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Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering tasks. It includes computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided analysis (CAA), computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), material requirements planning (MRP)and computer-aided planning (CAP) Computer-aided engineering (CAE) means Use of computer systems to analyze CAD geometry Allows designer to simulate and study how the product will behave, allowing for optimization Finite-element method (FEM) Divides model into interconnected elements Solves continuous field problems
Components of CAD/CAM/CAE Systems
o o o Major component is hardware and software allowing shape manipulation Hardware includes graphic devices and their peripherals for input and output operations Software includes packages that manipulate or analyze shapes according to user interaction
but facet.e. and it is widely used in the engineering field. thinning). metal stretch. (typically a finite element model. comfort. there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task: Pre-processing – defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it. Optimization of the product or process. their use has enabled the automakers to reduce product development cost and time while improving the safety. Safety analysis of postulate loss-of-coolant accident in nuclear reactor using realistic thermal-hydraulics code. physical testing is still used as a final confirmation for subsystems due to the fact that CAE cannot predict all variables in complex assemblies (i. Applications of CAE Tools in Automotive Industry: CAE tools are very widely used in the automotive industry. Even though there have been many advances in CAE. Analysis tools for process simulation for operations such as casting.In general. *********************** . voxel and thin sheet methods are also used) Analysis solver (usually performed on high powered computers) Post-processing of results (using visualization tools) CAE areas covered include: Stress analysis on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element Analysis). Thermal and fluid flow analysis Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The predictive capability of CAE tools has progressed to the point where much of the design verification is now done using computer simulations rather than physical prototype testing. Multibody dynamics(MBD) & Kinematics. In fact. and durability of the vehicles they produce. CAE dependability is based upon all proper assumptions as inputs and must identify critical inputs (BJ). molding. and die press forming.
and that a usable replacement part would be available in case it was needed. Regardless of the material to be used. What happens when parts from one company. With the application of skill. When a replacement part was required. The other part is compatibility. however. In such instances. acting under their general duty to preserve general welfare and to protect life and property from harm. working to their standards. most design projects just are not that challenging or different from what has been done in the past. However. Purposes and objectives of codes and standards The protection of general welfare is one of the common reasons for the establishment of a government agency. basic science. Eventually they evolved into published standards of practice. Economies of scale dictated that parts should be as nearly identical as possible. each item was unique and the craftsman made the parts to fit each other. However. The purpose of codes is to assist that government agency in meeting its obligation to protect the general welfare of the population it serves. Economies of scale dictated that parts should be as nearly identical as possible. The key consideration was that the replacement part had to be interchangeable with the original one. as the economy grew and large numbers of an item were required. When manufactured articles were made by artisans working individually. but only if the parts are compatible. working to their standards? Will parts from company A fit with parts from company B? Yes. such information was carefully guarded and was often kept secret. With the passage of time. Historically. When a replacement part was required. interchangeability and compatibility. a little bit of luck. Some government entities. The objectives of codes are to prevent damage to . added the standards to their legal bases. and discussions with peers are common approaches that combine to produce an approach to solving the problem. When manufactured articles were made by artisans working individually. it had to be made specially to fit. daring. a workable solution usually emerges. In other words. the handcrafted method was grossly inefficient. The need for codes and standards The fundamental need for codes and standards in design is based on two concepts. as the economy grew and large numbers of an item were required. The key consideration was that the replacement part had to be interchangeable with the original one. have to be combined with parts from another company. pushing the boundaries of available technical knowledge. interchangeability and compatibility. ever more firmly established. intuition.Designing to Codes and Standards Abstract: The fundamental need for codes and standards in design is based on two concepts. most design projects are exercises in creative problem solving. and that a usable replacement part would be available in case it was needed. the standards of the two companies must be the same. and patience. If the project is a very advanced one. money. each item was unique and the craftsman made the parts to fit each other. it had to be made specially to fit. the handcrafted method was grossly inefficient. there are few guidelines available for the designer. However. these privately developed methods of solving design problems became common knowledge. Standardization of parts within a particular manufacturing company to ensure interchangeability is only one part of the industrial production problem.
As a practical matter. the standard is finally issued and published by ANSI. assemblers. not on how the . standards are frequently collected as reference information when codes are being prepared. Codes are often legal requirements that are adopted by local jurisdictions that then enforce their provisions.property and injury to or loss of life by persons. A review group is then formed that includes members of many groups other than the industry. (sanitary or health code). as in the structural safety of buildings (building code). codes tell the user what to do and when and under what circumstances to do it. The emphasis is on the result. or other proprietary standards may not be available to anyone outside that company or trade. etc. A time frame is set up for receipt of comments. One of the key features of the ANSI system is the unrestricted availability of its standards. As an industry matures. not what method is to be used to achieve it. health requirements for plumbing. A sponsoring trade association will request that ANSI review its standard. As noted in the definition for code. after which a Board of Standards Review considers the comments and makes what it considers necessary changes. This is usually done through special institutions like the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). the reader needs to understand the differences between "codes" and "standards". "Standard" is defined as "something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison. entire sections of the standards are adopted into the code by reference. using a wide variety of approaches. ventilation. Types of codes There are two broad types of codes: performance codes and specification or prescriptive codes. This expands the area of consensus and is an essential feature of the ANSI process. which provides the necessary forum. reduction. there is no reason for designers to avoid the step of searching for and collecting any and all standards applicable to their particular projects. These objectives are accomplished by applying accumulated knowledge to the avoidance. Establishing national trade practices is the next step in the standards development process. After a while the chaos decreases. itself. an approved model". subcontractors. A similar process is used by the International Standards Organization (ISO). Standards tell the user how to do it and are usually regarded only as recommendations that do not have the force of law. etc. listed in their catalog. In many instances. seeking comments. health. more and more companies get involved as suppliers. and then become legally enforceable. but ANSI standards are available to everyone. With the wide consensus format and easy accessibility. After more reviews. Performance codes state their regulations in the form of what the specific requirement is supposed to achieve. trade.. Which items are codes and which are standards? One of the several dictionary definitions for "code" is "any set of standards set forth and enforced by a local government for the protection of public safety. ANSI circulates copies of the proposed standard to all interested parties. and the specifications for fire escapes or exits (fire code)". and available to anyone who wishes to purchase a copy. It is common for sections of a local code to refer to nationally recognized standards. or elimination of definable hazards. inventors and entrepreneurs scramble to get into the market. Before going any further. How standards develop Whenever a new field of economic activity emerges. and so forth. and a consensus begins to form as to what constitutes "good practice" for that economic activity. which began to prepare an extensive set of worldwide standards in 1996. Company.
fits. provide detailed guidance to designers of buildings and equipment that will be constructed. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) publishes a series of books that codify recommended good practices in various areas of their discipline. it is important that designers become familiar with standards applicable to this enormous market segment. When outsourcing is used. Laws passed by legislatures are written in general and often vague language. Statutory codes are those prepared and adopted by some governmental agency. Government specification standards for federal. It is assumed that designers. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) publishes hundreds of standards relating to the design and safety requirements for vehicles and their appurtenances. and several have wide acceptance. on the other hand. Trade codes relate to several public welfare concerns. To make certain that the purchasing agency gets precisely the product it wants. and there are often stringent inspection. complete with license requirements and penalties for violations. state. and local entities involve literally thousands of documents. Failure to comply with the specifications is cause for rejection of the seller’s offer. or federal. Specification or prescriptive codes state their requirements in terms of specific details and leave no discretion to the designer. Because government purchases involve such a huge portion of the national economy. contain a section that sets forth other documents that are incorporated by reference into the body of the primary document. The electrical codes relate to property damage and personal injury. federal and military . each applicable within its geographical area of jurisdiction. certification. and finishes for inhouse production. Quality assurance provisions are often in-house standards. forms. ventilation. and several others. as a function of their jobs. Regulations. local. To implement the collective wisdom of the lawmakers. Mechanical codes are involved with both proper component strength and avoidance of personal injury hazards.result is obtained. These other documents are usually federal specifications. or maintained by persons skilled in those particular trades. Safety codes. are intimately familiar with their own employer’s standards. Building codes treat structural requirements that ensure adequate resistance to applied loads. Types of standards Proprietary (in-house) standards are prepared by individual companies for their own use. the specifications are drawn up in elaborate detail. the purchasing department will usually use the in-house standards in the terms and conditions of the order. It is important for designers to note that government specifications. They usually establish tolerances for various physical factors such as dimensions. particularly Federal specifications. Operating procedures for material review boards are commonly based on inhouse standards. They have the force of law and contain enforcement provisions. installed. the agency staff then comes in to write the regulations that spell out the details. which have been used as a design standard for many decades. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) publishes the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. the plumbing. stale. For example. The safety codes sets forth detailed requirements for safety as it relates to buildings. All of these codes. but currently many are being based on the requirements of ISO 9000. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) publishes thousands of standards relating to materials and the methods of testing to ensure compliance with the requirements of the standards. treat only the safety aspects of a particular entity. There are many of each type in use. operated. Professional society codes have been developed. and sanitation codes relate to health. There are literally thousands of these. and documentation requirements included.
This has been followed by ISO 14000 for Environmental Management Standards. Awareness of the existence and applicability of codes and standards is a major responsibility of the designer. Product definition standards are published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology under procedures of the Department of Commerce. The American National Standards Institute also publishes a catalog of all their publications and distributes catalogs of standards published by 38 other ISO member organizations. industries. These efforts resulted in the publication of the ISO 9000 Standard for Quality Management. which is directed at international environmental problems. certifications. The field of interest of each sponsor is usually obvious from the name of the organization. One of the designer’s responsibilities in the background phase is to make certain that the collection of . Statistical Methods for Quality Control. Standards and Commercial Item Descriptions every April. that of quality assurance and control. quality assurance agencies. and Materials Data Books. Beginning in 1987. the Office of Federal Supply Services of the General Services Administration issues the Index of Federal Specifications. The result can be substantial variations in quality. All of these provide valuable information for designers of products intended for the international market. the International Standards Organization (ISO) attacked one of the most serious international standardization problems. International standards have been proliferating rapidly for the past two decades. Codes and standards preparation organizations U. and products of several suppliers may be mixed together by vendors. ratings. and applicable industrial or commercial standards. and to formulate a promising solution to it. and sets the uniform lumber sizes for this very commonly used material.standards. As mentioned previously.S. The MIL standards and Handbooks for a particular product line should be a basic pan of the library of any designers working in the government supply area. This is a key part of the background phase of the design effort. and labeling requirements. Government Documents. It establishes the grading rules. They also distribute ASTM and ISO standards and English language editions of Japanese Standards. and Acoustics. other than for the Department of Defense. and interchangeability demands for which standards are ideally suited. This has been in response to the demands of an increasingly global economy for uniformity. the next logical step is to begin the collection of available reference materials such as codes and standards. ANSI does not handle publications of the British Standards Institute or the standards organizations in Germany and France. Examples are the ISO Standards Handbooks on Mechanical Vibration and Shock. Designer’s responsibility As soon as a designer has been able to establish a solid definition of the problem at hand. Handbooks. names of specific varieties of soft wood. the Commercial Standards set forth test methods. To provide a uniform basis for fair competition. For Federal government procurement items. The ISO has several Technical Committees (TC) that publish handbooks and standards in their particular fields. Testing and certification standards are developed for use by designers. Commingling of such items is commonplace. there are many organizations that act as sponsors for the standards that ANSI prepares under their consensus format. Listings in the ANSI catalog will have the acronym for the sponsor given after the ANSI symbol. Commercial standards (denoted by the letters CS) are published by the Commerce Department for articles considered to be commodities. The sponsors are good sources for information on forthcoming changes in standards and should be consulted by designers wishing to avoid last-minute surprises. and testing laboratories. compatibility.
Programme Planning Product Design Process Planning Process Control Planning The ability to trace design features and process needs back to customer requirements Is formed by taking the design characteristics from the top of the initial matrix and using them as the left-hand side of . However. Since then a second method has been developed and primarily used in American applications.” QFD Methodology It was first developed by Akao. The two methods are also heavily focused on products and processes. Although the four elements of the approach vary depending upon the application. Quality Function Deployment Quality deployment is defined as a methodology that “converts user demands into substitute quality characteristics. failure of the designer to meet the requirements set forth in the standards can be considered professional malpractice. It is generally referred to as the four-phased approach and was developed originally by the American Supplier Institute. a designer’s failure to acquire a complete and comprehensive collection of applicable standards is ill advised in today’s litigious environment. In addition. determines the design quality of the finished goods and systematically deploys this quality into component quality. and its first application was in Japan. Four-phased Approach The four-phased approach to QFD is accomplished by using a series of matrices that guide the product team’s activities by providing standard documentation during product and process development.reference codes and standards is both complete and comprehensive. The basic four phases of the approach that structure QFD Matrixes are four major activities. and the ease of access to it. individual past quality and process elements and their relationships. but go about application of the analyses in different ways. this can be a formidable task. He developed the approaches called Matrix of Matrices. Considering the enormous amount of information available. These two approaches utilize a similar matrix.
If a characteristic can not be measured then there is no way to verify that it has been implemented into design. The core QFD matrix measures the relative importance to the customer of all of the defined needs. A project team should seek consensus on evaluations basing them on expert engineering or service knowledge and experience. The term “Technical requirements’ is used to group product. or product design. The first category consists of explicit customer expectations. The relational level of importance. Weighed values based on customers’ perception are designed from the team members’ direct experience with the customers or from the surveys. The last group of customer needs is “excitement factors”. then further definition is required. There are several categories of customer needs. Develop Technical Requirements The next step involves brain storming a list of technical characteristics or requirements that will satisfy the customer needs. Customers can be either internal or external to the organization and their needs may be conflicting. System characteristics exhibiting negative relationships are trade off to find the best compromise and strong positive relationships are studied to prevent duplication of the effort. or integrated into manufacturing process or included in the service. targets are set for each corresponding characteristics to measure the process. If the characteristic is not measurable.This process continues until specific product and process specifications and manufacturing guidelines result. Identify Technical Interactions In a QFD matrix these connections between the system characteristics are captured at the top of the matrix in what is traditionally referred to as the root.The second category involves elements a customer expects without telling you.the next matrix. The house of quality is used to initiate a comparison of customers needs with the technical requirements of the products. Some times it is necessary to focus who is the actual end user of the product or services in order to determine who the final customer is. Concept Evaluation Product or service concepts can be evaluated against all technical requirements as related to customer needs. Priorities Technical Requirements The relationship matrix can be transported into design priorities. Co-relate Technical Requirements to Customer Needs The relationship matrix indicates the impact of each technical requirement on the customers needs. The first step in prioritization is to assume that not all customer needs can be equally important. Prioritize Needs and Conduct Competitive Benchmarking The matrix is used to prioritize customer needs and develop competitive benchmarks. Identify Customer Needs The core QFD matrix begins by using the customers’ physical and functional needs (attributes). customer responses and tabulated data from statistical studies. Set Specific Targets At the bottom of the core QFD matrix. Each independent element of a particular concept can be evaluated for strength and weakness . The Core of QFD Matrix The core of QFD matrix is based on a matrix that is some times referred as the “House of Quality”. service and operational requirements that will satisfy customers’ needs at the top level of analysis. what is important and define what is least important. service. Customers can be primary or secondary customers. The distinctive roof of the core QFD matrix assists engineers or members of the multi-functional team in specifying various characteristic features that need to be improved collaterally.
Develop Prioritized Customer Requirements of the Internal and External Customer is taken Develop Prioritized Technical Descriptors were Calculated Self-Completion Questionnaire They are low cost since there is no interviewer involved.” 3. As a result. Kalamassery. The Machine is used in the Heavy Machinery manufacturing units like Earth Moving machine manufacturing units. CNC Slant Bed Turning centre SB CNC 40/60 is designed on advanced concepts for the economic machining of standard and exotic materials with cutting tools ranging from coated carbide and ceramics to CBN and PCD tooling system. Very few companies are manufacturing such machines in India. The main competitors are (1) MIVEN – Hubli. The SBCNC 40/60 Slant Bed Turning centre is basically used in Defence Sector. Improve the aesthetics of the machine Make the machine more user friendly and Ultimately improve the customer satisfaction and improved sales. This analysis also permits the design team or the development team to determine if there are any gaps in the concept’s technical solutions that would prevent meeting performance goals. Instrumentation etc. Problem Description HMT Kalamassery unit is manufacturing SB CNC Slant bed Turning Centre in the last 25 years. 2. and in heavy equipment manufacturing companies like BHEL. fax machine can be used. military vehicle manufacturing machines etc. manufactured in HMT. They are least instructive form of data collection and respondents co-operate with self compilation questionnaire. BMEL. About the SB CNC / 40/60 Slat Bed Turning Centre manufactured in HMT Kalamassery HMT Kalamassery plant is manufacturing SB CNC 40/60 Slant Bed machine Centre for the last 25 years. the concept in that can c then be compared to another concept to determine overall ability to meet the customers’ priority needs as determined earlier in the analysis. The purpose of this study is to: Identify the functional problems of the machine and rectify. construction machinery manufacturing units. Distance is immaterial and there is wide choice of methods for distributing questionnaire. In the last several years the sales of the machine is dropped. Envelopes can be provided . Case Study-About the SB CNC / 40/60 Slat Bed Turning Centre manufactured in HMT Kalamassery 1. individual past quality and process elements and their relationships. Quality Function Deployment Quality deployment is defined as a methodology that “converts user demands into substitute quality characteristics. Introduction The purpose of the project is to improve the existing SBCNC 40/60 Slant Bed Turning Center. Personal delivery and collection improves response rate and saleable. Improve the capacity of the machine if needed. In addition to post. The company is equipped with best and automated foundry. Presently it is selling only 10 to 15 machines annually. (2) PROTECH – Chennai. KSB.compared to the performance targets set during QFD analysis. determines the design quality of the finished goods and systematically deploys this quality into component quality. world class manufacturing facilities and design team.
Firstly respondents tend to reply very hurriedly and with little thought. Service Dept. user friendliness. For eg. Before Designing Questionnaire The characteristic functional problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . aesthetics and additional features prepared for the HMT SB CNC 40/60 Turning Centre are identified after consultation with the HMT Design Dept. The lathe has to be user friendly. There are two problems here. Sales Dept and Quality Control Dept. The Following are the Expected Modifications User friendly Aesthetics o Handles o Protective Covers o Switches change o Colour change Functional Problems Failure of indigenous items o Manufactured o Contract Manufactured Oil leakage (Hydraulic) Coolant leakage (Fabrication problem) Turret change (Hydraulic to Electric) Capacity o Stock Removal Rate o Accuracy How to answer the Questionnaire? Kindly read the question before deciding the most accurate grading from a scale of 9. Self compilation questionnaires are particularly useful method of capsuling customers’ vens at the point of consumption. Any perceived difficulty in completing the exercise will have a considerable adverse effect on response rate. The questionnaires have to be reasonably short and questions simple.to suggest confidentiality. Handles / switches have to be good Looking and should provide a good Appearance to the lathe. 2. 1 2 Of no Importance at all 3 Quite Unimportant 4 5 Quite 6 7 8 (9) Extremely Important Important Customers Feedback Questionnaire HMT SBCC 40/60 Slant Bed Turning Centre 1. They are very slow and leave them in pending trays. 9 as in figure. Despite these many attractions. self compilation questionnaires do have serious disadvantages. If you feel the level of grading is 9 then circle box no. need of automation. The additional features or capacity of the immediate competitors are also studied. The most serious drawback of self compilation questionnaire is the accuracy of the data generated. Secondly very low response rate. As a result. questionnaire misinterpreted or omitted.
6. 13. 19. It has to be rectified. 16. Coolant leakage occurs frequently. 15. The machine system should have the capacity to automatically communicate with each sub machine. Certain machine components fail Frequently. 7. 9. Attractive and durable paint finish. 8. Hydraulic turret subjected to oil leakage. Work loading device has to be automated. Hydraulic oil leakage occurs frequently.3. 5. It has to be rectified. Colours of the machine are dull and must be replaced with bright. Provision for online maintenance must be provided 14. Lubrication oil leakage occurs frequently. 18. Should tool automation (Auto tool changer / tool magazines) be provided. European Safety Standards must be Provided. FMS/CIM is available on the machine 17. IT 6. 11. 10. Online inspection facilities have to be Provided. IT 5) is available on the machine. Components should have a high MTBF (Mean time between failures) should be graded with high quality. Brighter lights have to be provided In the machine area. Manual doors are difficult to operate and should be replaced with Automated doors. Power usage can be reduced by replacing gear box with a direct drive motor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 4. It has to be rectified. To improve the safety of machine. Higher geometrical accuracy (IT 7. 12. so that heavy jobs can be loaded easily.
O-rings. machine stops) (d) System user friendly (e) Menu driven (f) USB. 20. O-Ring. (b) Poor workmanship (c ) Better connectors.Casting made outside HMT does not have good quality . Metal removal rate has to be improved.Contract workers produces inferior quality components (a) Oil chillers has to be provided (to reduce the hydraulic oil temperature) (b) Better connectors. Tubes (c ) Better workmanship (d) Base casting modified with separate oil passage (a) Closed system (System has to be redesigned to collect the excess oil and recycle). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Customer Requirements User friendly (Easy to operate the lathe) Technical Description (a) Software (Error identifying system) (b) Monitor (moving from left to right) (c ) Interlocking (operator make mistake.it has to be rectified. Ethernet. communication (PC based) (a) Ergonomically designed imported (a) Door interlock (door switch imported) (b) Pressure switch (imported) (a) Small electric motor with reduction gear (b) Improve design for easy movement (a) Polyuthene paint (b) Paint booth (c ) Powder coating (a) Higher grade/Quality components (b) Manufacturing set-up has to be improved (presently machines are old) (c) Improve quality of components . Hose (a) Sheet metal modification (must be made by CNC press shop) 2 Handles Switches Manual Doors Colours 3 4 5 Higher MTBE 6 Hydraulic oil leakage 7 Lubrication leakage 8 Coolant leakage .
Turret Bearing. base mould has to be changed) 9 Brighter light (c ) Poor workmanship (a) LED lights + movable spot light (b) Halogen lights + movable spot light (a) Jib crane (Pneumatic Servolift) (b) Gandary type / Load Balancer (a) Job probe inspection station (b) Post process for the machine tool (c ) Automatic Post process (a) Using direct driven motor without gear box (a) TPM software total productivity maintenance software (b) Self diagnostic system – Error kits (a) Obtain European Safety Standards (a) Communication with similar machines (a) Facilities to connect all machines with the main server.(b) Mounting area between base casting and sheet metal must be proper (Base casting should have grooves so leaking will not take place. Communicate with each sub system and take commands from the main server (a) If the tools required is >12 tool magazine has to be provided a) Hydraulic guide ways b) Hydrostatic spindles c) Ball screw change d) Machine must be maintained in controlled temperature e) Bed should be vibration free f) Linear scale g) Bearing change h) Axis accuracy a) Servo turret b) Improved quality of material and workmanship c) Proper final assembly d) Total design change of the Turret a) Stiffness / Rigidity improve b) Change. saddle. casting etc. 10 Work loading 11 Online inspection 12 Motor with Gear Box 13 On-line maintenance 14 European Safety Standards 15 Machine system communicate with subsystem 16 FMS/CIM availability 17 Tool automation 18 Higher geometrical accuracy (IT5) 19 Hydraulic turret 20 Metal Removal Rate (Speed. depth of cut) . feed.
Hydraulic turret subject to oil leakages. Replacing gears and motor for a direct drive meter. HMT. Improve metal removal rate. Provision for online maintenance must be provided. Machine should have the capacity to communicate with other machines. Hydraulic turret oil leakage has to be rectified. Coolant leakage occurs frequently. Building a House of Quality List of Customer Requirements (WHATs) This list is often referred as the what that customer needs or expects in a particular product. The weight-age between the technical descriptors was chosen after consultation with the Quality Control Dept. Handles/switches have to be good looking. Provision for online maintenance is required. Geared spindle meter must be replaced with direct driven motor. Loading device has to be automated. Brighter light has to be provided. Machines can be networked (communicate with each other). HMT. External Customers Prioritized customer requirements Brighter light in the machine area. Replacing grinder motor spindle drive with a direct drive motor. Kalamassery. Internal Customers Prioritized customer requirements Lathe has to be user friendly. attractive and durable. Metal removal rate has to be improved. Kalamassery.The inter-relationship (weight-age) between technical descriptors and customer requirements were decided after consultation with Quality Control Dept. it has to be rectified. For the safety of the machine. The machine components should have high MTBF (Mean time between failures). Hydraulic oil leakage occurs frequently. The requirements must be clearly represent with minute details. Lathe has to be user friendly. Machine compounds have higher MTBF (Mean time between failures) and graded with high quality. Tool automation has to be provided. . Coolant leakage has to be rectified. FMS/CIM is available on the machine. Lubrication oil leakage occurs frequently. Online inspection facilities have to be provided. Handles / switches have to be good looking. Hydraulic oil leakage has to be rectified.. Colours must be bright. Automated doors are needed. European Safety standards may be followed. Lubrication oil / leakage have to be rectified.
. Improve the design for easy movement of the door. To cool the hydraulic oil. attractive and durable paint is required. FMS/CIM facilities must be available on the machine. Software (a) Error Identifying System. List of Technical Descriptions (HOWs) The goal of House of Quality is to design or change the design of a product in a way that meet or exceeds the customer satisfaction. Develop Relationship Matrix between WHATs and HOWs The next step in building a house of quality is to compare the customer requirements and technical descriptors and determine their respective relationships. Total productivity maintenance software has to be used. oil chillers can be used. use tool magazine. If the required tool is better than 12. Obtain European Safety Standard Certificate. This provision similar to refining marketing specification into system-level engineering specification. switches (imported). Better workmanship. 9 – represent strong relationship 3 – represent medium relationship 1 – represent weak relationship Develop an Inter-relationship between HOW’s The roof of the house of quality. LED lights + moveable spotlight. Increase the stiffness / rigidity of the machine. Sheet metal design modification (manufactured in CNC Automatic press Shop). Online inspection facilities have to be provided. Higher geometrical accuracy is required (175 or 174). Networking the systems (machine tools). Axis accuracy has to be increased. 9 – represent strong relationship 3 – represent medium relationship 1 – represent weak relationship Manufacturing setup has to be improved. Job-probe inspection station. Provision for automation is provided on the machine. The relationship matrix is used to represent graphically the degree of influence between technical descriptors and each customer requirements. Automated (motorized) doors have to be provided work loading has to be automated. European safety standards must be followed. is to identify any relationship between each of the technical descriptors. Ergonomically designed handles. the correlation matrix. (b) Self Diagnosis System. Using better connectors. Facilities to connect all machines with master server. Automated working loading device has to be provided. Re-design to collect the excess lubrication oil and recycle. Material (in-house casting) and better workmanship. Bright. tubes and O-ring. Implementation of the customer requirements are treated into technical language. Servo Turret.
Job-probe inspection station. Higher speed for spindle motor. Load balancer. 4. Material (in-house casting) and better workmanship. Facilities to connect all machines with master server. Increase the stiffness / rigidity of the machine. Hydrostatics spindle. Menu driven. Total productivity maintenance software has to be used. Re-design to collect the excess lubrication oil and recycle. the feedbacks are prioritized. (b) Self Diagnosis System. Menu driven. Gearless motor. If the required tool is better than 12. Improve the design for easy movement of the door. Ergonomically designed handles. Poly Urethane paint. Post process for machine tool. LED lights + moveable spotlight. Poly Urethane paint. Gearless motor. Increase the speed. Summary of Work Done Design of customers’ feedback questionnaire. Jib Crane. Jib Crane. To cool the hydraulic oil. Post process for machine tool. Better workmanship. Sheet metal design modification (manufactured in CNC Automatic press Shop). oil chillers can be used. use tool magazine. Prioritized Technical Descriptors (External Customers) Manufacturing setup has to be improved. Software (a) Error Identifying System. Technical descriptors were identified. Axis accuracy has to be increased. Load balancer. (b) Prioritized technical descriptors of the Internal Customers. Communication with similar machines. Hydrostatics spindle. Better connectors. analysed and best alternative for the problem is selected. QFD matrix is constructed. Tubes and O-ring. Conclusion . switches (imported). Obtain European Safety Standard Certificate. After collecting the feedbacks of Internal and External customers. The output is (a) Prioritized technical descriptors of the External Customer. Servo Turret.
Interrelationship between customer and technical language can be studied using interpretive structural model. WI: ASQ Quality Press. 7. Crosby. St. 6. 5. Carol besterfield. Milwaukee. 7. QFD can be modified using AHP. Philip B. Fiorenzo Franleschini.. Barbara A. Bicknell. Scope for Future Work Fuzzy QFD can be formed. Prentice Hall. 2. Dale H. James L. 1984.. MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. House of Quality . Lucie Press. ‘Quality Function Deployment: A Practitioner’s Approach’. and Competitive Position. James. W. 1982. India. ‘Quality without Tears. ‘Quality. 3. 4.’ New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Bossert. ‘The Road Map to Repeatable Success’. Reference 1. ‘Quality Function Deployment’. ‘Total Quality Management’. Milwaukee. 5. Productivity. 1991. Bossert.The prioritized technical characteristics of both Internal and External Customer are more or less same. 6. Besterfield. ‘Advanced Quality Function Deployment’.’ Cambridge. Edwards. Deming.
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