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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5

Volume and Surface Integrals, in Polar Coordinates


Question 1
Using the method discussed in the handout Change of Variables in Double and Volume Integrals,
show that the volume element dV in spherical coordinates is given by dV = r
2
sin dr d d.
Hint: Spherical coordinates (r, , ) are dened via x = r sin cos , y = r sin sin , z = r cos .
Question 2
Sketch a region bounded by the surfaces x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1, z = 0, z 0. Find the unit outward
normal to each component of the regions boundary.
Question 3
Sketch a region bounded by the surfaces 6x + 3y + 2z = 6, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. Find the unit
outward normal to each component of the regions boundary.
Question 4
Sketch the bounding surface of the three-dimensional region dened by x
2
+z
2
1, 0 y 1. Find
the unit outward normal to each component of this surface.
Question 5
Sketch the bounding surface of the three-dimensional region dened by 0 z

x
2
+ y
2
,
x
2
+ y
2
1. Find the unit outward normal to each component of this surface.
Question 6
Find the volume of the region of Question 3 by calculating a volume integral.
Question 7
Evaluate

V
(x + y + z) dV , where V is the unit cube, 0 x, y, z 1.
Question 8
Evaluate

V
2z dV , where V is the region bounded by the surfaces x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1, z = 0, and
z 0.
Question 9
Evaluate

V
2x dV , where V is the region of Question 3.
Question 10
Evaluate

S
(x + y + z) dS, where S is the surface 6x + 3y + 2z = 6, x, y, z 0.
Question 11
Evaluate

S
F ndS, where S is the surface bounding the region of Question 2, and F = (0, 0, z
2
).
MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 2
Is this the same result as for Question 8?
Question 12
If your answer to the last part of Question 11 is yes, please comment. If not, please check your
calculations and repeat Question 11 and/or Question 8.
Question 13
Find the volumes of two conical bodies, one bounded by the surfaces z = a

x
2
+ y
2
and z = 0,
and the other bounded by the surfaces z =

x
2
+ y
2
and z = a, where a is a constant. Try to solve
this problem by calculating just one triple integral.
Hint: Think what is the dierence between the two bodies; sketch them.
Question 14
The scalar eld V (r) is given by
V (r) =
e
4
0

1
r
+
1
a
0

exp(2r/a
0
),
where e,
0
and a
0
are constants and r is the magnitude of the position vector.
Using spherical coordinates, nd (a) E = V and (b) (r) =
0
div E.
Question 15
(a) For
V (r, , ) = K
3 cos
2
1
r
3
,
where (r, , ) are the usual spherical polar coordinates, and K is a constant, nd E = V in
spherical polar coordinates.
(b) Find div E and curl E in spherical polar coordinates..
Question 16
In spherical polar coordinates (r, , ),
A = r r sin
2
sin 2 +

r sin cos sin 2 +

r sin cos 2 ,
where and are constants.
(a) Find A.
(b) Find the values of and for which A = 0.
Hint: Express the -dependence of A in terms of sin
2
only and ensure that the coecient
of sin
2
vanishes.
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 3
Solutions
Solution 1
As discussed in the handout, the volume element in curvilinear coordinates (u, v, w) is given by
dV =
(x, y, z)
(u, v, w)
dudv dw =

x
u
y
u
z
u
x
v
y
v
z
v
x
w
y
w
z
w

dudv dw.
For spherical polar coordinates, we have u = r, v = , w = . Then, using the expressions for x, y
and z in terms of r, and given in the hint, we obtain
dV =

sin cos sin sin cos


r cos cos r cos sin r sin
r sin sin r sin cos 0

dr d d = r
2
sin dr d d .
Solution 2
The bounding surface of this region is a hemisphere in the upper half-space z 0, shown in Fig. 1(a).
The surface has two components. A unit outward normal to the base S
1
[i.e., to the region in the
(x, y)-plane] is n = (0, 0 1). An outward normal to the dome S
2
is n = (x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
1) =
(2x, 2y, 2z). To get the unit normal, divide by the length of n, so n =
(2x, 2y, 2z)

4x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 4z
2
=
2(x, y, z)

4
because x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1 on the surface. Thus, n = (x, y, z) = r. This is a unit vector because
|r| = 1 on the surface! Clearly, this is the outward unit normal vector, the inward one being
(x, y, z) = (x, y, z).
Alternatively, the unit normal to the surface of constant r is r. In this particular case, with
|r| = 1 on the surface, n = r = (x, y, z).
Solution 3
The boundary of this region has four components, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The unit outward normals
to them are as follows:
for S
1
, x = 0 and n = (1, 0, 0);
for S
2
, y = 0 and n = (0, 1, 0);
for S
3
, z = 0 and n = (0, 0, 1).
A normal to S
4
is (6x+3y +2z 6) = (6, 3, 2), so a unit normal is n =
1
7
(6, 3, 2). This is clearly
the outward unit normal.
Solution 4
This surface has three components, shown in Fig. 1(c).
On S
1
, y = 1 and n = (0, 1, 0).
On S
2
, y = 0 and n = (0, 1, 0).
On S
3
, n = (x
2
+ z
2
1) = (2x, 0, 2z), so n =
(2x, 0, 2z)

4x
2
+ 4z
2
= (x, 0, z) since x
2
+ z
2
= 1 on S
3
.
This is a unit vector because x
2
+ z
2
= 1 on S
3
.
Alternatively, if we introduce cylindrical polar coordinates (, , z) with the polar axis (uncon-
ventionally) along the y axis, i.e. (, , y),
x = cos , z = sin , =

x
2
+ z
2
,
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 4
Figure 1: The bounding surface in Questions (a) 2, (b) 3, (c) 4, and (d) 5.
the normal to the surface of constant is , so n = , since = 1 on the surface. Then n = =
x x + zz.
Solution 5
This surface has three components, shown in Fig. 1(d): a cylinder with a conical part of its interior
cut out.
On the bottom S
1
, we have z = 0 and so n = (0, 0, 1).
On S
2
the cylindrical surface, n = (x, y, 0) (similar to the normal of the cylindrical surface of
Question 4, but with a dierent symmetry axis).
On S
3
, the conical part, n = (x
2
+ y
2
z
2
), where we have represented the surface in the
form x
2
+ y
2
z
2
= 0, z 0. Thus, n = (2x, 2y, 2z). Clearly the outward normal has a
positive z component so the unit vector along the outward normal is the unit vector along n.
Hence n =
(2x, 2y, 2z)

4x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 4z
2
=
(x, y, z)

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
=
(x, y,

x
2
+ y
2
)

2(x
2
+ y
2
)
since z
2
= x
2
+ y
2
on S
3
.
Alternatively, since the semi-angle of the conical surface is 45

, the outward normal is along


(z ), where is the usual cylindrical polar coordinate. Hence
n = (z )/

2 = [z (x x + y y)/

x
2
+ y
2
]/

2.
Solution 6
V =

V
dx dy dz =

z=33x3y/2
z=0

dy dx =

R
(3 3x 3y/2) dx dy ,
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 5
Figure 2: The region R in Questions 6, 9 and 10.
where R (= S
3
see Fig. 1b) is the projection of V onto the (x, y)-plane, shown in Fig. 2. So,
V =

1
0
dx

22x
0
dy(3 3x 3y/2) =

1
0
dx

3y 3xy 3y
2
/4

y=22x
y=0
=

1
0
[6(1 x)(1 x)
3
4
4(1 x)
2
] dx =

1
0
3(1 x)
2
dx = (1 x)
3

1
0
= 1 .
Solution 7

V
(x + y + z) dx dy dz =

1
0
dx

1
0
dy

1
0
dz (x + y + z) =

1
0
dx

1
0
dy (xz + yz +
1
2
z
2
)

z=1
z=0
=

1
0
dx

1
0
dy (x + y +
1
2
) =

1
0
dx (xy +
1
2
y
2
+
1
2
y)

y=1
y=0
=

1
0
dx (x +
1
2
+
1
2
) =

1
2
x
2
+ x

x=1
x=0
=
3
2
.
Solution 8

V
2z dV =

R
dx dy

z=

1x
2
y
2
z=0
2z dz ,
where R is the unit disc x
2
+ y
2
1 (S
1
in Fig. 1a). Thus,

V
2z dV =

R
dx dy z
2

z=

1x
2
y
2
z=0
=

R
(1 x
2
y
2
) dx dy .
Use cylindrical polar coordinates, x = r cos , y = r sin , 1 x
2
y
2
= 1 r
2
:

V
2z dV =

1
0
r dr

2
0
d(1 r
2
) = 2

1
0
(r r
3
) dr = 2

1
2
r
2

1
4
r
4

1
0
=
1
2
.
Alternatively, using spherical polar coordinates, z = r cos ,
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 6

V
2z dV =

1
0
dr

/2
0
d

2
0
d r
2
sin 2r cos = 2

1
0
r
3
dr

/2
0
sin cos

2
0
d
= 2
r
4
4

1
0
1
2
sin
2

/2
0
2 =
1
2
.
Solution 9

V
2x dV =

R
dx dy 2

z=33x3y/2
z=0
x dz ,
where R is the region in the (x, y) plane shown in Fig. 2, a projection of V onto the (x, y) plane (S
3
in Fig 1b). Thus,

V
2x dV = 2

R
xz

z=33x3y/2
z=0
dx dy = 2

R
x(3 3x 3y/2) dx dy
= 2

1
0
dx

22x
0
dy [3x(1 x)
3
2
xy] = 2

1
0
dx [3x(1 x)y
3
4
xy
2
]

y=2(1x)
y=0
= 2

1
0
3x(1 x)
2
dx = 2

1
0
(3x 6x
2
+ 3x
3
) dx = 2

3
2
x
2
2x
3
+
3
4
x
4

1
0
= 1/2 .
Solution 10
Use

S
f dS =

R
f|n| dx dy , where R is the projection of S onto the (x, y)-plane shown in
Fig. 1(b) as S
3
and in Fig. 2. To nd the normal to S, represent the surface in the form z = g(x, y)
with g(x, y) = 3 3x
3
2
y. Then
g
x
= 3,
g
y
=
3
2
, so |n| =

1 +

g
x

2
+

g
y

2
= 7/2.
Note that the normal is a constant vector because the surface is at. Thus,

S
(x + y + z) dS =

R
(x + y + z)|n| dx dy =

R
[x + y + (3 3x
3
2
y)]
7
2
dx dy .
It remains to evaluate the double integral:

S
(x + y + z) dS =
7
2

1
0
dx

2(1x)
0
(3 2x
1
2
y) dy
=
7
2

1
0
dx [(3 2x)y
1
4
y
2
]

y=2(1x)
y=0
=
7
2

1
0
[2(3 2x)(1 x) (1 x)
2
] dx
=
7
2

1
0
(5 8x + 3x
2
) dx =
7
2
(5x 4x
2
+ x
3
)

1
0
=
7
2
2 = 7 .
Solution 11
The surface S has two components, the dome denoted by S
2
and the base denoted by S
1
(see
Question 2 and Fig. 1a).
On S
1
, we have z = 0 and then n = (0, 0, 1), so that F n = (0, 0, z
2
) (0, 0, 1) = z
2
= 0.
Thus, S
1
does not contribute to the surface integral.
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 7
Figure 3: Region of integration in the rst part of Question 13: (a) in the (x, y, z) space and (b) its
projection onto the (r, z)-plane.
On S
2
, z = g(x, y) =

1 x
2
y
2

g
x
=
x

1 x
2
y
2
,
g
y
=
y

1 x
2
y
2
so that the
normal vector is given by n =

g
x
,
g
y
, 1

. Therefore, F n = z
2
= 1 x
2
y
2
on S
1
, and so

S
F ndS =

S
1
F ndS =

R
F ndx dy =

R
(1 x
2
y
2
) dx dy =
1
2
,
where R is the unit disc x
2
+y
2
1. The double integral has already been calculated in Question 8.
Alternatively, using spherical polars for the integral over S
2
, the area element is given by dS =
sin d d, since the hemisphere is of unit radius and z
3
= 1
3
cos
3
. Then

S
1
F ndS =

/2
0
sin d

2
0
d cos
3
= 2

1
4
cos
4

/2
0
= /2.
Solution 12
For F = (0, 0, z
2
), as in the surface integral of Question 11, we have F = 2z as in the volume integral
of Question 8. The surface S of Question 11 is the bounding surface of the volume in Question 8, and
the normals used in Question 11 are the outward normals. Thus, the volume integral of Question 8
must be equal to the surface integral of Question 11 %13(a) by Gausss Divergence Theorem.
Solution 13
(1) Let us start with
z = a

x
2
+ y
2
. (1)
The form of this equation invites the use of cylindrical coordinates (r, , z) with x = r cos , y =
r sin , z = z. Then equations describing the bounding surfaces reduce to z = a r and z = 0. The
body is shown in Fig. 3 in the (x, y, z) space and in the (r, z) plane: it is axially symmetric. We can
understand that its boundary is a conical surface, e.g., from the following arguments:
(1) the surface converges to the point r = 0 at z = a see Eq. (1);
(2) its intersection with the plane z = 0, i.e., the (x, y)-plane is a circle of radius a obtained from
Eq. (1) by putting z = 0, that is r = a;
(3) z is a linear function of r, so that any cross-section of the surface by a plane = const (such
as that shown in Fig. 3b) is a triangle.
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 8
Figure 4: Region of integration in the second part of Question 13: (a) in the (x, y, z) space and (b)
its projection onto the (r, z)-plane.
In cylindrical coordinates, the region is specied as 0 r a, 0 2, 0 z a r (see
Fig. 3b). Its volume is a triple integral:
V =

a
0
r dr

ar
0
dz

2
0
d = 2

a
0
r dr

ar
0
dz = 2

a
0
(ar r
2
) dr = 2a
3
(
1
2

1
3
) =
1
3
a
3
.
(2) Now consider the region bounded by z =

x
2
+ y
2
= r, z = a (where we use cylindrical
coordinates without delay). The surface enclosing this region converges to a point r = 0 at z = 0,
and its intersection with the plane z = a is a circle r = a. This is also a conical surface shown in
Fig. 4. As we can see, this is the same region as in the rst half of the question, but turned upside
down! Therefore, the volume of this region is the same as above, V =
1
3
a
3
.
Solution 14
(a)
E = V =
V
r
r (since V depends only on r, but not on or )
=
e
4
0

e
2r/a
0

r
1
r
+

1
r
+
1
a
0


r
e
2r/a
0

r
=
e
4
0

1
r
2
+
2
a
0
r
+
2
a
2
0

exp(2r/a
0
) r .
(b)
E =
1
r
2
(r
2
E
r
)
r
(since E depends only on r, but not on or )
=
1
r
2

e
4
0

1 + 2r/a
0
+ 2r
2
/a
2
0

exp(2r/a
0
)

=
e
4
0
r
2

2
a
0

4r
a
2
0

4r
2
a
3
0
+
2
a
0
+
4r
a
2
0

exp(2r/a
0
)
=
e
4
0
4
a
3
0
exp(2r/a
0
) =
e

0
a
3
0
exp(2r/a
0
).
(r) =
e
a
3
0
exp(2r/a
0
).
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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 5 9
Solution 15
(a)
E = V =

V
r
r +
1
r
V

+
1
r sin
V

= K

3
r
4
(3 cos
2
1) r +
1
r
1
r
3
(6 cos sin )

=
3K
r
4

(3 cos
2
1) r + 2 sin cos

.
(b)
div E =
1
r
2

r
2
E
r

+
1
r sin

(sin E

) +
1
r sin

=
1
r
2

r
2
3K
r
4
(3 cos
2
1)

+
1
r sin

sin
6K
r
4
sin cos

=
1
r
2
3K(3 cos
2
1)

r

1
r
2

+
6K
r
5
sin

sin
2
cos

=
6K(3 cos
2
1)
r
5
+
6K
r
5
sin
(2 sin cos
2
sin
3
)
=
6K
r
5
(3 cos
2
+ 1 + 2 cos
2
sin
2
)
= 0.
Since E = V we must have, for any V, E = 0.
Solution 16
(a)
A =
1
r
2
sin

r
2
sin r sin
2
sin 2

[r sin r sin cos sin 2] +


[r r sin cos 2]

=
1
r
2
sin
[3r
2
sin
3
sin 2 + r
2
(sin
3
+ 2 sin cos
2
) sin 2 2r
2
sin sin 2]
= sin 2[(3 ) sin
2
+ 2cos
2
2].
(b) If A = 0 for all values of then we must have:
(3 ) sin
2
+ 2cos
2
2 = 0 .
We want this to be true for all values of so rearrange in terms of sin
2
only:
(3 3) sin
2
+ 2 2 = 0 .
For this to be true for all values of :
3 3 = 0 , and 2 2 = 0 .
Hence, = 1 and = 1.
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