Group I reacts with an element from Group VI, : ] when an element from Group II reacts with an element from Group VII. : ] [1] [1]

A4.

The diagram shows the reaction of an organic substance H. colourless solution F add yeast and warm colourless gas G colourless solution H atmospheric oxidation colourless solution J (a) Identify F, G, H and J. F: G: H: J: [ glucose carbon dioxide ethanol ethanoic acid ] blue litmus paper litmus turns red [4] bubble into limewater white ppt

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[1]

(b)

Draw the structural formula of H.

[ (c) Give the functional group in J that turns the blue litmus red.

] [1]

A5.

Identify the oxidising agent and the reducing agent. (a) 2 2 CuO C

[2]

oxidising agent: reducing agent:

Not accepted: copper in copper(II) oxide / copper Accept: chemical name / mole ratio included (b) oxidising agent: reducing agent: A6. (a) Fe

At room temperature and pressure, water is a liquid but methane is a gas. (i) Name the type of bonding in these compounds. Covalent bonds (ii) [ ] [4] [1]

Draw the dot and cross diagrams to show the electronic structure of the two compounds. Water: Key: : electrons of oxygen x : electrons of hydrogen

Methane:

Key: : electrons of carbon x : electrons of hydrogen /

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[1]

(b)

Magnesium chloride has a higher boiling point than methane. (i) Name the type of bonding for magnesium chloride. Ionic bond (ii) Using the concept of bonding, explain the difference in boiling point of magnesium chloride and methane. oppositelyis an ionic compound with giant crystal lattice where oppositelyare charged ions are held by strong electrostatic forces and huge amount of energy is required to overcome, thus a high boiling point. But is a [2]

compound covalent compound with simple molecular structure where molecules are held by weak intermolecular forces and only small amount of energy is required to overcome, hence its low boiling point.

A7.

Some metal carbonate tablets are added in excess to acids of the same volume and concentration. The reactions are carried out at four different temperatures: K, L, M and N. For each experiment, the volume of gas produced is measured at regular time intervals and the graphs show the results tabulated.

Vol/

Vol/

temperature K

temperature L

time Vol/ Vol/

time

temperature M

temperature N

time

time

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[1]

(a)

Using the letters K, L, M and N, state which temperature (i) was the lowest; L (ii) gave the fastest reaction; M (iii) showed that the reaction was still proceeding after the range of the graph? L [1] [1]

(b)

The experiment at temperature K: (i) was repeated using acid of the same volume at a much lesser concentration. Draw in the diagram below the graph you would expect to obtain. [2]

Vol/

original graph of temperature K

time
[ [ (ii) ; . ] ( ) ] [2]

was repeated using the same mass of metal carbonate in powder form. Draw in the diagram below the graph you would expect to obtain.

Vol/

original graph of temperature K

time

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[1]

A8.

(a)

(i)

A solution is made by dissolving 53g of sodium carbonate in water to a volume of 500cm3. Calculate the concentration, in g/dm3, of the solution. Vol. of solution in dm3 = = 0.5 dm3 Concentration of solution = . = 106 g/dm3

(ii)

A 2dm3 solution contains 53g of sodium carbonate. Calculate the concentration, in mol/dm3, of the solution. No. of moles of sodium carbonate = = = 0.5 mol

[1]

Concentration of solution . = = 0.25 mol/dm3 (b) (i) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. State symbols are not required. [2]

(ii)

What is the number of moles of sodium carbonate that will react with 4 moles of hydrochloric acid? From equation, ratio moles 2 4mol : : :

[1]

1 2mol

End of Section A

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[4]

B9.

(a)

Briefly describe four characteristic reactions of acids.

Ans: Using dilute hydrochloric acid as an example. Hydrogen chloride dissolves in water to dissociate into ions that characterize the following acid reactions: (1) Metal Acid: When hydrochloric acid is added to a metal such as magnesium (excluding (excluding silver and copper), effervescence of hydrogen gas which when passed over a sound. lighted splint extinguishes the splint with a pop sound. The reaction also produces a salt. Metal carbonate Acid: carbonate When hydrochloric acid is added to a metal carbonate such as magnesium carbonate, carbonate, effervescence of carbon dioxide gas is formed which when bubbled precipitate. into limewater gives a white precipitate. The reaction also produces a salt and water. Metal hydroxide (Base) Acid: When either a soluble or insoluble base is added to hydrochloric acid, such as aqueous sodium hydroxide, water and a salt is produced. Metal oxide Acid: When metal oxide (both basic or amphoteric) is added to hydrochloric acid, produced. such as magnesium oxide, a salt and water is produced.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(b)

Describe how pure sample of silver chloride can be prepared using silver metal. Use the information below for your preparation: silver does not react with hydrochloric acid; silver can react with hot concentrated nitric acid; all nitrates are soluble in water; silver chloride is insoluble in water.

[4]

Ans: Heat about 25.0cm3 of concentrated nitric acid in a conical flask. Once hot, add silver metals in excess to the hot concentrated nitric acid until no more hot, acid. dissolves to completely use up the acid. silver. Filter the mixture to remove unreacted silver. Add aqueous sodium chloride [ ]to the filtrate until no more precipitate to forms. Filter the mixture to collect silver chloride as residue. forms. residue. papers. Rinse crystals with distilled water and dry between filter papers. : . .

(c)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction between a named metal with a named acid. State symbols are not required.

[2]

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[6]

B10. (a)

Briefly describe an experiment that shows the order of chemical reactivity of calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium. List these metals in order of decreasing reactivity.

Ans: Regents required: all 4 metals and solutions of nitrate of each metal.

Dip a piece of magnesium metal into four separate solutions of the metal nitrates as are shown above. The observations to each test tube are recorded in the table shown below. the Repeat the experiment once each for the metal calcium, iron and sodium with the unchanged. other variables unchanged. magnesium aq. calcium nitrate aq. iron(II) nitrate aq. magnesium nitrate sodium aq. sodium nitrate No visible reaction Mg dissolves No visible reaction No visible reaction calcium No visible reaction No visible reaction Ca dissolves No visible reaction iron No visible reaction No visible reaction No visible reaction No visible reaction sodium Na dissolves Na dissolves Na dissolves No visible reaction

In the experiment, a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its compound. Hence, if the metal dissolves, the metal is more reactive than the metal as cation. the cation. Thus, the reactivity of the metals in decreasing order is: sodium, [ (b) : (i) calcium, / ; magnesium, iron ]

Bromine is more reactive than iodine and reacts with aqueous potassium iodide to form potassium bromide. Calculate the mass of iodine that is displaced when a solution containing 10g of potassium iodide is reacted with excess bromine.

[3]

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Ans: No. of moles of KI =

= = 0.060241 mol

From equation, ratio moles = = = 2 0.060241

Mass of iodine formed

(b)

(ii)

Accept: B11. (a) (i) Accept: [ (ii)

What element could be used to displace bromine from aqueous potassium bromide? Fluorine or Chlorine Define the term ( ). It is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of element. an element. ] and . Describe the Chlorine exists naturally as two chlorine isotopes: similarities and differences in the atomic structure and electronic structure of these two atoms.

0.03012 x Mr of 0.03012 0.03012 x 254 7.6505 7.65g (3s.f)

: : :

1 0.03012mol 0.03012mol

[1]

[2]

Ans: For isotopes are atoms of the same element with same number of protons but different number of neutrons: Atomic structure have: Both have: 17 protons in the nucleus 17 electrons in an atom It contains 18 neutron utrons neutrons in its nucleus It contains 20 neutrons in its nucleus Electronic structure Both have: the same electron structure of 2,8,7 with 3 electron shells and 7 valence electrons There is no difference in electronic structure

[5]

similarities

differences (b) (i) Ans: (ii) Ans:

Define . It is the average mass of an atom of an element as compared to carbon- atom. carbon-12 atom.

the mass of a

[1]

Chlorine has a relative atomic mass of 35.5. Explain why the value of the relative atomic mass of chlorine is not a whole number. Chlorine exists as two isotopes of different percentage composition by mass mass, with different atomic mass, hence the average mass of the isotopes may not give rise to a whole number.

[2]

End of Section B