This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A. Membrane Transport
1. The plasma membrane is both a ________________ and a ______________
between the ICF
and the ECF and is said to be ____________________
a. Moving substances in and out of the cell can be either _____________
____________ and as _______________________ or not.
2. Passive transport are those that do not require ________________ (ATP).
a. ___________________ is the process of particles being driven through a
permeable membrane by ___________________ pressure.
i. ___________________ pressure is the force exerted on a surface
ii. The weight of the water drives water and dissolved matter
aa. This is the primary means of transferring solutes from
___________________ into the ________________.
b. _______________________ is the net movement of particles from higher
_____________________ or down a ___________________
iii. Diffusion rates are determined by a number of factors
aa. __________________: _____________ energy of particles is
increased with higher temperature.
slower its diffusion.
bb. __________________________: The _______________ a
the __________________ its movement and the
cc. __________________ ___________________: The greater the
difference the concentration between two points,
the rates of diffusion.
dd. _________________________________: the
the surface area of a cell, the greater
______________ available for
solute can _______
ee. ______________________ _____________________: Diffusion
across a _____________________ requires that the
through the _________________________.
iv.____________________ is the diffusion of ________________ down
aa. Water can diffuse across almost any
protein, but a channel protein
specific for the diffusion of water is called
3. Osmolarity and Tonicity
a. An _________________is 1 mole of dissolved particles. Any particle
that does not
________________ in water will have ________________
equal to 1 osmole.
b. ______________________ is the number of osmoles per liter of solution
while ________________________ is the number of osmoles
per kilogram of water
i. These two terms can be used interchangeably because of the
content in the human body, but most use
ii. The normal osmolarity of most body fluids is _________________.
aa. Because cell membranes are ____________________ to
water _________________________ throughout
the body making the
concentration of water in all
body fluids _________________________.
c. _____________________ is the ability of a solution to affect the
and ___________________ in a cell.
i. An __________________ solution has the same concentration of
________________________ solutes compared to the
ii. A _________________________ solution has a _____________
of nonpermeating solutes than the __________.
aa. Placing cells in a hypotonic solution will cause cells to
iii. A _____________________ solution has a _________________
concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the ICF.
aa. Placing cells in a hypertonic solution will cause cells to
4. _________________-mediated transport requires a transport protein with
for a ligand.
a. A __________________ carries only one solute in one direction. (uni:
b. A ____________________ carries two or more solutes through a
simultaneously in the ___________direction.
c. An _______________ carries two or more solutes through a membrane
5. _____________________ diffusion is the carrier-mediated transport of a solute
membrane _______________ its concentration gradient.
6. ___________________ transport is the carrier-mediated transport of a solute
______________ its concentration gradient.
a. This type of transport requires the use of ______________ in the form
i. The most common example of active transport in the body is
___________-________________ (Na+-K+) ___________
pump that can use
~_____% of energy in the body.
B. ________________ Transport is the movement of large particles, droplets of fluid, or
many molecules at the same time within a _____________.
1. Vesicular transport into the cell is called ________________, and transport out
of the cell is called ______________________.
a. endo: _________; exo: __________; cyto: ___________; osis:
b. There are three forms of endocytosis:
i. __________________ is the process of engulfing a particle (phago:
ii. _____________________is the process of taking in droplets of
along with any molecules dissolved in the ECF.
iii. __________________-mediated endocytosis requires a group of
receptors on the _______________ _________________
that cluster together
and form a depression in the plasma
membrane that pinches off and forms a
in the cytoplasm.
c. _____________________ is the process of removing particles from the
i. Exocytosis ___________ a vesicle with the
d. ___________________ removes pieces of the plasma membrane, while
__________________ adds to the cell membrane.
e. __________________________ combines both exocytosis and
endocytosis to cross
the length of a cell.
1. What is the difference between active and passive transport?
2. What causes filtration? What type of pressure drive it?
3. What is the primary means of moving solutes out of the bloodstream?
5. Compare and contrast simple and facilitated diffusion.
6. Define simple diffusion and osmosis.
7. What factors affect the diffusion rate?
8. What is osmotic pressure? What is osmolarity?
9. Be able to distinguish a hypertonic solution from a hypotonic solution.
10. What is the normal osmolarity of the fluids of the body?
11. What is the name of a channel specific for water transport?
12. What is hydrostatic pressure? What is an example of its importance in
13. What are the differences between endocytosis and exocytosis?
14. What are 3 types of endocytosis?
15. What happens to cells placed in a hypertonic solution? A hypotonic solution?
16. Define symporter, antiporter, and uniporter.
17. What is the most common type of active transport in the body.