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Examples - Impedance Relays Directional OC Relays

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IMPEDANCE RELAYS

NEMA number 21

Impedance relays are used whenever overcurrent relays do not provide adequate protection. They function even if the short circuit current is relatively low. The speed of operation is independent of current magnitude. Impedance relays monitor the impedance between the relay location and the fault. If the impedance falls within the relay setting, the relay will operate. The basic construction for impedance relays on which the principle of operation is easily explained is the balanced beam.

Figure: Principle of Impedance Relay

The relay consists of a balanced beam. At each end of the balanced beam is a coil that exerts a force on the beam at that end. One coil is connected to a current from a current transformer, the other coil is connected to a potential transformer. The voltage coil functions as a restraining coil, the current coil functions as an operating coil. Under normal conditions, the contact of the relay is kept open. During a fault, the voltage drops, and the current rises. The torque due to the current coil overpowers the torque due to the voltage coil, and the relay closes its contact. The torque caused by the current through the current coil is where Ki is a constant of proportionality that depends on the relay construction The torque caused by the voltage coil is where Kv is a constant of proportionality that depends on the relay construction When the torques are balanced,

The ratio of voltage and current is the impedance the relay detects at the point of its connection. To close its contacts,

The contacts will close anytime the impedance the relay sees is less than a preset value given by This can be represented on an impedance graph X vs R

Figure: Operating Diagram of an Impedance Relay This type of impedance relay is not directional. It will detect a fault in any direction. If it is used, it is used together with a directional relay that eliminates half of its characteristic.

Figure: Operating Diagram of an Impedance Relay with a Directional Unit

OFFSET IMPEDANCE RELAY Offset impedance relay is also known under names ADMITTANCE RELAY or MHO RELAY

Phasor Diagram

The torque of the watt element is where Kw is a constant of proportionality that depends on the relay construction The torque caused by the voltage coil is where Kv is a constant of proportionality that depends on the relay construction Relay operates if

The phase angle depends on impedance Zs . Zs can be chosen so that = 0. Also, both voltage coils are connected to the same voltage V. ( It follows that )

Similarly as for the impedance relay, this impedance can be represented by an X vs R graph. This time the circle is offset from the center.

Figure: Operating Diagram for an Offset Impedance Relay with Characteristic Angle equal to 0

If impedance Zs is chosen so that 0, the circle shifts:

Figure: Operating Diagram for an Offset Impedance Relay with Characteristic Angle Different from 0

For impedance relays detecting short circuits on transmission lines, impedance Zs is chosen so that is the same as the impedance angle of the line. This relay will detect a fault in only one direction.

RESISTANCE AND REACTANCE RELAYS

The torque of the watt element is

where Kw is a constant of proportionality that depends on the relay construction The torque caused by the current coil is

where Ki is a constant of proportionality that depends on the relay construction Relay operates if

The phase angle depends on impedance Zs . Zs can be chosen so that = 0. Also, both current coils are connected to the same current I. It follows that

The operating characteristic of this relay is a straight line

Figure: Operating Diagram for a Resistance Relay

Figure: Operating Diagram for a Reactance Relay

All distance relays are connected to the power system through instrument transformers. The relay monitors the impedance in secondary ohms. Secondary ohms are related to the primary ohms by the equation

where CTR is the current transformer ratio PTR is the potential transformer ratio Zones of Protection In general, distance protection includes three steps of protection, with each step reaching a fixed preset distance and operating in a preset time.

Zone 1 reaches 80 - 90% of the protected line. The tripping is instantaneous. Zone 2 extends beyond the protected line up to about 50% of the adjacent line. The tripping has a time delay, usually set to a value between 0.3 s to 0.5 s. Zone 3 covers the protected line, the adjacent line, and up to 25% of the line next to the adjacent line. Tripping is delayed between 0.6 s to 1.0 s.

ELE-E606
Directional OC Relays

Protective Devices Protective Relays

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Impedance Relays

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Overcurrent Relays NEMA numbers 51 50

Overcurrent relays are used for protection of lines, transformer, generators, and motors. Principle of Overcurrent Protection

There are two types of overcurrent relays - instantaneous - NEMA # 50 - time overcurrent - NEMA # 51

Instantaneous Relays operate without intentional time delay. They are used for faults close to the source when the fault current is very high. The operating time is approximately 10 ms. The construction of the instantaneous relays is usually moving armature, plunger, or induction disk.

An important characteristic of an instantaneous relay is a drop-out ratio.

Dropout ratio is usually less than 1.

Time Overcurrent Relays operate with a time delay. The time delay is adjustable. For a given setting, the actual time delay depends on the current through the relay coil. In general, higher current will cause a faster operation of the relay. The minimum current at which the relay operates (pick-up current) is also adjustable.

Typical Characteristics of an Overcurrent Relay Time overcurrent relays come in five different versions that are defined by the steepness of the time-overcurrent characteristic: - definite time - moderately inverse - inverse - very inverse - extremely inverse

The most commonly used overcurrent relay incorporates both, the instantaneous unit and the time overcurrent unit. The instantaneous response is provided by a moving armature unit. Its purpose is to operate on very large currents. The inverse time response is provided by an induction disk unit and is set to operate for lower fault currents.

The induction disk unit operates on the same principle as induction motor. The metal disk is mounted on a shaft that can freely rotate. The current coils are fixed. They create magnetic field that induces eddy currents in the metal disk. The magnetic field of the eddy currents interacts with the magnetic field of the stationary coils and produce torque on the disk. The disk and its shaft rotate and bring the moving contact towards the fixed contact into a closed position. The motion of the shaft is opposed by a spring that returns the disk and the moving contact into the open position when the current drops below a preset value. The time to close the contact depends on the contact travel distance which is set by a time dial. The pick-up current is adjustable by selecting current taps on the current coil. The relays are normally available with three ranges of current taps: 0.5 to 2.0 A, 1.5 to 6.0 A, and 4 to 16 A. The time dial has usually positions marked from 0 to 10, where for 0 setting the contact is permanently closed. Connection of Overcurrent Relays to the Power System

Protection of Radial Systems by Overcurrent Relays Consider a case of a radial line supplying three stations as shown:

The protection must satisfy these requirements: a) under normal conditions the breakers are not tripped b) under fault conditions only the breakers closest to the fault on the source side are tripped c) if the closest breaker fails to operate, the next breaker closer to the source should trip. For example: for a fault at F3, breaker B2 should trip, and B1 and B0 should remain closed so that power can be still delivered to loads on buses 0, 1, and 2. Only if breaker B2 fails to trip, B1 should trip after a time delay. B0 should still remain closed. In a radial system, the fault current decreases as the distance from the source increases. Thus the fault current will be the highest for a fault close to bus 0, and the lowest for a fault past bus 2. Lets assume a fault at F3. The relays at breaker B2 must operate for this fault. The relays at B1 will also detect the fault, but there must be a delay in their operation to allow the breaker B2 trip first.

T2 = pick-up time of relays at B2 for a fault at F2 T2= pick-up time of relays at B1 for a fault at F2 T3 = pick-up time of relays at B2 for a fault at F3 T3= pick-up time of relays at B1 for a fault at F3

(T3 - T3) and (T2 - T2) must be large enough to allow the relays at B2 operate and the breaker B2 trip and clear the fault before relays at B1 can operate. It must also allow for overtravel of the relays at B1.

Ground Current Relays During balanced conditions, current through the neutral is 0. If there is an unbalanced fault (one phase or two phase to ground fault) the current through neutral is no longer zero. Presence of current in the neutral indicates that there is a fault present. Ground current relays can be set to quite low values to detect this current and operate. Example: Under normal conditions, the three phase currents are balanced and the current in the neutral (or ground, if the neutral is grounded) adds to zero:

If there is a fault on phase A, the current in phase A will increase, while the other two phase currents will remain the same. The current in the neutral now no longer adds to zero:

Example of a typical time-overcurrent characteristic of a time overcurrent relay:

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VOLTAGE RELAYS The voltage relays are usually very similar to overcurrent relays. They are induction disc units that close contacts on overvoltage, undervoltage, or both.

Voltage Relay Operation Voltage from a potential transformer is applied to the lower pole and induced into the upper poles. The upper poles induce eddy currents in the disc. The torque is produced by the interaction of the eddy currents and flux from the lower pole. Voltage settings are adjusted by voltage coil taps. The time settings are adjusted by time dial that adjusts the travel distance of the moving contact. The moving contact rotates in the horizontal plane. The return torque is provided by the spring acting on the shaft. Characteristics of voltage relays

Applications of Voltage Relays Load Transfer - an undervoltage relay initiates a transfer of load from one supply to another in the case of failure of the first supply Voltage Regulation - undervoltage and overvoltage relays initiate switching of capacitor banks or stepping of up or down of a tapchanger Bus Protection and Back-up Protection - an overvoltage relay initiates breaker tripping in case of a bus fault or in case of failure of overcurrent relays to operate on faults on feeders Generator Protection - an overvoltage relay initiates d.c. field control in case of overvoltage on generator due to loss of load. Motor Protection - an undervoltage relay initiates breaker tripping in case of a phase failure.

Determination of a Fault on an Ungrounded System

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VOLTAGE RELAYS

The voltage relays are usually very similar to overcurrent relays. They are induction disc units that close contacts on overvoltage, undervoltage, or both.

Voltage Relay Operation Voltage from a potential transformer is applied to the lower pole and induced into the upper poles. The upper poles induce eddy currents in the disc. The torque is produced by the interaction of the eddy currents and flux from the lower pole. Voltage settings are adjusted by voltage coil taps. The time settings are adjusted by time dial that adjusts the travel distance of the moving contact. The moving contact rotates in the horizontal plane. The return torque is provided by the spring acting on the shaft. Characteristics of voltage relays

Applications of Voltage Relays Load Transfer - an undervoltage relay initiates a transfer of load from one supply to another in the case of failure of the first supply Voltage Regulation - undervoltage and overvoltage relays initiate switching of capacitor banks or stepping of up or down of a tapchanger Bus Protection and Back-up Protection - an overvoltage relay initiates breaker tripping in case of a bus fault or in case of failure of overcurrent relays to operate on faults on feeders Generator Protection - an overvoltage relay initiates d.c. field control in case of overvoltage on generator due to loss of load. Motor Protection - an undervoltage relay initiates breaker tripping in case of a phase failure.

Determination of a Fault on an Ungrounded System

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VOLTAGE RELAYS The voltage relays are usually very similar to overcurrent relays. They are induction disc units that close contacts on overvoltage, undervoltage, or both.

Voltage Relay Operation Voltage from a potential transformer is applied to the lower pole and induced into the upper poles. The upper poles induce eddy currents in the disc. The torque is produced by the interaction of the eddy currents and flux from the lower pole. Voltage settings are adjusted by voltage coil taps. The time settings are adjusted by time dial that adjusts the travel distance of the moving contact. The moving contact rotates in the horizontal plane. The return torque is provided by the spring acting on the shaft. Characteristics of voltage relays

Applications of Voltage Relays Load Transfer - an undervoltage relay initiates a transfer of load from one supply to another in the case of failure of the first supply Voltage Regulation - undervoltage and overvoltage relays initiate switching of capacitor banks or stepping of up or down of a tapchanger Bus Protection and Back-up Protection - an overvoltage relay initiates breaker tripping in case of a bus fault or in case of failure of overcurrent relays to operate on faults on feeders Generator Protection - an overvoltage relay initiates d.c. field control in case of overvoltage on generator due to loss of load. Motor Protection - an undervoltage relay initiates breaker tripping in case of a phase failure.

Determination of a Fault on an Ungrounded System

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DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

Differential protection is a very reliable method of protecting generators, transformers, buses, and transmission lines from the effects of internal faults.

Figure: Differential Protection of a Generator

In a differential protection scheme in the above figure, currents on both sides of the equipment are compared. The figure shows the connection only for one phase, but a similar connection is usually used in each phase of the protected equipment. Under normal conditions, or for a fault outside of the protected zone, current I1 is equal to current I2 . Therefore the currents in the current transformers secondaries are also equal, i.e. i1 = i2 and no current flows through the current relay. If a fault develops inside of the protected zone, currents I1 and I2 are no longer equal, therefore i1 and i2 are not equal and there is a current flowing through the current relay.

Differential Protection of a Station Bus The principle of the differential protection of a station bus is the same as for generators. The sum of all currents entering and leaving the bus must be equal to zero under normal conditions or if the fault is outside of the protected zone. If there is a fault on the bus, there will be a net flow of current to the bus and the differential relay will operate.

Figure: Single Line Diagram of Bus Differential Protection

Percentage Differential Relays The disadvantage of the current differential protection is that current transformers must be identical, otherwise there will be current flowing through the current relays for faults outside of the protected zone or even under normal conditions. Sensitivity to the differential current due to the current transformer errors is reduced by percentage differential relays.

Figure: Percentage Differential Relay

In percentage differential relays, the current from each current transformer flows through a restraint coil. The purpose of the restraint coil is to prevent undesired relay operation due to current transformer errors. The operating coil current | i1 - i2 | required for tripping is a percentage of the average current through the restraint coils. It is given by

where k is the proportion of the operating coil current to the restraint coil current. For example if k = 0.1, the operating coil current must be more than 10% of the average restraint coil current in order for the relay to operate.

Differential Protection of Three Phase Transformers

Differential protection of three phase transformers must take into account the change in magnitude and phase angle of the transformed current.

Transformers Connected Y-Y or Delta-Delta

In these two connections, the primary and secondary currents are in phase, but their magnitudes are different. The difference in the current magnitude must be balanced out by the current transformer ratios.

Figure: Differential Protection for a Y-Y Connected Transformer If the transformer ratio is

The secondary currents of the current transformers are

During normal operating conditions or when the fault is outside of the protection zone,

Therefore, the ratios of the current transformers on the two sides of the power transformer must be . Sometimes standard current transformers with the ratios that satisfy the above equation are not available. In that case auxiliary transformers between one of the current transformers and the relay are used.

Transformers Connected Y- or -Y. The primary and secondary currents have different magnitudes and they also have 30 phase shift. Both, the magnitude and the phase shift must be balanced by appropriate ratio and connection of the current transformers. The phase shift on a Y- bank is corrected by connecting the C.T.s on the in Y, and on the Y side in . Refer to the following drawing. The full load current on the 66 kV side is

The full load current on the 230 kV side is

The secondary currents in the current transformers on the 66 kV side then are

The magnitude of the currents coming out of the differential relay should be the same

From that, the current in the arms of the connected C.T.s should be

Ideally, the CTR on the 230 kV side of the transformer should be

The closest to that is the ratio

which is the ratio that will be used.. Using this ratio, the secondary current of the current transformers on the 230 kV side is

The current through the operating coil of the differential relay is then

The average current through the current restraint coil is

From that, the current through the operating coil as a percentage of the restraint current under normal full load conditions is

The percentage differential relays have settings for the allowable percentage difference. Examples of the percentage values are 15%, 30%, 40%, etc. Any of these relays could accommodate the 0.46% operating coil current without operating.

Connection of Differential Relays to a -Y Connected Transformer.

Another problem that the differential relays used for transformer protection must overcome is the magnetizing inrush current.

The inrush current occurs when a transformer is being energized. Since during the energization of the transformer there is only current in and no current out, the inrush current appears to the differential relays as an internal fault. The inrush current has some characteristic properties. Its magnitude may be as high as sixteen times the full load current. It decays very slowly - from around ten cycles for small units to 1 minute for large units. The harmonic content of the inrush current is different from normal load current and from fault currents. A typical waveform of inrush current has a large fundamental frequency component, a significant d.c. component, and 2nd and 3rd harmonic components. The 2nd harmonic component does not appear in the transformers under any other conditions except during energization. Desensitizing of the differential relay to the inrush current involves the use of the second harmonic component to restrain the relay from operating.

(a)

(b)
Figure: Harmonic Restraint Circuit: (a) connection to current transformer (b) tripping circuit

Protective Relays

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