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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System V100R005C00

Feature Description
Issue Date 05 2010-10-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2010. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

About This Document

About This Document


Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX RTN 620 iManager U2000 Version V100R005C00 V100R002C00

Intended Audience
This document describes the main features of the OptiX RTN 620 radio transmission system. It provides readers a comprehensive knowledge on the functionality, principle, configuration, and maintenance of the product features. This document is intended for: l l l l Network Planning Engineer Installation and Commissioning Engineer Data Configuration Engineer System Maintenance Engineer

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

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About This Document

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

Symbol

Description Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface > Description Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Based on Product Version V100R005C00


This document is the fifth release of the V100R005C00 version. The following table lists the updates in this document. Update 7 1+1 HSB 8 1+1 FD 9 1+1 SD Description The descriptions of the trigger conditions for automatic HSB switching are modified.

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Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

About This Document

Updates in Issue 04 (2010-08-20) Based on Product Version V100R005C00


This document is the fourth release of the V100R005C00 version. The following table lists the updates in this document. Update Description Fixed the known bugs.

Updates in Issue 03 (2010-05-30) Based on Product Version V100R005C00


This document is the third release of the V100R005C00 version. The following table lists the updates in this document. Update 7.6 Planning Guidelines Description Modified the suggestion for using reverse switching.

Updates in Issue 02 (2010-03-30) Based on Product Version V100R005C00


This document is the second release of the V100R005C00 version. The following table lists the updates in this document. Update 14.8 Configuration Procedure Description The note attached to step 3 in table "Procedure for configuring SNCP services" is modified. Description of the networking scenarios is optimized. The revertive mode is changed to nonrevertive in section "Planning Guidelines of LAGs in the case of 1+1 Protection". The following changes are made to this document: l The revertive mode is changed to revertive in table 1. l The LAG type is changed to manual and revertive mode is changed to nonrevertive in table 2. 24.9.2 Service Planning In the case of NE1, the LAG type is changed to manual and revertive mode is changed to non-revertive.
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23.9.1 Networking Diagram 24.7 Planning Guidelines

24.8 Configuration Procedure

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

Update 25.6.2 Point-to-Multipoint Service

Description The diagram of locating a fault in section "LPT for Ethernet Port-Shared Ethernet Services" is modified. The following changes are made to this document: l The CBS and MBS specifications are deleted. l The description of the weight allocation of WRR specification is modified.

26.3 Specifications

28.2 Specifications

The following description is added: When the FE/GE port actually works in the 10BASE-T mode, it does not support synchronous Ethernet clocks.

Updates in Issue 01 (2009-12-30) Based on Product Version V100R005C00


This document is the first release of the V100R005C00 version.

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document...................................................................................................................iii 1 Introduction to the DCN...........................................................................................................1-1
1.1 Composition of the DCN.................................................................................................................................1-2 1.2 Huawei DCN Solution....................................................................................................................................1-3 1.3 Protocol Converter Solution............................................................................................................................1-5

2 HWECC Solution.......................................................................................................................2-1
2.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................2-3 2.2 Basic Concepts................................................................................................................................................2-4 2.2.1 HW ECC Protocol Stack........................................................................................................................2-4 2.2.2 Extended ECC........................................................................................................................................2-7 2.3 Specifications................................................................................................................................................2-10 2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...............................................................................................................2-11 2.5 Availability....................................................................................................................................................2-11 2.6 Principles.......................................................................................................................................................2-12 2.6.1 Establishing ECC Routes.....................................................................................................................2-13 2.6.2 Packet Transfer.....................................................................................................................................2-14 2.6.3 Extended ECC......................................................................................................................................2-15 2.7 Planning Guidelines......................................................................................................................................2-16 2.8 Configuration Flow.......................................................................................................................................2-18 2.9 Configuration Example.................................................................................................................................2-20 2.9.1 Networking Diagram............................................................................................................................2-20 2.9.2 Service Planning...................................................................................................................................2-21 2.9.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................2-22 2.10 Task Collection...........................................................................................................................................2-25 2.11 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................2-25 2.12 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................2-25

3 IP over DCC Solution................................................................................................................3-1


3.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................3-3 3.2 Basic Concepts................................................................................................................................................3-3 3.2.1 IP over DCC Protocol Stack...................................................................................................................3-4 3.2.2 Access Modes.........................................................................................................................................3-7 3.3 Specifications..................................................................................................................................................3-7 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vii

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.................................................................................................................3-9 3.5 Availability......................................................................................................................................................3-9 3.6 Principles.......................................................................................................................................................3-10 3.7 Planning Guidelines......................................................................................................................................3-11 3.8 Configuration Flow.......................................................................................................................................3-16 3.9 Configuration Example.................................................................................................................................3-17 3.9.1 Networking Diagram............................................................................................................................3-18 3.9.2 Service Planning...................................................................................................................................3-18 3.9.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................3-19 3.10 Task Collection...........................................................................................................................................3-22 3.11 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................3-23 3.12 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................3-23

4 OSI over DCC Solution.............................................................................................................4-1


4.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................4-3 4.2 Basic Concepts................................................................................................................................................4-3 4.2.1 OSI over DCC Protocol Stack................................................................................................................4-4 4.2.2 NMS Access Modes...............................................................................................................................4-8 4.3 Specifications..................................................................................................................................................4-8 4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...............................................................................................................4-10 4.5 Availability....................................................................................................................................................4-10 4.6 Principles.......................................................................................................................................................4-11 4.7 Planning Guidelines......................................................................................................................................4-12 4.8 Configuration Flow.......................................................................................................................................4-13 4.9 Configuration Example.................................................................................................................................4-15 4.9.1 Networking Diagram............................................................................................................................4-15 4.9.2 Service Planning...................................................................................................................................4-16 4.9.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................4-17 4.10 Task Collection...........................................................................................................................................4-19 4.11 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................4-19 4.12 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................4-20

5 DCC Transparent Transmission Solution.............................................................................5-1


5.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................5-2 5.2 Specifications..................................................................................................................................................5-4 5.3 Availability......................................................................................................................................................5-5 5.4 Principles.........................................................................................................................................................5-5 5.5 Planning Guidelines........................................................................................................................................5-6 5.6 Configuration Procedure.................................................................................................................................5-7 5.7 Configuration Example...................................................................................................................................5-8 5.7.1 Networking Diagram..............................................................................................................................5-8 5.7.2 Service Planning.....................................................................................................................................5-9 5.7.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................5-10 5.8 Task Collection.............................................................................................................................................5-12 viii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

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5.9 Relevant Alarms and Events.........................................................................................................................5-12 5.10 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................5-12

6 DCC Transparent Transmission Through the External Clock Interface Solution........6-1


6.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................6-3 6.2 Specifications..................................................................................................................................................6-4 6.3 Availability......................................................................................................................................................6-5 6.4 Principles.........................................................................................................................................................6-5 6.5 Planning Guidelines........................................................................................................................................ 6-6 6.6 Configuration Procedure.................................................................................................................................6-6 6.7 Configuration Example...................................................................................................................................6-7 6.7.1 Networking Diagram..............................................................................................................................6-7 6.7.2 Service Planning.....................................................................................................................................6-8 6.7.3 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................6-8 6.8 Task Collection............................................................................................................................................... 6-9 6.9 Relevant Alarms and Events.........................................................................................................................6-10 6.10 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................6-10

7 1+1 HSB........................................................................................................................................7-1
7.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................7-3 7.2 Basic Concepts................................................................................................................................................7-3 7.2.1 System Configuration.............................................................................................................................7-4 7.2.2 Protection Type......................................................................................................................................7-6 7.2.3 Switching Condition...............................................................................................................................7-6 7.2.4 Switching Impact....................................................................................................................................7-9 7.3 Specifications................................................................................................................................................7-10 7.4 Availability....................................................................................................................................................7-10 7.5 Principles.......................................................................................................................................................7-11 7.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio..................................................................................................................................7-11 7.5.2 Hybrid Radio........................................................................................................................................7-13 7.6 Planning Guidelines......................................................................................................................................7-16 7.7 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................................7-16 7.8 Configuration Example.................................................................................................................................7-17 7.8.1 Networking Diagram............................................................................................................................7-17 7.8.2 Service Planning...................................................................................................................................7-18 7.8.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................7-19 7.9 Task Collection.............................................................................................................................................7-20 7.10 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................7-20 7.11 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................7-21

8 1+1 FD...........................................................................................................................................8-1
8.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................8-3 8.2 Basic Concepts................................................................................................................................................8-4 8.2.1 System Configuration.............................................................................................................................8-4 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ix

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description 8.2.2 Protection Type......................................................................................................................................8-7 8.2.3 Switching Conditions.............................................................................................................................8-8 8.2.4 Switching Impact..................................................................................................................................8-11

8.3 Specifications................................................................................................................................................8-11 8.4 Availability....................................................................................................................................................8-12 8.5 Principles.......................................................................................................................................................8-13 8.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio..................................................................................................................................8-13 8.5.2 Hybrid Radio........................................................................................................................................8-15 8.6 Planning Guidelines......................................................................................................................................8-19 8.7 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................................8-19 8.8 Configuration Example.................................................................................................................................8-20 8.8.1 Networking Diagram............................................................................................................................8-20 8.8.2 Service Planning...................................................................................................................................8-21 8.8.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................8-22 8.9 Task Collection.............................................................................................................................................8-23 8.10 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................8-24 8.11 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................8-24

9 1+1 SD...........................................................................................................................................9-1
9.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................9-3 9.2 Basic Concepts................................................................................................................................................9-4 9.2.1 System Configuration.............................................................................................................................9-4 9.2.2 Protection Type......................................................................................................................................9-6 9.2.3 Switching Condition...............................................................................................................................9-7 9.2.4 Switching Impact..................................................................................................................................9-11 9.3 Specifications................................................................................................................................................9-11 9.4 Availability....................................................................................................................................................9-11 9.5 Principles.......................................................................................................................................................9-12 9.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio..................................................................................................................................9-13 9.5.2 Hybrid Radio........................................................................................................................................9-15 9.6 Planning Guidelines......................................................................................................................................9-19 9.7 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................................9-20 9.8 Configuration Example.................................................................................................................................9-20 9.8.1 Networking Diagram............................................................................................................................9-20 9.8.2 Service Planning...................................................................................................................................9-21 9.8.3 Configuration Process..........................................................................................................................9-22 9.9 Task Collection.............................................................................................................................................9-23 9.10 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................9-24 9.11 FAQs...........................................................................................................................................................9-24

10 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation...................................................................10-1


10.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................10-3 10.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................10-4 10.2.1 CCDP and XPIC.................................................................................................................................10-4 x Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

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10.2.2 System Configuration.........................................................................................................................10-5 10.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................10-6 10.4 Availability..................................................................................................................................................10-6 10.5 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................10-8 10.6 Planning Guidelines....................................................................................................................................10-9 10.7 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................................10-9 10.8 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................10-10 10.8.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................10-10 10.8.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................10-12 10.8.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................10-14 10.9 Task Collection.........................................................................................................................................10-16 10.10 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................10-16 10.11 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................10-16

11 N+1 Protection........................................................................................................................11-1
11.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................11-3 11.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................11-4 11.2.1 System Configuration.........................................................................................................................11-4 11.2.2 Protection Type..................................................................................................................................11-7 11.2.3 Switching Condition...........................................................................................................................11-8 11.2.4 Switching Impact..............................................................................................................................11-10 11.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................11-10 11.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................11-10 11.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................11-11 11.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................11-11 11.6.1 2+1 Protection Configuration...........................................................................................................11-11 11.6.2 3+1 Protection Configuration...........................................................................................................11-13 11.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................11-15 11.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................11-15 11.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................11-17 11.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................11-17 11.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................11-19 11.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................11-22 11.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................11-25 11.11 Relevant Alarms and Performance Events..............................................................................................11-25 11.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................11-26

12 Automatic Transmit Power Control...................................................................................12-1


12.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................12-2 12.2 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................12-3 12.3 Availability..................................................................................................................................................12-3 12.4 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................12-4 12.5 Planning Guidelines....................................................................................................................................12-5 12.6 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................................12-6 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xi

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

12.7 Configuration Example...............................................................................................................................12-6 12.7.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................12-7 12.7.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................12-7 12.7.3 Configuration Process........................................................................................................................12-8 12.8 Task Collection...........................................................................................................................................12-8 12.9 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................12-9 12.10 FAQs.........................................................................................................................................................12-9

13 Adaptive Modulation............................................................................................................13-1
13.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................13-2 13.2 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................13-3 13.3 Availability..................................................................................................................................................13-4 13.4 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................13-4 13.5 Planning Guidelines....................................................................................................................................13-6 13.6 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................................13-7 13.7 Configuration Example...............................................................................................................................13-7 13.7.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................13-7 13.7.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................13-7 13.7.3 Configuration Process........................................................................................................................13-8 13.8 Task Collection...........................................................................................................................................13-9 13.9 Relevant Alarms and Events.......................................................................................................................13-9 13.10 FAQs.........................................................................................................................................................13-9

14 Subnetwork Connection Protection................................................................................... 14-1


14.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................14-3 14.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................14-3 14.2.1 Protection Type..................................................................................................................................14-4 14.2.2 SNCP Service Pair.............................................................................................................................14-4 14.2.3 Hold-Off Time....................................................................................................................................14-5 14.2.4 Switching Conditions.........................................................................................................................14-7 14.2.5 Switching Impact..............................................................................................................................14-11 14.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................14-11 14.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................14-12 14.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................14-12 14.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................14-13 14.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................14-14 14.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................14-15 14.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................14-16 14.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................14-16 14.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................14-17 14.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................14-19 14.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................14-23 14.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................14-24 14.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................14-24 xii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

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15 Linear MSP..............................................................................................................................15-1
15.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................15-3 15.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................15-4 15.2.1 Protection Type..................................................................................................................................15-5 15.2.2 Meanings of K Bytes..........................................................................................................................15-6 15.2.3 Switching Conditions.........................................................................................................................15-7 15.2.4 Switching Impact..............................................................................................................................15-10 15.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................15-10 15.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................15-11 15.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................15-11 15.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................15-11 15.6.1 1+1 Linear MSP...............................................................................................................................15-12 15.6.2 1:N Linear MSP...............................................................................................................................15-13 15.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................15-14 15.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................15-15 15.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................15-15 15.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................15-16 15.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................15-16 15.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................15-17 15.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................15-18 15.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................15-18 15.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................15-19

16 Two-Fiber Bidirectional Ring MSP....................................................................................16-1


16.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................16-3 16.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................16-4 16.2.1 Protection Type..................................................................................................................................16-5 16.2.2 Meanings of Byte K...........................................................................................................................16-5 16.2.3 Switching Conditions.........................................................................................................................16-7 16.2.4 Switching Impact................................................................................................................................16-9 16.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................16-9 16.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................16-10 16.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................16-10 16.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................16-10 16.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................16-12 16.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................16-13 16.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................16-13 16.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................16-13 16.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................16-14 16.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................16-14 16.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................16-16 16.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................16-16 16.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................16-16 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xiii

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

17 Ethernet over SDH/PDH.......................................................................................................17-1


17.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................17-3 17.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................17-6 17.2.1 Encapsulation and Mapping Protocols...............................................................................................17-6 17.2.2 Virtual Concatenation........................................................................................................................ 17-7 17.2.3 LCAS..................................................................................................................................................17-8 17.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................17-8 17.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................17-10 17.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................17-11 17.6 Working Principle.....................................................................................................................................17-12 17.6.1 Encapsulation and Mapping.............................................................................................................17-12 17.6.2 Virtual Concatenation......................................................................................................................17-16 17.6.3 LCAS................................................................................................................................................17-18 17.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................17-22 17.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................17-23 17.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................17-26 17.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................17-26 17.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................17-26 17.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................17-28

18 VLAN........................................................................................................................................18-1
18.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................18-3 18.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................18-4 18.2.1 Frame Format.....................................................................................................................................18-4 18.2.2 TAG Attribute....................................................................................................................................18-5 18.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................18-6 18.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................18-6 18.5 Availability..................................................................................................................................................18-7 18.6 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................18-7 18.7 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................... 18-7 18.8 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................................18-8 18.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................18-21 18.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................18-21 18.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................18-22 18.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................18-22

19 QinQ.........................................................................................................................................19-1
19.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................19-3 19.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................19-4 19.2.1 Frame Format.....................................................................................................................................19-4 19.2.2 Network Attributes.............................................................................................................................19-5 19.2.3 Application of the QinQ Technology in Private Line Services..........................................................19-6 19.2.4 Application of the QinQ Technology in 802.1ad Bridge Services.....................................................19-9 19.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................19-11 xiv Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

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19.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................19-12 19.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................19-12 19.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................19-13 19.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................19-15 19.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................19-16 19.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................19-29 19.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................19-29 19.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................19-30 19.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................19-30

20 Layer 2 Switching................................................................................................................... 20-1


20.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................20-3 20.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................20-4 20.2.1 Bridge.................................................................................................................................................20-4 20.2.2 Hub/Spoke..........................................................................................................................................20-6 20.2.3 Managing a MAC Address Table.......................................................................................................20-7 20.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................20-7 20.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................20-8 20.5 Availability..................................................................................................................................................20-8 20.6 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................20-9 20.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................20-10 20.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................20-10 20.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................20-31 20.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................20-31 20.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................20-32 20.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................20-32

21 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching...................................................................................21-1


21.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................21-3 21.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................21-4 21.2.1 Protection Instance.............................................................................................................................21-5 21.2.2 Protection Type..................................................................................................................................21-6 21.2.3 R-APS Message..................................................................................................................................21-6 21.2.4 R-APS Timer......................................................................................................................................21-8 21.2.5 Switching Condition...........................................................................................................................21-9 21.2.6 Switching Impact..............................................................................................................................21-10 21.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................21-11 21.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................21-11 21.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................21-12 21.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................21-12 21.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................21-15 21.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................21-16 21.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................21-17 21.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................21-17 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xv

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description 21.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................21-18 21.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................21-19

21.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................21-20 21.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................21-20 21.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................21-21

22 STP............................................................................................................................................22-1
22.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................22-3 22.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................22-4 22.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................22-7 22.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................22-7 22.5 Availability..................................................................................................................................................22-8 22.6 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................22-8 22.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................22-10 22.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................22-11 22.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................22-11 22.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................22-12 22.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................22-12 22.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................22-14 22.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................22-15 22.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................22-15 22.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................22-15

23 IGMP Snooping......................................................................................................................23-1
23.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................23-3 23.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................23-4 23.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................23-5 23.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................23-6 23.5 Availability..................................................................................................................................................23-6 23.6 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................23-7 23.7 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................... 23-8 23.8 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................................23-8 23.9 Configuration Example...............................................................................................................................23-9 23.9.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................23-9 23.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................23-10 23.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................23-10 23.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................23-11 23.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................23-11 23.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................23-11

24 Link Aggregation Group......................................................................................................24-1


24.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................24-3 24.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................24-3 24.2.1 LAG Types.........................................................................................................................................24-4 xvi Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

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24.2.2 Port Types.......................................................................................................................................... 24-5 24.2.3 Switching Conditions.........................................................................................................................24-5 24.2.4 Switching Impact................................................................................................................................24-6 24.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................24-6 24.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................24-7 24.5 Availability..................................................................................................................................................24-7 24.6 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................24-7 24.7 Planning Guidelines....................................................................................................................................24-9 24.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................24-10 24.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................24-11 24.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................24-11 24.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................24-12 24.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................24-12 24.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................24-13 24.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................24-13 24.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................24-13

25 Link State Pass Through.......................................................................................................25-1


25.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................25-3 25.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................25-4 25.2.1 LPT Bearer Mode...............................................................................................................................25-5 25.2.2 Hold-Off Time....................................................................................................................................25-5 25.3 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................25-7 25.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................25-7 25.5 Availability..................................................................................................................................................25-8 25.6 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................25-8 25.6.1 Point-to-Point Service........................................................................................................................25-9 25.6.2 Point-to-Multipoint Service..............................................................................................................25-10 25.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................25-12 25.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................25-13 25.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................25-13 25.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................25-14 25.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................25-14 25.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................25-15 25.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................25-16 25.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................25-17 25.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................25-17

26 QoS............................................................................................................................................26-1
26.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................26-3 26.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................26-4 26.2.1 Traffic Classification..........................................................................................................................26-5 26.2.2 CoS.....................................................................................................................................................26-5 26.2.3 CAR....................................................................................................................................................26-6 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xvii

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description 26.2.4 Traffic Shaping...................................................................................................................................26-7 26.2.5 Queue Scheduling..............................................................................................................................26-8 26.2.6 QoS Model.......................................................................................................................................26-11

26.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................26-12 26.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................26-14 26.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................26-14 26.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................26-15 26.6.1 CAR..................................................................................................................................................26-16 26.6.2 Traffic Shaping.................................................................................................................................26-17 26.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................26-18 26.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................26-19 26.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................26-20 26.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................26-20 26.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................26-23 26.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................26-31 26.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................26-38 26.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................26-38 26.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................26-38

27 ETH-OAM................................................................................................................................27-1
27.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................27-3 27.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................27-4 27.2.1 IEEE 802.1ag OAM Management.....................................................................................................27-4 27.2.2 IEEE 802.1ag OAM Operation..........................................................................................................27-7 27.2.3 IEEE 802.3ah OAM Operation..........................................................................................................27-8 27.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................27-10 27.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................27-11 27.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................27-11 27.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................27-12 27.6.1 IEEE 802.1ag OAM.........................................................................................................................27-12 27.6.2 IEEE 802.3ah OAM.........................................................................................................................27-16 27.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................27-25 27.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................27-26 27.8.1 IEEE 802.1ag OAM.........................................................................................................................27-26 27.8.2 IEEE 802.3ah OAM.........................................................................................................................27-29 27.9 Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1ag OAM).........................................................................................27-30 27.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................27-31 27.9.2 Service Planning...............................................................................................................................27-31 27.9.3 Configuration Process......................................................................................................................27-34 27.10 Configuration Example (IEEE 802.3ah OAM).......................................................................................27-36 27.10.1 Networking Diagram......................................................................................................................27-36 27.10.2 Service Planning.............................................................................................................................27-37 27.10.3 Configuration Process....................................................................................................................27-38 xviii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-10-30)

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27.11 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................27-39 27.11.1 Task Collection (IEEE 802.1ag OAM)..........................................................................................27-39 27.11.2 Task Collection (IEEE 802.1ah OAM)..........................................................................................27-40 27.12 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................27-40 27.13 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................27-41

28 Synchronous Ethernet...........................................................................................................28-1
28.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................28-3 28.2 Specifications..............................................................................................................................................28-3 28.3 Reference Standards and Protocols.............................................................................................................28-4 28.4 Availability..................................................................................................................................................28-4 28.5 Principles.....................................................................................................................................................28-4 28.6 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................... 28-5 28.7 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................................28-6 28.8 Configuration Example...............................................................................................................................28-6 28.8.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................28-6 28.8.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................28-7 28.8.3 Configuration Process........................................................................................................................28-7 28.9 Task Collection........................................................................................................................................... 28-8 28.10 Relevant Alarms and Events.....................................................................................................................28-8 28.11 FAQs......................................................................................................................................................... 28-8

29 Remote Monitoring................................................................................................................29-1
29.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................29-3 29.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................................29-3 29.2.1 SNMP.................................................................................................................................................29-3 29.2.2 RMON Management Groups.............................................................................................................29-4 29.2.3 List of RMON Alarm Entries.............................................................................................................29-5 29.2.4 List of RMON Performance Entries...................................................................................................29-6 29.3 Specifications............................................................................................................................................29-10 29.4 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................29-11 29.5 Availability................................................................................................................................................29-11 29.6 Principles...................................................................................................................................................29-12 29.7 Planning Guidelines..................................................................................................................................29-13 29.8 Configuration Procedure...........................................................................................................................29-13 29.9 Configuration Example.............................................................................................................................29-14 29.9.1 Networking Diagram........................................................................................................................29-15 29.9.2 Fault Analysis...................................................................................................................................29-15 29.9.3 Troubleshooting Flow......................................................................................................................29-15 29.10 Task Collection.......................................................................................................................................29-16 29.11 Relevant Alarms and Events...................................................................................................................29-17 29.12 FAQs.......................................................................................................................................................29-17

A Task Collection.........................................................................................................................A-1
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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

A.1 Managing NEs...............................................................................................................................................A-3 A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method..........................................................................................A-3 A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method........................................................................................ A-5 A.1.3 Logging In to an NE.............................................................................................................................A-7 A.1.4 Configuring Logical Boards.................................................................................................................A-9 A.1.5 Changing NE IDs...............................................................................................................................A-10 A.1.6 Changing NE Names..........................................................................................................................A-11 A.1.7 Synchronizing NE Time.....................................................................................................................A-11 A.1.8 Localizing NE Time...........................................................................................................................A-17 A.2 Configuring Performance Monitoring Status of NEs..................................................................................A-19 A.3 Managing Communication..........................................................................................................................A-20 A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters.............................................................................................A-21 A.3.2 Configuring DCCs..............................................................................................................................A-23 A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC..........................................................................................................A-25 A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission.....................................................................................A-27 A.3.5 Creating Static IP Routes....................................................................................................................A-29 A.3.6 Setting Parameters of the OSPF Protocol...........................................................................................A-30 A.3.7 Enabling the ARP Proxy....................................................................................................................A-31 A.3.8 Configuring the CLNS Role...............................................................................................................A-31 A.3.9 Querying OSI Tunnel.........................................................................................................................A-32 A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes......................................................................................................................A-33 A.3.11 Querying IP Routes..........................................................................................................................A-33 A.3.12 Querying OSI Routes.......................................................................................................................A-34 A.4 Configuring Service Access of NEs ...........................................................................................................A-34 A.4.1 Configuring LCT Access to NEs........................................................................................................A-34 A.4.2 Configuring Ethernet Access to NEs..................................................................................................A-35 A.4.3 Configuring Serial Interface Access to NEs.......................................................................................A-36 A.5 Managing Radio Links................................................................................................................................A-37 A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group.................................................................................................A-39 A.5.2 Creating an XPIC Workgroup............................................................................................................A-42 A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link......................................................................A-46 A.5.4 Setting the Hybrid/AM Attribute........................................................................................................A-51 A.5.5 Creating an N+1 Protection Group.....................................................................................................A-53 A.5.6 Creating REGs....................................................................................................................................A-55 A.5.7 Configuring the ATPC function.........................................................................................................A-57 A.5.8 Setting Parameters of IF Interfaces....................................................................................................A-60 A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces...............................................................................................A-64 A.5.10 Querying ATPC Adjustment Records..............................................................................................A-67 A.5.11 Querying History Transmit Power and Receive Power ...................................................................A-68 A.5.12 Querying the AM Status...................................................................................................................A-68 A.5.13 Querying the IF 1+1 Protection Status.............................................................................................A-69 A.5.14 Querying the IF N+1 Protection Status............................................................................................A-69 xx Huawei Proprietary and Confidential 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A.5.15 Performing IF 1+1 Protection Switching.........................................................................................A-70 A.5.16 Performing IF N+1 Protection Switching.........................................................................................A-70 A.5.17 Starting/Stopping the N+1 Protection Protocol................................................................................A-71 A.6 Managing MSP............................................................................................................................................A-72 A.6.1 Configuring Ring MSP.......................................................................................................................A-72 A.6.2 Configuring Linear MSP....................................................................................................................A-76 A.6.3 Querying the Status of Ring MSP......................................................................................................A-80 A.6.4 Querying the Status of Linear MSP....................................................................................................A-80 A.6.5 Performing Ring MSP Switching.......................................................................................................A-81 A.6.6 Performing Linear MSP Switching....................................................................................................A-81 A.6.7 Starting/Stopping the Ring MSP Protocol..........................................................................................A-82 A.6.8 Starting/Stopping the Linear MSP Protocol.......................................................................................A-82 A.7 Managing TDM Services............................................................................................................................A-83 A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services ...................................................................A-84 A.7.2 Creating Cross-Connections for SNCP Services................................................................................A-87 A.7.3 Inserting TU_AIS...............................................................................................................................A-91 A.7.4 Setting the Automatic Switching Conditions of SNCP Services ......................................................A-92 A.7.5 Deleting Cross-Connections...............................................................................................................A-94 A.7.6 Converting Normal Services into SNCP Services..............................................................................A-94 A.7.7 Converting SNCP Services to Normal Services.................................................................................A-98 A.7.8 Querying TDM Services.....................................................................................................................A-98 A.7.9 Performing SNCP Protection.............................................................................................................A-99 A.7.10 Querying the Protection Status of SNCP Services...........................................................................A-99 A.8 Managing Clocks.......................................................................................................................................A-100 A.8.1 Configuring Clock Sources..............................................................................................................A-100 A.8.2 Configuring Protection for Clock Sources.......................................................................................A-102 A.8.3 Modifying Clock Output Parameters................................................................................................A-108 A.8.4 Changing Conditions for Clock Source Switching..........................................................................A-110 A.8.5 Modifying the Recovery Parameter of the Clock Source.................................................................A-111 A.8.6 Querying the Clock Synchronization Status.....................................................................................A-112 A.9 Managing ERPS Protection.......................................................................................................................A-113 A.9.1 Creating ERPS Instances..................................................................................................................A-113 A.9.2 Setting Parameters of the Ethernet Ring Protocol............................................................................A-115 A.9.3 Querying the Status of the Ethernet Ring Protection Switching Protocol........................................A-122 A.10 Managing the STP...................................................................................................................................A-123 A.10.1 Configuring the Spanning Tree Protocol........................................................................................A-123 A.10.2 Setting the Parameters of Spanning Tree Protocol ........................................................................A-124 A.10.3 Querying the Running Information About the Spanning Tree Protocol........................................A-128 A.11 Managing the IGMP Snooping................................................................................................................A-129 A.11.1 Configuring the IGMP Snooping Protocol.....................................................................................A-129 A.11.2 Modifying the Aging Time of a Multicast Table Item...................................................................A-131 A.11.3 Querying the Running Information of the IGMP 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A.12 Managing LAGs .....................................................................................................................................A-133 A.12.1 Creating a LAG..............................................................................................................................A-133 A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority..................................................................................................................A-141 A.12.3 Querying the Protocol Information of the LAG.............................................................................A-144 A.13 Managing the QoS...................................................................................................................................A-144 A.13.1 Creating a Flow..............................................................................................................................A-145 A.13.2 Creating the CAR...........................................................................................................................A-148 A.13.3 Creating the CoS.............................................................................................................................A-151 A.13.4 Binding the CAR/CoS....................................................................................................................A-154 A.13.5 Configuring the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues............................................................... -155 A A.13.6 Configuring Port Shaping...............................................................................................................A-157 A.13.7 Configuring the CoS of the IFH2 Board........................................................................................A-158 A.13.8 Configuring the Queue Scheduling Mode......................................................................................A-159 A.14 Using the IEEE 802.1ag OAM ...............................................................................................................A-162 A.14.1 Creating MDs.................................................................................................................................A-163 A.14.2 Creating MAs.................................................................................................................................A-164 A.14.3 Creating MPs..................................................................................................................................A-166 A.14.4 Performing a CC Test.....................................................................................................................A-169 A.14.5 Performing an LB Check ...............................................................................................................A-169 A.14.6 Performing a Link Trace Check.....................................................................................................A-171 A.14.7 Activating the AIS..........................................................................................................................A-173 A.14.8 Performing a Ping Test ..................................................................................................................A-174 A.14.9 Performing Performance Detection................................................................................................A-176 A.15 Using the IEEE 802.3ah OAM................................................................................................................A-178 A.15.1 Enabling the OAM Auto-Discovery Function...............................................................................A-178 A.15.2 Enabling the Link Event Notification.............................................................................................A-180 A.15.3 Modifying the Parameters of the OAM Error Frame Monitoring Threshold ................................A-183 A.15.4 Performing the Remote Loopback..................................................................................................A-185 A.15.5 Enabling the Self-Loop Detection .................................................................................................A-187 A.16 Using RMON...........................................................................................................................................A-188 A.16.1 Browsing the Performance Data in the Statistics Group of an Ethernet Port.................................A-189 A.16.2 Configuring an Alarm Group for an Ethernet Port.........................................................................A-190 A.16.3 Configuring a History Control Group............................................................................................A-191 A.16.4 Browsing the Performance Data in the History Group of an Ethernet Port...................................A-192 A.17 Configuring LPT.....................................................................................................................................A-193 A.17.1 Configuring LPT for Point-to-Point Services.................................................................................A-193 A.17.2 Configuring LPT for Point-to-Multipoint Services........................................................................A-195 A.18 Configuring Ethernet Ports......................................................................................................................A-197 A.18.1 Configuring External Ethernet Ports..............................................................................................A-198 A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board......................................................................A-206 A.18.3 Configuring Ethernet Ports of the IFH2 Board..............................................................................A-215 A.18.4 Modifying the Type Field of Jumbo Frames..................................................................................A-217 xxii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 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A.18.5 Modifying the Type Field of QinQ Frames....................................................................................A-218 A.18.6 Dynamically Increasing/Decreasing the VCTRUNK Bandwidth..................................................A-219 A.19 Configuring Ethernet Services................................................................................................................A-221 A.19.1 Creating Ethernet Private Line Services.........................................................................................A-222 A.19.2 Creating Ethernet LAN Services....................................................................................................A-227 A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge.......................................................................................A-232 A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table...............................................................................................A-235 A.19.5 Creating QinQ Private Line Services.............................................................................................A-237 A.19.6 Creating IEEE 802.1ad Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services ............................................................A-245 A.19.7 Deleting an Ethernet Private Line Service.....................................................................................A-250 A.19.8 Creating an Ethernet LAN Service.................................................................................................A-250 A.20 Managing the MAC Address Table.........................................................................................................A-251 A.20.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry...........................................................................................A-251 A.20.2 Creating a Blacklist Entry of a MAC Address...............................................................................A-253 A.20.3 Setting the Aging Time of a MAC Address Table Entry...............................................................A-254 A.20.4 Querying or Deleting a Dynamic MAC Address...........................................................................A-256 A.20.5 Querying the Actual Capacity of a MAC Address Table...............................................................A-257 A.21 Testing Ethernet Services........................................................................................................................A-257 A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function....................................................................A-258 A.21.2 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the Ping Function..................................................................A-259 A.21.3 Testing Ethernet Services by Using Laptops..................................................................................A-261

B Glossary......................................................................................................................................B-1
B.1 0-9..................................................................................................................................................................B-2 B.2 A-E.................................................................................................................................................................B-2 B.3 F-J................................................................................................................................................................B-11 B.4 K-O..............................................................................................................................................................B-16 B.5 P-T................................................................................................................................................................B-22 B.6 U-Z...............................................................................................................................................................B-30

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 DCN....................................................................................................................................................1-2 Figure 1-2 RS-232/Ethernet protocol converter solution.....................................................................................1-6 Figure 1-3 64k/Ethernet protocol converter solution...........................................................................................1-6 Figure 1-4 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (in the case that all the edge equipment is in the same domain) ...............................................................................................................................................................................1-7 Figure 1-5 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (in the case that all the edge equipment is in multiple domains and the PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter is used on the NM side)..................................................................1-8 Figure 1-6 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (in the case that all the edge equipment is in multiple domains and the PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter is used on the NM side)..................................................................1-8 Figure 1-7 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (shared E1).........................................................................1-9 Figure 1-8 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (shared BTS service channel)...........................................1-10 Figure 1-9 Hybrid Use Solution of Protocol Converters ...................................................................................1-11 Figure 2-1 Networking diagram of HWECC.......................................................................................................2-3 Figure 2-2 Architecture of the HW ECC protocol stack .....................................................................................2-4 Figure 2-3 Networking for the extended ECC (using a network cable)...............................................................2-7 Figure 2-4 Networking for the extended ECC (using a hub)...............................................................................2-8 Figure 2-5 Networking for the extended ECC (using network cables to connect NEs in series)........................2-8 Figure 2-6 Extended ECC network (multi-level extended ECC).......................................................................2-10 Figure 2-7 Networking example for establishing ECC routes ..........................................................................2-13 Figure 2-8 Realization principle of message transfer (HWECC).......................................................................2-15 Figure 2-9 Networking diagram of the HWECC solution.................................................................................2-21 Figure 2-10 Allocation of IDs/IP addresses for all the NEs...............................................................................2-22 Figure 3-1 Networking diagram of IP over DCC.................................................................................................3-3 Figure 3-2 IP over DCC protocol stack architecture............................................................................................3-4 Figure 3-3 Application example of the proxy ARP.............................................................................................3-6 Figure 3-4 Realization principle of message transfer (gateway mode)..............................................................3-10 Figure 3-5 Realization principle of message transfer (direct connection mode)................................................3-11 Figure 3-6 Planning Example of NE IPs and Routes on a Network That Consists Of the OptiX Equipment and Has Only One OSPF Area..........................................................................................................................................3-12 Figure 3-7 Planning Example of NE IPs and Routes on a Network That Consists Of Various Equipment and Has Only One OSPF Area..........................................................................................................................................3-13 Figure 3-8 Planning Example of NE IPs and Routes on a Network That Consists Of Various Equipment and Has Multiple OSPF Areas..........................................................................................................................................3-15 Figure 3-9 Networking diagram.........................................................................................................................3-18 Figure 3-10 Allocation of IDs/IP addresses for all the NEs...............................................................................3-19 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xxv

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description Figure 4-1 Networking diagram of OSI over DCC..............................................................................................4-3

Figure 4-2 OSI over DCC protocol stack architecture.........................................................................................4-4 Figure 4-3 Format of the NSAP address..............................................................................................................4-5 Figure 4-4 Layered routes of IS-IS protocol routes (L2 not consecutive)...........................................................4-6 Figure 4-5 Application example of the OSI tunnel..............................................................................................4-7 Figure 4-6 Realization principle of message transferring (gateway mode).......................................................4-11 Figure 4-7 Realization principle of message transferring (direct connection mode).........................................4-12 Figure 4-8 Networking diagram.........................................................................................................................4-16 Figure 4-9 Allocation of NE areas.....................................................................................................................4-17 Figure 5-1 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is at the edge of a network (1) ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-2 Figure 5-2 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is at the edge of a network (2) ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-3 Figure 5-3 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is in the center of a network (1) ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-3 Figure 5-4 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is in the center of a network (2) ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-4 Figure 5-5 Realization principle of the DCC transparent transmission ..............................................................5-6 Figure 5-6 Networking diagram of the DCC transparent transmission solution..................................................5-9 Figure 5-7 Allocation of IDs/IP addresses for all the NEs.................................................................................5-10 Figure 6-1 Networking example for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution (direct access mode)..............................................................................................................................................6-3 Figure 6-2 Networking example for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution (indirect access mode)...........................................................................................................................................6-4 Figure 6-3 Realization principle of the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface ...............................................................................................................................................................................6-6 Figure 6-4 Networking example for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution ...............................................................................................................................................................................6-8 Figure 7-1 1+1 HSB protection............................................................................................................................7-3 Figure 7-2 Typical configuration of 1+1 HSB (OptiX RTN 620).......................................................................7-4 Figure 7-3 Typical configuration of 1+1 HSB (OptiX RTN 620).......................................................................7-5 Figure 7-4 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction).............................7-11 Figure 7-5 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)...............................7-12 Figure 7-6 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)..................................7-12 Figure 7-7 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)................................7-13 Figure 7-8 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction).............................7-13 Figure 7-9 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)...............................7-14 Figure 7-10 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)................................7-15 Figure 7-11 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)..............................7-15 Figure 7-12 1+1 HSB protection networking diagram.......................................................................................7-17 Figure 8-1 1+1 FD protection...............................................................................................................................8-3 Figure 8-2 Typical configuration 1 of 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620).......................................................................8-5 Figure 8-3 Typical configuration 2 of 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620).......................................................................8-5 Figure 8-4 Typical configuration 1 of one 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620)................................................................8-6 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Figure 8-5 Typical configuration 2 of 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620).......................................................................8-7 Figure 8-6 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)................................8-13 Figure 8-7 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)..................................8-14 Figure 8-8 1+1 FD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)............................8-14 Figure 8-9 1+1 FD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)...........................8-15 Figure 8-10 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)..............................8-15 Figure 8-11 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)................................8-16 Figure 8-12 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)..............................8-17 Figure 8-13 1+1 FD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)..........................8-18 Figure 8-14 1+1 FD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction).........................8-19 Figure 8-15 1+1 FD protection networking diagram.........................................................................................8-21 Figure 9-1 1+1 SD protection...............................................................................................................................9-3 Figure 9-2 Typical configuration of 1+1 SD (OptiX RTN 620)..........................................................................9-5 Figure 9-3 Typical configuration of 1+1 SD (OptiX RTN 620)..........................................................................9-6 Figure 9-4 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)................................9-13 Figure 9-5 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)..................................9-13 Figure 9-6 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)............................9-14 Figure 9-7 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)..........................9-14 Figure 9-8 1+1 SD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)...........................9-15 Figure 9-9 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)................................9-15 Figure 9-10 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)................................9-16 Figure 9-11 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)..........................9-17 Figure 9-12 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)........................9-18 Figure 9-13 1+1 SD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction).........................9-19 Figure 9-14 1+1 SD protection networking diagram.........................................................................................9-21 Figure 10-1 Channel configuration in ACAP mode (without the application of the XPIC technology)...........10-3 Figure 10-2 Channel configuration in CCDP mode (with the application of the XPIC technology)................10-3 Figure 10-3 Single-polarization transmission....................................................................................................10-4 Figure 10-4 CCDP transmission.........................................................................................................................10-4 Figure 10-5 Typical configuration of XPIC.......................................................................................................10-5 Figure 10-6 Typical XPIC configuration (1+1 protection configuration)..........................................................10-7 Figure 10-7 Working principle of XPIC............................................................................................................10-8 Figure 10-8 Networking diagram.....................................................................................................................10-11 Figure 10-9 Board configurations....................................................................................................................10-11 Figure 11-1 N+1 protection................................................................................................................................11-3 Figure 11-2 Typical configuration of one 2+1 protection group........................................................................11-5 Figure 11-3 Typical channel configuration of one 2+1 protection group..........................................................11-5 Figure 11-4 Typical configuration of one 3+1 protection group........................................................................11-7 Figure 11-5 Typical channel configuration of one 3+1 protection group..........................................................11-7 Figure 11-6 Working principle of 2+1 protection (before the switching)........................................................11-12 Figure 11-7 Working principle of 2+1 protection (after the switching)...........................................................11-12 Figure 11-8 Working principle of the 3+1 protection (before the switching)..................................................11-13 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xxvii

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description Figure 11-9 Working principle of the 3+1 protection (after the switching).....................................................11-14 Figure 11-10 Networking diagram...................................................................................................................11-18 Figure 11-11 Board configuration diagram......................................................................................................11-19 Figure 12-1 Relationship between the RSL and TSL.........................................................................................12-2 Figure 12-2 Realization principle of the ATPC.................................................................................................12-4

Figure 12-3 Networking diagram.......................................................................................................................12-7 Figure 13-1 Adaptive modulation......................................................................................................................13-3 Figure 13-2 AM switching (before the switching).............................................................................................13-5 Figure 13-3 AM switching (after the switching)................................................................................................13-6 Figure 13-4 Networking diagram of the AM function.......................................................................................13-7 Figure 14-1 Subnetwork connection protection.................................................................................................14-3 Figure 14-2 SNCP service pair...........................................................................................................................14-4 Figure 14-3 An application scenario wherein 1+1 SD and SNCP coexist.........................................................14-5 Figure 14-4 Traffic flow after an SNCP switching and a 1+1 HSB switching..................................................14-6 Figure 14-5 Traffic flow after a revertive SNCP switching...............................................................................14-6 Figure 14-6 Traffic flow after a 1+1 HSB switching when the hold-off time is set..........................................14-7 Figure 14-7 SNCP working principle (before a switching).............................................................................14-14 Figure 14-8 SNCP working principle (after a switching)................................................................................14-14 Figure 14-9 Networking diagram of an SNCP ring ........................................................................................14-17 Figure 14-10 Timeslot allocation diagram (TDM services on a TDM radio ring network) ...........................14-17 Figure 15-1 1+1 linear MSP...............................................................................................................................15-3 Figure 15-2 1:N linear MSP...............................................................................................................................15-4 Figure 15-3 Working principle of 1+1 linear MSP (before a switching).........................................................15-12 Figure 15-4 Working principle of 1+1 linear MSP (after a switching, in single-ended mode).......................15-12 Figure 15-5 Working principle of 1+1 linear MSP (after a switching, in dual-ended mode)..........................15-13 Figure 15-6 Working principle of 1:1 linear MSP (before a switching)..........................................................15-14 Figure 15-7 Working principle of 1:1 linear MSP (after a switching).............................................................15-14 Figure 15-8 Networking diagram of linear MSP .............................................................................................15-16 Figure 16-1 Two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring..................................................................................................16-4 Figure 16-2 Principle of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring (before switching).............................................16-11 Figure 16-3 Principle of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring (after switching)................................................16-11 Figure 16-4 Two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring................................................................................................16-14 Figure 17-1 Application scenario 1 of EoS........................................................................................................17-3 Figure 17-2 Application scenario 2 of EoS........................................................................................................17-4 Figure 17-3 Application scenario 1 of EoPDH..................................................................................................17-5 Figure 17-4 Application scenario 2 of EoPDH..................................................................................................17-6 Figure 17-5 Structure of the GFP frame ..........................................................................................................17-13 Figure 17-6 GFP type field format...................................................................................................................17-14 Figure 17-7 VC-3-Xv/VC-4-Xv multiframe and sequence indicator...............................................................17-17 Figure 17-8 Position of the N x 2048 kbit/s signals in the concatenation overhead........................................17-18 Figure 17-9 Capacity adjustment process (addition of a member)...................................................................17-20 Figure 17-10 Capacity adjustment process (deletion of a member).................................................................17-20 xxviii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 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Figure 17-11 Capacity adjustment process (one member link restored after a failure)...................................17-21 Figure 18-1 Networking diagram of the VLAN application..............................................................................18-3 Figure 18-2 Format of a tagged frame................................................................................................................18-4 Figure 19-1 Application of QinQ in EVPL services..........................................................................................19-3 Figure 19-2 Format of the Ethernet frame with only a C-TAG.........................................................................19-4 Figure 19-3 Format of the Ethernet frame with a C-TAG and an S-TAG ........................................................19-5 Figure 19-4 Format of the Ethernet frame with only an S-TAG........................................................................19-5 Figure 19-5 EVPL (QinQ) services..................................................................................................................19-13 Figure 19-6 EVPLAN (802.1ad Bridge) Service Example..............................................................................19-14 Figure 20-1 Application of Layer 2 switching...................................................................................................20-3 Figure 20-2 802.1d bridge and 802.1q bridge....................................................................................................20-4 Figure 20-3 802.1ad bridge................................................................................................................................20-5 Figure 21-1 Implementation of ERPS................................................................................................................21-4 Figure 21-2 Protection instance of ERPS...........................................................................................................21-5 Figure 21-3 Frame format of an R-APS message..............................................................................................21-7 Figure 21-4 Frame format of the R-APS specific information...........................................................................21-7 Figure 21-5 Working principle of ERPS (in the case of a fault on a non-RPL link)....................................... 21-13 Figure 21-6 Working principle of ERPS (in the case of a fault on an RPL)....................................................21-14 Figure 21-7 Networking diagram.....................................................................................................................21-18 Figure 22-1 Networking diagram of the STP/RSTP application.......................................................................22-4 Figure 22-2 Networking diagram.....................................................................................................................22-12 Figure 23-1 Transmission of multicast packets (with the IGMP Snooping protocol disabled).........................23-3 Figure 23-2 Transmission of multicast packets (with the IGMP Snooping protocol enabled)..........................23-4 Figure 23-3 Networking diagram.....................................................................................................................23-10 Figure 24-1 Link aggregation group..................................................................................................................24-3 Figure 24-2 Application of the LACP protocol..................................................................................................24-8 Figure 24-3 LAG networking diagram.............................................................................................................24-12 Figure 25-1 Networking diagram of point-to-point LPT...................................................................................25-3 Figure 25-2 Networking diagram of point-to-multipoint LPT...........................................................................25-4 Figure 25-3 Coexisting LPT and 1+1 HSB........................................................................................................25-5 Figure 25-4 Traffic flow after LPT switching and 1+1 HSB switching............................................................25-6 Figure 25-5 Traffic flow after the revertive LPT switching...............................................................................25-6 Figure 25-6 Traffic flow after the 1+1 HSB switching when the hold-off time is set.......................................25-7 Figure 25-7 Networking diagram of LPT ........................................................................................................25-14 Figure 26-1 FIFO queue.....................................................................................................................................26-3 Figure 26-2 Queues with different priorities......................................................................................................26-3 Figure 26-3 CAR processing..............................................................................................................................26-7 Figure 26-4 Traffic shaping................................................................................................................................26-8 Figure 26-5 Queues with different priorities......................................................................................................26-8 Figure 26-6 WRR scheduling algorithm............................................................................................................26-9 Figure 26-7 SP+WRR scheduling algorithm....................................................................................................26-10 Figure 26-8 QoS processing.............................................................................................................................26-11 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xxix

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description Figure 26-9 Basic principle of the token bucket algorithm..............................................................................26-16

Figure 26-10 Basic principle of the algorithm that is used by the CAR..........................................................26-17 Figure 26-11 Basic principle of the algorithm that is used by the traffic shaping...........................................26-18 Figure 26-12 Networking diagram (EPVL service based on the VLAN)........................................................26-20 Figure 27-1 ETH-OAM solution........................................................................................................................27-3 Figure 27-2 Logical diagram of MD layers........................................................................................................27-6 Figure 27-3 IEEE 802.1ag OAMPDU.............................................................................................................27-12 Figure 27-4 CC diagram...................................................................................................................................27-14 Figure 27-5 LB test diagram............................................................................................................................27-14 Figure 27-6 LT test diagram.............................................................................................................................27-15 Figure 27-7 IEEE 802.3ah OAMPDU.............................................................................................................27-17 Figure 27-8 Packet format of the information OAMPDU...............................................................................27-19 Figure 27-9 Packet format of the event notification OAMPDU......................................................................27-23 Figure 27-10 Packet format of the loopback control OAMPDU.....................................................................27-24 Figure 27-11 Networking diagram of IEEE 802.1ag OAM.............................................................................27-31 Figure 27-12 Information about the MPs that belong to different VLANs......................................................27-32 Figure 27-13 Networking diagram of IEEE 802.3ah OAM.............................................................................27-37 Figure 28-1 Application of synchronous Ethernet in a wireless access network...............................................28-3 Figure 28-2 Realization principle of synchronous Ethernet ..............................................................................28-5 Figure 28-3 Networking diagram of synchronous Ethernet...............................................................................28-7 Figure 28-4 Networking diagram.......................................................................................................................28-7 Figure 29-1 Networking diagram.....................................................................................................................29-15 Figure A-1 Networking diagram for testing Ethernet services........................................................................A-258 Figure A-2 Networking diagram for testing Ethernet services........................................................................A-260 Figure A-3 Networking diagram for testing Ethernet services........................................................................A-261

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Tables
Table 2-1 Specifications of HWECC.................................................................................................................2-11 Table 2-2 Hardware and version support...........................................................................................................2-12 Table 2-3 Configuration flow for the HWECC solution....................................................................................2-18 Table 3-1 Specifications of IP over DCC.............................................................................................................3-8 Table 3-2 Hardware and version support.............................................................................................................3-9 Table 3-3 Configuration flow for the IP over DCC solution..............................................................................3-16 Table 4-1 Specifications of OSI over DCC..........................................................................................................4-9 Table 4-2 Hardware and version support...........................................................................................................4-10 Table 4-3 Configuration flow for the OSI over DCC solution...........................................................................4-13 Table 5-1 Specifications of DCC transparent transmission..................................................................................5-4 Table 5-2 Hardware and version support.............................................................................................................5-5 Table 5-3 Configuration flow for the DCC transparent transmission solution....................................................5-7 Table 6-1 Specifications of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface........................6-4 Table 6-2 Hardware and version support.............................................................................................................6-5 Table 6-3 Procedure for configuring the solution of transparently transmitting DCCs through the external clock interface.................................................................................................................................................................6-7 Table 7-1 Trigger conditions of the 1+1 HSB switching ....................................................................................7-6 Table 7-2 Trigger conditions of the automatic 1+1 HSB switching.....................................................................7-9 Table 7-3 Specifications of 1+1 HSB.................................................................................................................7-10 Table 7-4 Hardware and version support...........................................................................................................7-10 Table 7-5 Configuration procedure of 1+1 HSB................................................................................................7-16 Table 7-6 IF planning information.....................................................................................................................7-18 Table 7-7 RF planning information....................................................................................................................7-18 Table 8-1 Trigger conditions of the 1+1 FD HSB switching...............................................................................8-8 Table 8-2 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSB switching............................................................................8-9 Table 8-3 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSM switching.........................................................................8-10 Table 8-4 Specifications of 1+1 FD...................................................................................................................8-11 Table 8-5 Hardware and version support...........................................................................................................8-12 Table 8-6 Configuration procedure of 1+1 FD...................................................................................................8-20 Table 8-7 IF planning information.....................................................................................................................8-21 Table 8-8 RF planning information....................................................................................................................8-22 Table 9-1 Trigger conditions of the 1+1 SD HSB switching...............................................................................9-7 Table 9-2 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSB switching............................................................................9-9 Table 9-3 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSM switching.........................................................................9-10 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xxxi

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description Table 9-4 Specifications of 1+1 SD...................................................................................................................9-11 Table 9-5 Hardware and version support...........................................................................................................9-12 Table 9-6 Configuration procedure of 1+1 SD...................................................................................................9-20 Table 9-7 IF planning information.....................................................................................................................9-21 Table 9-8 RF planning information....................................................................................................................9-22 Table 10-1 Specifications of XPIC.....................................................................................................................10-6 Table 10-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................10-6 Table 10-3 Procedure for configuring XPIC links.............................................................................................10-9 Table 10-4 Basic information about radio links...............................................................................................10-12 Table 10-5 Power and ATPC information........................................................................................................10-13 Table 10-6 Configuration information about 1+1 HSB protection groups......................................................10-13 Table 10-7 Configuration information about XPIC.........................................................................................10-14 Table 11-1 Switching conditions of the N+1 protection....................................................................................11-8 Table 11-2 Specifications of N+1 protection...................................................................................................11-10 Table 11-3 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................11-11 Table 11-4 Configuration procedure of 2+1 protection....................................................................................11-16 Table 11-5 Configuration procedure of 3+1 protection....................................................................................11-16 Table 11-6 Basic information about radio links...............................................................................................11-20 Table 11-7 Power and ATPC information........................................................................................................11-20 Table 11-8 Information about N+1 (N = 3) protection.....................................................................................11-21 Table 11-9 Cross-connect configuration information about the primary NE...................................................11-21 Table 11-10 REG configuration information about the secondary NE............................................................11-22 Table 11-11 Cross-connect configuration information about the primary NE.................................................11-24 Table 12-1 Specifications of ATPC....................................................................................................................12-3 Table 12-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................12-3 Table 12-3 Configuration procedure of ATPC...................................................................................................12-6 Table 12-4 ATPC information............................................................................................................................12-8 Table 13-1 Specifications of AM.......................................................................................................................13-3 Table 13-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................13-4 Table 13-3 Configuration procedure of AM.......................................................................................................13-7 Table 13-4 AM information...............................................................................................................................13-8 Table 14-1 SNCP switching conditions..............................................................................................................14-7 Table 14-2 Trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching (VC-4 services)............................................14-9 Table 14-3 Trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching (VC-3/VC-12 services)..............................14-10 Table 14-4 Trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching (E1 services transmitted over the Hybrid microwave)........................................................................................................................................................14-11 Table 14-5 Specifications of SNCP..................................................................................................................14-12 Table 14-6 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................14-13 Table 14-7 Procedure for configuring SNCP services.....................................................................................14-15 Table 14-8 SNCP..............................................................................................................................................14-19 Table 15-1 Meanings of K bytes (linear MSP)...................................................................................................15-6 Table 15-2 Bridge request code..........................................................................................................................15-6 Table 15-3 Trigger conditions of a linear MSP switching.................................................................................15-8

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Table 15-4 Specifications of linear MSP..........................................................................................................15-10 Table 15-5 Configuration procedure for a linear MSP service.........................................................................15-15 Table 15-6 Linear MSP....................................................................................................................................15-16 Table 16-1 Meanings of byte K (two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP)..................................................................16-5 Table 16-2 Bridging request code......................................................................................................................16-6 Table 16-3 Switching conditions of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP..............................................................16-7 Table 16-4 Specifications of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP.........................................................................16-9 Table 16-5 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................16-10 Table 16-6 Configuration procedure for a ring MSP service...........................................................................16-13 Table 16-7 Information about ring MSP..........................................................................................................16-14 Table 17-1 Specifications of EoS/EoPDH..........................................................................................................17-9 Table 17-2 Hardware and version support (EoS).............................................................................................17-11 Table 17-3 Hardware and version support (EoPDH).......................................................................................17-11 Table 17-4 UPI values of the client management frame..................................................................................17-15 Table 17-5 LCAS CTRL words........................................................................................................................17-19 Table 17-6 Configuration procedure of EoS....................................................................................................17-24 Table 17-7 Configuration procedure of EoPDH...............................................................................................17-25 Table 18-1 Processing of data frames based on different TAG attributes..........................................................18-5 Table 18-2 Specifications of VLANs.................................................................................................................18-6 Table 18-3 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................18-7 Table 18-4 Procedures for configuring VLAN-based EVPL services...............................................................18-9 Table 18-5 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN services....................................18-15 Table 19-1 Private line services between C-Aware ports...................................................................................19-7 Table 19-2 Private line services between a C-aware port and an S-aware port.................................................19-7 Table 19-3 Private line services between S-Aware ports...................................................................................19-8 Table 19-4 VLAN tag operations of C-Aware ports........................................................................................19-10 Table 19-5 VLAN tag operations of S-Aware ports.........................................................................................19-11 Table 19-6 Specifications of QinQ...................................................................................................................19-11 Table 19-7 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................19-13 Table 19-8 Procedures for configuring QinQ-based EVPL services................................................................19-17 Table 19-9 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN services...................................19-23 Table 20-1 List of bridges..................................................................................................................................20-5 Table 20-2 Specifications of Layer 2 switching.................................................................................................20-7 Table 20-3 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................20-8 Table 20-4 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1d bridge-based EPLAN services.......................................20-11 Table 20-5 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN services....................................20-18 Table 20-6 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN services...................................20-25 Table 21-1 Description of each field in the R-APS specific information...........................................................21-7 Table 21-2 Trigger conditions of ERPS.............................................................................................................21-9 Table 21-3 Specifications of ERPS..................................................................................................................21-11 Table 21-4 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................21-12 Table 21-5 Procedure for configuring 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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description Table 21-6 Configuration information about the ERPS protection instance....................................................21-18 Table 21-7 Configuration information about the ERPS protocol parameters..................................................21-19 Table 22-1 Specifications of STP/RSTP............................................................................................................22-7 Table 22-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................22-8 Table 22-3 Procedure for configuring the STP/RSTP......................................................................................22-11 Table 22-4 Protocol information......................................................................................................................22-12 Table 22-5 Information about bridge parameters.............................................................................................22-13 Table 22-6 Information about port parameters.................................................................................................22-13 Table 23-1 Specifications of IGMP Snooping...................................................................................................23-5 Table 23-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................23-6 Table 23-3 Procedure for configuring IGMP Snooping.....................................................................................23-9 Table 24-1 Switching conditions........................................................................................................................24-5 Table 24-2 Specifications of LAGs....................................................................................................................24-6 Table 24-3 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................24-7 Table 24-4 Procedure for configuring a LAG connected to the customer equipment......................................24-10 Table 24-5 Procedure for configuring a LAG connected to the IF board in 1+1 protection configuration ...........................................................................................................................................................................24-11 Table 24-6 LAG information............................................................................................................................24-12 Table 25-1 Specifications of LPT.......................................................................................................................25-7 Table 25-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................25-8 Table 25-3 Procedure for configuring LPT for Point-to-Point Services..........................................................25-13 Table 25-4 Procedure for configuring LPT for Point-to-Multipoint Services..................................................25-13 Table 25-5 LPT configuration information of NE1..........................................................................................25-15 Table 25-6 LPT configuration information of NE2..........................................................................................25-15 Table 25-7 LPT configuration information of NE3..........................................................................................25-15 Table 26-1 Specifications of QoS.....................................................................................................................26-12 Table 26-2 Hardware and version support (QoS).............................................................................................26-15 Table 26-3 Procedure for configuring QoS for the EMS6 and EFP6 boards...................................................26-19 Table 26-4 Procedure for configuring QoS for the IFH2 board.......................................................................26-20 Table 26-5 QoS requirement............................................................................................................................26-21 Table 26-6 Connections of Ethernet links (NE1).............................................................................................26-21 Table 26-7 Connections of Ethernet links (NE2).............................................................................................26-21 Table 26-8 Connections of Ethernet links (NE3).............................................................................................26-22 Table 26-9 Connections of Ethernet links (NE4).............................................................................................26-22 Table 26-10 Connections of Ethernet links (NE5)...........................................................................................26-23 Table 26-11 Connections of Ethernet links (NE6)...........................................................................................26-23 Table 26-12 Information about the VLAN-based EVPL service (NE1)..........................................................26-23 Table 26-13 Information about the VLAN-based EVPL service (NE2)..........................................................26-24 Table 26-14 Information about the VLAN-based EVPL service (NE3)..........................................................26-24 Table 26-15 Information about the VLAN-based EVPL service (NE4)..........................................................26-25 Table 26-16 Information about VLAN-based EVPL service (NE5)................................................................26-25 Table 26-17 Flow (NE1)...................................................................................................................................26-26 Table 26-18 Flow (NE2)...................................................................................................................................26-26

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Table 26-19 Flow (NE3)...................................................................................................................................26-26 Table 26-20 Flow (NE4)...................................................................................................................................26-27 Table 26-21 Flow (NE5)...................................................................................................................................26-27 Table 26-22 CAR (services accessed from BTS1 to NE2)..............................................................................26-27 Table 26-23 CAR (services accessed from BTS2 and BTS3 to NE4).............................................................26-28 Table 26-24 CAR (services accessed from BTS4 to NE5)..............................................................................26-28 Table 26-25 CoS attributes of the EMS6 boards..............................................................................................26-28 Table 26-26 CoS parameters of the EMS6 boards...........................................................................................26-29 Table 26-27 CoS operations on the IFH2 board...............................................................................................26-29 Table 26-28 Queue scheduling on the EMS6 board.........................................................................................26-30 Table 27-1 IEEE 802.1ag ETH-OAM operations and application scenarios.....................................................27-7 Table 27-2 IEEE 802.3ah ETH-OAM operations and application scenarios.....................................................27-9 Table 27-3 Specifications of ETH-OAM (IEEE 802.1ag)...............................................................................27-10 Table 27-4 Specifications of ETH-OAM (IEEE 802.3ah)...............................................................................27-10 Table 27-5 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................27-11 Table 27-6 Mapping relationships between OAM Type values and types of OAM packets (in the case of a standard MP)....................................................................................................................................................................27-13 Table 27-7 Mapping relationships between Code values and OAM packet types...........................................27-17 Table 27-8 Details of an OAM configuration byte...........................................................................................27-20 Table 27-9 Mapping relationships between OAM working modes and OAM capabilities.............................27-21 Table 27-10 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1ag OAM...........................................................................27-27 Table 27-11 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.3ah OAM...........................................................................27-29 Table 27-12 Information about the MD...........................................................................................................27-32 Table 27-13 Information about the MA...........................................................................................................27-32 Table 27-14 Information about the MEP..........................................................................................................27-33 Table 27-15 Information about the MIP...........................................................................................................27-33 Table 27-16 Information about the LT test......................................................................................................27-33 Table 27-17 OAM parameters..........................................................................................................................27-37 Table 27-18 Error frame monitoring information in OAM..............................................................................27-38 Table 28-1 Specifications of synchronous Ethernet...........................................................................................28-3 Table 28-2 Hardware and version support.........................................................................................................28-4 Table 28-3 Configuration procedure for synchronous Ethernet.........................................................................28-6 Table 29-1 List of RMON alarm entries............................................................................................................29-6 Table 29-2 List of RMON performance entries.................................................................................................29-6 Table 29-3 Specifications of RMON................................................................................................................29-10 Table 29-4 Hardware and version support.......................................................................................................29-11 Table 29-5 Configuration procedure of RMON...............................................................................................29-14 Table A-1 Parameters..........................................................................................................................................A-8 Table A-2 Parameters........................................................................................................................................A-10 Table A-3 Parameters........................................................................................................................................A-13 Table A-4 Parameters of the standard NTP server............................................................................................A-15 Table A-5 Parameters of the access control rights............................................................................................A-16 Table A-6 Parameters of the NTP key management.........................................................................................A-16 Issue 05 (2010-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xxxv

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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description Table A-7 Parameters........................................................................................................................................A-18 Table A-8 Parameters........................................................................................................................................A-22 Table A-9 Parameters........................................................................................................................................A-24 Table A-10 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-26 Table A-11 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-28 Table A-12 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-30 Table A-13 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-32 Table A-14 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-37 Table A-15 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-40 Table A-16 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-43 Table A-17 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-47 Table A-18 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-52 Table A-19 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-55 Table A-20 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-57 Table A-21 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-58 Table A-22 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-61 Table A-23 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-65 Table A-24 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-74 Table A-25 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-77 Table A-26 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-85 Table A-27 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-88 Table A-28 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-93 Table A-29 Parameters......................................................................................................................................A-96 Table A-30 Parameter Description: Clock Subnet Setting_Clock Subnet......................................................A-105 Table A-31 Parameter Description: Clock Subnet Setting_Clock Quality ....................................................A-106 Table A-32 Parameter Description: Clock Subset Setting_SSM Output Control ..........................................A-108 Table A-33 Parameter Description: Clock Subset Setting_Clock ID Enabling Status ..................................A-108 Table A-34 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-112 Table A-35 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-114 Table A-36 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-116 Table A-37 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-164 Table A-38 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-165 Table A-39 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-167 Table A-40 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-170 Table A-41 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-172 Table A-42 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-173 Table A-43 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-175 Table A-44 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-177 Table A-45 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-179 Table A-46 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-182 Table A-47 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-184 Table A-48 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-186

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Tables

Table A-49 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-188 Table A-50 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-189 Table A-51 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-190 Table A-52 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-191 Table A-53 Parameters....................................................................................................................................A-192 Table A-54 Parameters of the point-to-point LPT...........................................................................................A-194 Table A-55 Parameters of aggregation points.................................................................................................A-196 Table A-56 Parameters of access points..........................................................................................................A-197 Table A-57 Parameters for the basic attributes................................................................................................A-199 Table A-58 Parameters for flow control..........................................................................................................A-202 Table A-59 Parameters for the TAG attributes................................................................................................A-203 Table A-60 Parameters for the network attributes...........................................................................................A-204 Table A-61 Parameters for the advanced attributes.........................................................................................A-205 Table A-62 Methods used by ports to process data frames.............................................................................A-206 Table A-63 Parameters for the TAG attributes................................................................................................A-209 Table A-64 Parameters for encapsulation or mapping....................................................................................A-210 Table A-65 Parameters for the network attributes...........................................................................................A-211 Table A-66 Parameters for the LCAS.............................................................................................................A-212 Table A-67 Parameters for bound paths..........................................................................................................A-213 Table A-68 Parameters for the advanced attributes.........................................................................................A-214 Table A-69 Methods used by ports to process data frames.............................................................................A-214 Table A-70 Parameters for the basic attributes................................................................................................A-216 Table A-71 Parameters for flow control..........................................................................................................A-216 Table A-72 Parameters on the main interface.................................................................................................A-224 Table A-73 Parameters of port attributes.........................................................................................................A-226 Table A-74 Parameters of bound paths...........................................................................................................A-227 Table A-75 Parameters on the main interface.................................................................................................A-230 Table A-76 Parameters of service mounting...................................................................................................A-231 Table A-77 Parameters of bound paths...........................................................................................................A-231 Table A-78 Methods used by ports to process data frames.............................................................................A-235 Table A-79 Parameters on the main interface.................................................................................................A-239 Table A-80 Parameters of port attributes.........................................................................................................A-243 Table A-81 Parameters of bound paths...........................................................................................................A-244 Table A-82 Parameters on the main interface.................................................................................................A-247 Table A-83 Parameters of service mounting...................................................................................................A-248 Table A-84 Parameters of bound paths...........................................................................................................A-249

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1
About This Chapter

Introduction to the DCN

The network management system (NMS) establishes communication with a transmission network element (NE) through the data communication network (DCN) to manage and maintain the NE. 1.1 Composition of the DCN In a DCN, both the NMS and NE are nodes of the DCN. The DCN between the NMS and NEs is called the external DCN, and the DCN between NEs is called the internal DCN. 1.2 Huawei DCN Solution The OptiX transmission equipment of Huawei provides multiple DCN solutions for a variety of networks that comprise the transmission equipment. 1.3 Protocol Converter Solution To use the protocol converter solution, the corresponding protocol converter is selected according to the bearing capacity of the equipment in the center of the network.

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1.1 Composition of the DCN


In a DCN, both the NMS and NE are nodes of the DCN. The DCN between the NMS and NEs is called the external DCN, and the DCN between NEs is called the internal DCN. Figure 1-1 DCN

NMS

External DCN

Internal DCN

Router

LAN switch

OptiX optical transmission equipment

OptiX radio transmission equipment

External DCN
In an actual network, the NMS and NEs may be located on different floors of a building, or in different buildings, or even in different cities. Hence, an external DCN that comprises the data communication equipment such as LAN switches and routers is required to connect the NMS and the NEs. As the external DCN involves knowledge of data communication, no detailed description is provided in this document. The DCN mentioned in this document refers to the internal DCN, unless otherwise specified.
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Internal DCN
In an internal DCN, an NE uses the DCC bytes of the overhead as the physical channels of the DCN. l l l l l l When the D1 byte of the PDH microwave overhead is used, a bandwidth of 64 kbit/s can be provided for the DCN. When D1-D3 bytes of the PDH microwave overhead are used, a bandwidth of 192 kbit/s can be provided for the DCN. When D1-D3 bytes of the SDH regenerator section overhead (RSOH) are used, a bandwidth of 192 kbit/s can be provided for the DCN. When D4-D12 bytes of the SDH multiplex section overhead (MSOH) are used, a bandwidth of 576 kbit/s can be provided for the DCN. When D1-D12 bytes of the SDH section overhead are used, a bandwidth of 768 kbit/s can be provided for the DCN. When D1-D3 bytes of the Hybrid microwave overhead are used, a bandwidth of 192 kbit/ s can be provided for the DCN.
NOTE

l In the PDH microwave frame or Hybrid microwave frame, the DCC bytes are defined by Huawei. l In the SDH microwave frame, the defined DCC bytes comply with the SDH overhead specifications.

1.2 Huawei DCN Solution


The OptiX transmission equipment of Huawei provides multiple DCN solutions for a variety of networks that comprise the transmission equipment.

HW ECC Solution
When the network comprises only the OptiX transmission equipment, the HW ECC solution is the first choice. With the HW ECC solution, NEs transmit the data that supports the HW ECC protocol through DCCs. It is easy to configure the solution and convenient to apply the solution. The network management problem cannot be solved when the network comprises the OptiX equipment and the third-party equipment because the HW ECC protocol is a private protocol. For details on the HW ECC solution, see 2 HWECC Solution.

IP over DCC Solution


When the network comprises the OptiX transmission equipment and the third-party equipment that supports the IP over DCC function, the IP over DCC solution is the first choice. The IP over DCC solution can also be applied when the network comprises only the OptiX transmission equipment. With the IP over DCC solution, NEs transmit the data that supports the TCP/IP protocol through DCCs. As the TCP/IP is a standard protocol stack, the network management problem is solved when the network comprises the OptiX equipment and the third-party equipment. The configuration, however, is more complicated than the HW ECC solution. For details on the IP over DCC solution, see 3 IP over DCC Solution.
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NOTE

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

If the equipment located in the center of the network supports the IP over DCC function and the third-party equipment located at the edge of the network supports NM message transmission through the Ethernet, the IP over DCC solution can be used to realize the DCN communication of the equipment at the edge of a network.

OSI over DCC Solution


When the network comprises the OptiX transmission equipment and the third-party equipment that supports the OSI over DCC function, the OSI over DCC solution is the first choice. With the OSI over DCC solution, NEs transmit the data that supports the open system interconnection (OSI) protocol through DCCs. As the OSI protocol is a standard protocol, the network management problem is solved when the network comprises the OptiX equipment and the third-party equipment. The configuration, however, is more complicated than both the HW ECC solution and the IP over DCC solution. For details on the OSI over DCC solution, see 4 OSI over DCC Solution.
NOTE

If the equipment located in the center of the network supports the OSI over DCC function and the third-party equipment located at the edge of the network supports NM message transmission through the Ethernet, the OSI over DCC solution can be used to realize the DCN communication of the equipment at the edge of a network.

DCC Transparent Transmission Solution


When the network comprises the OptiX transmission equipment and the third-party SDH equipment that does not support the IP over DCC function or the OSI over DCC function, use DCC bytes to transparently transmit data. With the DCC transparent transmission solution, vendors use different DCCs to transmit data. Hence, the network management problem is solved when the equipment of the vendor is used together with the third-party equipment to form a network. There is a limitation, however, because the NMS of a vendor can manage only the NEs of the same vendor. For details on the DCC transparent transmission solution, see 5 DCC Transparent Transmission Solution.

DCC Transparent Transmission Through the External Clock Interface Solution


When a PDH network or a network that does not support transparent transmission of DCC bytes exists on the transmission path of NM messages, use the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution. With the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution, DCC bytes are loaded into the timeslots of the E1 provided by the external clock interface and the thirdparty equipment transmits the E1 as an ordinary E1 service. When this solution is adopted, the transmission bandwidth of an E1 service needs to be occupied and the NEs connected to Huawei's NMS must be the OptiX equipment. For details on the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution, see 5 DCC Transparent Transmission Solution.

Protocol Converter Solution


This solution is adopted when none of the preceding solutions can be used to realize the NM message transmission.
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With this solution, on one side of the equipment at the edge of the network or the NM side of the equipment at the edge of the management network, the protocol converter is used to convert the NM message carried by the Ethernet into a service that can be transparently transmitted by the equipment in the center of the network, such as the RS-232 asynchronous data service, 64 kbit/s synchronous data service, Nx64 bit/s data service (this service can be carried by E1). In this manner, the DCN communication of the equipment at the edge of the network is realized. This solution is widely applicable but requires the protocol converter, which increases the cost. For details on the protocol converter solution, see section 1.3 Protocol Converter Solution.
NOTE

When the equipment at the edge of the network carries the NM message by using the RS-232 asynchronous data service, the protocol converter solution can be used for the DCN communication. By using the protocol converters of other types, the asynchronous data service can be converted into a service that can be transparently transmitted by the equipment in the center of the network, such as the 64 kbit/s synchronous data service and Nx64 bit/s data service.

1.3 Protocol Converter Solution


To use the protocol converter solution, the corresponding protocol converter is selected according to the bearing capacity of the equipment in the center of the network.
NOTE

The following part considers the situation that the third-party equipment is the central equipment and the OptiX RTN equipment is the edge equipment of the network as an example. In fact, if the OptiX RTN equipment is the central equipment of the network, the protocol converter solution can also be used to provide the DCN for the third-party equipment.

Principle for Selecting a Protocol Converter


l When the equipment in the center of the network supports the RS-232 asynchronous data service transmission, the RS-232/Ethernet protocol converter is the first choice for realizing the DCN communication. When the equipment in the center of the network supports the 64 kbit/s synchronous data service transmission, the 64k/Ethernet protocol converter is the first choice for realizing the DCN communication. When the equipment in the center of the network does not support the synchronous data service or asynchronous data service transmission, the E1/Ethernet protocol converter is the first choice for realizing the DCN communication. When the equipment at the edge of the network belongs to multiple domains and the number of synchronous/asynchronous services of the equipment in the center of the network cannot support the DCN transmission of the equipment at the edge of the network in each domain, a solution of using multiple protocol converters is adopted for DCN transmission.
NOTE

The principle for selecting a protocol converter is based on the situation that the DCN communication needs to be provided for only a small amount of edge equipment. If there is a large amount of edge equipment, whether the bandwidth provided by the protocol converter can meet the requirement of the communication between the NE and the NMS needs to be considered. In this case, it is recommended that you use the E1/Ethernet protocol converter.

RS-232/Ethernet Protocol Converter Solution


With this solution, the edge equipment side and the NM side of the edge equipment converts the NM message carried by the Ethernet into the RS-232 asynchronous data service by using the
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RS-232/Ethernet protocol converter, and the central equipment transparently transmits the data service, as shown in Figure 1-2. In this manner, the DCN transmission of the edge equipment is realized. With regard to the edge equipment, the RS-232/Ethernet protocol converter and the central equipment are external DCN, which realizes the DCN communication between the NMS and the gateway NE. Figure 1-2 RS-232/Ethernet protocol converter solution

NMS

RS-232/Ethernet Converter

Central netw ork

RS-232/Ethernet Converter

Edge netw ork

Ethernet link

RS-232 link

Radio link

NOTE

The OptiX RTN 620 supports direct NMS access through the RS-232 serial port. Hence, when the OptiX RTN 620 is the edge equipment and the central equipment supports the RS-232 asynchronous data service transmission, the protocol converter is not necessary. Instead, the serial ports of the NMS and the NE can be directly connected to the asynchronous data interface of the central equipment.

64k/Ethernet Protocol Converter Solution


With this solution, the edge equipment side and the NM side of the edge equipment converts the NM message carried by the Ethernet into the 64 kbit/s synchronous data service in compliance with ITU-T G.703 by using the 64k/Ethernet protocol converter, and the central equipment transparently transmits the data service, as shown in Figure 1-3. In this manner, the DCN transmission of the edge equipment is realized. To the edge equipment, the 64k/Ethernet protocol converter and the central equipment function as external DCN, which realizes the DCN communication between the NMS and the gateway NE. Figure 1-3 64k/Ethernet protocol converter solution

NMS

64k/Ethernet Converter

Central netw ork

64k/Ethernet Converter

Edge netw ork

Ethernet link

64kbps link

Radio link

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E1/Ethernet Protocol Converter Solution


With this solution, the edge equipment side and the NM side of the edge equipment converts the NM message carried by the Ethernet into the Nx64 kbit/s (N = 1-32) data service that can be transmitted by E1 by using the E1/Ethernet protocol converter, and the central equipment transparently transmits the E1 service. In this manner, the DCN transmission of the edge equipment is realized. To the edge equipment, the E1/Ethernet protocol converter and the central equipment are external DCN, which realizes the DCN communication between the NMS and the gateway NE.
NOTE

If the central equipment supports the bypass E1 service, the bypass E1 is preferred to transmit the NM message of the edge equipment.

E1/Ethernet protocol converters are classified into four types: point-to-point, concentrated, serially connected, and channelized. When all the edge equipment is in the same domain, the point-to-point E1/Ethernet protocol converter can be used on the NM side and the edge equipment side to establish a DCN channel, as shown in Figure 1-4. When all the edge equipment is in multiple domains, the point-to-point E1/Ethernet protocol converter can be used to create DCN channels, and then the LAN switch aggregates the services to the NMS, as shown in Figure 1-5. If the required DCN channels are more than five, the concentrated E1/Ethernet protocol converter is used rather than the point-topoint E1/Ethernet protocol converter on the NM side, as shown in Figure 1-6. Figure 1-4 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (in the case that all the edge equipment is in the same domain)

n x 64kbps

n x 64kbps

NMS

Central network E1/Ethernet E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP type) Converter (PTP type) Edge network

Ethernet link

E1 link

Radio link

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Figure 1-5 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (in the case that all the edge equipment is in multiple domains and the PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter is used on the NM side)
Edge netw ork1

NMS E1/Ethernet Converter 1 (PTP type)

E1/Ethernet Converter 1 (PTP type)

LAN sw itch E1/Ethernet Converter n (PTP type)

Edge netw ork n

Central netw ork

E1/Ethernet Converter n (PTP type)

Ethernet link

E1

Radio link

Figure 1-6 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (in the case that all the edge equipment is in multiple domains and the PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter is used on the NM side)
Edge network1

NM S

E1/Ethernet Converter 1 (PTP type)

LAN switch E1/Ethernet Converter (concentrate type)

Edge network n

Central network

E1/Ethernet Converter n (PTP type)

Ethernet link

E1

Radio link

The E1/Ethernet protocol solution is adopted in two special scenarios: shared E1 and shared BTS service channel.
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Shared E1 When the edge equipment is large in scale and the network needs to be divided into several sub-networks, the shared E1 solution can be adopted. With this solution, the serially connected E1/Ethernet protocol converter on the gateway NE side in each sub-network is used to aggregate Nx64 kbit/s synchronous data services for DCN communication; the channelized and concentrated E1/Ethernet protocol converter on the NM side of the edge equipment is used to demultiplex the Nx64 kbit/s synchronous data services in the E1 and to convert these services into corresponding Ethernet data, as shown in Figure 1-7. Compared with the PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution that is used in each subnetwork to establish the DCN channel, the shared E1 solution saves transmission resources but increases cost in protocol converters. Figure 1-7 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (shared E1)
NMS E1/Ethernet Converter (concentratet ype) E1/Ethernet Converter (cascade type) TS 1-12 TS 1-12 GNE 1 Central netw ork Edge subnetw ork 1 TS 1-8 E1/Ethernet Converter (cascade type) TS 1-4 TS 1-8

LAN sw itch

TS 1-4 GNE 3 Edge subnetw ork3 E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP type) E1 GNE 2 Edge subnetw ork 2

Ethernet link

Radio link

NOTE

l The sub-network at the end of the network is not involved in the E1 aggregation. Hence, the costeffective PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter can be used for such a sub-network. l In this figure, the gateway NE in each sub-network uses four timeslots in the E1 to transmit NM messages. Specifically, timeslots 1-4 on sub-network 3, timeslots 5-8 on sub-network 2, and timeslots 9-12 on sub-network 1 are occupied.

Shared BTS service channel This solution is adopted when the transmission network carries the BTS service and both BSC and BTS support the 64 kbit/s timeslot scheduling function (that is, fractional E1 function). In this solution, the BTS is connected to the sub E1 port on the PTP E1/Ethernet protocol converter, and the services from the BTS are transparently transmitted to the BSC through the main E1 port; the gateway NE is connected to the FE port on the PTP E1/ Ethernet protocol converter, and the NMS message is transmitted in the Nx64 kbit/s idle timeslot of the main E1 port. BSC uses the fractional E1 function to demultiplex Nx64kbit/ s data services from each BTS service E1, and aggregates the data services in one E1 for

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transmission to the channelized and concentrated E1/Ethernet protocol converter. The protocol converter demultiplexes Nx64kbit/s data services in the E1 and converts these services into corresponding Ethernet data for transmission to the NMS, as shown in Figure 1-8. Figure 1-8 E1/Ethernet protocol converter solution (shared BTS service channel)
BTS Sub E1 Main E1 NM S E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP type) BTS TS 1-3 LAN switch E1/Ethernet BSC Converter (concentratet ype) Sub E1 Main E1 E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP type) BTS Sub E1 Main E1 E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP type) Ethernet link E1 GNE 3 Edge network 3 GNE 2 Edge network 2 GNE 1 Edge network 1

Radio link

Back haul link

NOTE

In this figure, the gateway NE in each domain uses the idle timeslot 30 in the BTS service E1 to transmit the NM message. BSC demultiplexes the three timeslots from the BTS service E1, schedules the services to TS1-TS3 in the E1 that is connected to the channelized and concentrated E1/Ethernet protocol converter.

Hybrid Use Solution of Protocol Converters


This solution is a hybrid of the preceding solutions. With this solution, the auxiliary channel capacity of the central equipment can be used to the greatest extent, and less service bandwidths are occupied. As shown in Figure 1-9, the central equipment supports one RS-232 asynchronous data service and one 64 kbit/s synchronous data service, and the edge equipment is located in three domains. Hence, the three domains use the RS-232/Ethernet protocol converter, 64k/ Ethernet protocol converter, and E1/Ethernet protocol converter respectively to establish DCN communication links. Then, the LAN switch aggregates the services to the NMS.

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Figure 1-9 Hybrid Use Solution of Protocol Converters

NMS

RS-232/ Ethernet Converter

RS-232/ GNE 1 Ethernet Converter Edge netw ork 1

LAN sw itch

64k/Ethernet Converter

64k/Ethernet GNE 2 Converter Edge netw ork 2 Central netw ork

E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP ype)

E1/Ethernet Converter (PTP type) Ethernet link RS-232 link

GNE 3 Edge netw ork 3

Radio link 6kbps link E1

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2 HWECC Solution

2
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the HWECC solution.

HWECC Solution

2.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of HWECC and describes its purpose. 2.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using HWECC. 2.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of HWECC. 2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with HWECC. 2.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of HWECC and its dependency. 2.6 Principles This section describes the principles of the HWECC solution. 2.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan HWECC. 2.8 Configuration Flow The configuration of the HWECC solution consists of two parts, namely, the configuration of communications data at the near end and the creation of NEs on the NMS. 2.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the HWECC solution according to network conditions. 2.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the HWECC feature. 2.11 Relevant Alarms and Events The HWECC solution does not involve any alarm or event. 2.12 FAQs
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This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the HWECC solution is used.

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2.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of HWECC and describes its purpose.

Definition
HWECC is a DCN solution provided by Huawei. In this solution, the NMS manages NEs by using network management messages that are encapsulated in the HWECC protocol stack. In the case of HWECC, network management messages are encapsulated in the proprietary HWECC protocol stack for transmission. Thus, this solution can be used when the network is comprised of only the OptiX equipment that supports the HWECC protocol stack. Figure 2-1 shows how network management messages are transmitted by using HWECC. Network management messages encapsulated in compliance with the HWECC protocol stack can be transmitted through DCCs carried by optical fibers or microwave, or can be transmitted over the Ethernet between Ethernet NM interfaces or between NE cascading interfaces. Figure 2-1 Networking diagram of HWECC
Message HWECC DCC

Message HWECC DCC

Message HWECC ETH

Message HWECC DCC

NMS
Message HWECC DCC Message HWECC DCC

OptiX optical transmission equipment Radio link Fiber

OptiX radio transmission equipment

Ethernet link

Purpose
HWECC is preferred as the DCN solution when the network is comprised of only the OptiX equipment that supports the HWECC protocol stack.

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2.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using HWECC. 2.2.1 HW ECC Protocol Stack ITU-T G.784 defines the architecture of the ECC protocol stack based on the OSI seven layer reference model. The HW ECC protocol stack is based on the ECC protocol stack. 2.2.2 Extended ECC The HW ECC protocol supports the use of the Ethernet as extended channels for ECC transmission. Hence, when there is no DCC between two or more NEs, connect the Ethernet NM ports or NE cascading ports of the NEs to realize communication through extended ECCs.

2.2.1 HW ECC Protocol Stack


ITU-T G.784 defines the architecture of the ECC protocol stack based on the OSI seven layer reference model. The HW ECC protocol stack is based on the ECC protocol stack.

Architecture of the HW ECC protocol stack


Figure 2-2 Architecture of the HW ECC protocol stack
Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Media access layer Physical layer HW ECC protocol stack Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer

OSI model

Physical Layer
The main function of the physical layer is to control physical channels. The physical layer performs the following functions: l Maintains the status of the physical channel. The physical layer maintains the status information of the DCC to which each line port corresponds. The status information includes the following:
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Port enabled state Used overhead byte Link status information l Provides the data communication service. The physical layer receives the data of the physical channel and transfers the data to the upper layer. The physical layer receives the data frames transferred from the upper layer and sends them to the physical channels. Physical channels are classified into the following two categories: l DCC channel DCC channels use the DCC bytes in SDH frames or PDH microwave frames as the channels for the communication among NEs. In the HW ECC solution: SDH line ports generally use bytes D1 to D3 as DCC channels. When the IF1A/B board transmits 16xE1 or higher-capacity PDH microwave signals, the IF1A/B board always uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCC channels. When the IF1A/B board transmits PDH microwave signals less than 16xE1, the IF1A/ B board always uses byte D1 as the DCC channel. The microwave ports of the IF0A/B board and IDU 605 always use bytes D1 to D3 as DCC channels. When the IFH2 board transmits Hybrid microwave signals, the IFH2 board always uses bytes D1 to D3 that are defined by Huawei as DCC channels. l Extended channel The extended channel uses the Ethernet between the Ethernet NM interfaces or between the NE cascade interfaces as the communication path between NEs. The method of transmitting the ECC on the extended channel is called the extended ECC. For details about the extended ECC, see 2.2.2 Extended ECC.

Media Access Layer


The main function of the media access layer (MAC layer) is to activate or close physical DCCs between the physical layer and the network layer. The MAC layer performs the following functions: l Establishes and maintains the MAC connection between adjacent NEs. When there is a reachable physical channel between two adjacent NEs, the MAC layer establishes a MAC connection between the NEs. Each MAC connection includes the address of the opposite NE, the ID of the physical channel, the connection timer, and other information. The MAC connection has the following characteristics: A MAC connection exists between any two adjacent NEs that can communicate through the ECC. A MAC connection is a bidirectional connection. There is only one MAC connection between any two adjacent NEs that can communicate through the ECC, even if many ports of the two NEs that support the DCC are interconnected. The physical channel of the current MAC connection is also the current ECC route. l
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Provides the data communication service.


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The MAC layer receives the data frame transferred from the physical layer. If the destination address is the local station, the MAC layer transfers the data frame to the network layer. Otherwise, the MAC layer discards the data frame. The MAC layer sends the data frame from the network layer. If the destination address of the data frame has a MAC connection, the MAC layer sends the data frame to the corresponding physical channel in the physical layer through the MAC connection. Otherwise, the MAC layer discards the data frame.

Network Layer
The main function of the network layer (NET layer) is to provide the route addressing function for data frames and the route management function for the DCC communication network. The NET layer performs the following functions: l Establishes and maintains ECC routes. The NET layer establishes and maintains the NET layer routing table. Each route item includes the following information: Address of the destination NE Address of the transfer NE Transfer distance (the number of passed transfer NEs) Route priority (The priority value ranges from 1 to 7. The priority of an automatically established route is 4 by default. The system always selects the route with the highest priority.) Mode (0 represents the automatic route and 1 represents the manual route) l Provides the data communication service. The NET layer receives the packet transferred from the MAC layer. If the destination address of the packet is the local station, the NET layer transfers the packet to the transport layer. Otherwise, the NET layer requests the MAC layer to transfer the packet to the transfer station according to the route item that matches the destination address in the NET layer routing table. The NET layer sends the packet from the transport layer. The NET layer requests the MAC layer to transfer the packet to the transfer station according to the route item that matches the destination address of the packet in the NET layer routing table.

Transport Layer
The main function of the transport layer (L4 layer) is to provide the end-to-end communication service for the upper layer. As the communication between the OptiX equipment and the NMS is controlled by the end-to-end connection-oriented service in the application layer, the L4 layer provides only the end-to-end connectionless communication service, that is, transparent data transfer service.
NOTE

In the HW ECC protocol stack, the NE address used by each layer is the ID of the NE. The NE ID has 24 bits. The highest eight bits represent the subnet ID (or the extended ID) and the lowest 16 bits represent the basic ID. For example, if the ID of an NE is 0x090001, the subnet ID of the NE is 9 and the basic ID is 1.

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2.2.2 Extended ECC


The HW ECC protocol supports the use of the Ethernet as extended channels for ECC transmission. Hence, when there is no DCC between two or more NEs, connect the Ethernet NM ports or NE cascading ports of the NEs to realize communication through extended ECCs.

Networking Mode
There are two networking modes for the extended ECC: l Using the network cable Use a network cable to directly connect the Ethernet NM ports or NE cascading ports of the two NEs. l Using the hub Use a hub or other data communication equipment to connect the Ethernet NM ports of related NEs. Figure 2-3 Networking for the extended ECC (using a network cable)
NMS

Network cable

Radio link

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Figure 2-4 Networking for the extended ECC (using a hub)


NMS

Hub

Network cable

Radio link

The Ethernet NM port and the NE cascading port are equivalent to two ports on a hub. Hence, you can use network cables to connect NEs in series. This type of connection is equivalent to the hub connection. Figure 2-5 Networking for the extended ECC (using network cables to connect NEs in series)
NMS

Network cable

Radio link

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CAUTION
l If you use a hub to connect NEs or use network cables to connect NEs in series, there must be no network loop in the Ethernet. Otherwise, a broadcast storm occurs and the SCC board is reset repeatedly. l As both the Ethernet NM port and the NE cascading port have the MDI and MDI-X adaptive capability, either a straight through cable or a crossover cable can be used as the network cable for the extended ECC. l The OptiX RTN NEs can transmit network management information with the other OptiX NEs through extended ECCs.

Extension Mode
There are two extension modes for the extended ECC: l Automatic mode In an Ethernet, the NE with the largest IP address is automatically considered as the server and other NEs are automatically considered as clients. The NEs automatically establish TCP connections between the server and clients and also establish corresponding MAC connections according to the TCP connections. In the automatic mode, the server and clients need not be manually specified. The maximum number of NEs (including the servers and clients) for the extended ECC in automatic mode is 4. l Specified mode In the manual mode, NEs establish TCP connections between the server and clients according to the server, clients, IDs of connecting ports, which are set manually, and other information that is entered manually. Then, the NEs establish corresponding MAC connections according to the TCP connections. In specified mode, a server can be connected to up to seven clients. When the accessed NEs are more than seven, the multi-level extended ECC mode can be used to access more NEs. Figure 2-6 shows an example of the multilevel extended ECC. Server 1 is connected to seven clients, namely, Client 11-Client 17. Meanwhile, Client 17 functions as Server 2 and is connected to seven clients, namely, Client 21-Client 27. When the multi-level extended ECC is used, the IDs of the connected ports in the extended ECCs cannot be the same.

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Figure 2-6 Extended ECC network (multi-level extended ECC)

NMS Client 21 Hub Client 22 Server 1

Client 11 Client 12 Client 17 and Server 1

Client 23

NOTE

The NE starts the automatic extended ECC by default.

2.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of HWECC.

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Table 2-1 Specifications of HWECC Item Number of DCCs Specifications The number of DCCs is determined by the microwave/line type. l STM-1/STM-4 or SDH radio supports 12 DCC bytes, that is, D1-D12. The equipment supports three modes: D1-D3, D4-D12, and D1-D12. l When transmitting 16xE1 signals or higher-capacity PDH microwave signals, the IF1A/B board always uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. l When transmitting PDH microwave signals less than 16xE1 signals, the IF1A/ B board always uses Huawei-defined byte D1 as the DCC channel. l The IF0A/B board always uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. l When transmitting Hybrid microwave signals, the IFH2 board uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. Extended ECC Supports two extended ECC modes: automatic extended ECC mode and extended ECC mode. The default mode is the automatic extended ECC mode. Supported With the DCN bandwidth of 192 kbit/s, it is recommended that an ECC subnet has not more than 120 NEs. The maximum number of NEs on an ECC subnet is 150 (only for the OptiX RTN 620 V100R005).

DCC transparent transmission Scale of the ECC subnet

2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with HWECC. As a proprietary protocol of Huawei, the HWECC protocol is based on ECC protocol stack defined in ITU-T G.784 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) management.

2.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of HWECC and its dependency.

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Hardware and Version Support


Table 2-2 Hardware and version support Feature HWECC Applicable Board SCC IF1A/IF1B IF0A/IF0B IFX IFH2 SL1/SD1 SLE/SDE SL4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R003 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
When the HWECC solution is used with other DCN solutions, pay attention to the relations between the HWECC solution and other DCN solutions. l l l The HWECC protocol stack of NEs can communicate with the IP protocol stack of IP over DCC. The HWECC protocol stack of NEs can communicate with the OSI protocol stack in the same area on the L1 layer. If DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages when the OptiX equipment is used with the third-party equipment to form a network, it is recommended that you adopt the HWECC protocol to manage the OptiX equipment. If DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages through the external clock interface when the OptiX equipment is used with third-party equipment to form a network, it is recommended that you adopt the HWECC protocol to manage the OptiX equipment. If the protocol manager is used to transparently transmit NM messages, it is recommended that you adopt the HWECC protocol to manage the OptiX equipment.

2.6 Principles
This section describes the principles of the HWECC solution. 2.6.1 Establishing ECC Routes The HW ECC solution adopts the shortest path first algorithm to establish ECC routes. In this context, the shortest path refers to the path with minimum number of stations. 2.6.2 Packet Transfer In the HWECC solution, the messages between NEs are transferred in the NET layer of the NEs. 2.6.3 Extended ECC
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The extended ECC realizes the MAC connection between adjacent NEs by using the TCP connection.

2.6.1 Establishing ECC Routes


The HW ECC solution adopts the shortest path first algorithm to establish ECC routes. In this context, the shortest path refers to the path with minimum number of stations. The following describes how an NE establishes ECC routes: 1. 2. The physical layer of an NE maintains the status information of the DCC to which each line port corresponds. The MAC layer of the NE establishes the MAC connection between the NE and the adjacent NE. The steps are as follows: (1) The NE broadcasts the connection request frame (MAC_REQ) to the adjacent NE in a periodical manner. (2) After receiving the MAC_REQ, the adjacent NE returns the connection response frame (MAC_RSP). (3) If the MAC_RSP is received within the specified time, the NE establishes a MAC connection between the NE and the adjacent NE. 3. The NET layer of the NE establishes the NET layer routing table. The steps are as follows: (1) According to the status of the MAC connection, the NE establishes an initial NET layer routing table. (2) The NE broadcasts its routing table to the adjacent NE in a periodical manner through the routing response message. (3) The adjacent NE updates its NET layer routing table according to the received routing response message and the shortest path first algorithm. (4) At the next route broadcasting time, the NE broadcasts its current NET layer routing table to the adjacent NE. Figure 2-7 Networking example for establishing ECC routes

NE1 NE2 NE5

NE3

NE4

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The following describes how to establish ECC routes between NEs. The network shown in Figure 2-7 is provided as an example. 1. The physical layer of each NE maintains the status information of the DCC to which each line port corresponds. The physical layer of each NE detects that there are two available DCCs. 2. The MAC layer of the NE establishes the MAC connection between the NE and the adjacent NE. NE1 is considered as an example to describe how to establish the MAC connection. (1) NE1 broadcasts the frame MAC_REQ to NE2 and NE5 in a periodical manner through its two available DCCs. The frame MAC_REQ contains the ID of NE1. (2) After receiving the frame MAC_REQ, NE2 and NE5 return their respective MAC_RSP frames. The frame MAC_RSP from NE2 contains the ID of NE2 and the frame MAC_RSP from NE5 contains the ID of NE5. (3) After receiving the MAC_RSP frames, NE1 establishes a MAC connection between NE1 and NE2 and a MAC connection between NE1 and NE5 according to the NE ID, DCC that reports the frame, and other information. 3. The NET layer of the NE establishes the NET layer routing table. NE1 is considered as an example to describe how to establish the NET layer routing table. (1) According to the status of the MAC connection, NE1 establishes an initial NET layer routing table. In the routing table, there are two routes, one to NE2 and one to NE5. (2) NE1 broadcasts its routing table to adjacent NEs in a periodical manner through the routing response message. (3) After receiving the routing response message from NE1, NE2 and NE5 update their respective NET layer routing tables. After the update, there is a route to NE5 in the NET layer routing table of NE2, and the transfer NE is NE1. There is a route to NE2 in the NET layer routing table of NE5, and the transfer NE is also NE1. Similarly, NE1 also adds the routes to NE3 and NE4 in its NET layer routing table according to the routing response messages from NE2 and NE5. There are two routes between NE1 and NE3. The distance of the route whose transfer NE is NE2 is 1 and the distance of the route whose transfer NE is NE5 is 2. Hence, according to the shortest path first principle, only the route whose transfer NE is NE2 is retained in the NET layer routing table. The routes to NE4 are processed in the same way as those to NE3. (4) If the DCC between NE1 and NE2 becomes faulty, the MAC connection between NE1 and NE2 fails. In this case, NE1 updates the routes to NE2 and NE3 in its NET layer routing table according to the routing response message from NE5. Hence, the routes to NE2 and NE3 are re-established. In this way, the ECC route is protected.

2.6.2 Packet Transfer


In the HWECC solution, the messages between NEs are transferred in the NET layer of the NEs. Figure 2-8 illustrates how the HWECC solution transfers the messages originating from the NMS to a destination NE.

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Figure 2-8 Realization principle of message transfer (HWECC)


Application TCP IP Application TCP IP L4 NET MAC Ethernet Ethernet DCC T2000 Gateway NE DCC Transfer NE DCC Destination NE NET MAC Application L4 NET MAC

The realization principle is as follows: 1. 2. 3. The NMS transfers application layer messages to the gateway NE through the TCP connection between them. The gateway NE extracts the messages from the TCP/IP protocol stack and reports the messages to the application layer. The application layer of the gateway NE queries the address of the destination NE in the messages. If the address of the destination NE is not the same as the address of the local station, the gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer according to the address of the destination NE to obtain the corresponding route and the communication protocol stack of the transfer NE. As the communication protocol stack of the transfer NE in Figure 2-8 is HWECC, the gateway NE transfers the messages to the transfer NE through the HWECC stack. After receiving the packet that encapsulates the messages, the NET layer of the transfer NE queries the address of the destination NE of the packet. If the address of the destination NE is not the same as the address of the local station, the transfer NE queries the NET layer routing table according to the address of the destination NE to obtain the corresponding route and then transfers the packet. After receiving the packet, the NET layer of the destination NE reports the packet to the application layer through the L4 layer because the address of the destination NE of the packet is the same as the address of the local station. The application layer functions according to the message sent from the NMS.
NOTE

4.

5.

The core routing table synthesizes the transport layer routing tables of all communication protocol stacks. Each route item includes the following: l ID of the destination NE l Address of the transfer NE l Communication protocol stack of the transfer NE l Transfer distance

2.6.3 Extended ECC


The extended ECC realizes the MAC connection between adjacent NEs by using the TCP connection.
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Automatic Mode
The realization principle is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Each NE obtains the IP addresses of other NEs that are in the same Ethernet through the address resolution protocol (ARP). The NE with the largest IP address automatically functions as the server and detects the TCP requests from the clients. Other NEs automatically function as clients and send TCP connection requests to the server. After receiving the TCP connection request from a client, the server establishes the corresponding TCP connection. The NEs use the TCP connection as a MAC connection to realize ECC communication.

Specified Mode
The realization principle of the specified mode is basically the same as the realization principle of the automatic mode. The difference is that in the specified mode, the server, clients, and IDs of connecting ports are manually specified.

2.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan HWECC.

Planning Guidelines for GNEs


l l It is recommended that the selected GNE be the closest NE to the NMS, the central node of a start network, or the NE that accesses most DCC. Set an active GNE and a standby GNE for an ECC subnet, if possible.
NOTE

An ECC subnet is an ECC network comprised of a GNE and non-GNEs that communicate with the NMS through the GNE. An ECC network consists of one or more ECC subnets.

Planning Guidelines for External DCN


l l l For stability and security of external DCN, it is recommended that you do not use the office LAN or Internet as the transmission channels of external DCN. It is recommended that the bandwidth of external DCN should not be lower than the DCC bandwidth on the network. The link at 256 kbit/s already meets the requirements. It is recommended that the channels of external DCN be provided by other networks (not a monitored network). If the external DCN uses the channel provided by the data processing board, consider the risk when the external DCN uses the service channel provided by the monitored network. Active and standby DCN routes or GNEs should be provided for external DCN if possible.

Planning Guidelines for NE IDs


l l The NEs on one DCN must have unique IDs. If each NE on one DCN can be allocated a unique basic ID, do not use different extended IDs.
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Make a rule in allocating NE IDs on a newly-built network. Allocate NE IDs in the anticlockwise direction on a ring network. Allocate NE IDs from the core to the edges on a chain or tree network.

Allocate unused IDs to the NEs that are added on an existing network.

Planning Guidelines for IP Addresses of NEs


l l l Set the IP addresses of GNEs, subnet masks, and default GNEs as required by the planning of external DCN. Set the IP addresses of the NEs with extended ECC on the same network segment. Set the IP address of non-GNEs according to their NE IDs.
NOTE

l The IP address of non-GNEs should be 0x81000000+ID. For example, if the ID of an NE is 0x090001, set the IP address of the NE to 129.9.0.1. l By default, the subnet mask is 255.255.0.0.

Planning Guidelines for Extended ECC


l l l l l l l If a site holds multiple OptiX NEs without any DCC, achieve extended ECC by connecting the Ethernet NM interfaces or NE cascading interfaces. If you use hubs or network cables for extended ECC networking, never form an Ethernet loop. If you use hubs for extended ECC networking, do not connect the hubs to other equipment. Set the IP addresses of the NEs with extended ECC on the same network segment. Extended ECC is automatically enabled on NEs. In this case, an extended ECC subnet consists of a maximum of four NEs (including the server and all clients). It is recommended that you disable the extended ECC function on GNEs. When an extended ECC subnet consists of more than four NEs (including the server and all clients), enable extended ECC in a specified manner. If an extended ECC subnet consists of more than seven NEs, specify levels for the subnet to ensure that each server is connected to a maximum of seven clients. When you enable extended ECC in a specified manner, it is recommended that you select the NE closest to the NMS as the server of TCP connections and the other NEs on the same subnet as clients. Then, set the port ID to any number between 1601 and 1699. In an extended ECC subnet of multiple levels, each group takes a unique port ID.

Planning Guidelines for ECC Subnets


l With the DCN bandwidth of 192 kbit/s, it is recommended that an ECC subnet has not more than 120 NEs. The maximum number of NEs on an ECC subnet is 150 (only for the OptiX RTN 620 V100R005). When the number of NEs on an ECC network exceeds 120, it is recommended that you increase GNEs to divide the network into multiple ECC subnets. The DCCs between ECC subnets must be disabled. Maintain the existing ECC route protection when you divide an ECC network.

l l l

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2.8 Configuration Flow


The configuration of the HWECC solution consists of two parts, namely, the configuration of communications data at the near end and the creation of NEs on the NMS. Table 2-3 Configuration flow for the HWECC solution Step 1 Operation A.1.5 Changing NE IDs Remarks Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set ID to be the NE ID according to the planning of the DCN. l If the special extended ID is required for the NE according to the planning of the DCN, change Extended ID. 2 A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters Required. Set the parameters as follows: l For the GNE, set IP Address and Subnet Mask according to the planning of the external DCN. l For the GNE, set Gateway IP Address if the external DCN requires that the default gateway is configured for the NE. l For the non-GNE, it is recommended that you set IP Address to 0x81000000 + NE ID. That is, if the NE ID is 0x090001, set IP Address to 129.9.0.1. Set Subnet Mask to 255.255.0.0. 3 A.3.2 Configuring DCCs Required when the NE is connected to other ECC subnets. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Enabled Status to Disabled for the port that is connected to other ECC subnets. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters. In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values.

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Step 4

Operation A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC

Remarks Required when the number of NEs accessed through the extended ECC is more than four. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Extended Mode to Specified Mode. l Set Port for the NE that is planned as a server and the port ID is a number from 1601 to 1699. It is recommended that you set Port to 1602. l Set Opposite IP and Port for the NE that is planned as a client. That is, set Opposite IP to the IP address of the server and set Port to the same as Port of the server.
NOTE When the number of NEs accessed through the extended ECC is more than eight, you need to configure multiplelevel extended ECC.

Required for the GNE. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Extended Mode to Specified Mode. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters.
NOTE This operation is performed to disable the automatic extended ECC function of the GNE.

In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values. 5 A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission When the ECC route protection function is affected due to the division of the ECC subnet, D1 to D3 bytes can be passed through over other ECC subnets through this operation. In this manner, the ECC route protection function is guaranteed. Perform this operation only on the GNE. In normal cases: l There is an ECC route between the GNE and each of its managed non-GNEs. l There is no ECC route between the GNE and each NE on other ECC subnets. l ECC routes follow the shortest path first principle. 7 Creating NEs on the centralize d NMS A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method It is recommended that you create NEs on the centralized NMS by using this method when you need to add one or more NEs on a large-scale network.

A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes

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Step

Operation A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method

Remarks In other cases, this method is preferred.

NOTE

If the centralized NMS is U2000 instead of Web LCT, the NEs need to be created on the U2000. For the information on how to create NEs on the U2000, see the Feature Description (U2000).

2.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the HWECC solution according to network conditions. 2.9.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about the NEs. 2.9.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains the information about all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 2.9.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

2.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about the NEs. In the networking diagram shown in Figure 2-9, the OptiX optical transmission equipment and the OptiX radio transmission equipment form a network. On the network, the sets of OptiX optical transmission equipment and OptiX radio transmission equipment are more than 40. The centralized NMS can manage all the OptiX equipment on the network.

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Figure 2-9 Networking diagram of the HWECC solution


NE205

NE203 NE204 NE202 NE103

NE101

NE201 NE102

NMS NE104

NE105

OptiX optical transmission equipment OptiX radio transmission equipment

Router Radio link Fiber

LAN sw itch Netw ork cable

2.9.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains the information about all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. l There are more than 40 sets of optical transmission equipment and more than 40 sets of radio transmission equipment on the network. Hence, the ECC network is divided into two ECC subnets according to the type of equipment. Select the central node NE101 of the optical transmission service and the central node NE202 of the radio transmission service as GNEs. The NMS and NE101 are located at the same place and NE202 is located at another place. Therefore, you need to construct the external DCN between the NMS and NE202 through a router or protocol converter. Allocate IDs and IP addresses for all the NEs according to the conditions of the network.

l l

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Figure 2-10 Allocation of IDs/IP addresses for all the NEs


9-205 129.9.0.205 0.0.0.0 9-204 129.9.0.204 0.0.0.0

9-203 129.9.0.203 0.0.0.0 11.0.0.1/16

9-202 11.0.0.202 11.0.0.1

9-201 129.9.0.201 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1/16 9-101 10.0.0.101 0.0.0.0 9-102 129.9.0.102 0.0.0.0 9-103 129.9.0.103 0.0.0.0

10.0.0.100/16 9-104 129.9.0.104 0.0.0.0 9-106 129.9.0.106 0.0.0.0

Extended ID-Basic ID IP address Gateway

Plan the extended ECC. There is no DCC between NE203 and NE204 or between NE203 and NE205. Therefore, you need to use network cables to connect the Ethernet NE port and the NE cascading port to extend the ECC. The extended ECC function works in the automatic mode. NE101 and NE202 function as GNEs. Therefore, you need to disable the extended ECC function on these NEs.

Divide the ECC network. Shut down the DCC channels of the east and west ports on the ring of NE201 so that the DCC between two ECC subnets is disconnected. Set the D1 to D3 bytes so that they can be passed through on NE201. In this manner, the ECC route protection function is not affected.

2.9.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Context
NOTE

In this configuration example, only the configuration information about NE201, NE202, and NE203 is provided.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.1.5 Changing NE IDs and change the NE ID. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows.
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Parameter

Value Range NE201 NE202 202 9 (default value) NE203 203 9 (default value)

New ID New Extended ID

201 9 (default value)

Step 2 See A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters and set the communication parameters of the NE. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE201 IP Address Gateway IP Address Subnet Mask 129.9.0.201 0.0.0.0 (default value) 255.255.0.0 (default value) NE202 11.0.0.202 11.0.0.1 255.255.0.0 (default value) NE203 129.9.0.203 0.0.0.0 (default value) 255.255.0.0 (default value)

Step 3 See A.3.2 Configuring DCCs and configure the DCC. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range East and West Ports on the Ring (NE201) Enabled/Disabled Channel Type Disabled Other Microwave/ Line Ports (NE201) All the Microwave/Line Ports (NE202 and NE203) Enabled (default value) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other ports) HWECC (default value)

Enabled (default value) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other ports)

Protocol Type

HWECC (default value)

Step 4 See A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC and configure the extended ECC. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows.
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Parameter

Value Range NE201 NE202 Specified mode 1601 (default value) 0.0.0.0 (default value) 1601 (default value) NE203 Auto mode (default value) -

ECC Extended Mode Port (on the server side) Opposite IP (on the client side) Port (on the client side)

Auto mode (default value) -

Step 5 See A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission and configure the transparent transmission of the DCC byte on NE201. Parameter Source Timeslot/ Port Transparent Transmission of Overhead Bytes at Source Port Sink Timeslot/Port Value Range Related parameter values of west ports on the ring D1 Related parameter values of west ports on the ring D2 Related parameter values of west ports on the ring D3

Related parameter values of east ports on the ring D1

Related parameter values of east ports on the ring D2

Related parameter values of east ports on the ring D3

Transparent Transmission of Overhead Bytes at Sink Port

Step 6 See A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes and query the ECC route on NE101 and NE210. The expected results are as follows: l The routes to all the OptiX optical transmission NEs can be queried on NE101 whereas the routes to NE201 and NE202 cannot be queried. l The routes to all the OptiX radio transmission NEs can be queried on NE202 whereas the routes to NE101 and NE102 cannot be queried. Step 7 See A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method and create NEs in the search mode on the centralized NMS. The search domains include the following: l The search network segment when the IP address of the GNE is 10.0.0.101 l The search network segment when the IP address of the GNE is 11.0.0.201
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The IP address 11.0.0.201 of NE202 and the IP address of the centralized NMS are not in the same network segment. Therefore, you need to configure static routes on both the NMS and the corresponding router before creating NEs, to ensure that the TCP/IP communication between them is normal.

In normal cases, all the NEs can be created on the centralized NMS. ----End

2.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the HWECC feature.

Related Tasks
A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method A.1.5 Changing NE IDs A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters A.3.2 Configuring DCCs A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes

2.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


The HWECC solution does not involve any alarm or event.

2.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the HWECC solution is used. Q: Why does the NMS always fail to log in to an NE? A: Common causes are as follows: l l l The communication connection between the NMS and the GNE is faulty. To locate the fault, run the ping or tracert command on the NMS server. The ECC route between the GNE and a non-GNE is faulty. To locate the fault, check the ECC route between the GNE and the non-GNE. NE IDs conflict.

Q: Why does the NMS frequently fail to log in to NEs? A: Common causes are as follows:
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l l l

The NMS is faulty. In this case, the NMS generally fails to log in to all the NEs. The IP addresses of GNEs conflict. In this case, the NMS generally fails to log in to all the NEs on an ECC subnet. An ECC subnet is of an excessively large scale. In this case, the NMS generally fails to log in to the NEs that access multiple DCCs.

Q: Why does the system control and communication board on the GNE or the NE that uses the extended ECC frequently reset? A: Common causes are as follows: l l Unknown equipment is connected to the LAN to which the NE is connected, resulting in a conflict between the NE and the equipment. A loop (especially a loop between the Ethernet NM port and the NE cascading port) occurs in the LAN to which the NE is connected, resulting in a network storm.

Q: What hazards will an ECC subnet of an excessively large scale bring? A: Main hazards are as follows: l l l l l The stability of the ECC route is poor, the convergence time is long, and even the oscillate of the ECC route occurs. The remote loading is slow. The alarms reported to the NMS are lost. The NMS cannot log in to certain NEs. The control boards of certain NEs reset abnormally.

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3
About This Chapter

IP over DCC Solution

This chapter describes the IP over DCC solution. 3.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of IP over DCC and describes its purpose. 3.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using IP over DCC. 3.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of IP over DCC. 3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with IP over DCC. 3.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the IP over DCC solution and its dependency. 3.6 Principles This section describes the principles of the IP over DCC solution. 3.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan IP over DCC. 3.8 Configuration Flow The configuration of the IP over DCC solution consists of two parts, that is, the configuration of communications data at the near end of the NE and the creation of the NE on the NMS. 3.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the IP over DCC solution according to network conditions. 3.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the IP over DCC feature. 3.11 Relevant Alarms and Events
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The IP over DCC solution does not involve any alarm or event. 3.12 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the IP over DCC solution is used.

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3.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of IP over DCC and describes its purpose.

Definition
HWECC is a DCN solution provided by Huawei. In this solution, the NMS manages NEs by using network management messages that are encapsulated in the standard IP protocol stack. Figure 3-1 shows how network management messages are transmitted by using the IP over DCC solution. Different manufacturers' network management messages encapsulated in the IP protocol stack can be transmitted through DCCs carried by optical fibers or microwave, or can be transmitted over the Ethernet between Ethernet NM interfaces or between NE cascading interfaces. Figure 3-1 Networking diagram of IP over DCC
g Ms rty pa ck 3rd P sta I C DC

3rd-party Msg IP stack ETH Third-party NMS

g Ms ptiX ack O st IP C DC

3rd-party Msg IP stack DCC

OptiX NMS

OptiX Msg IP stack ETH

OptiX M sg IP stack DCC

3rd-part y Msg IP stack DCC

3rd-party Msg IP stack ETH

OptiX equipment Ethernet link Fiber

Third-party equipment Radio link

Purpose
IP over DCC is preferred as the DCN solution when the network is comprised of the OptiX equipment and the third-party equipment that supports IP over DCC. In addition, this solution can be used when the equipment in the center of the network needs to provide a network management message transmission path over IP for NEs at the edge of the network.

3.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using IP over DCC. 3.2.1 IP over DCC Protocol Stack
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The IP over DCC adopts the architecture of the standard TCP/IP protocol stack. 3.2.2 Access Modes In the IP over DCC solution, there are two modes for the T2000 to access an NE, namely, gateway mode and direct connection mode.

3.2.1 IP over DCC Protocol Stack


The IP over DCC adopts the architecture of the standard TCP/IP protocol stack.

Protocol Stack Architecture


Figure 3-2 IP over DCC protocol stack architecture
Routing protocol Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Ethernet Physical layer DCC OSPF/RIP TCP/UDP IP PPP

Physical Layer
The main function of the physical layer is to provide data transmission channels for the data end equipment. Physical channels are classified into the following categories: l DCC channel DCCs use the DCC bytes in SDH frames, PDH or Hybrid microwave frames as the channels for communication between NEs. In the IP over DCC solution: If the network is only comprised of the OptiX equipment, it is recommended that you use bytes D1 to D3 in SDH frames as DCCs. If the OptiX equipment is connected to the third-party equipment by using the SDH line, it is recommended that you use the DCC bytes that the third-party equipment uses (for example, bytes D1 to D3 or D4 to D12) as DCCs. In the PDH microwave frame, one or three DCC bytes in the frame can always be used as DCCs. In the Hybrid microwave frame, three DCC bytes in the frame can always be used as DCCs. l Ethernet physical channel The NE provides the Ethernet physical channel through the Ethernet NM port or the NE cascade port.

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Data Link Layer


The main function of the data link layer is to provide reliable data transmission on physical links. For DCCs, the NE applies the PPP protocol to realize the data link layer function. The PPP protocol complies with RFC 1661.

Network Layer
The main function of the network layer is to specify the network layer address for a network entity and to provide the transferring and addressing functions. The NE applies the IP and the matching ARP and ICMP to realize the network layer functions.

Transport Layer
The main function of the transport layer is to provide the end-to-end communication service for the upper layer. The NE supports the connection-oriented TCP and the connectionless-oriented UDP.

Routing Protocols
Routing protocols belong to the content of the application layer. The NE supports two routing protocols, namely, the open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol and routing information protocol (RIP). By default, the NE uses the OSPF protocol. The RIP protocol is used only when the interconnected third-party equipment does not support the OSPF protocol. The OSPF protocol is a dynamic routing protocol based on link status. The OSPF protocol divides an autonomous system (AS) into several areas. Route nodes exchange routing information in an area. The route nodes at the edge of an area make summary and exchange information with the routers in other areas. Areas are identified by area IDs. The area ID has the same format as the IP address. Currently, the OSPF protocol of the OptiX equipment supports only the routes within an area and does not support the routes between areas. Hence, the gateway NE and all its managed nongateway NEs must be in the same OSPF area. By default, the microwave or line port of the OptiX equipment is enabled with the OSPF protocol but the Ethernet port is not enabled with the OSPF protocol. Hence, to form a network through the Ethernet port, you need to modify the OSPF setting of the NE. In addition to the dynamic routing protocol, the NE supports static routes. Static routes are manually configured routes. In the case of the OptiX RTN 600 of the current version, dynamic routes have a higher priority than static routes. When there is a route conflict, the equipment always first selects dynamic routes.

Proxy ARP
The OptiX equipment supports the proxy ARP as a supplement to the routing protocol. The proxy ARP enables the NEs in the same network segment but different domains to communicate with each other. To realize communication between such NEs, the source NE sends the ARP broadcast packet to address the route to the destination NE. The NE with the proxy ARP function enabled checks the routing table after sensing the ARP broadcast packet. If the routing table contains the destination address that the ARP broadcast packet looks for, the NE returns an ARP spoofing packet, which enables the NE that sends the ARP broadcast packet to consider that the MAC address of the NE that returns the ARP spoofing packet is the MAC address of the
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destination NE. In this manner, the packet that is to be sent to the destination NE is first sent to the NE with the proxy ARP function enabled and then forwarded to the destination NE. Figure 3-3 is an application example that shows how to use the proxy ARP function to realize communication between the third-party NE and the third-party NMS. In this example, the thirdparty NMS and the third-party GNE (that is, NE4) are in the same network segment (130.9.0.0). In addition, the third-party NMS and NE4 are accessed to the OptiX transmission network through the LAN. Hence, the IP addresses of NE1 and NE3 that are connected to the third-party NMS and NE4 are also in the 130.9.0.0 network segment. To realize communication between the third-party NMS and NE4, you need to enable the proxy ARP function for NE1 and NE3. In addition, on NE1, you need to configure a static route to the third-party NMS; on NE3, you need to configure a route to NE4. Figure 3-3 Application example of the proxy ARP
ARP proxy enabled NE 1 Third-party NMS NE 2 ARP proxy enabled NE 3 NE 4 NE 5

130.9.0.100

130.9.0.1

129.9.0.2

130.9.0.3

130.9.0.4

130.9.0.5

OptiX equipment Ethernet link

Third-party equipment Radio link

The corresponding routes in this figure are as follows: l l The OptiX transmission network uses the IP over DCC solution and all the NEs are in the same OSPF domain. Hence, routes exist between NE1, NE2, and NE3. The OSPF protocol diffuses the local route of the NE in the OSPF domain. Hence, NE1 owns the routes that are owned by NE4, and NE4 owns the routes that are owned by the third-party NMS. The IP addresses of the third-party NMS and NE4 are in the 130.9.0.0 network segment. Hence, when communicating with NE4, the third-party NMS broadcasts the ARP packet that addresses routes to NE4. The routing table contains the routes to NE4, so NE1 with the ARP function enabled sends an ARP spoofing packet to the third-party NMS so that the third-party NMS sends the packet to NE1 instead of NE4. Then, NE1-NE3 forward the packet according to the routing table. Finally, the packet arrives at NE4. In the same manner, the packet can be transmitted from NE4 to the third-party NMS over the proper routes.

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l A static route must be configured between NE1 and NE3. Otherwise, NE1 and NE3 can own local routes only to the 130.9.0.0 network segment. That is, NE3 does not own a route of the third-party NMS and NE1 does not own a local route of NE1. l If the third-party NMS owns a static route to NE4 (the IP address of the gateway is the IP address of NE1) and NE4 owns a route to the third-party NMS (the IP address of the gateway is the IP address of NE3), NE1 and NE3 do not require the proxy ARP function.

3.2.2 Access Modes


In the IP over DCC solution, there are two modes for the T2000 to access an NE, namely, gateway mode and direct connection mode.

Gateway Mode
In the gateway mode, the T2000 accesses a non-gateway NE through the gateway NE. The gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer according to the ID of the NE to be accessed to obtain the corresponding route. The core routing table synthesizes the transport layer routing tables of all communication protocol stacks. Each route item includes the following: l l l l ID of the destination NE Address of the transfer NE Communication protocol stack of the transfer NE Transfer distance

Direct Connection Mode


In the direct connection mode, the T2000 accesses an NE as the gateway NE. All transfer NEs on the access path query the IP routing table of the network layer according to the IP address of the NE to be accessed to obtain the corresponding route. The IP routing table is based on routing protocols. It includes both dynamic routes generated by routing protocols and static routes configured by operators. Each route item includes the following: l l l l Destination IP address Subnet mask IP address of the gateway Interface

When the T2000 adopts the direct connection mode to access an NE, there must be an IP route between the T2000 and the NE. In the IP over DCC solution, the T2000 can access any NE by using the direct connection mode, that is, it can consider any NE as the gateway NE. To improve the communication efficiency, however, there should not be a lot of NEs that are accessed in the direct connection mode in a network.

3.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of IP over DCC.
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The OptiX RTN 620 supports the following specifications of IP over DCC. Table 3-1 Specifications of IP over DCC Item Number of DCCs Specifications The number of DCCs is determined by the microwave/line type. l STM-1/STM-4 or SDH radio supports 12 DCC bytes, that is, D1-D12. The equipment supports three modes: D1-D3, D4-D12, and D1-D12. l When transmitting 16xE1 signals or higher-capacity PDH microwave signals, the IF1A/B board always uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. l When transmitting PDH microwave signals less than 16xE1 signals, the IF1A/ B board always uses Huawei-defined byte D1 as the DCC channel. l The IF0A/B board always uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. l When transmitting Hybrid microwave signals, the IFH2 board uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. OSPF route Supported Currently, the OSPF protocol supports only the routes within an area and does not support the routes between areas. Thus, the gateway NE and all its non-gateway NEs must be in the same OSPF area. On the SDH line and radio link, the OSPF protocol is always enabled. On the Ethernet NM interface, the OSPF protocol can be enabled or disabled. static route Supported In the case of the OptiX RTN 620 of the current version, dynamic routes have a higher priority than static routes. When there is a route conflict, the equipment always selects dynamic routes first. ARP proxy Scale of the ECC subnet Supported With the DCN bandwidth of 192 kbit/s, it is recommended that an ECC subnet has not more than 120 NEs. The maximum number of NEs on an ECC subnet is 150 (only for the OptiX RTN 620 V100R005).

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3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with IP over DCC. The following standards and protocols are associated with IP over DCC: l l IETF RFC 1661: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) IETF RFC 1027: Using ARP to Implement Transparent Subnet Gateways

3.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the IP over DCC solution and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 3-2 Hardware and version support Feature IP over DCC Applicable Board SCC IF1A/IF1B IF0A/IF0B IFX IFH2 SL1/SD1 SLE/SDE SL4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R003 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
When the IP over DCC solution is used with other DCN solutions, pay attention to the relations between the IP over DCC and other DCN solutions. l l l The IP over DCC protocol stack of NEs can communicate with the HWECC protocol stack. The IP over DCC protocol stack of NEs cannot communicate with the OSI protocol stack. If DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages when the OptiX equipment is used together with third-party equipment to form a network, you can adopt the IP over DCC protocol to manage the OptiX equipment, but it is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol. If DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages through the external clock interface when the OptiX equipment is used together with third-party equipment to form a
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network, you can adopt the IP over DCC protocol to manage the OptiX equipment, but it is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol. l If the protocol manager is used to transparently transmit NM messages, you can adopt the IP over DCC protocol to manage the OptiX equipment, but it is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol.

3.6 Principles
This section describes the principles of the IP over DCC solution.

Principle of the Packet Transfer in Gateway Mode


Figure 3-4 shows how the IP over DCC solution transfers the messages from the NMS to a nongateway NE when the NMS applies the gateway mode to access the NE. Figure 3-4 Realization principle of message transfer (gateway mode)
Application TCP IP Application TCP IP TCP IP PPP Ethernet Ethernet DCC T2000 Gateway NE DCC Transfer NE DCC Destination NE IP PPP Application TCP IP PPP

The realization principle is as follows: 1. 2. 3. The NMS transfers application layer messages to the gateway NE through the TCP connection between them. The gateway NE extracts the messages from the TCP/IP protocol stack and reports the messages to the application layer. The application layer of the gateway NE queries the address of the destination NE in the messages. If the address of the destination NE is not the address of the local station, the gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer according to the address of the destination NE to obtain the corresponding route and the communication protocol stack of the transfer NE. The communication protocol stack of the transfer NE in Figure 3-4 is IP. Hence, the gateway NE transfers the messages to the transfer NE through the IP protocol stack. After receiving the packet that encapsulates the messages, the network layer of the transfer NE queries the destination IP address of the packet. If the destination IP address is not the IP address of the local NE, the transfer NE queries the IP routing table according to the destination IP address to obtain the corresponding route and then transfers the packet. After receiving the packet, the network layer of the destination NE reports the packet to the application layer through the transport layer because the destination IP address of the
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packet is the IP address of the local NE. The application layer functions according to the message sent from the NMS.

Principle of the Packet Transfer in Direct Connection Mode


Figure 3-5 shows how the IP over DCC solution transfers the messages originating from the NMS to a destination NE when the NMS applies the direct connection mode to access the NE. Figure 3-5 Realization principle of message transfer (direct connection mode)
Application TCP IP IP PPP Ethernet Ethernet DCC T2000 Transfer NE DCC Transfer NE DCC Destination NE IP PPP Application TCP IP PPP

Different from the gateway mode, the original gateway NE in the direct connection mode acts as an ordinary transfer NE and the message transfer is realized at the network layer.

3.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan IP over DCC.
NOTE

This section describes the planning guidelines of IP over DCC and the difference between HWECC and IP over DCC. For the shared parts, such as the planning of external DCN, NE IDs, and network division, see 3.7 Planning Guidelines in HWECC solution.

Planning Guidelines for GNEs


l l It is recommended that the GNE be the closest NE to the NMS, the central node of a start network, or the NE that accesses most DCCs. With the DCN bandwidth of 192 kbit/s, it is recommended that an ECC subnet (consisting of a GNE and the non-GNEs affiliated to the GNE) has not more than 120 NEs. The maximum number of NEs on an ECC subnet is 150 (only for the OptiX RTN 620 V100R005).

Planning Guidelines for DCCs


l l If a network is comprised of the OptiX equipment only, D1-D3 bytes are used for DCCs on SDH lines. If the OptiX equipment is connected to the third-party equipment through SDH lines, it is recommended that you adopt the DCC bytes used by the third-party equipment (D1-D3 or D4-D12) for DCCs.
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l l

In PDH microwave frames, one or three DCC bytes are used for DCCs. In Hybrid microwave frames, three DCC bytes are used for DCCs.

Planning Guidelines for IP Addresses of NEs


l l l l l l Set the IP addresses of NEs for the most simplified route settings. Set the IP addresses of GNEs, subnet masks, and default GNEs as required by the planning of external DCN. Set the IP addresses on the same network segment for the NEs connected through Ethernet NM interfaces. It is recommended that the IP addresses of a GNE and the NEs afflicted to the GNE be on different network segments. It is recommended that when an NE is connected to the third-party equipment through the Ethernet NM interface, this NE and the other NEs be on different network segments. Set the subnet masks of one network segment to the same value.

Planning Guidelines for Routes


l l l l One OSPF area has a maximum of 64 NEs. The route planning achieves communication between the NMS and GNEs, GNEs and nonGNEs, and the third-party NMS and third-party NEs. If the dynamic routing protocol fails to meet the preceding requirements, you need to plan appropriate static routes. If an NE is connected to the third-party equipment through Ethernet NM interfaces but the third-party equipment does not support GNEs or static routes, enable the ARP proxy function on the NE.

Planning of NE IPs and Routes in Typical Networking Conditions


l On a network that consists of the OptiX equipment and has only one OSPF area Figure 3-6 shows a network that consists of the OptiX equipment and has only one OSPF area. In this example, the IP addresses of GNEs and non-GNEs are on different network segments. Therefore, the NMS has a direct access to non-GNEs when GNEs have a route to the NMS or the network segment of the NMS. To achieve the direct access from a GNE to a non-GNE, you need to set a static route from the GNE to the network segment of the non-GNE (129.9.0.0). The GNE has the IP address of NE1. Figure 3-6 Planning Example of NE IPs and Routes on a Network That Consists Of the OptiX Equipment and Has Only One OSPF Area
NE 1 NMS NE 2

NE 3

130.9.0.100

130.9.0.1

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

Ethernet link

Radio link

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Analyze the routes as follows: There are routes between NE1, NE2, and NE3, because these NEs are in the same OSPF area. NE1 has a route to the network segment of 130.9.0.0 and spreads the route information in the OSPF area. Therefore, NE2 and NE3 have a route to this network segment and can access the NMS. When the NMS attempts to access NE2 and NE3, it forwards packets to NE1 through a static route. Then, NE1 forwards the packets to NE2 and NE3 along the OSPF routes.
NOTE

l If the NMS need not access non-GNEs directly, NE1, the NMS, and non-GNEs can be on the same network segment. l If NE1, the NMS, NE2, and NE3 are on the same network segment of 129.9.0.0, and the Ethernet NM interface on NE3 is connected to other equipment (that is, the interface is in "link up" state), the IP address of the GNE that manages the route from NE3 to 129.9.0.0 is changed to 129.0.3. That is, the route is changed to the local route through the Ethernet NM interface. In this case, NE3 cannot communicate with the NMS directly. To solve this problem, add a static route from NE1 to the NMS.

On a network that consists of various equipment and has only one OSPF area Figure 3-7 shows a network that consists of various equipment and has only one OSPF area. In this example, GNEs, non-GNEs, and the NEs interconnected with the third-party equipment are on different network segments. To achieve communication between the third-party NMS and a third-party GNE, a static route needs to be set between the network segments of the third-party NMS and the third-party GNE. In this example, the configuration of static routes is as follows: On the third-party NMS, configure a static route to 131.9.0.0 (the IP address of the GNE is 130.9.0.1). On NE4, configure a static route to 130.9.0.0 (the IP address of the GNE is 131.9.0.3).

Figure 3-7 Planning Example of NE IPs and Routes on a Network That Consists Of Various Equipment and Has Only One OSPF Area
NMS NE 1 130.9.0.100 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4 NE 5

Third party NMS 130.9.0.1 130.9.0.200

129.9.0.2

131.9.0.3

131.9.0.4

131.9.0.5

OptiX equipment Ethernet link

Third party equipment Radio link

Analyze the routes as follows:


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There are routes between NE1, NE2, and NE3, because these NEs are in the same OSPF area. NE1 has a route to the network segment of 130.9.0.0 and spreads the route information in the OSPF area. Therefore, NE2 and NE3 have a route to this network segment and can access the NMS. NE3 has a route to the network segment of 131.9.0.0 and spreads the route information in the OSPF area. Therefore, NE1 and NE2 have a route to this network segment; NE1, NE2, and NE3 can access NE4. When the third-party NMS attempts to access NE4, it forwards packets to NE1 through a static route. Then, NE1 forwards the packets to NE3 through the OSPF routes, and NE3 forwards the packets to NE4. When NE4 attempts to access the third-party NMS, it forwards packets to NE3 through a static route. Then, NE3 forwards the packets to NE1 through the OSPF routes, and NE1 forwards the packets to the third-party NMS. l On a network that consists of various equipment and has multiple OSPF areas Figure 3-8 shows a network that consists of various equipment and has multiple OSPF areas. In this example, NE3 and NE4 are connected through Ethernet NM interfaces. The OSPF protocol is disabled on Ethernet NM interfaces by default. Therefore, the OptiX Equipment is divided into two OptiX areas. To avoid the configuration of too many static routes, the non-GNEs in different areas and the NEs with Ethernet NM interface connections are allocated with IP addresses on different segments. Therefore, you only need to set a static route from the third-party NMS to a third-party GNE and a static route between the two NEs connecting two OSPF areas. In this example, the configuration of static routes is as follows: On the third-party NMS, configure a static route to the network segment of 133.9.0.0 (the IP address of the GNE is 130.9.0.1). On NE7, configure a static route to 130.9.0.0 (the IP address of the GNE is 133.9.0.6). On NE3, configure a static route to 132.9.0.0 and a static route to 133.9.0.0 (the IP address of the GNE is 131.9.0.4). On NE4, configure a static route to 129.9.0.0 and a static route to 130.9.0.0 (the IP address of the GNE is 131.9.0.3).

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Figure 3-8 Planning Example of NE IPs and Routes on a Network That Consists Of Various Equipment and Has Multiple OSPF Areas
NE 3 NE 2 NMS NE 1

130.9.0.100 129.9.0.2 130.9.0.3 Third party NMS

131.9.0.3

130.9.0.200 NE 4 NE 5 NE 6 NE 7 NE 8

131.9.0.4

132.9.0.5

133.9.0.6

133.9.0.7

133.9.0.8

OptiX equipment Ethernet link

Third party equipment Radio link

Analyze the routes as follows: There are routes between NE1, NE2, and NE3, because these NEs are in the same OSPF area. Therefore, there are routes between NE4, NE5, and NE6. NE3 has routes to NE4, NE5, NE6, and N7, and spreads the information in the OSPF area. Therefore, NE1 and NE2 also have routes to NE4, NE5, and NE6. NE4 has routes to NE1, NE2, and NE3, and spreads the information in the OSPF area. Therefore, NE5 and NE6 also have routes to NE1, NE2, and NE3. The NMS has an access to each NE through GNEs because all NEs can communicate with one another. When the third-party NMS attempts to access NE7, it forwards packets to NE1 through a static route. Then, the packets are forwarded from NE1 to NE6, and finally reaches NE7. When the NE7 attempts to access the third-party NMS, it forwards packets to NE6 through a static route. Then, the packets are forwarded from NE6 to NE1, and finally reaches the third-party NMS.
NOTE

If the OSPF function is enabled on the Ethernet NM interfaces of NE3 and NE4, NE1-NE6 are in the same OSPF area. Therefore, the IP addresses and routes can be planned in a manner similar to Figure 3-7.

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3.8 Configuration Flow


The configuration of the IP over DCC solution consists of two parts, that is, the configuration of communications data at the near end of the NE and the creation of the NE on the NMS. Table 3-3 Configuration flow for the IP over DCC solution Step 1 Operation A.1.5 Changing NE IDs Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set ID to be the NE ID specified during the DCN planning. l If the extended NE ID specified during the DCN planning is required, change Extended ID. 2 A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set IP and Subnet Mask according to the planning of the external DCN. l Set Gateway IP Address if the default GNE needs to be configured for the non-GNEs. 3 A.3.2 Configuring DCCs Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Protocol Type of the SDH line port and microwave port on which the IP over DCC is enabled to TCP/IP. l Set Channel Type of the SDH line port to be consistent with that of the third-party equipment if the SDH line is used to connect the third-party equipment. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters. 4 A.3.7 Enabling the ARP Proxy When the third-party NMS and the third-party GNE are in the same network segment, if the third-party NMS does not support the setting of the static route and is in the same network segment as the OptiX GNE is, the proxy ARP is enabled on the OptiX GNE; if the third-party GNE does not support the setting of the static route and is connected to the OptiX NE through the Ethernet NMS interface, the proxy ARP is enabled on the OptiX NE that is connected to the third-party GNE. Required when the OSPF protocol needs to be used between the NE and the third-party equipment. The values of the parameters are consistent with those of the third-party equipment. In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values.

A.3.6 Setting Parameters of the OSPF Protocol

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Step 6 7

Operation A.3.5 Creating Static IP Routes A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC

Description Configure the static routes of NEs according to the network planning. Required for the NEs that are connected through the Ethernet NMS interface or the subtending ports. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Extended Mode to Specified Mode. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters.
NOTE This operation is performed to disable the automatic extended ECC function of the NE.

In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values. 8 A.3.11 Querying IP Routes In normal situations: l NEs have correct routes to other OptiX NEs or network segments in which the OptiX NEs are. l NEs have correct routes to the third-party GNEs or network segments in which the NEs are. l NEs have correct routes to the OptiX NMS or network segment in which the OptiX NMS is. l NEs have correct routes to the third-party NMS or network segment in which the third-party NMS is. 9 Creating NEs on the centralize d NMS A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method It is recommended that you perform the operations to add one or more NEs on a large existing network by using the Web LCT.

In other cases, this method is preferred.

NOTE

If the centralized NMS is U2000 instead of Web LCT, the NEs need to be created on the U2000. For the information on how to create NEs on the U2000, see Feature Description (U2000).

3.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the IP over DCC solution according to network conditions.
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3.9.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about the NEs. 3.9.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring the NE data. 3.9.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

3.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about the NEs. The OptiX radio transmission equipment and the third-party wireless transmission equipment form the microwave transmission network, as shown in Figure 3-9. On the microwave transmission network, the third-party equipment is located at the edge and the OptiX equipment is located in the center. The OptiX equipment needs to transparently transmit the NM messages between the third-party equipment at the edge of the network and the third-party NMS in the center of the network. Figure 3-9 Networking diagram

NE8 NE7 Third-party NMS NE6 NE5 NE4

NE3

NMS

NE1 Third-party equipment

NE2

OptiX equipment

Router Radio link

LAN sw itch Ethernet link

3.9.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring the NE data. l The third-party equipment supports the connection to the NMS through the Ethernet NMS interface. Therefore, the OptiX equipment can transparently transmit the NM messages
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between the third-party equipment and the third-party NMS through the IP over DCC solution. l l Select NE1 that is the closest to the NMS as the GNE. The OptiX NMS and NE1 are located at the same place and the third-party NMS is located at another place. Therefore, construct the DCN between the third-party NMS and NE1 through a router or protocol converter. Allocate IDs and IP addresses for all the NEs according to the conditions of the network. Figure 3-10 Allocation of IDs/IP addresses for all the NEs

132.9.0.7/16 11.0.0.200/16 9-6 132.9.0.6 0.0.0.0

132.9.0.8/16 9-5 131.9.0.5 0.0.0.0 9-4 130.9.0.4 0.0.0.0 9-3 130.9.0.3 0.0.0.0

11.0.0.100/16

10.0.0.200/16 9-1 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.100/16 Extended ID-Basic ID IP address Gatew ay 9-2 129.9.0.2 0.0.0.0

Plan NE routes. Configure a static route between NE1 and the third-party NMS (11.0.0.100). The gateway is the interface address of the router 10.0.0.200. Configure a static route between NE3 and the network segment 131.9.0.0. The gateway is the IP address of NE4 130.9.0.4. Configure a static route between NE3 and the network segment 132.9.0.0. The gateway is the IP address of NE4 130.9.0.4. Configure a static route between NE4 and the network segment 129.9.0.0. The gateway is the IP address of NE3 130.9.0.3. Configure a static route between NE4 and the network segment 10.0.0.0. The gateway is the IP address of NE3 130.9.0.3. Configure a static route between NE4 and the third-party NMS (11.0.0.100). The gateway is the IP address of NE3 130.9.0.3.

3.9.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

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Context
NOTE

In this configuration example, only the configuration information about the typical NEs, NE1, NE3, and NE4 is provided.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.1.5 Changing NE IDs and modify the NE ID. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 New ID New Extended ID 1 9 (default value) NE3 3 9 (default value) NE4 4 9 (default value)

Step 2 See A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters and set the NE communication parameters. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 IP Address Gateway IP Address Subnet Mask 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 (default value) 255.255.0.0 (default value) NE3 130.9.0.3 0.0.0.0 (default value) 255.255.0.0 (default value) NE4 130.9.0.4 0.0.0.0 (default value) 255.255.0.0 (default value)

Step 3 See A.3.2 Configuring DCCs and configure the DCCs. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range All Microwave/ Line Ports (NE1) Enabled/Disabled Enabled (default value) All Microwave/ Line Ports (NE3) Enabled (default value) All Microwave/ Line Ports (NE4) Enabled (default value)

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Parameter

Value Range All Microwave/ Line Ports (NE1) All Microwave/ Line Ports (NE3) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other line ports) TCP/IP All Microwave/ Line Ports (NE4) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other line ports) TCP/IP

Channel Type

D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other line ports)

Protocol Type

TCP/IP

Step 4 See A.3.5 Creating Static IP Routes and create the static IP routes. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Paramete r Destinatio n Address Subnet Mask Gateway IP Address Value Range NE1 11.0.0.100 255.255.0. 0 10.0.0.200 NE3 131.9.0.0 255.255.0. 0 130.9.0.4 132.9.0.0 255.255.0. 0 130.9.0.4 NE4 129.9.0.0 255.255.0. 0 130.9.0.3 10.0.0.0 255.255.0. 0 130.9.0.3 11.0.0.100 255.255.0. 0 130.9.0.3

Step 5 See A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC and configure the extended ECC. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 ECC Extended Mode Port (on the server side) Opposite IP (on the client side) Port (on the client side) Specified mode 1601 (default value) 0.0.0.0 (default value) 1601 (default value) NE3 Specified mode 1601 (default value) 0.0.0.0 (default value) 1601 (default value) NE4 Specified mode 1601 (default value) 0.0.0.0 (default value) 1601 (default value)

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Step 6 See A.3.11 Querying IP Routes and query the ECC routes. The expected result is as follows: l On NE1, The route and gateway between NE1 and 129.9.0.2, 130.9.0.3, 130.9.0.0, 131.9.0.0, and 132.9.0.0 are 129.9.0.2. The route and gateway between NE1 and 10.0.0.0 are 10.0.0.1. The route and gateway between NE1 and 11.0.0.100 are 10.0.0.200. l On NE3, The route and gateway between NE3 and 131.9.0.0 and 132.9.0.0 are 130.9.0.4. The route and gateway between NE3 and 130.9.0.0 are 130.9.0.3. The route and gateway between NE3 and 129.9.0.2, 10.0.0.1, 10.0.0.0, and 11.0.0.100 are 129.9.0.2. l On NE4, The route and gateway between NE4 and 131.9.0.0 and 132.9.0.0 are 131.9.0.5. The route and gateway between NE4 and 130.9.0.0 are 130.9.0.4. The route and gateway between NE4 and 129.9.0.0, 10.0.0.0, 10.0.0.1, and 11.0.0.100 are 130.9.0.3. Step 7 See A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method and create the NEs on the centralized NMS. 10.0.0.1 is the search network segment of the IP address of the GNE. In normal cases, all the NEs can be created on the centralized NMS. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
To ensure the interconnection between the third-party NMS and the third-party GNE, the following routes need to be added. l l Route between the third-party NMS and the network segment 132.9.0.0. The gateway is 11.0.0.200. Route between NE7 and the network segment 11.0.0.100. The gateway is 132.9.0.6.

3.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the IP over DCC feature.

Related Tasks
A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method A.1.5 Changing NE IDs A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters A.3.2 Configuring DCCs
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A.3.5 Creating Static IP Routes A.3.6 Setting Parameters of the OSPF Protocol A.3.7 Enabling the ARP Proxy A.3.11 Querying IP Routes A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC

3.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


The IP over DCC solution does not involve any alarm or event.

3.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the IP over DCC solution is used. Q: Compared with other solutions for communicating NM information, what advantages does the IP over DCC solution have? A: Main advantages are as follows: l The IP over DCC solution applies the standard TCP/IP protocol stack. With the IP over DCC solution, the OptiX equipment easily interworks with third-party equipment and hence the network management is simplified. The OSI over DCC solution applies the transfer function of the network layer of the protocol stack. Hence, no extra overhead and service channel are needed. The IP over DCC solution allows different vendors to multiplex the same DCC channel. The NMS of a vendor need not be directly connected to the equipment of the vendor. The IP over DCC function supports the automatic rerouting function and hence can protect the channel that transmits the management information. The IP over DCC solution enables the development of management tools that are based on the mature IP protocol stack, for example, FTP and Telnet.

l l l l l

Q: Why does the NMS always fail to log in to an NE? A: Common causes are as follows: l l The communication connection between the NMS and the GNE is faulty. To locate the fault, run the ping or tracert command on the NMS server. The IP route between the gateway NE and a non-gateway NE is faulty. To locate the fault, check the IP route between the gateway NE and the non-gateway NE. Q: How does one use the IP over DCC solution to interconnect the OptiX equipment with third-party equipment through the SDH line? A: The steps are as follows: 1. 2.
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Check the DCC bytes used by DCCs with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment. Check the PPP protocol parameters with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment.
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3. 4. 5.

Check the OSPF protocol parameters with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment. Configure data according to the negotiated protocol parameters and the network planning. Query IP routes at the NE that is interconnected to third-party equipment to check if there is a route to the interconnected NE. If no route is obtained, the PPP interconnection fails. Query IP routes at the gateway NE to check if there is a route to the interconnected NE and a route to other third-party equipment. If no route is obtained, the OSPF protocol interconnection fails.

6.

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4
About This Chapter

OSI over DCC Solution

This chapter describes the OSI over DCC solution. 4.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of OSI over DCC and describes its purpose. 4.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using OSI over DCC. 4.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of OSI over DCC. 4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with OSI over DCC. 4.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the OSI over DCC solution and its dependency. 4.6 Principles This section describes the principles of the OSI over DCC solution. 4.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan OSI over DCC. 4.8 Configuration Flow The configuration of the OSI over DCC solution consists of two parts, that is, the configuration communications data at the peer end of the NE and the creation of the NE on the NMS. 4.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the OSI over DCC solution according to network conditions. 4.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the OSI over DCC feature. 4.11 Relevant Alarms and Events
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The OSI over DCC solution does not involve any alarm or event. 4.12 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the OSI over DCC solution is used.

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4.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of OSI over DCC and describes its purpose.

Definition
OSI over DCC is a DCN solution provided by Huawei. In this solution, the NMS manages NEs by using network management messages that are encapsulated in the standard OSI protocol stack. Figure 4-1 shows how network management messages are transmitted by using OSI over DCC. Different manufacturers' network management messages encapsulated in the OSI protocol stack can be transmitted through DCCs carried by optical fibers or microwave, or can be transmitted over the Ethernet between Ethernet NM interfaces or between NE cascading interfaces Figure 4-1 Networking diagram of OSI over DCC
sg yM art ack -p t 3rd SI s C O DC

3rd-party Msg OSI stack ETH Third-party NMS

sg XM pti stack O I OS CC D

3rd-party Msg OSI stack DCC

OptiX NMS

OptiX Msg OSI stack ETH

OptiX M sg OSI sta ck DCC

3rd-party Msg OSI stack ETH

3rd-part y Msg OSI sta ck DCC

OptiX equipment Ethernet link Fiber

Third-party equipment Radio link

Purpose
OSI over DCC is preferred as the DCN solution when the network is comprised of the OptiX equipment and the third-party equipment that supports OSI over DCC but does not support IP over DCC. In addition, this solution can be used when the equipment in the center of the network needs to provide a network management message transmission path over OSI for NEs at the edge of the network.

4.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using OSI over DCC.
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4.2.1 OSI over DCC Protocol Stack The OSI over DCC adopts the architecture of the standard OSI protocol stack. 4.2.2 NMS Access Modes In the OSI over DCC solution, there are two modes for the NMS to access an NE: gateway access mode and direct access mode.

4.2.1 OSI over DCC Protocol Stack


The OSI over DCC adopts the architecture of the standard OSI protocol stack.

Protocol Stack Architecture


Figure 4-2 OSI over DCC protocol stack architecture
Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Ethernet Physical layer DCC TP4 IS-IS/ES-IS/CLNP LAPD

Physical Layer
The main function of the physical layer is to provide channels for data transmission, for the data end equipment. Physical channels are classified into the following categories: l DCC DCCs use the DCC bytes in SDH frames, PDH or Hybrid microwave frames as the channels for communication between NEs. In the OSI over DCC solution: If the network is only comprised of the OptiX equipment, bytes D1 to D3 in SDH frames are used as DCCs. If the OptiX equipment is connected to the third-party equipment by using the SDH line, it is recommended that you use the DCC bytes that the third-party equipment uses (for example, bytes D1 to D3 or D4 to D12) as DCCs. In the PDH microwave frame, one or three DCC bytes in the frame can always be used as DCCs. In the Hybrid microwave frame, three DCC bytes in the frame can always be used as DCCs. l Ethernet physical channel The NE provides the Ethernet physical channel through the Ethernet NM port or the NE cascade port.
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Data Link Layer


The main function of the data link layer is to provide reliable data transmission on physical links. For DCCs, the NE applies the LAPD protocol to realize the data link layer function. The LAPD protocol complies with ITU-T Q.921. When using the LAPD protocol, you are required to set the LAPD role. For the two ends of a DCC, set the LAPD role to network at one end and to user at the other end.

Network Layer
The main function of the network layer is to specify the network layer address for a network entity and to provide the transferring and addressing functions. The NE applies the ISO-defined connectionless network service (CLNS) to realize the network layer function. The CLNS is comprised of the following three protocols: l Connectionless network protocol (CLNP) The CLNP protocol complies with ISO 8473. It has functions similar to the IP in the TCP/ IP protocol stack. In the CLNP protocol, the network service access point (NSAP) works as the network layer address. The NSAP functions as the IP address in the IP protocol. Its address format is as shown in Figure 4-3. Figure 4-3 Format of the NSAP address
IDP Higher order DSP AFI IDI+pad DFI ORG RES RD Area System ID 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
NSEL

DSP

Area address 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

20

The NE uses the simplified NSAP address. The simplified NSAP address includes only the following three parts: Area ID The area ID refers to the area address shown in Figure 4-3 and has one to thirteen bytes. The area ID is used to address the routes between areas. The NSAPs of the NEs in the same L1 route area must have the same area ID but those in the same L2 route area can have different area IDs. You can manually set the area ID. The default value of the area ID is 0x47000400060001. SYS ID The SYS ID refers to the system ID shown in Figure 4-3 and has six bytes. The SYS ID is used to address the routes within an area. The value of the first three bytes of the SYS ID of the OptiX equipment is always 0x08003E. The last three bytes are the NE ID. NSEL
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The NSEL refers to the port ID of the network layer protocol. It has one byte. The NSEL of the OptiX equipment is always 0x1D. l IS-IS protocol In the CLNS, NEs are classified into intermediate systems (IS) and end systems (ES) according to the NE role. The IS is equivalent to the router in the TCP/IP protocol stack and the ES is equivalent to the host. The IS-IS protocol is a dynamic routing protocol between one IS and another. It complies with ISO 10589 and functions as the OSPF protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. The ISIS protocol supports the L1 and L2 layered routes. The NE whose role is L1 cannot be a neighbor of the NE in a different area and participates only in the routes in its own area. It issues a default route that points to its closest L2 NE and accesses other areas through the default route. The NE whose role is L2 can be a neighbor of the L2 NE in a different area and also can participate in the routes in the backbone area. The backbone area is formed by consecutive L2 NEs. That is, the L2 NEs in the backbone area must be consecutive (connected). In the network as shown in Figure 4-4, as the L2 NEs in the backbone area are not consecutive, the NEs in area 4 are isolated from the NEs in other areas. By default, the role of the OptiX equipment is L1. Figure 4-4 Layered routes of IS-IS protocol routes (L2 not consecutive)

OSI DCN T2000

L1 L2

Area 2

Area 3

Area 1

Backbone

Area 4

NOTE

L2 NEs are classified into two categories, the NE with only the L2 role and the NE with both the L2 role and the L1 role. In general, an L2 NE has the L1 role.

ES-IS protocol The ES-IS protocol is a dynamic routing protocol between the ES and the IS. It complies with ISO 9542 and functions as the ARP and ICMP protocols in the TCP/IP protocol stack.

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Transport Layer
The main function of the transport layer is to provide the end-to-end communication service for the upper layer. The NE applies the TP4 protocol to realize the transport layer function. The TP4 protocol complies with ISO 8073. It has functions similar to the TCP in the TCP/IP protocol stack.

OSI Tunnel
This solution is used when the transmission network that adopts the OSI over DCC solution needs to use the transmission network that adopts the IP over DCC solution to transparently transmit the NM message. The OSI tunnel function involves that a virtual LAPD channel is established between the NEs on the IP network. In this manner, the NM message encapsulated in compliance with the OSI protocol is transparently transmitted. Figure 4-5 shows an application example of the OSI tunnel. In this example, the third-party equipment adopts the OSI over DCC solution and needs to pass the service through the OptiX transmission network that adopts the IP over DCC solution Hence, an OSI tunnel needs to be established between NE1 and NE3. Perform the following steps to delete the VLAN service: l Note that the SDH line connecting the OptiX equipment to the third-party equipment adopts the DCC over OSI protocol, whereas the SDH line and radio link inside the network adopt the IP over DCC protocol. Enable the OSI tunnel function on NE1. The IP address of the opposite NE is the IP address of NE3 (that is, 129.9.0.3). The LAPD role is "network". Enable the OSI tunnel function on NE3. The IP address of the opposite NE is the IP address of NE1 (that is, 129.9.0.1). The LAPD role is "user".

l l

Figure 4-5 Application example of the OSI tunnel


OSI tunnel enabled NE 1 NE 2 OSI tunnel enabled NE 3

129.9.0.1 129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

Third-party NMS

OptiX equipment Ethernet link

Third-party equipment Radio link Fiber

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NOTE

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

The LAPD roles of NE1 and NE3 can be exchanged but cannot be the same.

4.2.2 NMS Access Modes


In the OSI over DCC solution, there are two modes for the NMS to access an NE: gateway access mode and direct access mode.

Gateway Access Mode


In the gateway access mode, the NMS accesses a non-gateway NE through the gateway NE. The gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer according to the ID of the NE to be accessed to obtain the corresponding route. The core routing table synthesizes the transport layer routing tables of all communication protocol stacks. Each route item includes the following: l l l l ID of the destination NE Address of the transfer NE Communication protocol stack of the transfer NE Transfer distance

Direct Access Mode


In the direct access mode, the NMS accesses an NE as the gateway NE. All transfer NEs on the access path query the L1 routing table and L2 routing table of the network layer according to the NSAP address of the NE to be accessed to obtain the corresponding route. The L1 routing table and the L2 routing table are based on the IS-IS protocol. Each route item in the L1 routing table includes the following: l l l Destination System ID Cost Adjacency No.

Each route item in the L2 routing table includes the following: l l l Destination AREA ID Cost Adjacency No.
NOTE

The adjacency No. is the ID of an LAPD connection. You can query the link adjacency table of the data link layer to obtain the mapping relation between the adjacency No. and the LAPD connection.

In the OSI over DCC solution, theoretically, the NMS can access any NE using the direct access mode, that is, the NMS can consider any NE as the gateway NE. To improve the communication efficiency, there should not be too many NEs that are accessed in the direct access mode in a network.

4.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of OSI over DCC.
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The OptiX RTN 620 supports the following specifications of OSI over DCC. Table 4-1 Specifications of OSI over DCC Item Number of DCCs Specifications The number of DCCs is determined by the microwave/line type. l STM-1/STM-4 or SDH radio supports 12 DCC bytes, that is, D1-D12. The equipment supports three modes: D1-D3, D4-D12, and D1-D12. l When transmitting 16xE1 signals or higher-capacity PDH microwave signals, the IF1A/B board always uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. l When transmitting PDH microwave signals less than 16xE1 signals, the IF1A/ B board always uses Huawei-defined byte D1 as the DCC channel. l The IF0A/B board always uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. l When transmitting Hybrid microwave signals, the IFH2 board uses Huaweidefined bytes D1-D3 as DCCs. CLNP protocol Supported The NE uses the simplified NSAP address. IS-IS routing protocol Supported The CLNS role of the NE can be set to L1 or L2. The default mode is L1. ES-IS routing protocol OSI tunnel Number of NEs on the DCN Supported Supported l It is recommended that the number of areas does not exceed 20. The maximum number of areas can be 32. l It is recommended that the number of NEs in an area does not exceed 32. The maximum number of NEs in an area is 50. l With the DCN bandwidth of 192 kbit/s, it is recommended that an ECC subnet has not more than 120 NEs. The maximum number of NEs on an ECC subnet is 150 (only for the OptiX RTN 620 V100R005).

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4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with OSI over DCC. The following standards and protocols are associated with OSI over DCC: l ISO 8473: Information technology-Protocol for providing the connectionless-mode network service: Protocol specification

4.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the OSI over DCC solution and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 4-2 Hardware and version support Feature OSI over DCC Applicable Board SCC IF1A/IF1B IF0A/IF0B IFX IFH2 SL1/SD1 SLE/SDE SL4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R003 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
When the OSI over DCC solution is used with other DCN solutions, pay attention to the relations between the OSI over DCC and other DCN solutions. l l l The OSI protocol stack of NEs can communicate with the HWECC protocol stack only in the same area at the L1 layer. The OSI protocol stack of NEs cannot communicate with the IP over DCC protocol stack. If DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages when the OptiX equipment is used together with third-party equipment to form a network, you can adopt the OSI protocol to manage the OptiX equipment, but it is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol. If DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages through the external clock interface when the OptiX equipment is used together with third-party equipment to form a
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network, you can adopt the OSI protocol to manage the OptiX equipment, but it is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol. l If the protocol manager is used to transparently transmit NM messages, you can adopt the OSI protocol to manage the OptiX equipment, but it is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol.

4.6 Principles
This section describes the principles of the OSI over DCC solution.

Gateway Mode
Figure 4-6illustrates how the OSI over DCC solution transfers NMS messages to a non-gateway NE when the NMS adopts the gateway mode to access the NE. Figure 4-6 Realization principle of message transferring (gateway mode)
Application TP4 ES-IS/CLNP Application TP4 TP4 IS-IS/CLNP LAPD DCC Transfer NE Application TP4 IS-IS/CLNP LAPD DCC Destination NE

ES-IS/CLNP IS-IS/CLNP LAPD

Ethernet

Ethernet DCC

T2000

Gateway NE

The realization principle is as follows: 1. As an ES, the NMS first detects the gateway NE through the ES-IS routing protocol, establishes a TP4 connection, and finally transfers application layer messages to the gateway NE through the TP4 connection. The gateway NE extracts the messages from the OSI protocol stack and reports the messages to the application layer. The application layer of the gateway NE queries the address of the destination NE in the messages. If the address of the destination NE is not the same as the address of the local station, the gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer according to the address of the destination NE to obtain the corresponding route and the communication protocol stack of the transfer NE. As the communication protocol stack of the transfer NE in Figure 4-6 is OSI, the gateway NE transfers the messages to the transfer NE through the OSI protocol stack. After receiving the packet that encapsulates the messages, the network layer of the transfer NE queries the destination NSAP address of the packet. If the NSAP address is not the same as the address of the local station, the transfer NE queries the L1 routing table or the L2 routing table according to the destination NSAP address to obtain the corresponding route, and then transfers the packet. After receiving the packet, the network layer of the destination NE reports the packet to the application layer through the transport layer because the destination NSAP address of
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the packet is the same as the address of the local station. The application layer acts according to the message sent from the NMS.

Direct Connection Mode


Figure 4-7 illustrates how the OSI over DCC solution transfers NMS messages to a destination NE when the NMS adopts the direct connection mode to access the NE. Figure 4-7 Realization principle of message transferring (direct connection mode)
Application TP4 ES-IS/CLNP IS-IS/ES-IS/CLNP LAPD Ethernet Ethernet DCC T2000 Transfer NE DCC Transfer NE DCC Destination NE IS-IS/CLNP LAPD Application TP4 IS-IS/CLNP LAPD

The original gateway NE in the direct connection mode acts as an ordinary transfer NE and the message transferring is realized at the network layer. This is different from the gateway mode.

4.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan OSI over DCC.
NOTE

This section describes the planning guidelines of OSI over DCC and the difference between HWECC and OSI over DCC. For the shared parts, such as the planning of NE IDs and network division, see 2.7 Planning Guidelines in HWECC solution.

Planning Guidelines for Areas


l l l l It is recommended that the number of areas does not exceed 20. The maximum number of areas is 32. It is recommended that the number of NEs in an area does not exceed 32. The maximum number of NEs in an area is 50. Each area should have L2 NEs and all the L2 NEs must be interconnected. The area ID of each area must be unique.

Planning Guidelines for GNEs


l l If there are multiple areas, set a gateway NE for each area, and an L2 NE is preferred to be a gateway NE. With the DCN bandwidth of 192 kbit/s, it is recommended that an ECC subnet (consisting of a GNE and the non-GNEs affiliated to the GNE) has not more than 120 NEs. The
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maximum number of NEs on an ECC subnet is 150 (only for the OptiX RTN 620 V100R005). l It is recommended that the selected GNE be the closest NE to the NMS, the central node of a start network, or the NE that accesses most DCCs.

Planning Guidelines for External DCN


l l l l For stability and security of external DCN, it is recommended that you do not use the office LAN or Internet as the transmission channels of external DCN. It is recommended that the bandwidth of external DCN should not be lower than the DCC bandwidth on the network. The links at a rate of 256 kbit/s already meets the requirements. Routers on external DCN must support the OSI protocol stack. It is recommended that the channels of external DCN be provided by other networks (not a monitored network). If external DCN uses the channels provided by the data processing board, consider the risk when external DCN uses the service channels provided by a monitored network. Active and standby DCN routes or GNEs should be provided for external DCN.

Planning Guidelines for DCCs


l If the OptiX equipment is connected to the third-party equipment through SDH lines, it is recommended that you adopt the DCC bytes used by the third-party equipment (for example, D1-D3 or D4-D12) for DCCs. In PDH microwave frames, one or three DCC bytes are used for DCCs. In Hybrid microwave frames, three DCC bytes are used for DCCs. In the case of one LAPD link, it is recommended that you set the LAPD role to "network" for the NE closer to the NMS, and set the LAPD role to "user" for the NE further from the NMS.

l l l

4.8 Configuration Flow


The configuration of the OSI over DCC solution consists of two parts, that is, the configuration communications data at the peer end of the NE and the creation of the NE on the NMS. Table 4-3 Configuration flow for the OSI over DCC solution Step 1 Operation A.1.5 Changing NE IDs Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set ID to be the NE ID specified during the DCN planning. l If the extended NE ID specified during the DCN planning is required, change Extended ID.

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Step 2

Operation A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters

Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set NSAP Address according to the external DCN planning. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters.
NOTE When setting NSAP Address, you need to set only the area ID, and the other parts are automatically generated by the NE.

A.3.2 Configuring DCCs

Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Protocol Type of the SDH line port and microwave port on which the OSI over DCC is enabled to OSI. l Set LAPD Role at the ends of an LAPD link to Network and User. l Set Channel Type of the SDH line port to be consistent with that of the third-party equipment if the SDH line is used to connect the third-party equipment. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters.

A.3.8 Configuring the CLNS Role

Required when the CLNS role of the NE is set to L2. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Configuration Role to L2. In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values.
NOTE By default, the CLNS role of the NE is set to L1.

A.3.9 Querying OSI Tunnel

When the third-party transmission network that adopts the OSI over DCC solution needs to use the OptiX transmission network that adopts the IP over DCC solution to transparently transmit the NM message, the OSI tunnel needs to be set on the passthrough node. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Opposite IP to the IP address of another pass-through node. l Set LAPD Actor of the two pass-through nodes to Network and User.

A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC

Required for the NEs that are connected through the Ethernet NMS interface or the subtending ports. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Extended Mode to Specified Mode. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters.
NOTE This operation is performed to disable the automatic extended ECC function of the NE.

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Step

Operation

Description In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values.

A.3.12 Querying OSI Routes

In normal situations: l The L1 routing table of the L1 NE has the routes to all the NEs in the area. l The L1 routing table of the L2 NE has the routes to all the NEs in the area. The L2 routing table of the L2 NE has the routes to other L2 NEs.

NOTE

The Web LCT does not support the management of NEs through the OSI protocol. Therefore, only the U2000 can be used as the centralized NMS. For the information on how to create NEs on the U2000, see Feature Description (U2000).

4.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the OSI over DCC solution according to network conditions. 4.9.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about the NEs. 4.9.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring the NE data. 4.9.3 Configuration Process This topic describes the procedure for the data configuration.

4.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about the NEs. The OptiX wireless transmission equipment and the third-party wireless transmission equipment form the microwave transmission network, as shown in Figure 4-8. The total number of equipments on the network is more than 50. The third-party equipment supports only the OSI over DCC solution.

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Figure 4-8 Networking diagram

NE203 Third-party NMS OSI DCN Network cable NE201

NE204

NE103

NE101 NE102 NE202

Third-party equipment Radio link Fiber

OptiX equipment Network cable

4.9.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring the NE data. l The number of OptiX equipments and third-party equipments is more than 50. It is, however, recommended that the number of NEs in each area is equal to or smaller than 32. Therefore, the equipments are divided into two areas and four NEs on the bone network are selected as L2 NEs.

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Figure 4-9 Allocation of NE areas


AREA ID: 0x394F1200 Area 1

Third-party NMS L2 L2 L2 L2

OSI DCN NMS

AREA ID: 0x394F1190 Area 2

Third-party equipment Radio link Fiber

OptriX equipment Netw ork cable

l l l

Set the IDs of the NE101, NE102, and NE103 to 101, 102, and 103. Select NE101 that is the closest to the NMS as the GNE. DCC planning The third-party equipment uses D1-D3 bytes as the DCC channel. Therefore, the SDH line of the third-party equipment also uses D1-D3 bytes as the DCC channel. For an LAPD link, set the LAPD role of the NE that is the closest to the NMS to network and set the LAPD role at the other end to user.

4.9.3 Configuration Process


This topic describes the procedure for the data configuration.

Context
NOTE

In this configuration example, only the configuration information about the typical NEs, NE101, NE102, and NE103 is provided.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.1.5 Changing NE IDs and modify the NE ID. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows.
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Parameter

Value Range NE101 NE102 102 9 (default value) NE103 103 9 (default value)

New ID New Extended ID

101 9 (default value)

Step 2 See A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters and set the NE communication parameters. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE101 NSAP Address 394F1200 NE102 394F1200 NE103 394F1200

Step 3 See A.3.2 Configuring DCCs and configure the DCCs. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE101 Enabled/Disabled Channel Type Enabled (default value) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other line ports) Protocol Type LAPD Role OSI Network NE102 Enabled (default value) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other line ports) OSI User (port that is connected to NE101) Network (port that is connected to other NEs) NE103 Enabled (default value) D1 (default value of the PDH microwave port whose capacity is smaller than 16 E1s) D1-D3 (default values of other line ports) OSI User (port that is connected to NE101)

Step 4 See A.3.8 Configuring the CLNS Role and configure the CLNS role. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE101 Configuration Role
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NE103 L1 (default value)


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Step 5 See A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC and configure the extended ECC. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE103 ECC Extended Mode Port (on the server side) Opposite IP (on the client side) Port (on the client side) Specified mode 1601 (default value) 0.0.0.0 (default value) 1601 (default value)

Step 6 See A.3.12 Querying OSI Routes and query the OSI routes. The expected result is as follows: l On NE101, the routes of NE102 and NE103 can be viewed in the L1 routing table and the routes of NE102, NE201, and NE202 can be viewed in the L2 routing table. l On NE102, the routes of NE101 and NE103 can be viewed in the L1 routing table and the routes of NE101, NE201, and NE202 can be viewed in the L2 routing table. l On NE103, the routes of NE101 and NE103 can be viewed in the L1 routing table. ----End

4.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the OSI over DCC feature.

Related Tasks
A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method A.1.5 Changing NE IDs A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters A.3.2 Configuring DCCs A.3.8 Configuring the CLNS Role A.3.9 Querying OSI Tunnel A.3.12 Querying OSI Routes A.3.3 Configuring the Extended ECC

4.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


The OSI over DCC solution does not involve any alarm or event.

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4.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the OSI over DCC solution is used. Q: Compared with other solutions for communicating NM information, what advantages and disadvantages does the OSI over DCC solution have? A: The advantages are as follows: l The OSI over DCC solution applies the standard OSI protocol stack. With the OSI over DCC solution, the OptiX equipment easily interworks with third-party equipment and hence the network management is simplified. The OSI over DCC solution applies the transfer function of the network layer of the protocol stack. Hence, no extra overhead and service channel are needed. The OSI over DCC solution allows different vendors to multiplex the same physical channels. The NMS of a vendor need not be directly connected to the equipment of the vendor. The OSI over DCC function supports the automatic rerouting function and hence can protect the channel that transmits the management information.

l l l l

The disadvantages are as follows: l l The external DCN must use the router that supports the OSI protocol stack. In addition, the NM server need be installed with the OSI protocol stack software. The OSI network is not applied as wide as the TCP/IP network and there are not many OSIbased management tools.

Q: How does one use the OSI over DCC solution to interconnect the OptiX equipment with third-party equipment? A: The steps are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Check the DCC bytes used by DCCs with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment. Check the LAPD role and other LAPD parameters with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment. Check the protocol parameters of the network layer like the area ID in the NSAP address and the CLNS role with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment. Configure data according to the negotiated protocol parameters and the network planning. Query the link adjacency table at the NE that is interconnected to third-party equipment to check if there is an LAPD link to the interconnected NE. If no route is obtained, the LAPD protocol interconnection fails. 6. Query the OSI routes of the OptiX NE that is in the same area as third-party equipment to check if there are L1 routes to the interconnected NE and other third-party equipment. If third-party equipment is an L2 NE, it is necessary to query the OSI routes of the OptiX NE that is also an L2 NE to check if there is an L2 route to the third-party equipment. If no route is obtained, the interconnection of the network layer protocol fails.
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DCC Transparent Transmission Solution

About This Chapter


This chapter describes the DCC transparent transmission solution. 5.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of DCC transparent transmission and describes its purpose. 5.2 Specifications This section describes the specifications of DCC transparent transmission. 5.3 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the DCC transparent transmission solution and its dependency. 5.4 Principles This section describes the principles of the DCC transparent transmission solution. 5.5 Planning Guidelines Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan DCC transparent transmission. 5.6 Configuration Procedure The configuration of the DCC transparent transmission solution consists of two parts, namely, the configuration of communications data at the near end and the creation of NEs on the NMS. 5.7 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the DCC transparent transmission solution according to network conditions. 5.8 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the DCC transparent transmission feature. 5.9 Relevant Alarms and Events The DCC transparent transmission solution does not involve any alarm or event. 5.10 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the DCC transparent transmission solution is used.

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5.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of DCC transparent transmission and describes its purpose.

Definition
DCC transparent transmission is a DCN solution provided by Huawei. In this solution, different manufacturers' network management messages are translated by using different DCC bytes. In this manner, network management messages pass through a network that is composed of the OptiX equipment and the third-party SDH equipment. When DCC bytes are used to transparently transmit NM messages, there are two networking scenarios: l The OptiX equipment is at the edge of a network. In this networking scenario, there are two possibilities: The third-party equipment uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs. In this case, the OptiX equipment uses bytes D4 to D12 as DCCs. In addition, you need to add a route to transparently transmit bytes D4 to D12 in the transmission network of the third-party equipment. Figure 5-1 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is at the edge of a network (1)

D4-D12

D4-D12 D4-D12

D4-D12

OptiX equipment

Third-party equipment

The third-party equipment uses bytes D4 to D12 as DCCs. In this case, the OptiX equipment still uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs. In addition, you need to add a route to transparently transmit bytes D1 to D3 in the transmission network of the third-party equipment.

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Figure 5-2 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is at the edge of a network (2)

D1-D3

D1-D3 D1-D3

D1-D3

OptiX equipment

Third-party equipment

The OptiX equipment is in the center of a network. In this networking scenario, there are two possibilities: The third-party equipment uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs. In this case, the OptiX equipment uses bytes D4 to D12 as DCCs. In addition, you need to add a route to transparently transmit bytes D1 to D3.

Figure 5-3 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is in the center of a network (1)

D1-D3 D1-D3

D1-D3 D1-D3

OptiX equipment

Third-party equipment

The third-party equipment uses bytes D4 to D12 as DCCs. In this case, the OptiX equipment still uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs. In addition, you need to add a route to transparently transmit bytes D4 to D12.

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Figure 5-4 DCC transparent transmission solution when the OptiX equipment is in the center of a network (2)

D4-D12

D4-D12

D4-D12

D4-D12

OptiX equipment

Third-party equipment

Purpose
DCC transparent transmission is preferred as the DCN solution when the network is comprised of the OptiX equipment and the third-party SDH equipment that does not support IP over DCC or OSI over DCC.

5.2 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of DCC transparent transmission. The OptiX RTN 620 supports the following specifications of DCC transparent transmission. Table 5-1 Specifications of DCC transparent transmission Item Number of DCCs Specifications SDH radio supports 12 DCC bytes, that is, D1-D12. The equipment supports three modes: D1-D3, D4-D12, and D1-D12. An SDH path can transmit a channel of network management messages of the OptiX equipment and a channel of network management messages of the third-party equipment at the same time. l If the OptiX RTN 620 uses bytes D1-D3, the third-party equipment uses bytes D4D12 as DCCs. l If the OptiX RTN 620 uses bytes D4-D12, the third-party equipment uses bytes D1D3 as DCCs.

Capacity of DCC transparent transmission

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5.3 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the DCC transparent transmission solution and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 5-2 Hardware and version support Feature DCC transparent transmission Applicable Board SCC IF1A/IF1B IFX SL1/SD1 SLE/SDE SL4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
If you apply the DCC transparent transmission solution to communicate NM messages when the OptiX equipment is used together with third-party equipment to form a network, you can use any of the HWECC protocol stack, IP protocol stack, and OSI protocol stack to manage the OptiX equipment. It is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol stack.

5.4 Principles
This section describes the principles of the DCC transparent transmission solution. In the receive direction: 1. The line board extracts the overhead bytes such as DCC bytes from the received SDH signals, forms a 2.048 Mbit/s overhead signal stream, and sends the overhead signal stream to the overhead cross-connect matrix of the SCC board through the overhead bus. The overhead cross-connect matrix transports the DCC bytes that the NE uses to the CPU and directly transports the DCC bytes that are to be transparently transmitted, to the overhead bus of the corresponding line board. The CPU processes the NM messages carried by the DCC bytes according to the protocol stack of the DCCs.

2.

3.

In the transmit direction:

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1.

The CPU of the SCC board encapsulates the NM messages into the DCC bytes according to the protocol stack and transmits the DCC bytes to the overhead cross-connect matrix of the SCC board. The overhead cross-connect matrix combines the DCC bytes sent from the CPU and other overhead bytes (including the DCC bytes sent from the other line boards and orderwire bytes) to form a 2.048 Mbit/s overhead signal stream, and then transmits the overhead signal stream to the corresponding line board. The line board extracts the overhead signal from the overhead signal stream, inserts the overhead signal into the SDH signal, and sends the SDH signal to other NEs.

2.

3.

Figure 5-5 illustrates how an NE uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs to transparently transmit bytes D4 to D12. Figure 5-5 Realization principle of the DCC transparent transmission

D4-D12 Overhead crossconnect matrix D1-D3 CPU Line board SCC board Line board

SDH signal

Overhead bus

Overhead bus

SDH signal

5.5 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan DCC transparent transmission.
NOTE

This section describes the planning guidelines of DCC transparent transmission and the difference between HWECC and DCC transparent transmission. For the shared parts, such as the planning of GNEs and external DCN, see 2.7 Planning Guidelines in HWECC solution.

Planning Guidelines for DCCs


l l l l If the third-party equipment uses D1-D3 for DCCs, OptiX NEs use D4-D12 for DCCs. If the third-party equipment uses D4-D12 for DCCs, OptiX NEs use D1-D3 for DCCs. In PDH microwave frames, one or three DCC bytes are used for DCCs. In Hybrid microwave frames, three DCC bytes are used for DCCs.

Planning Guidelines for DCC Transparent Transmission Routes


l l Set a DCC transparent transmission route between pass-through nodes. Each node on the route transparently transmits the DCC bytes used by the third-party equipment. The Hybrid radio and PDH radio systems cannot transparently transmit the DCC bytes used by the third-party equipment.
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5.6 Configuration Procedure


The configuration of the DCC transparent transmission solution consists of two parts, namely, the configuration of communications data at the near end and the creation of NEs on the NMS. Table 5-3 Configuration flow for the DCC transparent transmission solution Step 1 Operation A.1.5 Changing NE IDs Remarks Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set ID to be the NE ID according to the planning of the DCN. l If the special extended ID is required for the NE according to the planning of the DCN, change Extended ID. 2 A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters Required. Set the parameters as follows: l For the GNE, set IP Address and Subnet Mask according to the planning of the external DCN. l For the GNE, set Gateway IP Address if the external DCN requires that the default gateway is configured for the NE. l For the non-GNE, it is recommended that you set IP Address to 0x81000000 + NE ID. That is, if the NE ID is 0x090001, set IP Address to 129.9.0.1. Set Subnet Mask to 255.255.0.0. 3 A.3.2 Configuring DCCs Required when the third-party equipment uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Channel Type of the SDH port to D4-D12. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters. In the other cases, all the parameters take the default values. 4 A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission When the OptiX NE needs to transparently transmit the DCC byte of the third-party equipment, configure the DCC byte of the third-party equipment to be transparently transmitted in the planned route through this operation. Perform this operation only on the GNE. In normal cases: l There is an ECC route between the GNE and each of its managed non-GNEs.

A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes

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Step 6

Operation Creating NEs on the centralize d NMS A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method

Remarks It is recommended that you create NEs on the centralized NMS by using this method when you need to add one or more NEs on a large-scale network.

In the other cases, this method is preferred.

NOTE

If the centralized NMS is U2000 instead of Web LCT, the NEs need to be created on the U2000. For the information on how to create NEs on the U2000, see the Feature Description (U2000).

5.7 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the DCC transparent transmission solution according to network conditions. 5.7.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about the NEs. 5.7.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains the information about all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 5.7.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

5.7.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about the NEs. In the networking diagram shown in Figure 5-6, the OptiX radio transmission equipment and the third-party SDH optical transmission equipment form an STM-1 ring network. The thirdparty equipment does not support the IP over DCC or OSI over DCC solution.

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Figure 5-6 Networking diagram of the DCC transparent transmission solution

NMS

NE1
Third-party NMS

NE2

NE4
OptiX equipment

NE3
Third-party transmission equipment

Ethernet link

Radio link

Fiber

5.7.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains the information about all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. l The networking is formed by the OptiX radio transmission equipment and the third-party SDH optical transmission equipment and the third-party equipment does not support the IP over DCC or OSI over DCC solution. Therefore, the DCC transparent transmission solution is used. Select NE1 that is closest to the NMS as GNE. Allocate IDs and IP addresses for all the NEs according to the situation of the network.

l l

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Figure 5-7 Allocation of IDs/IP addresses for all the NEs


NMS

10.0.0.100 9-1 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 9-2 129.9.0.2 0.0.0.0

NE1
Third-party NMS

NE2

9-4 129.9.0.4 0.0.0.0

9-3 129.9.0.3 0.0.0.0

NE4

NE3
Extended ID-Basic ID IP address Gatew ay

l l l

The third-party equipment uses bytes D1 to D3 as DCCs. Hence, the SDH line port and the SDH microwave port use bytes D4 to D12 as DCCs. The transparent transmission of the D1 to D3 bytes needs to be configured on NE1 to NE4. The transparent transmission of the D4 to D12 bytes needs to be configured on the thirdparty equipment.

5.7.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Context
NOTE

In this configuration example, only the configuration information about NE1 is provided.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.1.5 Changing NE IDs and change the NE ID. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows.

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Parameter

Value Range NE1

New ID New Extended ID

1 9 (default value)

Step 2 See A.3.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters and set the communication parameters of the NE. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 IP Address Gateway IP Address Subnet Mask 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 (default value) 255.255.0.0 (default value)

Step 3 See A.3.2 Configuring DCCs and configure the DCC. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range SDH Line Port on the Ring Enabled/Disabled Channel Type Protocol Type Enabled (default value) D4-D12 HWECC (default value) SDH Microwave Port on the Ring Enabled (default value) D4-D12 HWECC (default value)

Step 4 See A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission and configure the transparent transmission of the DCC byte. Parameter Source Timeslot/ Port Transparent Transmission of Overhead Bytes at Source Port Value Range Related parameter value of the SDH line port on the ring D1 Related parameter value of the SDH line port on the ring D2 Related parameter value of the SDH line port on the ring D3

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Parameter Sink Timeslot/Port

Value Range Related parameter value of the SDH microwave port on the ring D1 Related parameter value of the SDH microwave port on the ring D2 Related parameter value of the SDH microwave port on the ring D3

Transparent Transmission of Overhead Bytes at Sink Port

Step 5 See A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes and query the ECC route. The expected result is as follows: l The ECC routes to NE2, NE3, and NE4 can be queried on NE1. Step 6 See A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method and create NEs in the search mode on the centralized NMS. The search domains include the following: The search network segment when the IP address of the GNE is 10.0.0.1. In normal cases, all the NEs can be created on the centralized NMS. ----End

5.8 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the DCC transparent transmission feature.

Related Tasks
A.1.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method A.1.2 Creating NEs by Using the Manual Method A.3.2 Configuring DCCs A.3.4 Configuring DCC Transparent Transmission A.3.10 Querying ECC Routes

5.9 Relevant Alarms and Events


The DCC transparent transmission solution does not involve any alarm or event.

5.10 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the DCC transparent transmission solution is used.
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Q: Compared with other solutions for communicating NM information, what advantages and disadvantages does the DCC transparent transmission solution have? A: The advantages are as follows: l l The IP protocol stack or the OSI protocol stack need not be used. Therefore, a small amount of system resources are occupied. The configuration is simple.

The disadvantages are as follows: l l l The NMS of each vendor can be accessed to the DCN only through its own NE. Only DCC bytes can be transparently transmitted. The automatic rerouting function is weak.

Q: How can I use the DCC transparent transmission solution to interconnect the OptiX equipment with the third-party equipment? A: The steps are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Check the DCC bytes used by DCCs with the maintenance staff of third-party equipment to ensure that different vendors use different DCC bytes. Analyze the routes for DCC transparent transmission with the maintenance staff of thirdparty equipment. Configure data according to the negotiated results and the network planning. Query ECC routes at the GNE. If there are no routes to non-GNEs, the interconnection fails.

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6 DCC Transparent Transmission Through the External Clock Interface Solution

DCC Transparent Transmission Through the External Clock Interface Solution

About This Chapter


This chapter describes DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. 6.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface and describes its purpose. 6.2 Specifications This section describes the specifications of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. 6.3 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface and its dependency. 6.4 Principles This section describes the principles of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. 6.5 Planning Guidelines Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan DCC transparent transmission through external clock interfaces. 6.6 Configuration Procedure To configure the solution of transparently transmitting DCCs through the external clock interface, you need to perform other configuration operations in addition to configuring the HWECC solution. 6.7 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the DCC transparent transmission solution according to network conditions. 6.8 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface feature.
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6.9 Relevant Alarms and Events There is no related alarm or event for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution. 6.10 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution is used.

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6.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface and describes its purpose.

Definition
DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface is a DCN solution provided by Huawei. In this solution, DCC bytes are transmitted through the external clock interface that is connected to a specified E1 interface, and the third-party equipment considers the signals as common E1 services. There are two networking scenarios for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution: l Direct access mode An NE is directly connected to the third-party network through the external clock interface. Figure 6-1 provides a networking example of the direct access mode. In this example, the third-party network is a PDH network that provides E1 interfaces for the OptiX NEs at both ends. In this case, you can directly connect an E1 cable that connects to an external clock interface to the third-party network. The third-party network then transmits the E1 as an ordinary service. Thus, DCC bytes are transparently transmitted between the two NEs. A special application of the direct access mode is to use an E1 cable to directly connect the external clock interfaces of two OptiX NEs. Figure 6-1 Networking example for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution (direct access mode)
External clock interface DCC bytes E1 cable PDH network External clock interface DCC bytes E1 cable

Indirect access mode An NE is connected to the third-party network through a service interface. Figure 6-2 provides a networking example of the indirect access mode. In this example, the third-party network is an SDH/PDH hybrid network. PDH signals are transmitted on the transmission path although the network provides SDH optical interfaces for the OptiX NEs at both ends. In this case, first use an E1 cable to connect the external clock interface to an E1 port of an E1 tributary board, and then configure cross-connections between the E1 service and the line board. Thus, the E1 service is accessed to the third-party network through the SDH interface. The third-party network then transmits the E1 as an ordinary service. Thus, DCC bytes are transparently transmitted between the two NEs.

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Figure 6-2 Networking example for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution (indirect access mode)
External clock interface E1 port of a tributary unit DCC bytes SDH/PDH netw ork Fiber DCC bytes Fiber External clock interface E1 port of a tributary unit

Purpose
DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface is preferred as the DCN solution when the third-party network does not support the transmission of DCC bytes but supports the transmission of E1 services.

6.2 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. The OptiX RTN 620 supports the following specifications of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. Table 6-1 Specifications of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface Item Number of external clock interfaces Specifications Each PXC board can support one external clock interface. The OptiX RTN 620 can house up to two PXC boards. The external clock interface can be used to one of the following three functions: l Transmit external clock signals l Transmit wayside E1 services l Transparently transmit overhead bytes, including DCC bytes, synchronous/ asynchronous data overhead bytes, and orderwire overhead bytes. Only the external clock interface of the active PXC board cab be used to transmit the DCC bytes. Specifications of external clock interfaces Compliant with ITU-T G.703. the impedance is 75 ohms.

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6.3 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 6-2 Hardware and version support Feature DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface Applicable Board SCC PXC Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
If you apply the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution to communicate NM messages when the OptiX equipment is used together with third-party equipment to form a network, you can use any of the HWECC protocol stack, IP protocol stack, and OSI protocol stack to manage the OptiX equipment. It is recommended that you use the HWECC protocol stack.

6.4 Principles
This section describes the principles of DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. In the receive direction: 1. The PXC board transmits the E1 service received on the external clock interface as 2.048 Mbit/s overhead signals to the overhead cross-connect matrix of the SCC board through the overhead bus. The overhead cross-connect matrix transports the DCC bytes that the NE uses to the CPU. The CPU processes the NM messages carried by the DCC bytes according to the protocol stack of the DCCs.

2. 3.

In the transmit direction: 1. The CPU of the SCC board encapsulates the NM messages into the DCC bytes according to the protocol stack and transmits the DCC bytes to the overhead cross-connect matrix of the SCC board. The overhead cross-connect matrix combines the DCC bytes sent from the CPU and other overhead bytes (such as the overhead bytes used by orderwire services and synchronous/ asynchronous data services) to form a 2.048 Mbit/s overhead signal stream, and then transmits the overhead signal stream to the external clock interface.
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3.

The external clock interface transmits the 2.048 Mbit/s overhead signals as an E1 service to the third-party network.

Figure 6-3 illustrates how an NE transparently transmits DCC bytes through the external clock interface. In this example, DCC bytes D1 to D3 carry the NM messages. Figure 6-3 Realization principle of the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface
External clock interface Overhead bus PXC board

Overhead crossconnect matrix D1-D3 CPU

SCC board

6.5 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain planning guidelines when you plan DCC transparent transmission through external clock interfaces. l l l l When the OptiX equipment is interconnected with a third-party network through E1 interfaces, adopt the direct access mode. When the OptiX equipment is interconnected with a network through other service interfaces, adopt the indirect access mode. Any two NEs that use a third-party network to transparently transmit DCC bytes must use the same DCC bytes. It is recommended that the NEs use D1-D3. In indirect access mode, plan the SDH timeslots for E1 services according to the negotiation result between OptiX NEs and a third-party network.

6.6 Configuration Procedure


To configure the solution of transparently transmitting DCCs through the external clock interface, you need to perform other configuration operations in addition to configuring the HWECC solution.

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Table 6-3 Procedure for configuring the solution of transparently transmitting DCCs through the external clock interface Step 1 Operation A.3.2 Configuring DCCs Remarks Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Enabled/Disabled of the used external clock interface to Enabled. l Adopt the default values for the other parameters. 2 A.7.1 Creating CrossConnections of Pointto-Point Services In the case of indirect access, perform this operation to set up the point-to-point cross-connection between the E1 port to which the external interface is connected and the specific timeslot of the port on the SDH line board. This port on the SDH line board is used to interconnect with the third-party equipment. The specific timeslot is used to transparently transmit the NM messages.

6.7 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure the DCC transparent transmission solution according to network conditions. 6.7.1 Networking Diagram The section describes the networking information about the NEs. 6.7.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring the NE data. 6.7.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

6.7.1 Networking Diagram


The section describes the networking information about the NEs. Figure 6-4 shows a transmission network that is comprised of the OptiX equipment and thirdparty equipment. The third-party network provides NE1 with SDH optical interfaces and provides NE2 with E1 interfaces.

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Figure 6-4 Networking example for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution

NE1 NMS

NE2

NE3

NE4

OptiX equipment

Third-party equipment

Network cable Radio link

E1 cable Fiber

6.7.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring the NE data. l l l l l Because NE1 is connected to the third-party equipment through the SDH line, the indirect connection mode is adopted. Because NE2 is connected to the third-party equipment through E1 interfaces, the direct connection mode is adopted. NE1 and NE2 use bytes D1 to D3 to transmit NM messages. In NE1, connect the external clock interface to E1 port 1 (4-PH1-1 port) on the PH1 board in slot 4. According to the negotiation result with the third-party equipment, use the first VC-12 timeslot of SL1 in slot 6 (6-SL1-1 port) of the control, switch, and clock board on NE1 to transparently transmit the network management messages of the OptiX equipment.

6.7.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Context
NOTE

l In this configuration example, only the configuration information about typical NEs (NE1 and NE2) is provided. l In this configuration example, only the configurations different from the HWECC solution are provided.

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Procedure
Step 1 See A.3.2 Configuring DCCs and configure the DCC channel. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range External Clock Interface (NE1) Enabled/Disabled Channel Type Protocol Type Enabled D1-D3 (default value) HWECC (default value) External Clock Interface (NE2) Enabled D1-D3 (default value) HWECC (default value)

Step 2 See A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services and create the crossconnection of the point-to-point service for NE1. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 Level Direction Source Slot Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Slot Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) VC-12 (default value) Bidirectional (default value) 4-PH1 1 6-SL1 1 1

----End

6.8 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface feature.

Related Tasks
A.3.2 Configuring DCCs A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services

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6.9 Relevant Alarms and Events


There is no related alarm or event for the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution.

6.10 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution is used. Q: Which of the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution and the extended ECC solution is used to transfer NM messages between two NEs when the two NEs are installed back-to-back? A: When the distance between the two NEs is within the transmission range of a network cable (the maximum transmission distance of a network cable is within the range from 50 meters to 100 meters), use the extended ECC solution, that is, use a network cable to connect the Ethernet NM ports or NE cascading ports of the two NEs. When the distance between the two NEs exceeds the maximum transmission distance of a network cable but is less than the transmission distance of an E1 cable (the maximum transmission distance of an E1 cable is 300 meters), use the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution. This is because the extended ECC consumes much less system resources than the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface. Q: Can the external clock interface be used to transparently transmit orderwire overhead bytes when the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution is already applied? A: Yes, the external clock interface can be used to transparently transmit orderwire bytes when the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution is already applied. This is because the DCC bytes occupy only certain timeslots of the E1 service that is transmitted by the external clock interface. Hence, the other timeslots of the E1 service can be used to transparently transmit the overhead bytes used by orderwire calls, asynchronous data interface services, and synchronous data interface services. Q: Why does the configuration of the DCC transparent transmission through the external clock interface solution fail? A: Common causes are as follows: l l The external clock source or the working mode for outputting the external clock is modified to 2 MHz. The wayside E1 service is configured.

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7 1+1 HSB

7
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the 1+1 hot standby (HSB) feature. 7.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with 1+1 HSB. 7.3 Specifications This section provides the specifications of 1+1 HSB.

1+1 HSB

7.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of 1+1 HSB and describes its purpose.

7.4 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the 1+1 HSB feature and its dependency. 7.5 Principles The switching principle of SDH/PDH radio 1+1 HSB is different from the switching principle of Hybrid radio 1+1 HSB. 7.6 Planning Guidelines Follow certain principles when you plan 1+1 HSB. 7.7 Configuration Procedure When configuring a radio link with 1+1 HSB, you need to configure a 1+1 IF protection group and then configure IF/ODU information. 7.8 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure 1+1 HSB according to network conditions. 7.9 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with 1+1 HSB. 7.10 Relevant Alarms and Events When a 1+1 HSB switching occurs on IF boards, the system reports corresponding alarms and abnormal events. 7.11 FAQs
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This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when 1+1 HSB is used.

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7.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of 1+1 HSB and describes its purpose.

Definition
1+1 HSB is a configuration mode of 1+1 protection. In 1+1 HSB mode, the equipment provides 1+1 hot standby configuration for the IF boards and ODUs at both ends of each hop of radio link. Figure 7-1 shows the application of 1+1 HSB. If NE2 detects that a certain device on the main channel is faulty (the fault point can be an ODU or an IF board), NE2 switches to the standby channel to receive services. Figure 7-1 1+1 HSB protection
Before the Switching Main channel MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM Standby channel Tx Rx Tx Rx MODEM MODEM Rx Tx Main channel Rx Tx MODEM MODEM Service Service

Standby channel

NE1
After the Switching Main channel MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM Standby channel Tx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx

NE2

Main channel Rx Tx MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM

Standby channel

NE1
Change spot

NE2
fault equipment

Purpose
A radio link configured with 1+1 HSB has a higher reliability than a radio link configured with 1+0 non-protection.

7.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with 1+1 HSB.
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7.2.1 System Configuration 1+1 HSB requires specific system configuration. 7.2.2 Protection Type The 1+1 HSB protection is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. 7.2.3 Switching Condition The switching priority varies with the switching condition. 7.2.4 Switching Impact Within the 1+1 HSB switching time (less than 500 ms), the service is interrupted.

7.2.1 System Configuration


1+1 HSB requires specific system configuration.

Typical Configuration of SDH/PDH Radio 1+1 HSB


One 1+1 HSB protection group uses one channel and consists of the following items: l l l Two IF boards that are of the same type Two ODUs that are of the same type One antenna (equipped with one hybrid coupler)
NOTE

l The IF board can be the IF0A board, IF0B board, IF1A board, IF1B board, IFH2 board or IFX board. l The hybrid coupler can be balanced or unbalanced. Generally, the unbalanced hybrid coupler is used.

Figure 7-2 shows a typical configuration of one SDH/PDH radio 1+1 HSB protection group on the OptiX RTN 620.

Figure 7-2 Typical configuration of 1+1 HSB (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

ODU

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT EXT EXT PH1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

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Typical Configuration of Hybrid Radio 1+1 HSB


One 1+1 HSB protection group uses one channel and consists of the following items: l l l l Two IF boards that are of the same type One EMS6 board or EFP6 board Two ODUs that are of the same type One antenna (equipped with one hybrid coupler)
NOTE

l The type of the IF board is IFH2. l The hybrid coupler can be balanced or unbalanced. Generally, the unbalanced hybrid coupler is used.

Figure 7-3 shows a typical configuration of one Hybrid radio 1+1 HSB protection group on the OptiX RTN 620. Figure 7-3 Typical configuration of 1+1 HSB (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Hybrid coupler

Antenna To the external equipment

ODU

Network cable
Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

EMS6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

ODU

To the external PDH networking Hybrid coupler Antenna Network cable

ODU

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EFP6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

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7.2.2 Protection Type


The 1+1 HSB protection is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. l Revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE releases the switching and returns to the normal state if the former working channel is restored to normal for a certain period. The period from the time when the former working channel is restored to normal to the time when the NE releases the switching is called the wait-to-restore (WTR) time. To prevent frequent switching events because the former working channel is not stable, it is recommended that you set the WTR time to 5 to 12 minutes. l Non-revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE remains the current state unchanged unless another switching event occurs even though the former working channel is restored to normal.
NOTE

The reverse switching always uses the non-revertive mode. That is, although both the main and standby equipment are normal, the system does not switch back to the main equipment after the reverse switching occurs.

7.2.3 Switching Condition


The switching priority varies with the switching condition. Table 7-1 Trigger conditions of the 1+1 HSB switching Switching Condition Clear switching (external switching) Priority From top downwards, the priority is from the highest to the lowest. Description All external switching states are cleared.
NOTE In revertive mode, the service is switched to the main IF board after the clear switching operation is performed.

Lockout of protection (external switching)

In any state, the switching changes to the lockout state. In the lockout state, no switching occurs until the lockout of protection is cleared.

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Switching Condition Forced switching (external switching)

Priority

Description If the switching is in the lockout state, no forced switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the main board to the standby board or from the standby board to the main board according to the command. The switching then changes to the forced switching state. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no HSB switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the current main board to the standby board. The switching then changes to the automatic switching state. For the trigger conditions of the automatic switching, refer to Table 7-2.

Fault on the main equipment

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Switching Condition Reverse switching (valid only when the reverse switching is enabled)

Priority

Description When both the main IF board and the standby IF board at the sink end report service alarms, they send the alarms to the source end by using the MWRDI overhead in the microwave frame. If the source end is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no reverse switching occurs. Otherwise, the HSB switching occurs at the source end after the reverse switching timer expires. The reverse switching timer restarts after you successfully add a protection group or if an HSB switching event occurs. The timer duration is the WTR time (in revertive mode) or 5 minutes (in nonrevertive mode). After the reverse switching, the switching changes to the RDI state. If the switching is in the lockout, forced switching, or RDI state, or if the standby equipment is faulty, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the main board to the standby board or from the standby board to the main board according to the command. The switching then changes to the manual switching state.

Manual switching (external switching)

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Switching Condition Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

Priority

Description When the switching is in the automatic switching state and the main equipment is already restored to normal for the WTR time, the revertive switching occurs. From the time when the main equipment is restored to normal to the time when the revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching changes to the normal state.

Table 7-2 Trigger conditions of the automatic 1+1 HSB switching Switching Condition Hardware fault on the IF board Hardware fault on the ODU POWER_ALM VOLT_LOS (IF board) RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW RADIO_RSL_HIGH IF_INPWR_ABN CONFIG_NOSUPPORT R_LOC R_LOF R_LOS (IF0A, IF0B, IF1A, IF1B, IFX) MW_LOF XPIC_LOS (IFX) Fault on the IF connection cable Priority At the same priority

7.2.4 Switching Impact


Within the 1+1 HSB switching time (less than 500 ms), the service is interrupted.
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7.3 Specifications
This section provides the specifications of 1+1 HSB. Table 7-3 lists the specifications of 1+1 HSB. Table 7-3 Specifications of 1+1 HSB Item Radio type Specification SDH/PDH radio Hybrid radio Number of protection groups Switching time Protection type 1 to 2 < 500 ms Revertive mode Non-revertive mode WTR time Reverse switching Restriction on the available slot of the IF board 5 to 12 minutes Supported No restriction

7.4 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the 1+1 HSB feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version


Table 7-4 Hardware and version support Feature 1+1 HSB Applicable Board IF0A IF0B IF1A IF1B IFH2 IFX Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R003 and later V100R002 and later

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Feature Dependency
l The configuration mode of 1+1 protection in one direction can only be 1+1 HSB, 1+1 FD, or 1+1 SD. The configuration mode in one direction can be different from that in another direction. The two IP boards in an XPIC group cannot be configured into one 1+1 HSB protection group. However, these boards can be configured into two 1+1 HSB protection groups with the two IF boards in another XPIC group in the same polarization direction. The members of the 1+1 HSB protection group cannot participate in the N+1 protection. The radio link with 1+1 HSB configuration can function as the working source, protection source, or service sink of SNCP. The AM function can be enabled in the case of 1+1 HSB Hybrid radio links.

l l l

7.5 Principles
The switching principle of SDH/PDH radio 1+1 HSB is different from the switching principle of Hybrid radio 1+1 HSB. 7.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching by dually transmitting and selectively receiving TDM services. 7.5.2 Hybrid Radio The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching on the TDM plane by dually transmitting and selectively receiving TDM services; the packet switching unit implements HSB switching on the packet plane through LAG switching.

7.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio


The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching by dually transmitting and selectively receiving TDM services.

Before the Switching


Figure 7-4 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)
Main ODU Main Cross-connect IF board board Service board

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

In the transmit direction:


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1. 2. 3. 4.

The service interface unit transmits the received service signal to the cross-connect unit. The cross-connect unit transmits the service signal to both the main IF board and the standby IF board. The main IF board and the standby IF board send the processed IF analog signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU transmits the RF signal to the hybrid coupler, which sends the RF signal to the antenna. The standby ODU is muted (that is, the standby ODU does not transmit the RF signal).

Figure 7-5 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)
Main ODU Main Cross-connect IF board board Service board

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

In the receive direction: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The hybrid coupler splits the RF signal received from the antenna into two signals and sends them to the main ODU and the standby ODU. The main ODU and the standby ODU send the processed IF analog signal to the main IF board and the standby IF board respectively. The main IF board and the standby IF board send the service signal to the cross-connect unit. The cross-connect unit selects the service signal from the main IF board and transmits the service signal to the service interface unit. The service interface unit sends the service signal to other equipment.

After the Switching


Figure 7-6 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Main ODU Main Cross-connect IF board board Service board

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

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Figure 7-7 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)
Main ODU Main Cross-connect IF board board Service board

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

After the 1+1 HSB switching: l l In the receive direction, the cross-connect unit selects the service signal from the standby IF board. In the transmit direction, the standby ODU outputs the RF signal to the hybrid coupler, which sends the RF signal to the antenna; the main ODU is muted (that is, the main ODU does not transmit the RF signal).
NOTE

The actions involved in the 1+1 HSB protection switching occur on the faulty NE. These actions do not occur on the normal NE.

7.5.2 Hybrid Radio


The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching on the TDM plane by dually transmitting and selectively receiving TDM services; the packet switching unit implements HSB switching on the packet plane through LAG switching.

Before the Switching


Figure 7-8 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)
Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Hybrid coupler Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

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In the transmit direction: 1. 2. 3. The service interface unit multiplexes the received E1 service signal into the VC-4 and then sends the VC-4 to the cross-connect unit. The cross-connect unit transmits the E1 service signal contained in the VC-4 to the main IF board and the standby IF board. The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkUp state, whereas the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkDown state. The Ethernet board EMS6 transmits the Ethernet service to the Ethernet service port of the main IF board through the LAG function. The MUX unit of the main IF board multiplexes the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal into the Hybrid microwave frame. The Hybrid microwave frame multiplexed by the MUX unit of the standby IF board does not contain the Ethernet service signal. The IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by their corresponding IF board and modulate the Hybrid microwave frame into the IF analog signal. Then, the IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board send the IF analog signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU transmits the RF signal to the hybrid coupler, which sends the RF signal to the antenna. The standby ODU is muted (that is, the standby ODU does not transmit the RF signal).
NOTE

4.

5.

6.

The switching method of Hybrid radio services on the EFP6 board is the same as the switching mode of Hybrid radio services on the EMS6 board.

Figure 7-9 1+1 HSB realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)
Main ODU Hybrid coupler Antenna Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

In the receive direction: 1. 2. 3. The hybrid coupler splits the RF signal received from the antenna into two signals and sends them to the main ODU and the standby ODU. The main ODU and the standby ODU send the processed IF analog signal to the main IF board and the standby IF board respectively. The main IF board and the standby IF board demodulate the Hybrid frame from the IF signal.
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4.

The MUX units of the main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid microwave frame that is demodulated by their corresponding IF board and then separate the Hybrid microwave frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. After being multiplexed into the VC-4, the E1 service signal is transmitted to the crossconnect unit. The Ethernet service signal is transmitted to the GE link on the IF board. The cross-connect unit selects the E1 service signal that is separated by the main IF board and then cross-connects the E1 service signal to the corresponding service interface unit. The EMS6 board receives the Ethernet service signal from the main IF board because the Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkUp state whereas the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkDown state.

5. 6. 7.

After the Switching


Figure 7-10 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Main ODU Hybrid coupler Antenna Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

Figure 7-11 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)
Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Hybrid coupler Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

After the 1+1 HSB switching:


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In the receive direction: The analog IF signal received at the standby IF board is separated into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal by the MUX unit. The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkDown state and the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkUp state. The cross-connect board and the EMS6 board receive the service signal from the standby IF board. In the transmit direction: The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkDown state and the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkUp state. The IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board modulate the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the MUX unit of their corresponding IF board into the analog IF signal. The main IF board and the standby IF board send the analog IF signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU. The standby ODU transmits the RF signal to the hybrid coupler, which sends the RF signal to the antenna. The main ODU is muted (that is, the main ODU does not transmit the RF signal).
NOTE

The actions involved in the 1+1 HSB protection switching occur on the faulty NE. These actions do not occur on the normal NE.

7.6 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain principles when you plan 1+1 HSB. Plan the parameters relevant to the protection configuration. l If the protection is in the revertive mode, set the WTR time to a value, which ranges from five minutes to twelve minutes. It is recommended that you set the default value to ten minutes. It is recommended that you disable reverse switching to avoid incorrect switching actions. In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, although the 1+1 HSB protection has no restriction on the slot of the IF board, it is recommended that you install a pair of main and standby IF boards in slots 5 and 7 (the IF board in slot 5 is the main board) or in slots 6 and 8 (the IF board in slot 6 is the main board).

l l

7.7 Configuration Procedure


When configuring a radio link with 1+1 HSB, you need to configure a 1+1 IF protection group and then configure IF/ODU information. Table 7-5 Configuration procedure of 1+1 HSB Step 1 Operation A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link Description When configuring a radio link with 1+1 HSB, you need to configure IF and ODU information for the working radio link only. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.

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Step 2

Operation A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces

Description The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.

NOTE

You need to configure a load non-sharing and revertive LAG. For details on the configuration procedure, see Configuration Procedure of the LAG feature.

7.8 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure 1+1 HSB according to network conditions.
NOTE

This section considers creating 1+1 HSB radio links by using the IFU2 boards as an example. If you use the IF0A, IF0B, IF1A, IF1B, or IFX2 boards, the method of configuring 1+1 HSB is the same. The only difference is with regard to the IF parameter settings. For details, see the corresponding parameter description.

7.8.1 Networking Diagram The section describes the networking information about the NEs. 7.8.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 7.8.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

7.8.1 Networking Diagram


The section describes the networking information about the NEs. To ensure the reliable transmission of services on a hop of radio link constructed by OptiX RTN 620s, you need to configure 1+1 HSB for the radio link between NE1 and NE2, as shown in Figure 7-12. Figure 7-12 1+1 HSB protection networking diagram

NE2

NE1

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7.8.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. l Plan the slots of the working board and the protection board. Plan the slots for the working board and the protection board based on the board configurations. To be specific, the IF board in slot 5 functions as the working board, and the IF board in slot 7 functions as the protection board. l Plan the protection group parameters. The 1+1 protection mode is HSB protection mode, which provides protection for the equipment. All parameters take default values unless otherwise specified. It is recommended that the reverse switching function be disabled to prevent inappropriate switchings. l Plan the radio link information. The radio link information is determined according to the network planning. The parameters are listed in the following table.
NOTE

In the case of radio links configured with HSB, one protection group maps one link. You only need to configure the IF/ODU information on the active equipment.

Table 7-6 IF planning information Parameter NE1 5-IFH2 Link ID Channel spacing (MHz) AM enabling AM guaranteed capacity mode AM full capacity mode E1 capacity ATPC status 101 28 Enabled QPSK 128QAM 16 Disabled NE2 5-IFH2 101 28 Enabled QPSK 128QAM 16 Disabled

Table 7-7 RF planning information Parameter NE1 15-ODU Transmit frequency (MHz) T/R spacing (MHz)
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NE2 15-ODU 14510 420


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Parameter

NE1 15-ODU

NE2 15-ODU 10 -45 unmute

Transmit power (dBm) Receive power (dBm) Transmission status

10 -45 unmute

7.8.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 Working Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time (s) Enable Reverse Switching Working Board Protection Board HSB Revertive mode (default value) 600 seconds (default value) Enabled (default value) 5-IFH2 7-IFH2 NE2 HSB Revertive mode (default value) 600 seconds (default value) Enabled (default value) 5-IFH2 7-IFH2

Step 2 A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. The values of the IF board parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 5-IFH2 AM Enable Status IF Channel Bandwidth Modulation Mode of the Assured AM Capacity Enabled 28M QPSK NE2 5-IFH2 Enabled 28M QPSK

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Parameter

Value Range NE1 5-IFH2 NE2 5-IFH2 128QAM 16 101 Disabled

Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity E1 Capacity Link ID ATPC Enable Status

128QAM 16 101 Disabled

Step 3 A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces. The values of the ODU parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 15-ODU TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing(MHZ) TX Power(dBm) Power to Be Received(dBm) TX Status 14930 420 10 -45 Unmute NE2 15-ODU 14510 420 10 -45 Unmute

----End

7.9 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with 1+1 HSB.

Related Tasks
A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.13 Querying the IF 1+1 Protection Status A.5.15 Performing IF 1+1 Protection Switching

7.10 Relevant Alarms and Events


When a 1+1 HSB switching occurs on IF boards, the system reports corresponding alarms and abnormal events.
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Relevant Alarms
RPS_INDI The RPS_INDI alarm indicates the microwave protection switching.

Relevant Abnormal Events


IF 1+1 protection switching IF 1+1 protection switching: This abnormal event indicates that the IF 1+1 protection switching occurs.

7.11 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when 1+1 HSB is used. Q: During the configuration of the 1+1 HSB protection, is it necessary to configure the IF interface of the standby IF board and the ODU interface of the standby ODU? A: It is unnecessary. The system automatically copies the data of the main IF board and the main ODU. Therefore, you need to ensure that Configure Transmission Status is set to Unmute for both the main ODU and the standby ODU on the NMS. Q: Why does the configuration of the 1+1 HSB protection fail? A: Common causes are as follows: l l The IF board and the corresponding ODU that form the 1+1 HSB protection are not included in the slot layout. The standby IF board is configured with services.

Q: In the revertive mode, why does the switching fail to restore after the switching enters the RDI state? A: The revertive mode is invalid for the reverse switching. That is, although both the active and standby equipment are normal, the system does not switch the new standby equipment to active after a reverse switching. Q: When radio links work as ECC links, why is the NMS unable to receive the abnormal HSB switching event of the non-gateway NE? A: When an HSB switching occurs, the ECC needs to reroute. As a result, the ECC between the gateway NE and the non-gateway NE is transiently interrupted and the switching event cannot be reported. Q: When the main ODU is configured with the 1+1 HSB protection, why is the equipment not switched when a switching event is reported after the main ODU reports a configuration alarm? A: In the case of the 1+1 HSB protection group, the system automatically copies the data of the main ODU to the standby ODU. Hence, when the main ODU reports a configuration alarm, the standby ODU also reports the same configuration alarm. As both the main and the standby ODUs
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report a configuration alarm, no switching occurs in the equipment. To notify the user that the ODU configuration is abnormal, however, the system reports a switching event. Q: What points should be noted before the deletion of a 1+1 HSB protection group? A: Before the deletion of a 1+1 HSB protection group, first ensure that the standby ODU is muted. Otherwise, the signal emitted by the standby ODU interferes with the signal of the main ODU. Q: What methods should be used to handle a 1+1 HSB protection switching failure? A: If the 1+1 HSB switching fails, check whether the protection groups are correctly configured, and then check whether the standby devices (including ODUs and IF boards) and standby radio link are normal. Exclude the fault that the RSL is low because of signal interference and antenna unalignment.

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8
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) feature. 8.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of 1+1 FD and describes its purpose. 8.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with 1+1 FD. 8.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of 1+1 FD.

1+1 FD

8.4 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the 1+1 FD feature and its dependency. 8.5 Principles The switching principle of SDH/PDH radio 1+1 FD is different from the switching principle of Hybrid radio 1+1 FD. 8.6 Planning Guidelines Follow certain principles when you plan 1+1 FD. 8.7 Configuration Procedure When configuring a radio link under 1+1 FD protection, you need to configure a 1+1 IF protection group and then configure IF/ODU information. 8.8 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure 1+1 FD according to network conditions. 8.9 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with 1+1 FD. 8.10 Relevant Alarms and Events When a 1+1 FD switching occurs on IF boards, the system reports corresponding alarms and abnormal events. 8.11 FAQs
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This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when 1+1 FD is used.

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8.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of 1+1 FD and describes its purpose.

Definition
1+1 FD is a configuration mode of 1+1 protection. In 1+1 FD protection mode, the system uses two channels that have a frequency spacing between them, to transmit and receive the same service signals. The opposite end selects a signal from the two received signals. With 1+1 FD protection, the impact of fading on signal transmission is reduced. Figure 8-1 shows the application of 1+1 FD. When NE2 detects that the quality of the signal at frequency F1 on the main channel is degraded, NE2 switches to the standby channel to receive the signal at frequency F2. Figure 8-1 1+1 FD protection
Before the Switching Main channel MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM Standby channel Tx Rx Rx Tx Main channel Rx MODEM MODEM Service Service

F1

F1

Tx

F2

F2

Tx Rx

MODEM MODEM

Standby channel

NE1
After the Switching Main channel MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM Standby channel Tx Rx Rx Tx

NE2

Main channel Rx MODEM MODEM Service Service

F1

F1

Tx

F2

F2

Tx Rx

MODEM MODEM

Standby channel

NE1
Change spot

NE2

In the case of the 1+1 FD protection, the main channel and the standby channel of the receive end receive RF signals at different frequencies from the transmit end respectively. Microwave signals at different frequencies are affected by spatial fading. Hence, when the quality of the microwave signal received on the main channel is degraded, bit errors occur in the service on the main channel. The service unit then selects the service signal on the standby channel to protect the service. In addition, the 1+1 FD protection supports 1+1 HSB protection switching.

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Purpose
A radio link configured with 1+1 FD has a higher anti-fading capability and reliability than a radio link configured with 1+0 non-protection.

8.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with 1+1 FD. 8.2.1 System Configuration 1+1 FD requires specific system configuration. 8.2.2 Protection Type The 1+1 FD protection is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. 8.2.3 Switching Conditions The 1+1 FD protection supports two types of switching, namely, HSB switching and HSM switching. The two types of switching are triggered by different conditions. 8.2.4 Switching Impact In the case of the HSB switching, the services are interrupted within the HSB switching time (shorter than 500 ms). In the case of the HSM switching, the service is not affected because it is the hitless switching, when the AM function is enabled, the standby channel works in the modulation mode for ensuring capacity after the HSM switching. Hence, the service of a low priority may be damaged.

8.2.1 System Configuration


1+1 FD requires specific system configuration.

Typical Configuration of SDH/PDH Radio 1+1 FD


One 1+1 FD protection group uses two channels and consists of the following items: l l l Two IF boards that are of the same type Two ODUs One antenna (equipped with one balanced hybrid coupler) or two antennas
NOTE

l The IF board can be the IF0A board, IF0B board, IF1A board, IF1B board, IFX board, or IFH2 board. l If the two transmit frequencies used by the FD configuration are within the frequency combining range of one hybrid coupler, use one antenna that is equipped with one balanced hybrid coupler. Otherwise, use two antennas.

Figure 8-2 and Figure 8-3 show two typical configurations of one SDH/PDH radio 1+1 FD protection group on the OptiX RTN 620.

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Figure 8-2 Typical configuration 1 of 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

ODU

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT EXT EXT PH1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

Figure 8-3 Typical configuration 2 of 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Antenna

ODU

Antenna
Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

EXT EXT EXT PH1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

Typical Configuration of Hybrid Radio 1+1 FD


One 1+1 FD protection group uses two channels and consists of the following items: l l l
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Two IF boards that are of the same type One EMS6 board or EFP6 board Two ODUs
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One antenna (equipped with one balanced hybrid coupler) or two antennas
NOTE

l The type of the IF board is IFH2. l If the two transmit frequencies used by the FD configuration are within the frequency combining range of one hybrid coupler, use one antenna that is equipped with one balanced hybrid coupler. Otherwise, use two antennas.

Figure 8-4 and Figure 8-5 show two typical configurations of a Hybrid radio 1+1 FD protection group constructed by EMS6 boards and EFP6 boards on the OptiX RTN 620. Figure 8-4 Typical configuration 1 of one 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Hybrid coupler

Antenna To the external equipment

ODU

Network cable
Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

EMS6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

ODU

To the external PDH networking Hybrid coupler Antenna Network cable

ODU

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EFP6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

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Figure 8-5 Typical configuration 2 of 1+1 FD (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Antenna

ODU

Antenna

Network cable

To the external equipment


Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EMS6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

ODU

Antenna To the external PDH networking

ODU

Antenna

Network cable

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EFP6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

8.2.2 Protection Type


The 1+1 FD protection is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. l Revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE releases the switching and returns to the normal state if the former working channel is restored to normal for a certain period. The period from the time when the former working channel is restored to normal to the time when the NE releases the switching is called the WTR time. To prevent frequent switching
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events because the former working channel is not stable, it is recommended that you set the WTR time to 5 to 12 minutes. l Non-revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE remains the current state unchanged unless another switching event occurs even though the former working channel is restored to normal.
NOTE

The revertive mode and non-revertive mode are only associated with HSB switchings (switchings on the equipment side). After an HSM switching on the channel side, a revertive switching is performed regularly on the IF board, regardless of the revertive mode.

8.2.3 Switching Conditions


The 1+1 FD protection supports two types of switching, namely, HSB switching and HSM switching. The two types of switching are triggered by different conditions.

Trigger Conditions of the HSB Switching


The HSB switching occurs on the equipment side. The equipment-side switching has the same switching action and switching impact as the 1+1 HSB switching but is triggered by different conditions. Table 8-1 Trigger conditions of the 1+1 FD HSB switching Switching Condition Clear switching (external switching) Priority From top downwards, the priority is from the highest to the lowest. Description All external switching states are cleared.
NOTE In revertive mode, the service is switched to the main IF board after the clear switching operation is performed.

Lockout of protection (external switching)

In any state, the switching changes to the lockout state. In the lockout state, no switching occurs until the lockout of protection is cleared. If the switching is in the lockout state, no forced switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the main board to the standby board or from the standby board to the main board according to the command. The switching then changes to the forced switching state.
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Forced switching (external switching)

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Switching Condition Fault on the main equipment

Priority

Description If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no HSB switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the current main board to the standby board. The switching then changes to the automatic switching state. For the trigger conditions of the automatic switching, refer to Table 8-2. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the standby equipment is faulty, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the main board to the standby board or from the standby board to the main board according to the command. The switching then changes to the manual switching state. When the switching is in the automatic switching state and the main equipment is already restored to normal for the WTR time, the revertive switching occurs. From the time when the main equipment is restored to normal to the time when the revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching changes to the normal state.

Manual switching (external switching)

Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

Table 8-2 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSB switching Switching Condition Hardware fault on the IF board Hardware fault on the ODU
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Description At the same priority

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Switching Condition POWER_ALM VOLT_LOS (IF board) RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW RADIO_RSL_HIGH IF_INPWR_ABN CONFIG_NOSUPPORT XPIC_LOS (IFX) Fault on the IF connection cable

Description

Trigger Conditions of the HSM Switching


HSM switching occurs at the channel side. Channel-side switching is available in the following types: l Forced switching The forced switching refers to the HSM switching that occurs at the same time the HSB switching occurs, in the case of the SDH/PDH microwave. After the forced switching, the IF board receives its own baseband signal. l Automatic switching The automatic switching refers to the HSM switching that is automatically triggered. After automatic switching, the IF board receives baseband signals from the IF board in the paired slot. In the case of the Hybrid microwave, the automatic HSM switching is triggered by the quality degradation of the signal on the main channel. In the case of the SDH/PDH microwave, the automatic HSM switching is triggered by the conditions listed in Table 8-3. Table 8-3 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSM switching Switching Condition R_LOC R_LOF R_LOS MW_LOF MW_FEC_UNCOR Medium Priority High

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Switching Condition B1_SD (When the IF board works in PDH mode.) B2_SD (When the IF board works in SDH mode.)

Priority Low

NOTE

The trigger conditions of automatic HSM switching are classified into three levels: high, medium, and low. If service alarms are reported on the main and standby IF boards, switching occurs only when the alarm on the main IF board has a higher priority than the alarm on the standby IF board. For example, if the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is reported on the main IF board and the B2_SD alarm is reported on the standby IF board, switching occurs; if the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is reported on the main and standby IF board, no switching occurs.

Revertive switching After the automatic HSM switching occurs, the IF board attempts to perform a revertive switching action periodically. If no service alarm occurs on the main channel at this time, the IF board releases the switching.
NOTE

When the AM function is enabled, the standby channel works in modulation mode for ensuring capacity after the HSM switching occurs. Hence, services of a lower priority are damaged.

8.2.4 Switching Impact


In the case of the HSB switching, the services are interrupted within the HSB switching time (shorter than 500 ms). In the case of the HSM switching, the service is not affected because it is the hitless switching, when the AM function is enabled, the standby channel works in the modulation mode for ensuring capacity after the HSM switching. Hence, the service of a low priority may be damaged.

8.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of 1+1 FD. Table 8-4 provides the specifications of 1+1 FD. Table 8-4 Specifications of 1+1 FD Item Microwave type Specifications SDH/PDH microwave Hybrid microwave Number of protection groups HSB Switching time 1 to 2 < 500 ms

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Item Switching mode

Specifications HSB HSM

Protection type

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode

WTR time Reverse switching Restriction on the available slot of the IF board

5 to 12 minutes Not supported Installed in paired slots 5 and 7 or paired slots 6 and 8

8.4 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the 1+1 FD feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version


Table 8-5 Hardware and version support Feature 1+1 FD Applicable Board IF0A IF0B IF1A IF1B IFH2 IFX Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R003 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
l The configuration mode of 1+1 protection in one direction can only be 1+1 HSB, 1+1 FD, or 1+1 SD. The configuration mode in one direction can be different from that in another direction. The two IP boards in an XPIC group cannot be configured into one 1+1 FD protection group. However, these boards can be configured into two 1+1 FD protection groups with the two IF boards in another XPIC group in the same polarization direction. The members of the 1+1 FD protection group cannot participate in the N+1 protection.

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l l l

The radio link with 1+1 FD configuration can function as the working source, protection source, or service sink of SNCP. The AM function can be enabled in the case of 1+1 FD Hybrid radio links. On the AM-enabled 1+1 FD Hybrid radio link, after an HSB switching, the standby link works in the modulation mode of the original active link; after an HSM switching, the standby link works in the guaranteed capacity modulation mode.

8.5 Principles
The switching principle of SDH/PDH radio 1+1 FD is different from the switching principle of Hybrid radio 1+1 FD. 8.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching by receiving TDM services from the standby IF board; the IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel. 8.5.2 Hybrid Radio The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching on the TDM plane by selecting TDM services from the standby IF board; the packet switching unit implements HSB switching on the packet plane through LAG switching; the IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

8.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio


The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching by receiving TDM services from the standby IF board; the IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

Before the Switching


Figure 8-6 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna f1 Main ODU Main Cross-connect board IF board Service board

f2

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

In the transmit direction: 1. 2. The service interface unit transmits the received service signal to the cross-connect unit. The cross-connect unit transmits the service signal to both the main IF board and the standby IF board.
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3. 4.

The main IF board and the standby IF board send the processed IF analog signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU and the standby ODU output RF signals at different frequencies and send the signals to their corresponding antennas.

Figure 8-7 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

In the receive direction: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The antennas receive RF signals and send the signals to their corresponding (main and standby) ODUs. The main ODU and the standby ODU send the processed IF analog signal to the main IF board and the standby IF board respectively. The main IF board sends the processed baseband signal to its MUX unit. The standby IF board sends the processed baseband signal to the MUX units of itself and its paired board. The main IF board and the standby IF board select their own baseband signals. The cross-connect unit selects the service signal from the main IF board and transmits the service signal to the service interface unit. The service interface unit sends the service signal to other equipment.

After the Switching


Figure 8-8 1+1 FD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

After the 1+1 FD HSB switching:


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l l

In the receive direction, the IF boards receive their own service signals and the crossconnect unit selects the signal from the standby IF board. In the transmit direction, signals need not be processed.

Figure 8-9 1+1 FD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

After the 1+1 FD HSM switching: l l In the receive direction, the IF board selects the baseband signal from its paired IF board. In the transmit direction, signals need not be processed.
NOTE

The actions involved in the 1+1 FD protection switching occur on the faulty NE. These actions do not occur on the normal NE.

8.5.2 Hybrid Radio


The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching on the TDM plane by selecting TDM services from the standby IF board; the packet switching unit implements HSB switching on the packet plane through LAG switching; the IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

Before the Switching


Figure 8-10 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna f1 Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

f2 Antenna Standby ODU Standby IF board EMS6 board

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In the transmit direction: 1. 2. 3. The service board multiplexes the received E1 service signal into the VC-4 and then sends the VC-4 to the cross-connect board. The cross-connect board transmits the E1 service signal in the VC-4 to the main IF board and the standby IF board. The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkUp state, whereas the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkDown state. The Ethernet board EMS6 transmits the Ethernet service to the Ethernet service port of the main IF board through the LAG function. The MUX unit of the main IF board multiplexes the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal into the Hybrid microwave frame. The MUX unit of the standby IF board multiplexes the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal into the non-standard Hybrid microwave frame. The IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the main IF board and modulate the Hybrid microwave frame into the analog IF signal. Then, the IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board send the analog IF signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU transmits the RF signal at frequency f1 to the main antenna. The standby ODU transmits the RF signal at frequency f2 to the standby antenna.
NOTE

4.

5.

6.

The switching method of Hybrid radio services on the EFP6 board is the same as the switching mode of Hybrid radio services on the EMS6 board.

Figure 8-11 1+1 FD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna f1 Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

f2

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

In the receive direction: 1. The antennas receive RF signals at different frequencies and send the signals to their corresponding main ODU and standby ODU.
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2. 3.

The main ODU and the standby ODU send the processed analog IF signal to the main IF board and the standby IF board respectively. The main IF board and the standby IF board demodulate the Hybrid frame from the IF signal. The Hybrid microwave frame of the standby IF board is transmitted to the main IF board through the protection bus. The MUX units of the main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid frame that is demultiplexed from their corresponding IF board and then separate the Hybrid frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. The E1 service signal is transmitted to the cross-connect board after being multiplexed into the VC-4. The Ethernet service signal is transmitted to the Ethernet service port of the IF board. The cross-connect board receives the E1 service signal from the main IF board and crossconnects the service signal to the corresponding service board. The EMS6 board receives the Ethernet service signal from the main IF board because the Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkUp state whereas the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkDown state.

4.

5.

6. 7.

After the Switching


Figure 8-12 1+1 HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna f1 Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

f2 Antenna Standby ODU Standby IF board EMS6 board

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Figure 8-13 1+1 FD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna f1 Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

f2

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

After a 1+1 FD HSB switching: l In the transmit direction: The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkDown state and the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkUp state. The IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board modulate the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the MUX unit of their corresponding IF board into the analog IF signal. The main IF board and the standby IF board send the analog IF signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU transmits the RF signal at frequency f1 to the main antenna and the standby ODU transmits the RF signal at frequency f2 to the standby antenna. l In the receive direction: The Hybrid microwave frame demultiplexed by the main IF board is transmitted to the standby IF board through the protection bus. The MUX unit of the main IF board receives the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the main IF board and then separates the Hybrid microwave frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. The MUX unit of the standby IF board receives the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the standby board and then separates the Hybrid microwave frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkDown state and the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkUp state. The cross-connect board and the EMS6 board receive the service signal from the standby IF board.

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Figure 8-14 1+1 FD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna f1 Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

f2

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

After a 1+1 FD HSM switching: l l In the transmit direction, no processing is required. In the receive direction: The MUX unit of the main IF board receives the demodulated Hybrid signal frame that is transmitted from the standby IF board through the protection bus and then separates the Hybrid microwave frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. The crossconnect board and the EMS6 board receive the service signal from the main IF board.
NOTE

The actions involved in the 1+1 FD protection switching occur on the faulty NE. These actions do not occur on the normal NE.

8.6 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain principles when you plan 1+1 FD. Plan the parameters relevant to the protection configuration. l If the protection is in the revertive mode, set the WTR time to a value, which ranges from five minutes to twelve minutes. It is recommended that you set the default value to ten minutes. The spacing between the emission frequency of the main ODU and that of the standby ODU should be greater than 56 MHz to prevent adjacent-channel interference. In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, a pair of main and standby IF boards must be installed in slots 5 and 7 (the IF board in slot 5 is the main board) or in slots 6 and 8 (the IF board in slot 6 is the main board).

l l

8.7 Configuration Procedure


When configuring a radio link under 1+1 FD protection, you need to configure a 1+1 IF protection group and then configure IF/ODU information.
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Table 8-6 Configuration procedure of 1+1 FD Step 1 Operation A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces Description The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.

In the case of radio links configured with 1+1 FD, you need to configure the IF and ODU information on the working radio link and the ODU information on the protection radio link. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.

NOTE

You need to configure a load non-sharing and revertive LAG. For details on the configuration procedure, see Configuration Procedure of the LAG feature.

8.8 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure 1+1 FD according to network conditions. 8.8.1 Networking Diagram The section describes the networking information about the NEs. 8.8.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 8.8.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

8.8.1 Networking Diagram


The section describes the networking information about the NEs. To ensure the reliable transmission of services on a hop of radio link constructed by OptiX RTN 620s, you need to configure 1+1 FD for the radio link between NE1 and NE2, as shown in Figure 8-15.

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Figure 8-15 1+1 FD protection networking diagram

NE2

NE1

8.8.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. l Plan the slots of the working board and the protection board. Plan the slots for the working board and the protection board based on the board configurations. To be specific, the IF board in slot 5 functions as the working board, and the IF board in slot 7 functions as the protection board. l Plan the protection group parameters. The 1+1 protection mode is FD, providing the channel and equipment protection function. Unless otherwise specified, all the parameters take the default values. Note that reverse switching is not available in 1+1 FD mode. l Plan the radio link information. The radio link information is determined according to the network planning. The parameters are listed in the following table.
NOTE

In the case of 1+1 FD radio links, one protection group corresponds to one link. Thus, you need to configure the IF/ODU information for the main equipment and the ODU information for the standby equipment.

Table 8-7 IF planning information Parameter NE1 5-IFH2 Link ID Channel spacing (MHz) AM enabling AM guaranteed capacity mode AM full capacity mode E1 capacity ATPC status 101 28M Enabled QPSK 128QAM 16 Disabled NE2 5-IFH2 101 28M Enabled QPSK 128QAM 16 Disabled

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Table 8-8 RF planning information Parameter NE1 15-ODU Transmit frequency (MHz) T/R spacing (MHz) Transmit power (dBm) Receive power (dBm) Transmission status 14930 17-ODU 15000 NE2 15-ODU 14510 17-ODU 14580

420 10 -45 unmute

420 10 -45 unmute

420 10 -45 unmute

420 10 -45 unmute

8.8.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group. The following table provides the values of parameters. Parameter Value Range NE1 Working Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time (s) Working Board Protection Board FD Revertive mode (default value) 600 seconds (default value) 5-IFH2 7-IFH2 NE2 FD Revertive mode (default value) 600 seconds (default value) 5-IFH2 7-IFH2

Step 2 A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. The following table provides the values of IF board parameters.

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Parameter

Value Range NE1 5-IFH2 NE2 5-IFH2 Enabled 28M QPSK 128QAM 16 101 Disabled

AM Enable Status IF Channel Bandwidth Modulation Mode of the Assured AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity E1 Capacity Link ID ATPC Enable Status

Enabled 28M QPSK 128QAM 16 101 Disabled

Step 3 A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces. The following table provides the values of ODU parameters. Parameter Value Range NE1 15-ODU TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHZ) TX Power (dBm) Power to Be Received (dBm) TX Status 14930 420 10 -45 17-ODU 15000 420 10 -45 NE2 15-ODU 14510 420 10 -45 17-ODU 14580 420 10 -45

Unmute

Unmute

Unmute

Unmute

----End

8.9 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with 1+1 FD.

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Related Tasks
A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.13 Querying the IF 1+1 Protection Status A.5.15 Performing IF 1+1 Protection Switching

8.10 Relevant Alarms and Events


When a 1+1 FD switching occurs on IF boards, the system reports corresponding alarms and abnormal events.

Relevant Alarms
RPS_INDI The RPS_INDI alarm indicates the microwave protection switching.

Relevant Abnormal Events


IF 1+1 protection switching IF 1+1 protection switching: This abnormal event indicates that the IF 1+1 protection switching occurs.

8.11 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when 1+1 FD is used. Q: During the configuration of the 1+1 FD protection, is it necessary to configure the IF interface of the standby IF board? A: It is unnecessary. The system automatically copies the data of the main IF board to the standby IF board. But, it is necessary to configure the ODU interface data of both the main ODU and the standby ODU on the NMS. Q: Why does the configuration of the 1+1 FD protection fail? A: Common causes are as follows: l l l The IF board and the corresponding ODU that form the 1+1 FD protection are not included in the slot layout. The main IF board and the standby IF board are not configured in paired slots. The standby IF board is configured with services.

Q: Why the reverse switching cannot be set in the 1+1 FD mode? A: In the 1+1 FD mode, both the main ODU and the standby ODU are not muted. Hence, the source end cannot clear the service alarm at the sink end by switching the working ODU. The reverse switching is invalid for the 1+1 FD mode.

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Q: When radio links work as ECC links, why is the NMS unable to receive the abnormal HSB switching event of the non-gateway NE? A: When an HSB switching occurs, the ECC needs to reroute. As a result, the ECC between the gateway NE and the non-gateway NE is transiently interrupted and the switching event cannot be reported. Q: How to deal with the 1+1 FD switching failure? A: If the 1+1 FD switching fails, check whether the protection groups are correctly configured, and then check whether the standby devices (including ODUs and IF boards) and standby radio link are normal. Exclude the fault that the RSL is low because of signal interference and antenna unalignment.

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9
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the 1+1 space diversity (SD) feature. 9.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of 1+1 SD and describes its purpose. 9.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with 1+1 SD. 9.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of 1+1 SD.

1+1 SD

9.4 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the 1+1 SD feature and its dependency. 9.5 Principles The switching principle of SDH/PDH radio 1+1 FD is different from the switching principle of Hybrid radio 1+1 FD. 9.6 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan 1+1 SD. 9.7 Configuration Procedure When configuring a radio link with 1+1 SD, you need to configure a 1+1 IF protection group and then configure IF/ODU information. 9.8 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure 1+1 SD according to network conditions. 9.9 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with 1+1 SD. 9.10 Relevant Alarms and Events When a 1+1 SD switching occurs on IF boards, the system reports corresponding alarms and abnormal events. 9.11 FAQs
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This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when 1+1 SD is used.

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9.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of 1+1 SD and describes its purpose.

Definition
1+1 SD is a configuration mode of 1+1 protection. In 1+1 SD protection mode, the system uses two antennas that have a space distance between them, to receive the same RF signals. The equipment then selects a signal from the two received RF signals. With 1+1 SD, the impact of fading on signal transmission is reduced. Figure 9-1 shows the application of 1+1 SD. If NE2 detects that bit errors occur in the service on the main channel when the quality of the signal received on the main channel is degraded, NE2 switches to the standby channel to receive the service. Figure 9-1 1+1 SD protection
Before the Switching Main channel
T2 T2 T1

Main channel Rx Tx
T1

MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM Standby channel

Rx Tx

MODEM MODEM Service Service

Tx Rx
T2 T1

Tx Rx

MODEM MODEM

Standby channel

NE1
After the Switching Main channel
T2

NE2

T2 T1

Main channel Rx Tx MODEM MODEM Service Service

MODEM MODEM Service Service MODEM MODEM Standby channel

Rx Tx

T1

Tx Rx
T2 T1

Tx Rx

MODEM MODEM

Standby channel

NE1
Change spot

NE2

In the case of the 1+1 SD protection, the two antennas at the receive end receive the same RF signals from the transmit end. When the quality of the microwave signal that is received by the main antenna is degraded, bit errors may occur in the service on the main channel. Due to multipath fading, the quality of the signal that is received by the standby antenna may not be degraded. In this case, the service unit receives the service from the standby receive channel to protect the service. In addition, the 1+1 SD protection supports 1+1 HSB protection switching.
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Purpose
A radio link configured with 1+1 FD has a higher anti-fading capability (especially antimultipath fading) and reliability than a radio link configured with 1+0 non-protection.

9.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with 1+1 SD. 9.2.1 System Configuration 1+1 SD requires specific system configuration. 9.2.2 Protection Type The 1+1 SD protection is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. 9.2.3 Switching Condition The 1+1 SD protection supports two types of switching, namely, HSB switching and HSM switching. The two types of switching are triggered by different conditions. 9.2.4 Switching Impact In the case of the HSB switching, the services are interrupted within the HSB switching time (less than 500 ms). In the case of the HSM switching, the service is not affected because the HSM switching is hitless. When the AM function is enabled, the standby channel works in modulation mode for ensuring capacity after the HSM switching occurs. Hence, services of a lower priority are damaged.

9.2.1 System Configuration


1+1 SD requires specific system configuration.

Typical Configuration of SDH/PDH Radio 1+1 SD


One 1+1 SD protection group uses one channel and consists of the following items: l l l Two IF boards that are of the same type Two ODUs that are of the same type Two antennas
NOTE

The IF board can be the IF0A board, IF0B board, IF1A board, IF1B board, IFX, or IFH2 board.

Figure 9-2 shows a typical configuration of one SDH/PDH radio 1+1 SD protection group on the OptiX RTN 620.

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Figure 9-2 Typical configuration of 1+1 SD (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Antenna

ODU

Antenna
Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

EXT EXT EXT PH1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

Typical Configuration of Hybrid Radio 1+1 SD


One 1+1 SD protection group uses one channel and consists of the following items: l l l l Two IF boards that are of the same type One EMS6 board or EFP6 board Two ODUs that are of the same type Two antennas
NOTE

The type of the IF board is IFH2.

Figure 9-3 shows a typical configuration of one Hybrid radio 1+1 SD protection group on the OptiX RTN 620.

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Figure 9-3 Typical configuration of 1+1 SD (OptiX RTN 620)

ODU

Antenna

ODU

Antenna

Network cable

To the external equipment


Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EMS6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

ODU

Antenna To the external PDH networking

ODU

Antenna

Network cable

EXT IF FAN
Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EFP6 EXT EXT PH1 EXT SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF PXC PXC


IDU 620

9.2.2 Protection Type


The 1+1 SD protection is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. l Revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE releases the switching and returns to the normal state if the former working channel is restored to normal for a certain period. The period from the time when the former working channel is restored to normal to the time when the NE releases the switching is called the WTR time. To prevent frequent switching
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events because the former working channel is not stable, it is recommended that you set the WTR time to 5 to 12 minutes. l Non-revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE remains the current state unchanged unless another switching event occurs even though the former working channel is restored to normal.
NOTE

Both the revertive mode and non-revertive mode are only associated with HSB switching (switching on the equipment side). After HSM switching on the channel side, revertive switching periodically occurs on the IF board, regardless of the revertive mode.

9.2.3 Switching Condition


The 1+1 SD protection supports two types of switching, namely, HSB switching and HSM switching. The two types of switching are triggered by different conditions.

Trigger Conditions of the HSB Switching


The HSB switching occurs on the equipment side. The equipment-side switching has the same switching action and switching impact as the 1+1 HSB switching but is triggered by different conditions. Table 9-1 Trigger conditions of the 1+1 SD HSB switching Switching Condition Clear switching (external switching) Priority From top downwards, the priority is from the highest to the lowest. Description All external switching states are cleared.
NOTE In revertive mode, the service is switched to the main IF board after the clear switching operation is performed.

Lockout of protection (external switching)

In any state, the switching changes to the lockout state. In the lockout state, no switching occurs until the lockout of protection is cleared. If the switching is in the lockout state, no forced switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the main board to the standby board or from the standby board to the main board according to the command. The switching then changes to the forced switching state.
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Forced switching (external switching)

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Switching Condition Fault on the main equipment

Priority

Description If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no HSB switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the current main board to the standby board. The switching then changes to the automatic switching state. For the trigger conditions of the automatic switching, refer to Table 9-2. When both the main IF board and the standby IF board at the sink end report service alarms, they send the alarms to the source end by using the MWRDI overhead in the microwave frame. If the source end is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no reverse switching occurs. Otherwise, the HSB switching occurs at the source end after the reverse switching timer expires. The reverse switching timer restarts after you successfully add a protection group or if an HSB switching event occurs. The timer duration is the WTR time (in revertive mode) or 5 minutes (in nonrevertive mode). After the reverse switching, the switching changes to the RDI state.

Reverse switching (valid only when the reverse switching is enabled)

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Switching Condition Manual switching (external switching)

Priority

Description If the switching is in the lockout, forced switching, or RDI state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the main board to the standby board or from the standby board to the main board according to the command. The switching then changes to the manual switching state. When the switching is in the automatic switching state and the main equipment is already restored to normal for the WTR time, the revertive switching occurs. From the time when the main equipment is restored to normal to the time when the revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching changes to the normal state.

Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

Table 9-2 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSB switching Switching Condition Hardware fault on the IF board Hardware fault on the ODU POWER_ALM VOLT_LOS (IF board) RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW RADIO_RSL_HIGH IF_INPWR_ABN CONFIG_NOSUPPORT XPIC_LOS (IFX) Priority At the same priority

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Switching Condition Fault on the IF connection cable

Priority

Trigger Conditions of the HSM Switching


HSM switching is switching that occurs at the channel side. Channel-side switching is available in the following types: l Forced switching Forced switching refers to HSM switching that occurs at the same time HSB switching occurs. After forced switching, the IF board receives baseband signals from itself. l Automatic switching Automatic switching refers to HSM switching that is automatically triggered. After automatic switching, the IF board receives baseband signals from the IF board in the paired slot. In the case of the Hybrid microwave, the automatic HSM switching is triggered by the quality degradation of the signal on the main channel. In the case of the SDH/PDH microwave, the automatic HSM switching is triggered by the conditions listed in Table 9-3. Table 9-3 Trigger conditions of the automatic HSM switching Switching Condition R_LOC R_LOF R_LOS MW_LOF MW_FEC_UNCOR B1_SD (When the IF board works in PDH mode.) B2_SD (When the IF board works in SDH mode.) Medium Low Priority High

NOTE

The trigger conditions of automatic HSM switching are classified into three levels: high, medium, and low. If service alarms are reported on the main and standby IF boards, switching occurs only when the alarm on the main IF board has a higher priority than the alarm on the standby IF board. For example, if the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is reported on the main IF board and the B2_SD alarm is reported on the standby IF board, switching occurs; if the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is reported on the main and standby IF board, no switching occurs.

l
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Revertive switching
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After automatic HSM switching, revertive switching periodically occurs on the IF board. If there is no service alarm on the active channel at this time, the IF board releases the switching.
NOTE

When the AM function is enabled, the standby channel works in modulation mode for ensuring capacity after the HSM switching occurs. Hence, services of a lower priority are damaged.

9.2.4 Switching Impact


In the case of the HSB switching, the services are interrupted within the HSB switching time (less than 500 ms). In the case of the HSM switching, the service is not affected because the HSM switching is hitless. When the AM function is enabled, the standby channel works in modulation mode for ensuring capacity after the HSM switching occurs. Hence, services of a lower priority are damaged.

9.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of 1+1 SD. Table 9-4 provides the specifications of 1+1 SD. Table 9-4 Specifications of 1+1 SD Item Microwave type Specifications SDH/PDH microwave Hybrid microwave Number of protection groups HSB Switching time Switching mode 1 to 2 < 500 ms HSB HSM Protection type Revertive mode Non-revertive mode WTR time Reverse switching Restriction on the available slot of the IF board 5 to 12 minutes Supported Installed in paired slots 5 and 7 or paired slots 6 and 8

9.4 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the 1+1 SD feature and its dependency.
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Hardware and Version


Table 9-5 Hardware and version support Feature 1+1 SD Applicable Board IF0A IF0B IF1A IF1B IFH2 IFX Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R003 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
l The configuration mode of 1+1 protection in one direction can only be 1+1 HSB, 1+1 FD, or 1+1 SD. The configuration mode in one direction can be different from that in another direction. The two IP boards in an XPIC group cannot be configured into one 1+1 SD protection group. However, these boards can be configured into two 1+1 SD protection groups with the two IF boards in another XPIC group in the same polarization direction. The members of the 1+1 SD protection group cannot participate in the N+1 protection. The radio link that is configured with the 1+1 SD protection can work as the working source, protection source, or service sink of the SNCP. The AM function can be enabled in the case of 1+1 SD Hybrid radio links. If the hybrid radio links are configured with the 1+1 SD protection and if the AM function is enabled, the standby link works in existing modulation mode of the main link after the HSB switching occurs, and works in modulation mode of the guaranteed capacity after the HSM switching occurs.

l l l l

9.5 Principles
The switching principle of SDH/PDH radio 1+1 FD is different from the switching principle of Hybrid radio 1+1 FD. 9.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching by receiving TDM services from the standby IF board. The IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel. 9.5.2 Hybrid Radio The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching on the TDM plane by selecting TDM services from the standby IF board; the packet switching unit implements HSB switching on the packet plane through LAG switching; the IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.
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9.5.1 SDH/PDH Radio


The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching by receiving TDM services from the standby IF board. The IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

Before the Switching


Figure 9-4 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main Cross-connect board IF board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

In the transmit direction: 1. 2. 3. 4. The service board sends the received service signal to the cross-connect board. The cross-connect board transmits the service signal to both the main IF board and the standby IF board. The main IF board and the standby IF board send the processed IF analog signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU transmits the RF signal to the antenna. The standby ODU mutes (that is, the standby ODU does not send the RF signal).

Figure 9-5 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

In the receive direction: 1.


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The antennas receive RF signals and send the signals to their respective ODUs.
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The main ODU and the standby ODU send the processed IF analog signal to the main IF board and the standby IF board respectively. The multiplex unit of the IF board sends the processed baseband signal to itself and to the multiplex unit of its paired board. The main IF board and the standby IF board select their own baseband signal. The cross-connect board selects the service signal from the main IF board and sends the signal to the service board. The service board sends the service signal to the equipment at the opposite end.

After the Switching


Figure 9-6 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

Figure 9-7 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main Cross-connect board IF board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

After a 1+1 SD HSB switching: l l In the receive direction, the IF boards select their own service signal. The cross-connect board selects the signal from the standby IF board. In the transmit direction, the standby ODU transmits the RF signal to the antenna. The main ODU mutes (that is, the main ODU does not send the RF signal).

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Figure 9-8 1+1 SD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

After a 1+1 SD HSM switching: l l In the receive direction, the IF boards select the baseband signal from their own paired IF board. In the transmit direction, no processing is required.
NOTE

The actions involved in the 1+1 SD protection switching occur on the faulty NE. These actions do not occur on the normal NE.

9.5.2 Hybrid Radio


The cross-connect unit implements HSB switching on the TDM plane by selecting TDM services from the standby IF board; the packet switching unit implements HSB switching on the packet plane through LAG switching; the IF board implements HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

Before the Switching


Figure 9-9 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

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In the transmit direction: 1. 2. 3. The service board multiplexes the received E1 service signal into the VC-4 and then sends the VC-4 to the cross-connect board. The cross-connect board transmits the E1 service signal in the VC-4 to the main IF board and the standby IF board. The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkUp state, whereas the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkDown state. The Ethernet board EMS6 transmits the Ethernet service to the Ethernet service port of the main IF board through the LAG function. The MUX unit of the main IF board multiplexes the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal into the Hybrid microwave frame. The MUX unit of the standby IF board multiplexes the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal into the non-standard Hybrid microwave frame. The IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the main IF board and modulate the Hybrid microwave frame into the analog IF signal. Then, the IF processing units of the main IF board and the standby IF board send the analog IF signal to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The main ODU transmits the RF signal to the antenna. The standby ODU is muted (that is, the standby ODU does not transmit the RF signal).
NOTE

4.

5.

6.

The switching method of Hybrid radio services on the EFP6 board is the same as the switching mode of Hybrid radio services on the EMS6 board.

Figure 9-10 1+1 SD realization principle (before the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

In the receive direction: 1. 2. The antennas receive RF signals and transmit the signals to their corresponding main ODU and standby ODU. The main ODU and the standby ODU send the processed analog IF signal to the main IF board and the standby IF board respectively.
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3.

The main IF board and the standby IF board demodulate the IF signal into the Hybrid microwave frame. The Hybrid microwave frame of the standby IF board is transmitted to the main IF board through the protection bus. The MUX units of the main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid frame that is demultiplexed from their corresponding IF boards and then separate the Hybrid frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. The E1 service signal is transmitted to the cross-connect board after being multiplexed into the VC-4. The Ethernet service signal is transmitted to the Ethernet service port of the IF board. The cross-connect board receives the E1 service signal from the main IF board and crossconnects the service signal to the corresponding service board. The EMS6 board receives the Ethernet service signal from the main IF board because the Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkUp state whereas the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkDown state.

4.

5.

6. 7.

After the Switching


Figure 9-11 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

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Figure 9-12 1+1 SD HSB realization principle (after the switching, in the transmit direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

After a 1+1 SD HSB switching: l In the receive direction: The MUX unit of the standby IF board receives the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the standby IF board. The cross-connect board receives the E1 service signal that is demultiplexed from the Hybrid microwave frame received at the standby IF board and cross-connects the E1 service signal to the corresponding service board. The EMS6 board receives the Ethernet service signal from the standby IF board because the Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkDown state and the Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkUp state. l In the transmit direction: The Ethernet service port of the main IF board is in LinkDown state. The Ethernet service port of the standby IF board is in LinkUp state. The main IF board and the standby IF board receive the Hybrid microwave frame that is multiplexed by the standby IF board and then transmit the modulated Hybrid microwave frame to the main ODU and the standby ODU respectively. The standby ODU transmits the RF signal to the antenna. The main ODU is muted (that is, the main ODU does not transmit the RF signal).

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Figure 9-13 1+1 SD HSM realization principle (after the switching, in the receive direction)
Antenna Main ODU Main IF board Cross-connect board Service board

Antenna

Standby ODU

Standby IF board

EMS6 board

After a 1+1 SD HSM switching: l l In the transmit direction, no processing is required. In the receive direction: The MUX unit of the main IF board receives the demodulated Hybrid signal frame that is transmitted from the standby IF board through the protection bus and then separates the Hybrid microwave frame into the E1 service signal and Ethernet service signal. The crossconnect board and the EMS6 board receive the service signal from the main IF board.
NOTE

The actions involved in the 1+1 SD protection switching occur on the faulty NE. These actions do not occur on the normal NE.

9.6 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan 1+1 SD. Plan the parameters relevant to the protection configuration. l l There should be a height difference between the two antennas so that the dependence of the diversity-received microwave signals on the space is minimized. If the protection is in the revertive mode, set the WTR time to a value, which ranges from five minutes to twelve minutes. It is recommended that you set the default value to ten minutes. It is recommended that you enable the reverse switching. If reverse switching is enabled, and both the main IF board and the standby IF board at the sink end report a service alarm, a reverse switching occurs at the source end. In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, a pair of main and standby IF boards must be installed in slots 5 and 7 (the IF board in slot 5 is the main board) or in slots 6 and 8 (the IF board in slot 6 is the main board).

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9.7 Configuration Procedure


When configuring a radio link with 1+1 SD, you need to configure a 1+1 IF protection group and then configure IF/ODU information. Table 9-6 Configuration procedure of 1+1 SD Step 1 Operation A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces Remarks The parameters need to be set according to network planning.

To configure 1+1 SD, you need to configure the IF/ODU information for the main equipment. The parameters need to be set according to network planning.

The parameters need to be set according to network planning.

NOTE

You need to configure a load non-sharing and revertive LAG. For details on the configuration procedure, see Configuration Procedure of the LAG feature.

9.8 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure 1+1 SD according to network conditions. 9.8.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about NEs. 9.8.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 9.8.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

9.8.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about NEs.
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To ensure the reliable transmission of services on a hop of radio link consisting of the OptiX RTN 620, you need to configure 1+1 SD for the radio link between NE1 and NE2, as shown in Figure 9-14. Figure 9-14 1+1 SD protection networking diagram

NE2

NE1

9.8.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. l Plan the slots of the working and protection boards. Plan the slots for the working board and the protection board based on board configuration. To be specific, the IF board in slot 5 functions as the working board, and the IF board in slot 7 functions as the protection board. l Plan the parameters of protection groups. The 1+1 protection mode is SD, which provides function for the equipment. Unless otherwise specified, all the parameters take default values. The reverse switching function is enabled. In this manner, the source end can perform a reverse switching when the main IF board and the standby IF board report certain service alarms. l Plan radio link information. The radio link information is specified according to network planning. The following tables provide IF planning information and RF planning information.
NOTE

In the case of 1+1 SD radio links, one protection group corresponds to one link. Therefore, you need to configure the IF/ODU information for the main equipment only.

Table 9-7 IF planning information Parameter NE1 5-IFH2 Link ID Channel spacing (MHz) AM enabling AM guaranteed capacity mode AM full capacity mode E1 capacity
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Parameter

NE1 5-IFH2

NE2 5-IFH2 Disabled

ATPC status

Disabled

Table 9-8 RF planning information Parameter NE1 15-ODU Transmit frequency (MHz) T/R spacing (MHz) Transmit power (dBm) Receive power (dBm) Transmission status 14930 420 10 -45 Unmute NE2 15-ODU 14510 420 10 -45 Unmute

9.8.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group. The following table provides the values of parameters. Parameter Value Range NE1 Working Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time (s) Enable Reverse Switching Working Board Protection Board SD Revertive mode (default value) 600 seconds (default value) Enabled (default value) 5-IFH2 7-IFH2 NE2 SD Revertive mode (default value) 600 seconds (default value) Enabled (default value) 5-IFH2 7-IFH2

Step 2 A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. The following table provides the values of IF board parameters.
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Parameter

Value Range NE1 5-IFH2 NE2 5-IFH2 Enabled 28M QPSK 128QAM 16 101 Disabled

AM Enable Status IF Channel Bandwidth Modulation Mode of the Assured AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity E1 Capacity Link ID ATPC Enable Status

Enabled 28M QPSK 128QAM 16 101 Disabled

Step 3 A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces. The following table provides the values of ODU parameters. Parameter Value Range NE1 15-ODU TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing(MHZ) TX Power(dBm) Power to Be Received (dBm) TX Status 14930 420 10 -45 Unmute NE2 15-ODU 14510 420 10 -45 Unmute

----End

9.9 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with 1+1 SD.

Related Tasks
A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.13 Querying the IF 1+1 Protection Status
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A.5.15 Performing IF 1+1 Protection Switching

9.10 Relevant Alarms and Events


When a 1+1 SD switching occurs on IF boards, the system reports corresponding alarms and abnormal events.

Relevant Alarms
RPS_INDI The RPS_INDI alarm indicates the microwave protection switching.

Relevant Abnormal Events


IF 1+1 protection switching IF 1+1 protection switching: This abnormal event indicates that the IF 1+1 protection switching occurs.

9.11 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when 1+1 SD is used. Q: During the configuration of the 1+1 SD protection, is it necessary to configure the IF interface of the standby IF board and the ODU interface of the standby ODU? A: It is unnecessary. The system automatically copies the relevant data of the main IF board and the main ODU. But, it is necessary to set the Configure Transmission Status of both the main ODU and the standby ODU to Unmute on the NMS. Q: Why does the configuration of the 1+1 SD protection fail? A: Common causes are as follows: l l l The IF board and the corresponding ODU that form the 1+1 SD protection are not added in the slot layout. The main IF board and the standby IF board are not configured in paired slots. The standby IF board is configured with services.

Q: In the revertive mode, why does the switching fail to restore after the switching changes to the RDI state? A: The revertive mode is invalid for the reverse switching. That is, although both the main and standby equipment are normal, the system does not switch back to the former main equipment after the reverse switching occurs. Q: When radio links work as ECC links, why is the NMS unable to receive the abnormal HSB switching event of the non-gateway NE? A: When an HSB switching occurs, the ECC needs to reroute. As a result, the ECC between the gateway NE and the non-gateway NE is transiently interrupted and the switching event cannot be reported.
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Q: When the main ODU is configured with the 1+1 SD protection, why is a switching event reported when there is no actual switching being performed if the main ODU reports a configuration alarm? A: In the case of the 1+1 SD protection group, the system automatically copies the data of the main ODU to the standby ODU. Hence, when the main ODU reports a configuration alarm, the standby ODU reports the same configuration alarm accordingly. Because both the main and the standby ODUs report a configuration alarm, a switching does not occur on the equipment. To notify the user that the ODU configuration is abnormal, however, the system reports a switching event. Q: What points should be noted before the deletion of a 1+1 SD protection group? A: Before the deletion of a 1+1 SD protection group, first mute the standby ODU. Otherwise, the signal emitted by the standby ODU interferes with the signal of the main ODU. Q: What is the method for rectifying the fault when the 1+1 SD switching fails? A: If the 1+1 SD switching fails, check whether the protection groups are correctly configured, and then check whether the standby devices (including ODUs and IF boards) and standby radio link are normal. Exclude the fault that the RSL is low because of signal interference and antenna unalignment.

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10
About This Chapter

Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation

This chapter describes the cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) feature. 10.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of XPIC and describes its purpose. 10.2 Basic Concepts This section describes basic concepts associated with XPIC. 10.3 Specifications This section provides the specifications of XPIC. 10.4 Availability This section describes the support required by the XPIC feature and its dependency. 10.5 Principles The IFX boards of the OptiX RTN 620 receive signals in the horizontal and vertical directions. The signals in the two directions are then processed and the original signals are recovered. 10.6 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan XPIC. 10.7 Configuration Procedure To configure XPIC links with no protection, you only need to configure XPIC workgroups. To configure XPIC links with 1+1 protection, you need to configure 1+1 IF protection groups in addition to XPIC workgroups. 10.8 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure XPIC according to network conditions. 10.9 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with XPIC. 10.10 Relevant Alarms and Events When XPIC signals are lost, the system reports an alarm.
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10.11 FAQs This section describes the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the XPIC feature is used.

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10.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of XPIC and describes its purpose.

Definition
The XPIC technology is used with the co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP) technology. When the XPIC and CCDP technologies are used together, the transmitter transmits two electromagnetic waves whose polarization directions are orthogonal to each other to the receiver over the same channel. The receiver recovers the original two channels of signals after canceling the interference between the two electromagnetic waves through the XPIC processing. The XPIC technology enables using the same channel bandwidth to transmit service signals whose capacity is two times the capacity of application without XPIC. The transmission of 2xSTM-1 signals in one direction of the radio link is considered as an example. When the XPIC technology is not used, the adjacent channel alternate polarization (ACAP) technology should be used in channel configuration. Thus, the bandwidth of two RF channels should be used to transmit these 2xSTM-1 signals. See Figure 10-1. When the XPIC technology is used, the bandwidth of one RF channel can transmit 2xSTM-1 signals by using the CCDP channel configuration mode. See Figure 10-2. Figure 10-1 Channel configuration in ACAP mode (without the application of the XPIC technology)
Site A IDU 620 STM-1 STM-1 ODU 2 ODU 1 f1 H V f2 f2 f2 ODU 2 STM-1 Site B ODU 1 IDU 620 STM-1

f1

f1

Figure 10-2 Channel configuration in CCDP mode (with the application of the XPIC technology)
Site A IDU 620 STM-1 STM-1 ODU 2 ODU 1 f1 H V f1 f1 ODU 2 Site B ODU 1 IDU 620 STM-1 STM-1

f1

f1

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Purpose
When the XPIC technology is used, the link transmission capacity over the same channel can be doubled.

10.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes basic concepts associated with XPIC. 10.2.1 CCDP and XPIC CCDP (Co-Channel Dual Polarization) and XPIC are two technologies that are developed based on the polarization characteristics of microwaves. CCDP doubles the link capacity by transmitting two orthogonal polarization waves over the same link, and XPIC cancels the crosspolarization interference between the two polarization waves. 10.2.2 System Configuration The application of XPIC feature requires specific system configuration.

10.2.1 CCDP and XPIC


CCDP (Co-Channel Dual Polarization) and XPIC are two technologies that are developed based on the polarization characteristics of microwaves. CCDP doubles the link capacity by transmitting two orthogonal polarization waves over the same link, and XPIC cancels the crosspolarization interference between the two polarization waves. Single-polarization transmission and CCDP transmission are two microwave transmission methods. l l Single-polarization transmission adopts the horizontally polarized wave or the vertically polarized wave on one channel to transmit one channel of signals. See Figure 10-3. CCDP transmission adopts both the horizontally polarized wave and the vertically polarized wave on one channel to transmit two channels of signals. See Figure 10-4.

Therefore, CCDP transmission doubles the link capacity in single-polarization transmission. Figure 10-3 Single-polarization transmission

Figure 10-4 CCDP transmission

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The ideal situation of CCDP transmission is that no interference exists between the two orthogonal signals though they are with the same frequency, and thus the receiver can easily recover the two signals. In actual engineering conditions, however, despite the orthogonality of the two signals, certain interference between the signals inevitably occurs, due to crosspolarization discrimination (XPD) of the antenna and channel degradation. To cancel the interference, the XPIC technology is adopted. In XPIC technology, the signals are received in the horizontal and vertical directions. The signals in the two directions are then processed and the original signals are recovered.

10.2.2 System Configuration


The application of XPIC feature requires specific system configuration.

NE Configuration
The OptiX RTN 620 supports one or two XPIC pairs. Each XPIC pair occupies one frequency. The XPIC pair is configured as follows: l l l Two IFX boards Two ODUs One dual-polarized antenna

Figure 10-5 shows the typical configuration of the XPIC when a single NE is configured with one XPIC pair. The two IFX boards are connected by two XPIC cables so that the XPIC cancellation signal from one IFX board is transmitted to the other IFX board. Figure 10-5 Typical configuration of XPIC

ODU

Dual-polarized antenna ODU

EXT IFX FAN


Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT EXT EXT SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IFX PXC PXC


IDU 620

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10.3 Specifications
This section provides the specifications of XPIC. Table 10-1 lists the specifications of XPIC. Table 10-1 Specifications of XPIC Item Radio link form Radio work mode Specifications SDH radio link SDH radio link: l Service capacity: STM-1 l Channel spacing: 28 MHz l Modulation mode: 128QAM Number of XPIC workgroups Implementation mode Two groups Hardware

10.4 Availability
This section describes the support required by the XPIC feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 10-2 Hardware and version support Feature XPIC Applicable Board IFX Applicable Hardware Version All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
l Configuration relationship between the XPIC feature and the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection feature One XPIC workgroup cannot form a 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection group. However, the radio link of an XPIC workgroup and the radio link of another XPIC workgroup in the same polarization direction can form a 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection group. That is, the two XPIC workgroups can form two HSB/FD/SD protection groups. Figure 10-6 shows an example of how two XPIC workgroups form two 1+1 HSB protection groups respectively in the vertical and horizontal polarization direction.

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Figure 10-6 Typical XPIC configuration (1+1 protection configuration)


V-polarization Dual-polarized antenna H-polarization

ODU Working channel 1 Hybrid coupler ODU Protection channel 1

ODU Working channel 2 Hybrid coupler ODU Protection channel 2


Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IFX FAN


Slot 20

EXT IFX EXT IFX SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IFX PXC PXC

The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 form one XPIC workgroup, whereas the service channels on the IFX boards in slots 7 and 8 form another XPIC workgroup. The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 5 and 7 form one 1+1 HSB protection group. The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 6 and 8 form another 1+1 HSB protection group. The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 are the working channels of the two 1+1 HSB protection groups. Generally, the two working channels (in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions) carry services. The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 7 and 8 are the protection channels of the two 1+1 HSB protection groups and provide protection for the working channels. In the receive direction, if the IFX board in slot 5 is faulty or the ODU connected to this board is faulty, HSB switching occurs on the equipment and therefore the services are switched from the IFX board in slot 5 to the IFX board in slot 7. At the same time, the fault also causes the loss of XPIC signals that are transmitted from the IFX board in slot 5 to the IFX board in slot 6. As a result, HSB switching occurs on the IFX boards in slots 6 and 8 that form a 1+1 protection group and therefore the services are switched from the IFX board in slot 6 to the IFX board in slot 8. Thus, services are switched from one XPIC workgroup to another. In the transmit direction, if the transmitter in the vertical polarization direction of the IFX board in slot 5 is faulty, the working and protection channels in the vertical polarization direction of the IFX board at the opposite end are alarmed. As a result, reverse switching occurs on the local end and services are switched from the IFX board in slot 5 to the IFX board in slot 7. In addition, the fault causes the loss of XPIC signals that are transmitted in the working and protection channels in the horizontal polarization direction of the IFX board at the opposite end. As a result, the working and protection channels in the horizontal polarization direction of the IFX board at the opposite end are alarmed. In this case, reverse switching occurs in the working and protection

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channels in the horizontal polarization direction of the IFX board at the local end and services are switched from the IFX board in slot 6 to the IFX board in slot 8. l Relationship between XPIC and ATPC The ATPC parameters, such as ATPC enable status and ATPC adjustment thresholds, need to be set to the same values for the links in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions in an XPIC workgroup. l Relationship between XPIC and SNCP A radio link configured with XPIC can work as the working source, protection source, or service sink of an SNCP service pair. l Relationship between XPIC and N+1 protection A member of the XPIC workgroup cannot be configured with N+1 protection.

10.5 Principles
The IFX boards of the OptiX RTN 620 receive signals in the horizontal and vertical directions. The signals in the two directions are then processed and the original signals are recovered. Figure 10-7 Working principle of XPIC
Horizontal polarization Modem horizontal

XPIC module of IFX


A/D Filter Decision Coefficient control Filter

Cross interference Cross interference

Filter

XPIC module of IFX


Coefficient control

Modem vertical

A/D

Filter

Decision

Vertical polarization

The working principle is as follows: 1. 2. The transmitter transmits two signals with the same frequency over a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave. Due to XPD of the antenna and channel degradation, cross-polarization interference exists in the signals received by the ODU and also in the IF signals transmitted from the ODU to the IFX boards. The XPIC module on the IFX board receives the IF signal from the ODU and also the IF signal from the other IFX board, and processes the IF signals, for example, A/D conversion. The XPIC module on the IFX board controls the coefficient of the feed forward equalizer filters (FFF) of the two IF signals by using the decision feedback equalizer (DFE). As a result, after filtering and combination, the interference is cancelled in the two IF signals.

3. 4.

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10.6 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan XPIC. When you plan XPIC, follow certain guidelines: l l When CCDP is applied to STM-1 radio links, IFX boards must be installed and the XPIC function must be enabled. The microwave work mode, transmit frequency, transmit power, T/R spacing, and ATPC parameters (including ATPC enable status and ATPC adjustment thresholds) need to be set to the same values for the links in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions in an XPIC workgroup. The slots for housing the IFX boards need to be determined based on expansion requirements. If two XPIC workgroups that form two 1+1 protection groups are not required, install the IFX boards in slots 5 and 7 (the IFX board in slot 5 processes vertically polarized signals and the IFX board in slot 7 processes horizontally polarized signals) or in slots 6 and 8 (the IFX board in slot 6 processes vertically polarized signals and the IFX board in slot 8 processes horizontally polarized signals). If two XPIC workgroups that form two 1+1 protection groups are required, install the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 (the IFX board in slot 5 processes vertically polarized signals and the IFX board in slot 6 processes horizontally polarized signals) or in slots 7 and 8 (the IFX board in slot 7 processes vertically polarized signals and the IFX board in slot 8 processes horizontally polarized signals).

10.7 Configuration Procedure


To configure XPIC links with no protection, you only need to configure XPIC workgroups. To configure XPIC links with 1+1 protection, you need to configure 1+1 IF protection groups in addition to XPIC workgroups. Table 10-3 Procedure for configuring XPIC links Step 1 Operation Complete the physical connections by using XPIC cables. A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group Description Required. Use the XPIC cable to connect the X-IN and X-OUT ports on the two IFX boards of the XPIC workgroup.

Required when two XPIC workgroups need to form two 1+1 protection groups. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.
NOTE One XPIC workgroup cannot form a 1+1 protection group. The radio links in one polarization direction from two XPIC workgroups can form one 1 +1 protection group. Therefore, two XPIC workgroups can form two 1+1 protection groups.

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Step 3

Operation A.5.2 Creating an XPIC Workgroup A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link

Description Required. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning. Required. Set the parameters as follows: l T/R Spacing(MHZ) is set according to the network planning. l When ATPC Enable Status is set to Enabled, set ATPC Automatic Threshold Enable Status to Enabled if the equipment automatically uses the preset ATPC upper and lower thresholds based on the working mode of the IF board; set ATPC Automatic Threshold Enable Status to Disabled if you need to manually set the ATPC upper and lower thresholds for the equipment.
NOTE l You need to separately set the preceding parameters for radio links in the vertical polarization direction and the horizontal polarization direction, and ensure these parameters in the two polarization directions are set to the same values. l In the case of radio links configured with 1+1 HSB/SD, you need to configure the IF and ODU information on the working radio link only. In the case of radio links configured with 1+1 FD, you need to configure the IF and ODU information on the working radio link and the ODU information on the protection radio link.

10.8 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure XPIC according to network conditions. 10.8.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about the NEs. 10.8.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 10.8.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

10.8.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about the NEs. The service requirements between two sets of OptiX RTN 620 are as follows: l l l
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The SDH radio links need to transmit 2xSTM-1 services. According to the spectrum planning requirement, the XPIC feature needs to be enabled. The radio links need to be protected.
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Figure 10-8 Networking diagram


101 14950M 14530M 28M 1+1 HSB V-polarization 102 14950M 14530M 28M 1+1 HSB H-polarization

NE1
Tx high Tx low Link ID Tx high station Tx Freq. Tx low station Tx Freq. Channel spacing RF Configuration Polarization

NE2

Plan the radio links that adopt XPIC as shown in Figure 10-8 to meet large-capacity transmission requirements, according to the preceding service requirements and the available spectrum resources. As shown in Figure 10-9, NE1 and NE2 adopt same board configurations. Wherein, the SD1 board is used to access 2xSTM-1 services. Figure 10-9 Board configurations
V-polarization Dual-polarized antenna H-polarization

ODU Working channel 1 Hybrid coupler ODU Protection channel 1

ODU Working channel 2 Hybrid coupler ODU Protection channel 2


Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IFX FAN


Slot 20

EXT IFX EXT IFX SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IFX PXC PXC

In this example, two XPIC workgroups form two 1+1 HSB protection groups. l The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 form one XPIC workgroup; the service channels on the IFX boards in slots 7 and 8 form the other XPIC workgroup.

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The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 5 and 7 form one 1+1 HSB protection group; the service channels on the IFX boards in slots 6 and 8 form the other 1+1 HSB protection group. The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 are the working channels of the two 1+1 HSB protection groups. Generally, the two working channels (in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions) carry services. The service channels on the IFX boards in slots 7 and 8 are the protection channels of the two 1+1 HSB protection groups and provide protection for the working channels.

10.8.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data.

Basic Information About Radio Links


Based on the spectrum allocation on the radio network and the required radio transmission capacity, you can obtain the basic information about radio links as shown in Table 10-4. Table 10-4 Basic information about radio links Parameter Link ID Tx high site Tx low site Tx frequency at the Tx high site (MHz) Tx frequency at the Tx low site (MHz) T/R spacing (MHz) Work mode Link 1 101 NE1 NE2 14950 14530 420 Service capacity: STM-1 Channel spacing: 28 MHz Modulation mode: 128 QAM RF configuration mode Polarization direction 1+1 HSB V (vertical polarization) Link 2 102 NE1 NE2 14950 14530 420 Service capacity: STM-1 Channel spacing: 28 MHz Modulation mode: 128 QAM 1+1 HSB H (horizontal polarization)

NOTE

l The link planning information that is not associated with the configuration of IDU (except for the polarization direction) is not provided in this example. l In this example, two XPIC workgroups need to form two 1+1 HSB protection groups. Thus, the IDs of the radio links in the vertical polarization direction of the two XPIC workgroups must be set to 101 and the IDs of the radio links in the horizontal polarization direction of the two XPIC workgroups must be set to 102.

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Power and ATPC Information


By using the radio network planning software such as the Pathloss, you can analyze and compute the parameters of radio links and obtain the radio link power and ATPC information as shown in Table 10-5. Table 10-5 Power and ATPC information Parameter Transmit power (dBm) Link 1 6.0 (NE1) 6.0 (NE2) ATPC enabling ATPC automatic threshold enabling Disabled Link 2 6.0 (NE1) 6.0 (NE2) Disabled -

NOTE

l The transmit power is calculated in AM full-capacity mode. l The ATPC feature is not enabled in this example.

Configuration Information About 1+1 HSB Protection Groups


Figure 10-9 shows the board configurations of NE1 and NE2. Based on the rules for planning the slot priorities of IF boards and the 1+1 HSB protection, you can obtain the configuration information about the 1+1 HSB protection groups, as provided in Table 10-6. Table 10-6 Configuration information about 1+1 HSB protection groups Parameter 1+1 HSB protection group 1 V (vertical polarization) Working Board Protection Board Working Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time(s) Enable Reverse Switching 1+1 HSB protection group 2 H (horizontal polarization) Working Board Protection Board Working Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time(s) Enable Reverse Switching NE1 5-IFX 7-IFX HSB Revertive Mode 600 Enabled 6-IFX 8-IFX HSB Revertive Mode 600 Enabled NE2 5-IFX 7-IFX HSB Revertive Mode 600 Enabled 6-IFX 8-IFX HSB Revertive Mode 600 Enabled

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Configuration Information About XPIC Workgroups


Figure 10-9 shows the board configurations of NE1 and NE2. Based on the rules for planning the slot priorities of IF boards and the 1+1 HSB protection, you can obtain the configuration information about XPIC, as provided in Table 10-7. Table 10-7 Configuration information about XPIC Parameter XPIC Workgroup 1 V (vertical polarization) H (horizontal polarization) XPIC Workgroup 2 V (vertical polarization) H (horizontal polarization) NE1 5-IFX 6-IFX 7-IFX 8-IFX NE2 5-IFX 6-IFX 7-IFX 8-IFX

NOTE

Use the XPIC cables with angle connectors to connect the X-IN and X-OUT ports between the two IFX boards in the horizontal polarization direction, namely, the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 or slots 7 and 8.

10.8.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 Use the XPIC cables with angle connectors to connect the X-IN and X-OUT ports between the two IFX boards in the horizontal polarization direction, namely, the IFX boards in slots 5 and 6 or slots 7 and 8. Step 2 See A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group and configure 1+1 HSB protection. The parameters for configuring 1+1 HSB protection of NE1 and NE2 need to be set to the same values, as provided in the following table. Parameter Value Range 1+1 HSB Protection Group 1 V (vertical polarization) Working Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time (s) Enable Reverse Switching
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Parameter

Value Range 1+1 HSB Protection Group 1 V (vertical polarization) 1+1 HSB Protection Group 2 H (horizontal polarization) 6-IFX-1 8-IFX-1

Working Board Protection Board

5-IFX-1 7-IFX-1

Step 3 See A.14.2 Creating MAs and create XPIC workgroups. Parameter Value (NE1) XPIC Workgroup 1 Work Mode Polarization direction-V Link ID-V Polarization direction-H Link ID-H TX Power (dBm) Transmission Frequency (MHz) Transmission Status ATPC Enabled 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM 5-IFX-1 101 6-IFX-1 102 6.0 14950 XPIC Workgroup 2 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM 7-IFX-1 101 8-IFX-1 102 6.0 14950 Value (NE2) XPIC Workgroup 1 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM 5-IFX-1 101 6-IFX-1 102 6.0 14530 XPIC Workgroup 2 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM 7-IFX-1 101 8-IFX-1 102 6.0 14530

unmute Disabled

unmute Disabled

unmute Disabled

unmute Disabled

Step 4 See A.14.2 Creating MAs and configure the IF/ODU information about radio links. T/R Spacing(MHZ) for the links of NE1 and NE2 are set to the same values, as provided in the following table. Parameter Value Range 5-IFX and 15-ODU T/R Spacing(MHZ) 420 6-IFX and 16-ODU 420

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----End

10.9 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with XPIC.

Related Tasks
A.5.2 Creating an XPIC Workgroup A.5.1 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.8 Setting Parameters of IF Interfaces

10.10 Relevant Alarms and Events


When XPIC signals are lost, the system reports an alarm.

Relevant Alarms
l XPIC_LOS The XPIC_LOS alarm indicates that the XPIC compensation signal is lost.

Relevant Abnormal Events


None.

10.11 FAQs
This section describes the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the XPIC feature is used. Q: What is the method of rectifying an XPIC fault? A: To rectify an XPIC fault, do as follows: l Check whether the data configuration is correct. The two IFX boards that form an XPIC group must be configured with the same working mode, transmission frequency, and T/R spacing. l Check whether the cables are connected correctly. Configuring the XPIC workgroup involves connecting the IF cables, connecting the XPIC cables, and installing the ODU separately from the antenna, especially when the XPIC workgroup is configured with the 1+1 protection. Divide the cables into two parts according to the polarization directions of signals and then check each part. l Check whether the dual-polarized antenna is aligned in the correct polarized direction. The XPD can meet the specifications for the antenna only when the polarization direction of the dual-polarized antenna is aligned correctly.
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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

11 N+1 Protection

11
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the N+1 protection feature.

N+1 Protection

11.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of N+1 protection and describes its purpose. 11.2 Basic Concepts This section describes basic concepts associated with N+1 protection. 11.3 Specifications This section provides the specifications of N+1 protection. 11.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with N+1 protection. 11.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the N+1 protection feature and its dependency. 11.6 Principles The N+1 protection uses the N+1 protection protocol to implement switching. 11.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan N+1 protection. 11.8 Configuration Procedure To configure an N+1 protection group of radio links, you need to configure the IF/ODU information about the working and protection links and then create an N+1 protection group. 11.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure N+1 protection for SDH radio according to the network conditions. 11.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with N+1 protection. 11.11 Relevant Alarms and Performance Events When an N+1 protection switching occurs, the IF board reports corresponding alarms. 11.12 FAQs
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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

This section describes the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the N+1 protection feature is used.

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11.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of N+1 protection and describes its purpose.

Definition
N+1 protection refers to the protection configuration that N microwave working channels in a microwave direction share one microwave protection channel. N+1 protection provides protection for microwave channels. The IF board, ODU, and radio link on the working channel can be protected through the N+1 protection. The N+1 protection provides N working channels and one protection channel. When the working channel becomes faulty, the normal services on the working channel can be switched to the protection channel for transmission. When the working channel is restored to normal, the protection channel can transmit the extra services. Figure 11-1 shows the application of N+1 protection. Figure 11-1 N+1 protection
Site A Normal service 1 Working channel 1 Site B Normal service1

...
Normal service N Extra service

Working channel N Protection channel

...
Normal service N Extra service

Protection switching Site A Normal service 1 Working channel 1 Site B Normal service1

...
Normal service N Extra service

Working channel N Protection channel

...
Normal service N Extra service

Purpose
Compared with radio links configured with N+0 protection, radio links configured with N+1 protection have improved reliability.
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11.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes basic concepts associated with N+1 protection. 11.2.1 System Configuration The N+1 protection is available in two configuration modes: 2+1 protection configuration and 3+1 protection configuration. 11.2.2 Protection Type The protection type of N+1 protection is similar to the dual-ended revertive switching mode of 1:N linear multiplex section protection. 11.2.3 Switching Condition The N+1 protection can be triggered by local SF conditions, local SD conditions, local external switching requests, and byte K sent from the NE on the opposite side. This is similar to linear multiplex section protection. 11.2.4 Switching Impact The services are interrupted within the N+1 protection switching time (shorter than 50 ms). The extra services are interrupted from the time normal services are switched to the protection channel to the time the services are restored to the working channel.

11.2.1 System Configuration


The N+1 protection is available in two configuration modes: 2+1 protection configuration and 3+1 protection configuration.

2+1 Protection Configuration


One OptiX RTN 620 system supports one 2+1 protection group. One 2+1 protection group occupies three channels and consists of the following: l l l Three IF boards Three ODUs One dual-polarized antenna (with one balanced hybrid coupler)
NOTE

l The IF board can be the IF1 board, or IFX board. As the XPIC function is not required, it is recommended that you use the IF1 board. l The three channels can use the adjacent channel alternate-polarized (ACAP) mode.

Figure 11-2 provides a typical configuration of one 2+1 protection group. The configuration is as follows: l l l The IF1 boards in slots 5 and 7 provide two working channels. The IF1 board in slot 8 provides one protection channel. The three channels are configured in the ACAP mode. See Figure 11-3. The radio receive power of the three channels should be the same if possible to reduce adjacent channel interference. That is, the ODU transmit power set for the two working channels should be higher than the ODU transmit power set for the protection channel and the increment should exactly offset the extra loss caused by the hybrid coupler.
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One SL1 board and one SD1 board access two working services and one extra service.

Figure 11-2 Typical configuration of one 2+1 protection group

ODU Working channel 1 Hybrid coupler ODU Working channel 2 ODU Protection channel

Dual-polarized antenna

EXT IF1 FAN


Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF1 SL1 SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IFI PXC PXC


IDU 620

Figure 11-3 Typical channel configuration of one 2+1 protection group


Working channel 1 V H Protection channel Working channel 2

3+1 Protection Configuration


Two OptiX RTN 620 systems support one 3+1 protection group. One 3+1 protection group occupies four frequencies and consists of the following: l l l l
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Four IF boards (two for each NE) Four ODUs (two for each NE) Two SD1 boards (one for each NE) One dual-polarized antenna (with two balanced hybrid couplers)
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NOTE

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

The IF board can be the IF1 board, or IFX board. As the XPIC function is not required, it is recommended that you use the IF1 board.

Figure 11-4 provides a typical configuration of one 3+1 protection group. The configuration is as follows: l l l The two IF1 boards of the primary NE provide two working channels. The two IF1 boards of the secondary NE provide one working channel and one protection channel. The four channels are configured in the ACAP mode. See Figure 11-5. The radio receive power of the four channels should be the same if possible to reduce adjacent channel interference. That is, the ODU transmit power set for the four channels should be the same. The two SD1 boards in slots 6 and 8 of the primary NE access three working services and one extra service. One working service and the extra service are transferred to the secondary NE through the SD1 board in slot 4. The SD1 board in slot 4 of the secondary NE accesses the one working service and the extra service that are transferred from the primary NE.
NOTE

You can use one SL4 board to replace the two SD1 boards in slots 6 and 8 of the primary NE to access the services, depending on the requirements.

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Figure 11-4 Typical configuration of one 3+1 protection group

Dual-polarized antenna

ODU Working channel 1 Hybrid coupler ODU Working channel 2

ODU Working channel 3 Hybrid coupler ODU Protection channel


Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF1 FAN


Slot 20

SD1 SD1 SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF1 PXC PXC

Primary NE (IDU 620 )

EXT IF1 FAN


Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

SD1 SD1 SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF1 PXC PXC

Secondary NE (IDU 620 )

Figure 11-5 Typical channel configuration of one 3+1 protection group


Working channel 1 V H Protection channel Working channel 3 Working channel 2

11.2.2 Protection Type


The protection type of N+1 protection is similar to the dual-ended revertive switching mode of 1:N linear multiplex section protection. The dual-ended revertive switching mode is explained as follows:
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l l

When a protection switching occurs, the services on the working channels in two directions are switched to the protection channels. When an NE is in the switching state, the NE releases the switching and enables the former working channel to return to the normal state some time after the former working channel is restored to normal. The period from the time the former working channel is restored to normal to the time the NE releases the switching is called the wait-to-restore (WTR) time. To prevent frequent switching events due to an unstable working channel, it is recommended that you set the WTR time to 5 to 12 minutes. By default, the WTR time is 10 minutes.

11.2.3 Switching Condition


The N+1 protection can be triggered by local SF conditions, local SD conditions, local external switching requests, and byte K sent from the NE on the opposite side. This is similar to linear multiplex section protection. Table 11-1 Switching conditions of the N+1 protection Switching Condition Lockout of protection (external switching) Priority From top downwards, the priority is from the highest to the lowest. Description The lockout of protection blocks normal traffic signals from entering the protection channel but does not block traffic signals from being switched from the protection channel to the working channel. The signal fail condition in the protection channel is equivalent to the lockout of protection. Traffic signals on the working channel are forcibly switched to the protection channel. The SF on the working channel causes traffic signals to be switched to the protection channel. When there is the MW_LOF, R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, MS_AIS, or B2_EXC alarm on the working channel, or when the hardware of an ODU or IF board is faulty, the SF switching is triggered.

Forced switching (external switching)

Signal fail (SF)

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Switching Condition Signal degrade (SD)

Priority

Description The SD on the working channel causes traffic signals to be switched to the protection channel. When there is the B2_SD alarm on the working channel, the SD switching is triggered. If a switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the current standby equipment is faulty, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the active board to the standby board or from the standby board to the active board according to the command. The switching then enters the manual switching state. After traffic signals are switched to the protection channel due to the SF/SD condition on the working channel and the working channel is already restored to normal for the WTR time, a revertive switching occurs. From the time the former active equipment is restored to normal to the time the revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching enters the normal state. Traffic signals are not actually switched. The exercise functionality is used only to check whether an NE can normally carry out the N +1 protection protocol.

Manual switching (external switching)

Revertive switching (valid only in the revertive mode)

Exercise switching (external switching)

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NOTE

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l The SD is an optional switching condition. You can specify whether to use the SD as a switching condition on the NMS. By default, the SD switching condition is used. l If two switching conditions exist on a channel at the same time, the switching of higher priority preempts the channel. l External switching commands include the following clear switching commands: clear lockout command, clear forced switching command, clear manual switching command, clear exercise switching command, clear WTR state command, and clear all command. The clear WTR state command is used to end the current WTR state of the NE and to immediately switch services to the working channel. The clear all command is used to clear all switching actions triggered by external switching commands and to clear the WTR state. l If an NE needs to perform switching according to byte K sent from the NE at the opposite end, the NE determines the switching priority according to the bridge request code contained in byte K. For details, see 15.2.2 Meanings of K Bytes.

11.2.4 Switching Impact


The services are interrupted within the N+1 protection switching time (shorter than 50 ms). The extra services are interrupted from the time normal services are switched to the protection channel to the time the services are restored to the working channel.

11.3 Specifications
This section provides the specifications of N+1 protection. Table 11-2 provides the specifications of N+1 protection. Table 11-2 Specifications of N+1 protection Item Radio link form Radio work mode Specifications SDH radio link SDH radio link: l Service capacity: STM-1 l Channel spacing: 28 MHz l Modulation mode: 128QAM Number of 2+1 protection groups supported by a single NE Number of 3+1 protection groups supported by two NEs Protection switching duration WTR time One group One group Less than 50 ms 300 seconds to 720 seconds

11.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with N+1 protection.
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11 N+1 Protection

The N+1 protection protocol, a proprietary protocol stack of Huawei, is associated with N+1 protection. Parts of this protocol are based on the 1:N linear MSP protocol specified in ITU-T G.841 "Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures."

11.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the N+1 protection feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 11-3 Hardware and version support Feature N+1 protection Applicable Board IF1 IFX Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
l l l l The members of a 1+1 protection group cannot be configured as members of an N+1 protection group. The ATPC parameters, such as ATPC enable status and ATPC adjustment thresholds, need to be set to the same values for the members of an N+1 protection group. A radio link configured with N+1 protection can work only as the service sink of an SNCP service pair, rather than the working source or protection source. A member of the N+1 protection group cannot join the XPIC workgroup.

11.6 Principles
The N+1 protection uses the N+1 protection protocol to implement switching. 11.6.1 2+1 Protection Configuration In the case of 2+1 protection configuration, three IF boards form a 2+1 protection group to realize protection switching. 11.6.2 3+1 Protection Configuration In the case of the 3+1 protection configuration, the primary NE forms a 3+1 protection group to implement protection switching and the secondary NE forms two STM-1 REGs to implement transparent transmission of byte K.

11.6.1 2+1 Protection Configuration


In the case of 2+1 protection configuration, three IF boards form a 2+1 protection group to realize protection switching.
NOTE

The following describes the switching principle of 2+1 protection. The 2+1 protection configuration described in 11.2.1 System Configuration is provided as an example.

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Figure 11-6 Working principle of 2+1 protection (before the switching)


PXC 4-SD1-1 5-IF1-1 15-ODU

6-SL1-1

7-IF1-1

17-ODU

4-SD1-2

8-IF1-1

18-ODU

Working channel

Protection channel

Figure 11-7 Working principle of 2+1 protection (after the switching)


PXC 4-SD1-1 5-IF1-1 15-ODU

6-SL1-1

7-IF1-1

17-ODU

4-SD1-2

8-IF1-1

18-ODU

Working channel

Protection channel

In this example, port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 5, port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 7, and port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 8 form a 2+1 protection group. When a working channel fails, the switching principle of the 2+1 protection configuration is as follows: 1. 2. Before the switching, the NE sends and receives normal traffic signals on the working channel, and sends and receives extra traffic signals on the protection channel. On detecting that the signals on a working channel fail (for example, the IF1 board in slot 5 detects that an MW_LOF alarm is generated on port 1), the IF board notifies the SCC board. The SCC board controls the PXC board to implement the transmission of the working traffic signals (port 1 of the SD1 board in slot 4) on the protection channel (port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 8). The SCC board also interacts with the NE on the opposite side through byte K to enable the NE on the opposite side to perform synchronous switching.
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NOTE

11 N+1 Protection

The interaction of byte K between NEs complies with the N+1 protection protocol, which is similar to the MSP protocol. For details, see Working Principle of 1:N Linear MSP.

11.6.2 3+1 Protection Configuration


In the case of the 3+1 protection configuration, the primary NE forms a 3+1 protection group to implement protection switching and the secondary NE forms two STM-1 REGs to implement transparent transmission of byte K.
NOTE

The following part describes the switching principle of the 3+1 protection. The 3+1 protection configuration described in 11.2.1 System Configuration is provided as an example.

Figure 11-8 Working principle of the 3+1 protection (before the switching)
Primary NE PXC 6-SD1-1 5-IF1-1 15-ODU

6-SD1-2

7-IF1-1

17-ODU

8-SD1-1

4-SD1-1

8-SD1-2

4-SD1-2

Secondary NE PXC 4-SD1-1 5-IF1-1 15-ODU

4-SD1-2

7-IF1-1

17-ODU

Working channel

Protection channel

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Figure 11-9 Working principle of the 3+1 protection (after the switching)
Primary NE PXC 6-SD1-1 5-IF1-1 15-ODU

6-SD1-2

7-IF1-1

17-ODU

8-SD1-1

4-SD1-1

8-SD1-2

4-SD1-2

Secondary NE PXC 4-SD1-1 5-IF1-1 15-ODU

4-SD1-2

7-IF1-1

17-ODU

Working channel

Protection channel

In this example, port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 5 of the primary NE, port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 7 of the primary NE, and ports 1 and 2 of the SD1 board in slot 4 of the primary NE form a 3+1 protection group. An REG is established between port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 5 of the secondary NE and port 1 of the SD1 board in slot 4 of the secondary NE. Another REG is established between port 1 of the IF1 board in slot 7 of the secondary NE and port 2 of the SD1 board in slot 4 of the secondary NE. When a working channel fails, the switching principle of the 3+1 protection configuration is as follows: 1. Before the switching, the primary NE sends and receives normal traffic signals on the working channel, and sends and receives extra traffic signals on the protection channel. The secondary NE works as an REG to transparently transmit VC signals and multiplex section overheads. On detecting that the signals on a working channel fail (for example, the IF1 board in slot 5 detects that an MW_LOF alarm is generated on port 1), an IF board of the secondary NE inserts the MS_AIS alarm and transparently transmits the multiplex section overheads and VC signals to port 1 of the SD1 board in slot 4 of the primary NE through port 1 of the SD1 board in slot 4 of the secondary NE.
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3. 4.

On detecting the MS_AIS alarm, the SD1 board in slot 4 of the primary NE reports the alarm to the SCC board. The SCC board controls the PXC board to implement the transmission of the working traffic signals (port 1 of the SD1 board in slot 8) on the protection channel (port 2 of the SD1 board in slot 4). The SCC board also interacts with the NE on the opposite side through byte K to enable the NE on the opposite side to perform synchronous switching. When the primary NE exchanges byte K with the NE on the opposite side, the secondary NE always transparently transmits byte K because byte K belongs to the multiplex section overheads.
NOTE

l In this example, the working channels of the secondary NE fail. If the working channels of the primary NE fail, the IF board directly reports the alarm to the SCC board to trigger the protection switching. l The REG formed by the secondary NE is slightly different from an ordinary REG. The REG formed by the secondary NE does not insert an AU_AIS alarm but inserts an MS_AIS alarm to trigger the N+1 protection switching when an MW_LOF alarm or a regenerator section alarm (for example, R_LOS, R_LOC, and R_LOF) is generated. l The interaction of byte K between NEs complies with the N+1 protection protocol, which is similar to the MSP protocol. For details, see Working Principle of 1:N Linear MSP.

11.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan N+1 protection. When the OptiX RTN 620 transmits two or three STM-1 microwave services in a point-to-point manner, you can adopt N+1 protection. Follow these principles when planning N+1 protection: l l l Select 2+1 protection or 3+1 protection based on the transmission capacity. Plan the used channels. It is recommended that you configure the channels in the ACAP mode. Plan the parameters associated with N+1 protection. Set the WTR time to a value from five minutes to twelve minutes. It is recommended that you set the value to ten minutes. It is recommended that you set SD as a switching condition.

11.8 Configuration Procedure


To configure an N+1 protection group of radio links, you need to configure the IF/ODU information about the working and protection links and then create an N+1 protection group. Table 11-4 provides the configuration procedure of 2+1 protection.

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Table 11-4 Configuration procedure of 2+1 protection Step 1 Operation A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link Description Required. To configure SDH radio links with N+1 protection, you need to configure the IF and ODU information for each working link and the protection link. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Work Mode, Link ID, and ATPC Enable Status according to the network planning. l During a site commissioning, set ATPC Enable Status to Disabled. l Set TX Frequency (MHz), T/R Spacing(MHZ), and TX Power(dBm) according to the network planning. l Set TX Status to unmute.
NOTE To configure SDH radio links with N+1 protection, you need to configure the IF and ODU information for each working link and the protection link. Work Mode must be set to 7,STM-1,28MHz,128QAM for each link.

A.5.5 Creating an N+1 Protection Group

Required. The parameters of the N+1 protection groups of the equipment at both ends must be set to the same values. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.

As shown in Figure 11-4, two OptiX RTN 620s are required for 3+1 protection. Table 11-5 provides the configuration procedure of 3+1 protection. Create REGs between two IF boards of the secondary NE and two ports of the SD1 board that is connected to the primary NE. Table 11-5 Configuration procedure of 3+1 protection Step 1 Operation A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link Description Required. To configure SDH radio links with N+1 protection, you need to configure the IF and ODU information for each working link and the protection link. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Work Mode, Link ID, and ATPC Enable Status according to the network planning. l During a site commissioning, set ATPC Enable Status to Disabled. l Set TX Frequency (MHz), T/R Spacing(MHZ), and TX Power(dBm) according to the network planning. l Set TX Status to unmute.
NOTE To configure SDH radio links with N+1 protection, you need to configure the IF and ODU information for each working link and the protection link. Work Mode must be set to 7,STM-1,28MHz,128QAM for each link.

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Step 2

Operation A.5.5 Creating an N+1 Protection Group

Description Required. In the case of 3+1 protection, an N+1 protection group needs to be created only for the primary NE. The parameters of the 3+1 protection groups of the equipment at both ends must be set to the same values. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning. Required. In the case of 3+1 protection, configure crossconnections on the primary NE for working channels and protection channels that need to be carried on the secondary NE.

A.7.1 Creating CrossConnections of Point-to-Point Services A.5.6 Creating REGs

Required. Create REGs between two IF boards of the secondary NE and two ports of the SD1 board that is connected to the primary NE.

11.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure N+1 protection for SDH radio according to the network conditions. 11.9.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about the NEs. 11.9.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 11.9.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

11.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about the NEs. The service requirements between two SDH microwave sites are as follows: l l The SDH radio links need to transmit 3xSTM-1 services. The radio links need to be protected.

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Figure 11-10 Networking diagram


101 14935M 14515M 28M Working Channel 1 V-polarization 102 14963M 14543M 28M Protection Channel H-polarization 103 14991M 14571M 28M Working Channel 2 V-polarization 104 15019M 14599M 28M Working Channel 3 H-polarization

NE1 NE2
Tx high Tx low

NE3 NE4

Site A

Link ID Tx high station Tx Freq. Tx low station Tx Freq. Channel spacing Channel Type Polarization

Site B

Plan the radio links that adopt N+1 (N = 3) as shown in Figure 11-10. In this example, NE1 and NE3 are primary NEs respectively for Site A and Site B; NE2 and NE4 are secondary NEs respectively for Site A and Site B. As shown in Figure 11-11, the NE and board configurations on Site A and Site B are the same.

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Figure 11-11 Board configuration diagram

Dual-polarized antenna

ODU Working channel 1 Hybrid coupler ODU Working channel 2

ODU Working channel 3 Hybrid coupler ODU Protection channel


Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

EXT IF1 FAN


Slot 20

SD1 SD1 SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF1 PXC PXC

Primary NE (IDU 620 )

EXT IF1 FAN


Slot 20

Slot 7 Slot 5 Slot 3 Slot 1

SD1 SD1 SD1 SCC

Slot 8 Slot 6 Slot 4 Slot 2

EXT IF1 PXC PXC

Secondary NE (IDU 620 )

l l

The two IF1 boards of the primary NE provide two working channels; the two IF1 boards of the secondary NE provide one working channel and one protection channel. The SD1 board in slot 6 on the primary NE accesses 2xSTM-1 services. Then, the primary NE transmits the two services respectively through Working channel 1 and Working channel 2. The primary NE accesses 1xSTM-1 service through port 1 on the SD1 board in slot 8 and transmits the service to the secondary NE through port 1 on the SD1 board in slot 4. Generally, the protection channel does not carry extra traffic.

l l

11.9.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data.

Basic Information About Radio Links


Based on the spectrum allocation on the radio network and the required radio transmission capacity, you can obtain the basic information about the radio links as shown in Table 11-6.
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Table 11-6 Basic information about radio links Parameter Link ID Tx high site Tx low site Tx frequency at the Tx high site (MHz) Tx frequency at the Tx low site (MHz) T/R spacing (MHz) Work mode Link 1 (Working Link 1) 101 NE1 (primary NE on Site A) NE3 (primary NE on Site B) 14935 14515 420 Service capacity: STM-1 Channel spacing: 28 MHz Modulation mode: 128 QAM RF configuration mode Polarization direction N+1 (N = 3) V (vertical polarization) H (horizontal polarization) V (vertical polarization) H (horizontal polarization) Link 2 (Protection Link) 102 NE2 (secondary NE on Site A) NE4 (secondary NE on Site B) 14963 14543 420 Service capacity: STM-1 Channel spacing: 28 MHz Modulation mode: 128 QAM Link 3 (Working Link 2) 103 NE1 (primary NE on Site A) NE3 (primary NE on Site B) 14991 14571 420 Service capacity: STM-1 Channel spacing: 28 MHz Modulation mode: 128 QAM Link 4 (Working Link 3) 104 NE2 (secondary NE on Site A) NE4 (secondary NE on Site B) 15019 14599 420 Service capacity: STM-1 Channel spacing: 28 MHz Modulation mode: 128 QAM

NOTE

The planning information that is not associated with the configuration of the IDU (except for the polarization direction) is not provided in this example.

Power and ATPC information


By using the radio network planning software such as the Pathloss, you can analyze and compute the parameters of radio links and obtain the radio link power and ATPC information as shown in Table 11-7. Table 11-7 Power and ATPC information Parameter Transmit power (dBm) Link 1 (Working Link 1) 16.5 (NE1) 16.5 (NE3) Link 2 (Protection Link) 16.5 (NE2) 16.5 (NE4) Link 3 (Working Link 2) 16.5 (NE1) 16.5 (NE3) Link 4 (Working Link 3) 16.5 (NE2) 16.5 (NE4)

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Parameter ATPC enabling ATPC automatic threshold enabling

Link 1 (Working Link 1) Disabled -

Link 2 (Protection Link) Disabled -

Link 3 (Working Link 2) Disabled -

Link 4 (Working Link 3) Disabled -

NOTE

l The transmit power is calculated in 128 QAM modulation mode. l The ATPC feature is not enabled in this example.

N+1 Protection Configuration Information About the Primary NE


Two OptiX RTN 620s are required for configuring 3+1 protection, but you only need to configure an N+1 (N = 3) protection group on the primary NE. Based on the microwave type, slot priorities of IF boards, and configuration rules of N+1 protection, you can obtain the information about N+1 protection, as provided in Table 11-8. Table 11-8 Information about N+1 (N = 3) protection Parameter Work Unit NE1 (Primary NE on Site A) 5-IF1 7-IF1 4-SD1-1 Protection Unit WTR time(s) SD enable 4-SD1-2 600 seconds (default value) Enabled NE3 (Primary NE on Site B) 5-IF1 7-IF1 4-SD1-1 4-SD1-2 600 seconds (default value) Enabled

Cross-Connect Configuration Information About the Primary NE


In the case of 3+1 protection, configure cross-connections on the primary NE for working channels and protection channels that need to be carried on the secondary NE. As shown in Figure 11-11, respectively configure cross-connections from the receive ports (ports 1 and 2 on the SD1 board in slot 8 on the primary NE) to the transmit ports (ports 1 and 2 on the SD1 board in slot 4 on the primary NE) on NE1 and NE3. Table 11-9 Cross-connect configuration information about the primary NE Parameter Level Direction
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Working Link 3 VC-4 Bidirectional

Protection Link VC-4 Bidirectional


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Parameter Source Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range (e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range (e.g.1,3-6)

Working Link 3 8-SD1 1 VC4-1 4-SD1 1 VC4-1 -

Protection Link 8-SD1 2 VC4-1 4-SD1 2 VC4-1 -

REG Configuration Information About the Secondary NE


Figure 11-11 shows the board configurations for Site A and Site B. In the case of 3+1 protection, create REGs between two IF boards of the secondary NE and two ports of the SD1 board that is connected to the primary NE. Table 11-10 REG configuration information about the secondary NE Parameter REG (Working Link 3) West Line East Line SD Enabled REG (Protection Link) West Line East Line SD Enabled NE2 (Secondary NE on Site A) 5-IF1 4-SD1-1 Enabled 7-IF1 4-SD1-2 Enabled NE4 (Secondary NE on Site B) 5-IF1 4-SD1-1 Enabled 7-IF1 4-SD1-2 Enabled

11.9.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link and configure the IF/ODU parameters for each link. The following table provides the values of the IF/ODU parameters for each working link and protection link on Site A.
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Parameter

Value (Primary NE on Site A) 5-IF1 and 15ODU 7-IF1 and 17ODU 103 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14991 420 16.5 unmute

Value (Secondary NE on Site A) 5-IF1 and 15ODU 104 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 15019 420 16.5 unmute 7-IF1 and 17ODU 102 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14963 420 16.5 unmute

Link ID Work Mode ATPC Enable Status TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHZ) TX Power (dBm) TX Status

101 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14935 420 16.5 unmute

The following table provides the values of the IF/ODU parameters for each working link and protection link on Site B. Parameter Value (Primary NE on Site B) 5-IF1 and 15ODU Link ID Work Mode ATPC Enable Status TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHZ) TX Power (dBm) TX Status 101 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14515 420 16.5 unmute 7-IF1 and 17ODU 103 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14571 420 16.5 unmute Value (Secondary NE on Site B) 5-IF1 and 15ODU 104 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14599 420 16.5 unmute 7-IF1 and 17ODU 102 7, STM-1, 28 MHz, 128 QAM Disabled 14543 420 16.5 unmute

Step 2 See A.14.2 Creating MAs and create an N+1 protection group.

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In the case of 3+1 protection, an N+1 protection group needs to be created only for the primary NE. The N+1 protection parameters for NE1 (primary NE on Site A) and NE3 (primary NE on Site B) are set to the same values, as provided in the following table. Parameter WTR Time(s) SD enable Slot Mapping Relation Value Range 600 Enabled Work Unit: 5-IF1-1(SDH-1) 7-IF1-1(SDH-1) 4-SD1-1(SDH-1) Slot Mapping Relation Protection Unit: 4-SD1-2(SDH-2)

Step 3 See A.14.2 Creating MAs and configure point-to-point service cross-connections. In the case of 3+1 protection, configure cross-connections on the primary NE for working channels and protection channels that need to be carried on the secondary NE. The cross-connection parameters for NE1 (primary NE on Site A) and NE3 (primary NE on Site B) are set to the same values, as provided in the following table. Table 11-11 Cross-connect configuration information about the primary NE Parameter Level Direction Source Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g. 1,3-6) Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g. 1,3-6) Value (Working Link 3) VC-4 Bidirectional 8-SD1 1 VC4-1 4-SD1 1 VC4-1 Value (Protection Link) VC-4 Bidirectional 8-SD1 2 VC4-1 4-SD1 2 VC4-1 -

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Step 4 See A.14.2 Creating MAs and create REGs. In the case of 3+1 protection, you need to create REGs on the secondary NE. The REG configuration parameters for NE2 (secondary NE on Site A) and NE4 (secondary NE on Site B) are set to the same values, as provided in the following table. Parameter SD Enabled Slot Mapping Relation Value (Working Link 3) Enabled West Line: 5-IF1-1(SDH-1) East Line: 4-SD1-1(SDH-1) Value (Protection Link) Enabled West Line: 7-IF1-1(SDH-1) East Line: 4-SD1-2(SDH-2)

----End

11.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with N+1 protection.

Related Tasks
A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link A.5.5 Creating an N+1 Protection Group A.5.6 Creating REGs A.5.14 Querying the IF N+1 Protection Status A.5.16 Performing IF N+1 Protection Switching A.5.17 Starting/Stopping the N+1 Protection Protocol

11.11 Relevant Alarms and Performance Events


When an N+1 protection switching occurs, the IF board reports corresponding alarms.

Relevant Alarms
l l l NP1_SW_INDI The NP1_SW_INDI alarm indicates the N+1 protection switching. NP1_SW_FAIL The NP1_SW_FAIL alarm indicates that the N+1 protection switching fails. NP1_MANUAL_STOP The NP1_MANUAL_STOP alarm indicates that the protection protocol is manually stopped.

Relevant Performance Events


N+1 protection switching
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This performance event indicates that the N+1 protection switching occurs.

11.12 FAQs
This section describes the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the N+1 protection feature is used. Q: What switching states does the N+1 protection have? A: The N+1 protection has the following switching states: l l l l l l l l l l Protocol not started The state when the N+1 protection protocol is not started Protocol starting The state when the N+1 protection protocol is being started Protocol normal The normal state after the N+1 protection protocol is started Lockout The state after the protection channel is locked out Forced The state after a forced switching Manual The state after a manual switching Exercise The state after an exercise switching Signal failure The state after an SF switching Signal degrade The state after an SD switching WTR The state that lasts from the time the working equipment is restored to normal after an automatic switching to the time the revertive switching occurs in the revertive mode Q: Why cannot the forced switching be performed when the signal on the protection channel fails? A: After the signal on the protection channel fails, the protection channel is locked out. The lockout of the protection channel has a higher priority than the forced switching. Hence, the forced switching cannot be performed. Q: Why does the creation of an N+1 protection group fail? A: Common causes are as follows: l l The radio work mode of the IF board is not configured. The radio work mode of the IF board is not the STM-1 mode.

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Q: What is the method of handling an N+1 protection switching failure? A: Check whether the protection channel is normal or whether the protection channel is already used to protect other services. l l If alarms are generated on the protection channel, analyze the fault causes according to the alarms and rectify the faults. If the protection channel is already used to protect other services, rectify the faults in the other services so that the protection channel can be released to idle state or change the protection mode for this service.

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12

Automatic Transmit Power Control

About This Chapter


This chapter describes the automatic transmit power control (ATPC) feature. 12.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of ATPC and describes its purpose. 12.2 Specifications This section describes the specifications of ATPC. 12.3 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the ATPC feature and its dependency. 12.4 Principles The ATPC function is implemented through the ATPC overhead in the microwave frame. 12.5 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan ATPC. 12.6 Configuration Procedure When configuring ATPC, you need to set the parameters of ATPC and the maximum transmit power of ODUs. 12.7 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure ATPC according to network conditions. 12.8 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the feature. 12.9 Relevant Alarms and Events When the ATPC adjustment occurs, the IF board reports the relevant performance events. 12.10 FAQs This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when ATPC is used.

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12.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of ATPC and describes its purpose.

Definition
ATPC is a method of adjusting transmit power based on the fading of transmit signal detected at the receiver. When the ATPC function is enabled, the following conditions are possible: l If the RSL at the receiver is 2 dB lower than the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, the receiver notifies the transmitter of an increase in the transmit power. Therefore, the RSL can be within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold. See Figure 12-1.
NOTE

l The preset maximum transmit power of the ODU should not be more than the rated maximum transmit power of the ODU. l If the actual transmit power of the ODU reaches the preset maximum transmit power whereas the RSL at the receiver fails to be within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, adjustments are no longer made.

If the RSL at the receiver is 2 dB higher than the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, the receiver notifies the transmitter of a decrease in the transmit power. Therefore, the RSL can be within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold. See Figure 12-1.

Figure 12-1 Relationship between the RSL and TSL


TSL/RSL

TSL

Up-fading Central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold 2dB RSL 2dB Down-fading

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Purpose
The ATPC technology enables the equipment to automatically change the output power of the transmitter within the ATPC control range based on the received signal level at the receive end. In this manner, the received signal level at the receive end can be controlled within a fixed range and therefore the interference to the neighboring system and the residual error rate are reduced.

12.2 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of ATPC. Table 12-1 lists the specifications of ATPC. Table 12-1 Specifications of ATPC Item ATPC control range Specifications The upper threshold is the maximum transmit power of ODUs The lower threshold is the minimum transmit power of ODUs ATPC adjustment step Automatic adjustment based on the difference between the RSL and the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold. The maximum adjustment step at one time is 10 dB. > 30 dB/s Supported

ATPC adjustment speed Maximum transmit power of ODUs

12.3 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the ATPC feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version


Table 12-2 Hardware and version support Feature ATPC Applicable Board IF0A IF0B IF1A IF1B
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Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions

Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later
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Feature

Applicable Board IFH2 IFX

Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions

Applicable Product Version V100R003 and later V100R002 and later

NOTE

The working principle of the ATPC function on the OptiX RTN 600 of version V100R003 or later is different from the working principle of the ATPC function on the OptiX RTN 600 of version V100R002 or earlier. In the case of the OptiX RTN 600 of version V100R002 or earlier, the receive end tests the received signal level (RSL). Then, the transmit end increases the transmit power if the RSL is lower than the preset ATPC lower threshold; the transmit end decreases the transmit power if the RSL is higher than the preset ATPC upper threshold.

Feature Dependency
l l The ATPC parameters, such as ATPC enable status and ATPC adjustment thresholds, need to be set to the same values for the members of an XPIC workgroups. The ATPC parameters, such as ATPC enable status and ATPC adjustment thresholds, need to be set to the same values for the members of an N+1 protection group.

12.4 Principles
The ATPC function is implemented through the ATPC overhead in the microwave frame. Figure 12-2 Realization principle of the ATPC
Transmitter Receiver RSL not within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central valu e of the ATPC upper threshold and ATPC lower threshold RSL not within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central valu e of the ATPC upper threshold and ATPC lower threshold

Microwave frame (ATPC overhead indicates power adjustment and adjustment step)

Adjust the ODU power once according to the ATPC adjustment step

...........

Microwave frame (ATPC overhead indicates power adjustment and adjustment step)

Adjust the ODU power once according to the ATPC adjustment step

...........

RSL within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central valu e of the ATPC upper threshold and ATPC lower threshold

Microwave frame (ATPC overhead indicates no adjustments to the transmit power) ...........

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The realization principle is as follows: 1. 2. The receiver detects the RSL. When the ATPC function is enabled, if the RSL is not within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, the receiver determines the power adjustment type and adjustment step according to the difference between the RSL and the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold. In addition, the receiver sets the ATPC overhead to inform the transmitter of the power adjustment type and adjustment step. The transmitter adjusts the transmit power of the ODU.
NOTE

3.

When the transmit power of the ODU reaches the preset value of the maximum transmit power of the ODU, the transmitter does not increase the transmit power of the ODU any longer.

4. 5.

After sending the ATPC overhead that indicates an adjustment to the transmit power, after a certain period. Hence, the transmitter is notified that the adjustment stops. If the receiver detects that the RSL is still not within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold, the system repeats steps 2 and 4 until the RSL is within the value range that has a bias of 2 dB from the central value.
NOTE

l When the difference between the RSL and the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold is less than 12 dB, one ATPC adjustment can meet the requirement for the transmit power if the interference due to fast fading does not exist. Otherwise, several ATPC adjustments are required. l If the number of ATPC adjustments reaches the maximum number but the difference between the RSL and the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold is more than 2 dB, the system starts new ATPC adjustments after a certain period.

12.5 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan ATPC.

OptiX RTN 600 of V100R002 and Earlier


Follow certain guidelines when you plan ATPC parameters: l l l l Set the ATPC parameters consistent for both sides of a hop of radio link. It is recommended that you disable the ATPC function in areas where fast fading is severe. To prevent sudden fast fading from causing the RSL lower than receiver sensitivity, set the lower ATPC threshold to a value 10 dB or more higher than receiver sensitivity. Generally, the upper ATPC threshold should be 20 dB to 30 dB higher than the lower ATPC threshold, and must be equal to or higher than 15 dB. If the difference between the upper threshold and the lower threshold is great, the number of ATPC adjustments decreases and the system load is reduced. If the difference between the upper threshold and the lower threshold is small, the transmit power is adjusted in a timely manner and the interference to adjacent systems is reduced. It is recommended that you set the ATPC adjustment step to 5 dB.
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l
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OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

OptiX RTN 600 of V100R003 and Later


Follow certain guidelines when you plan ATPC parameters: l l l l l Set ATPC parameters consistent at the two sides of a hop of microwave link. It is recommended that you disable the ATPC function for areas where fast fading is severe. Set the central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold so that the central value is equal to the required value of the receive power. Ensure that the difference between values of the automatic ATPC upper threshold and the automatic ATPC lower threshold is not less than 5 dB. Set the maximum transmit power of the ODU when the transmit power of the ODU needs to be restricted to a certain range.

12.6 Configuration Procedure


When configuring ATPC, you need to set the parameters of ATPC and the maximum transmit power of ODUs. Table 12-3 Configuration procedure of ATPC Step 1 Operation A.5.3 Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link Remarks You can set certain parameters of ATPC. Set the major parameters as follows: l When commissioning a site, set ATPC Enable Status to Disabled. l It is recommended that you set ATPC Upper Threshold (dBm) to Power to Be Received(dBm) plus 10 dB. l It is recommended that you set the lower ATPC threshold (dBm) to Power to Be Received(dBm) minus 10 dB. l It is recommended that you set ATPC Automatic Threshold Enable Status to Disabled. l If the maximum transmit power allowed by ATPC adjustment needs to be set, set Maximum Transmit Power(dBm) accordingly. l TX High Threshold(dBm), TX Low Threshold(dBm), RX High Threshold(dBm), and RX Low Threshold(dBm) affect only the performance events associated with ATPC. Set these parameters if necessary. 2 A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces Set Maximum Transmit Power(dBm) of ODUs based on network planning.

12.7 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure ATPC according to network conditions.
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12.7.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about NEs. 12.7.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 12.7.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

12.7.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about NEs. As shown in Figure 12-3, the ATPC function needs to be enabled on the radio link between two NEs of the OptiX RTN 620. Figure 12-3 Networking diagram

Enable Disabled -36.0dBm -56.0dBm -46.0dBm

NE1

NE2

ATPC Enable Status ATPC Automatic Threshold Enable ATPC Upper Threshold (dBm) ATPC Lower Threshold (dBm) Power to Be Received(dBm)

12.7.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data.

ATPC Information
Table 12-4 provides the ATPC information of NE1 and NE2.

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Table 12-4 ATPC information Parameter ATPC Enable Status Automatic ATPC Threshold Setting ATPC Upper Threshold (dBm)a ATPC Lower Threshold (dBm) Maximum Transmit Power of an ODU Value Range Enabled Disabled -36.0 -56.0 -

NOTE

l A planning principle defines that the upper and lower ATPC thresholds should be the value of Power to Be Received(dBm) 10 dBm. If the value of Power to Be Received(dBm) of an NE is -46.0 dBm, the upper and lower ATPC thresholds should be set to -36.0 dBm and -56.0 dBm. l The maximum transmit power of an ODU refers to the actual maximum transmit power of the ODU after the ATPC function is enabled. By default, this parameter takes the rated maximum transmit power of an ODU. When an ODU works at the rated maximum transmit power, the electromagnetic wave matches the spectrum profile Therefore, you need not set this parameter in general cases.

12.7.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 A.5.7 Configuring the ATPC function. The following table provides the parameter values of NE1 and NE2. Parameter Value Range 5-IFH2 and 15-ODU ATPC Enable Status ATPC Upper Threshold (dBm) ATPC Lower Threshold (dBm) ATPC Automatic Threshold Enable Status Enabled -36.0 -56.0 Disabled

----End

12.8 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the feature.

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Related Tasks
A.5.7 Configuring the ATPC function A.5.9 Setting Parameters of ODU Interfaces A.5.10 Querying ATPC Adjustment Records

12.9 Relevant Alarms and Events


When the ATPC adjustment occurs, the IF board reports the relevant performance events.

Relevant Alarms
None.

Relevant Performance Events


l l ATPC_P_ADJUST The ATPC_P_ADJUST indicates the positive ATPC adjustment event. ATPC_N_ADJUST The ATPC_N_ADJUST indicates the negative ATPC adjustment event.

12.10 FAQs
This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when ATPC is used. Q: Why is the RSL sometimes more than 2 dB higher or lower than the central value of the ATPC threshold range, when the ATPC function is enabled? A: Major causes may be as follows: l The ATPC adjustment speed is lower than the instantaneous fading speed. This ATPC adjustment speed may be lower than the instantaneous speed of certain fadings. In this case, the transmit power adjusted by the ATPC function fails to offset the fading in a timely manner, and hence, the RSL is more than 2 dB higher or lower than the central value of the ATPC threshold range. l The transmit power reaches the threshold of the ATPC control range, and cannot be increased or decreased.

Q: What are the differences and similarities between APTC and remote transmit power control (RTPC)? Answer: The differences and similarities between ATPC and RTPC are as follows: l l Adjustment objects The adjustment objects of ATPC and RTPC are transmit power at the transmit end. Adjustment schemes The adjustment scheme of ATPC is to automatically adjust transmit power by detecting transmit signal attenuation at the receive end. The adjustment scheme of RTPC is to remotely control transmit power by issuing commands on the NMS.
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Adjustment ranges The upper threshold for the ATPC adjustment range is the rated maximum transmit power of the ODU, and the lower threshold is the rated minimum transmit power of the ODU. The upper threshold for the RTPC adjustment range is the maximum transmit power that meets the spectrum mask requirements, and the lower threshold is the minimum transmit power that meets the spectrum mask requirements.
NOTE

For details on the specific RTPC adjustment range, see the RTN 600 System Parameters.

Adjustment steps ATPC automatically changes the adjustment step according to receive level and the central value of the upper and lower thresholds. The minimum adjustment step of ATPC is 1 dB. The maximum adjustment step of RTPC is limited to the adjustment range. The minimum adjustment step of RTPC is 0.5 dB.

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13 Adaptive Modulation

13
About This Chapter

Adaptive Modulation

This chapter describes the adaptive modulation (AM) feature. 13.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of AM and describes its purpose. 13.2 Specifications This section describes the specifications of AM. 13.3 Availability This section describes the support and dependency that AM requires. 13.4 Principles The AM function is implemented through the AM engine in the Modem unit. 13.5 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan AM. 13.6 Configuration Procedure When configuring AM, you need to set the modulation mode of the guaranteed AM capacity and the modulation mode of the maximum AM capacity. 13.7 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure AM according to network conditions. 13.8 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the feature. 13.9 Relevant Alarms and Events When the AM shift occurs, the IF board reports the relevant alarms and performance events. 13.10 FAQs This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when AM is used.

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13.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of AM and describes its purpose.

Definition
The AM function adjusts the modulation mode according to the quality of channels. In the case of the same channel spacing, the microwave service bandwidth varies with the modulation mode. The higher the modulation efficiency, the higher the bandwidth of the transmitted services is. When the quality of channels is good, the equipment adopts a high-efficiency modulation mode to improve transmission efficiency and frequency spectrum utilization. When the quality of channel degrades, the equipment adopts a low-efficiency modulation mode to transmit only the services with a higher priority within the available bandwidth and to discard the services with a lower priority. In this manner, the anti-interference capability is improved and the link availability for services with a high priority is ensured. When the Hybrid microwave equipment adopts the AM technology, it controls service transmission based on the service bandwidth and QoS policy corresponding to the current modulation mode. The E1 services have the highest priority. By adopting the CoS technology, the equipment schedules the Ethernet services of different types to the queues with different priorities. The services in the queues with different priorities are transmitted to the microwave port through the SP or WRR algorithm. When the queues with certain priorities are congested because of insufficient microwave bandwidth, certain or all services in the queues with these priorities are discarded. When the Hybrid microwave works in the lowest modulation mode, the equipment transmits only the E1 services. If there are extra bandwidths, the equipment can also transmit the services with a high priority. When the Hybrid microwave works in any other modulation mode, all the additional bandwidths are used to transmit the Ethernet services. In this manner, the availability of the links that carry the E1 services and the Ethernet services with a high priority is ensured, and the Ethernet service capacity is increased. Figure 13-1 shows the service change caused by the AM. The orange part indicates the E1 services. The blue part indicates the Ethernet services. The closer to the edge of the blue part, the lower is the priority of the Ethernet service. Under all channel conditions, the E1 services occupy the specific bandwidth that is permanently available. Thus, the availability of the E1 services is ensured. The bandwidth for the Ethernet services varies with the channel conditions. When the channel is in bad conditions, the Ethernet services with a low priority are discarded.

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Figure 13-1 Adaptive modulation

256QAM 128QAM 32QAM QPSK 256QAM Channel Capability 64QAM E1 Services Ethernet Services 128QAM 32QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM

Purpose
On a radio link consisting of the Hybrid microwave systems, the AM function can ensure the link availability for services with a high priority and greatly improve the bandwidth utilization.

13.2 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of AM. Table 13-1 lists the specifications of AM. Table 13-1 Specifications of AM Item Lowest-efficiency AM mode Highest-efficiency AM mode Impact of mode shifting Specifications QPSK/16QAM/32QAM/64QAM/128QAM/ 256QAM QPSK/16QAM/32QAM/64QAM/128QAM/ 256QAM When mode shifting occurs, the transmit frequency, receive frequency, and channel spacing are not changed. In the case of down-shift, the services with a lower priority are discarded and the services with a higher priority have no errors or slips. Shifting mode AM modes are shifted step by step.

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Item Shifting speed

Specifications No bit error in the higher priority services in the case of 100 dB/s fast fading

13.3 Availability
This section describes the support and dependency that AM requires.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 13-2 Hardware and version support Feature AM Applicable Board IFH2 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R003 and later

Feature Dependency
l l The AM function can work with the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection. When the AM function is enabled, the QoS policies need to be set to control the transmission of Ethernet services.

13.4 Principles
The AM function is implemented through the AM engine in the Modem unit.

AM Working Principle (Before the Switching)


1. 2. 3. The service is scheduled to the IF interface of the IF board and then multiplexed into the microwave frame at the MUX unit. The microwave frame is transmitted to the opposite end over the Tx path after being modulated by the IF unit. The Rx path of the opposite end receives the IF signal and then checks the quality of the received signal based on the received signal to noise ratio (SNR). In the case of the current modulation mode, the quality of the received signal is considered to be degraded if the value of the received SNR is lower than the preset threshold. In this case, the opposite end sends a signal that indicates the quality of the received signal to the AM engine. The AM engine at the opposite end sends the microwave frame to the local end after the switching indication signal is inserted into the overhead of this microwave frame. The IF unit at the local end processes the received IF signal and sends the AM switching indication signal to AM engine at the local end. The AM engine sends the switching indication signal to the MUX unit to enable the MUX unit and the air interface to change the modulation mode, as shown in Figure 13-2.
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Figure 13-2 AM switching (before the switching)

MUX unit

Microwave frame

IF Module
Tx Path

IF Module
Rx Path INDI AM Engine INDI Tx Path

Microwave frame

MUX unit

INDI AM Engine SNR MUX unit INDI Rx Path

SNR

AM Messages

Microwave frame

Microwave frame

MUX unit

Low priority service High priority service

INDI:Modulation scheme indication signal SNR:signal to noise ratio

AM Working Principle (After the Switching)


1. When the IF unit detects the SNR threshold-crossing that triggers the switching of a lowefficiency modulation mode, the unit instructs the opposite end to perform a modulation mode switching. The opposite IF unit performs QoS processing of the service according to the service bandwidth change and then schedules the corresponding service to the IF interface. Based on the result of the QoS processing, the service of a lower priority is discarded and the service of a higher priority is scheduled to the IF interface. In this case, the bandwidth of the microwave frame is decreased, as shown in Figure 13-3. When the IF unit detects the SNR threshold-crossing that triggers the switching of a high-efficiency modulation mode, it performs the operations that are similar to those performed for switching a low-efficiency modulation mode.
NOTE

In the case of the Hybrid microwave, E1 services are of the highest priority.

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Figure 13-3 AM switching (after the switching)

MUX unit

Microwave frame

IF Module
Tx Path

IF Module
Rx Path INDI AM Engine INDI Tx Path

Microwave frame

MUX unit

INDI AM Engine SNR MUX unit INDI Rx Path

SNR

AM Messages

Microwave frame

Microwave frame

MUX unit

Low priority service High priority service

INDI:Modulation scheme indication signal SNR:signal to noise ratio

2.

The AM function changes the modulation mode based on the frame boundary of the signal. The Rx path of the receive end sends the signal that indicates the receive mode change of the current frame to the MUX unit when detecting the change of the modulation mode. Hence, the MUX unit can receive and process service signals according to the new modulation mode.

13.5 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan AM.

Planning Guidelines on the AM Enabling Status


l If Ethernet services need to meet the availability requirement for E1 services, it is recommended that you do not enable the AM function. In addition, you need to determine a fixed modulation mode according to the availability requirement and the maximum service capacity. If Ethernet services need not meet the availability requirement for E1 services (that is, a part of bandwidth can be lost when Ethernet signals degrade), it is recommended that you enable the AM function.

Planning Guidelines on AM Attributes


l Determine the highest-efficiency and lowest-efficiency AM modes based on service types, service priorities, service capacities, service bandwidth, microwave frequencies, and channel bandwidth. Calculate the availability in each AM mode by using the network planning documents. Ensure that the availability in each AM mode meets the requirements of users. Calculate the working time ratio of each AM mode.
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13.6 Configuration Procedure


When configuring AM, you need to set the modulation mode of the guaranteed AM capacity and the modulation mode of the maximum AM capacity. Table 13-3 Configuration procedure of AM Step 1 Operation A.5.4 Setting the Hybrid/AM Attribute Remarks Configure the AM function. The parameters need to be set according to the network planning.

13.7 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure AM according to network conditions. 13.7.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about NEs. 13.7.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for data configuration. 13.7.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

13.7.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about NEs. As shown in Figure 13-4, the AM function needs to be enabled on the radio link consisting of two NEs of the OptiX RTN 620. Figure 13-4 Networking diagram of the AM function

NE2

NE1

13.7.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for data configuration.
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AM Information
Table 13-4 lists AM information. Table 13-4 AM information Parameter NE1 5-IFH2 Channel spacing (MHz) AM enabling AM guaranteed capacity mode AM full capacity mode E1 Capacity 28 Enable QPSK 128QAM 10 NE2 5-IFH2 28 Enable QPSK 128QAM 10

13.7.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 A.5.4 Setting the Hybrid/AM Attribute. The following table provides the parameter values of the IF boards on NE1 and NE2. Parameter Value Range NE1 5-IFH2 AM Enable Status IF Channel Bandwidth Modulation Mode of the Assured AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity E1 Capacity Enable 28M QPSK 128QAM 10 NE2 5-IFH2 Enable 28M QPSK 128QAM 10

----End

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13.8 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the feature.

Related Tasks
A.5.4 Setting the Hybrid/AM Attribute A.5.12 Querying the AM Status

13.9 Relevant Alarms and Events


When the AM shift occurs, the IF board reports the relevant alarms and performance events.

Relevant Alarms
AM_DOWNSHIFT The AM_DOWNSHIFT alarm indicates that the AM downshifts the modulation mode.

Relevant Performance Events


l QAMWS16 The QAMWS16 indicates the working second in the case of the QAMWS16 modulation mode. l QAMWS32 The QAMWS32 indicates the working second in the case of the QAMWS32 modulation mode. l QAMWS64 The QAMWS64 indicates the working second in the case of the QAMWS64 modulation mode. l QAMWS128 The QAMWS128 indicates the working second in the case of the QAMWS128 modulation mode. l QAMWS256 The QAMWS256 indicates the working second in the case of the QAMWS256 modulation mode. l FB_AMDCNT FB_AMDCNT indicates the count of the AM downshifts on a board in the current performance statistics period. l FB_AMUCNT FB_AMUCNT indicates the count of the AM upshifts on a board in the current performance statistics period.

13.10 FAQs
This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when AM is used.
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Q: What is the method of handling the failure of the AM switching? A: The possible symptoms of a modulation mode failure are as follows: l l Bit errors occur after a switching. The switching is not triggered when the switching conditions are met or the switching is triggered when the switching conditions are not met.

The possible causes of the switching failure are as follows: l The AM function is disabled. When the AM function is disabled, the radio link uses a fixed modulation mode. Hence, the flexible transmission of Ethernet services cannot be realized. l The transmit power of the ODU is manually adjusted by more than 3 dB. If the transmit power of the ODU is manually adjusted by more than 3 dB at one time, it is equivalent to the result when the rate of fast fading is more than 100 dB/s. In this case, hitless AM switching may fail. l The user incorrectly considers that the receiver sensitivity is associated with the AM switching. AM switching is realized through the detection of the SNR other than the detection of the RSL. If the SNR exceeds the specified threshold, the AM switching occurs though the RSL is higher than the receiver sensitivity. l The ATPC function and the AM function cannot work properly together. When the ATPC function is enabled, the transmit power cannot be the maximum transmit power if the upper ATPC adjustment threshold is set incorrectly. As a result, the improvement to the SNR of the radio link is affected and the AM upshift fails. An ATPC adjustment with a higher rate and a larger step results in less stability of the AM switching. The ATPC function and the AM function may affect each other when working together. Hence, it is recommended that you disable the ATPC function when the AM function is enabled.

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14

Subnetwork Connection Protection

About This Chapter


This chapter describes the sub-network connection protection (SNCP) feature. 14.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of sub-network connection protection (SNCP) and describes its purpose. 14.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with SNCP. 14.3 Specifications This section provides the specifications of SNCP. 14.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with SNCP. 14.5 Availability This section describes the support required by SNCP and dependency of the feature. 14.6 Principles SNCP functions based on the dual fed and selective receiving mechanism. 14.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan SNCP. 14.8 Configuration Procedure When configuring SNCP services, you need to create cross-connections of SNCP services and set SNCP automatic switching conditions as required. 14.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure SNCP according to network conditions. 14.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with SNCP. 14.11 Relevant Alarms and Events When an SNCP switching occurs, the system reports the relevant alarms and abnormal events.
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14.12 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently asked when SNCP is adopted.

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14.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of sub-network connection protection (SNCP) and describes its purpose.

Definition
SNCP is a service protection scheme that switches services to the protection SNC when the working SNC fails or degrades. The subnet can be a chain, a ring, or a more complex network. SNCP functions based on the dual fed and selective receiving mechanism. Figure 14-1 shows the application of SNCP. Figure 14-1 Subnetwork connection protection
Working SNC Trail source Trail sink

NE A Protection SNC

NE B

Protection switching

Working SNC Trail source Trail sink

NE A Protection SNC

NE B

Purpose
SNCP improves the reliability of service transmission, especially on ring topologies where traffic load is heavy, including ring with chain, tangent rings, and intersecting rings.

14.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with SNCP.
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14.2.1 Protection Type SNCP is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. 14.2.2 SNCP Service Pair An SNCP service pair is a basic unit of SNCP. It consists of a working source, a protection source, and a service sink. 14.2.3 Hold-Off Time SNCP works based on services, and 1+1 protection works based on links. When services configured with SNCP are transmitted on the links configured with 1+1 protection, you need to set the hold-off time to ensure that a 1+1 protection switching occurs before an SNCP switching. In this manner, you can avoid repeated SNCP switching events caused by a 1+1 protection switching. 14.2.4 Switching Conditions SNCP configured for different services has different switching conditions. 14.2.5 Switching Impact Within the SNCP switching time (< 50 ms), services are interrupted.

14.2.1 Protection Type


SNCP is classified into the revertive mode and the non-revertive mode. l Revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE releases the switching some time after the former working channel is restored to normal. The period after the former working channel is restored to normal and before the NE releases the switching is called the wait-to-restore (WTR) time. To prevent frequent switching events due to an unstable working channel, it is recommended that you set the WTR time to a value from 5 to 12 minutes. l Non-revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE maintains the switching unless another switching occurs, even though the former working channel is restored to normal .

14.2.2 SNCP Service Pair


An SNCP service pair is a basic unit of SNCP. It consists of a working source, a protection source, and a service sink. Figure 14-2 SNCP service pair
Working source Protection source

Service sink

The working source and the protection source can be fiber lines, STM-1e electrical cables, or radio links. In addition, they need not be of the same type. The service sink can be any line or tributary.
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14.2.3 Hold-Off Time


SNCP works based on services, and 1+1 protection works based on links. When services configured with SNCP are transmitted on the links configured with 1+1 protection, you need to set the hold-off time to ensure that a 1+1 protection switching occurs before an SNCP switching. In this manner, you can avoid repeated SNCP switching events caused by a 1+1 protection switching. The following part describes the function of the hold-off time on a network configured with 1 +1 SD and SNCP.

An Example Wherein 1+1 SD and SNCP Coexist


As shown in Figure 14-3, the services between NE A and NE C are configured with revertive SNCP. The radio links between NE B and NE C are configured with 1+1 SD. In normal cases, the working SNC traverses NE B. Figure 14-3 An application scenario wherein 1+1 SD and SNCP coexist
NE A

Working SNC

NE B

NE D

The service between NE B and NE C is transmitted on the main link NE C

Description of the Switching When the Hold-Off Time Is Not Set


If the hold-off time of SNCP is not set (that is, the hold-off time is 0), the fading on the active radio link between NE B and NE C triggers an SNCP switching and a 1+1 HSB switching at the same time. When a 1+1 HSB switching occurs, the services between NE B and NE C are switched to the standby radio link. When an SNCP switching occurs, the services between NE B and NE C are switched to the protection SNC trail. Figure 14-4 shows the traffic flow.

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Figure 14-4 Traffic flow after an SNCP switching and a 1+1 HSB switching
NE A Protection SNC

NE B

NE D

The service between NE B and NE C is transmitted on the standby link

NE C

After the fault on the link is rectified, a revertive SNCP switching occurs. Figure 14-5 shows the traffic flow after the switching. Figure 14-5 Traffic flow after a revertive SNCP switching
NE A Working SNC

NE B

NE D

The service between NE B and NE C is transmitted on the standby link

NE C

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Description of the Switching When the Hold-Off Time Is Set


If the hold-off time is set, an SNCP switching does not occur immediately after the system detects a switching condition. Instead, the system checks whether the switching condition persists after a certain period. If the switching condition persists, an SNCP switching occurs. If the switching condition disappears, no SNCP switchings are triggered. In this example, if the hold-off time is set, the fault on the active radio link between NE B and NE C first triggers a 1+1 HSB switching. If the 1+1 HSB switching is completed within the hold-off time, the SNCP switching condition no longer exists when the hold-off time expires. Therefore, no SNCP switchings are triggered. Figure 14-6 shows the final traffic flow after the 1+1 HSB switching. Compared with the switching situation where the hold-off time is not set, two SNCP switchings are avoided. Figure 14-6 Traffic flow after a 1+1 HSB switching when the hold-off time is set
NE A Working SNC

NE B

NE D

The service between NE B and NE C is transmitted on the standby link

NE C

14.2.4 Switching Conditions


SNCP configured for different services has different switching conditions. Table 14-1 SNCP switching conditions Switching Condition Clear switching (external switching) Priority From top to bottom, the priority is from the Description All external switching states are cleared.

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Switching Condition Lockout of protection channel (external switching)

Priority highest to the lowest.

Description The lockout of protection channel blocks normal service signals from entering the protection channel but does not block service signals from being switched from the protection channel to the working channel. The signal failure condition on the protection channel is equivalent to the lockout of the protection channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced state, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the working SNC to the protection SNC or from the protection SNC to the working SNC according to the command. Then, the switching changes to the forced switching state. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the signal of the protection SNC fails, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the working SNC to the protection SNC. The switching then changes to the automatic switching state. For the trigger conditions of an automatic switching, refer to Table 14-2 and Table 14-3.

Forced switching (external switching)

Signal failure

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Switching Condition Manual switching (external switching)

Priority

Description If the switching is in the lockout, forced, or manual switching state, or if the signal of the protection SNC fails, no switching occurs. Otherwise, the system switches services from the working SNC to the protection SNC or from the protection SNC to the working SNC according to the command. The switching then enters the manual switching state. When the switching is in the automatic state and the former working SNC is already restored to normal for the WTR time, a revertive switching occurs. After the former working SNC is restored to normal and before the revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching changes to the normal state.

Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

NOTE

In the case of revertive SNCP, if services are currently on the protection channel, the services cannot be switched to the working channel when you perform a forced switching or a manual switching.

SNCP Switching Conditions (VC-4 Services)


Table 14-2 Trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching (VC-4 services) Switching Condition Hardware fault on an IF board and a line board R_LOS R_LOF R_LOC Description Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition

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Switching Condition MS_AIS B2_EXC AU_LOP AU_AIS HP_LOM MW_LOF MW_LIM B3_EXC B3_SD HP_TIM HP_UNEQ

Description Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition (applicable only when an IF board works as a line board) Default condition (applicable only when an IF board works as a line board) Optional condition Optional condition Optional condition Optional condition

NOTE

Only after you set the optical conditions as trigger conditions on the NMS, the optional conditions in the preceding table can be trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching at the VC-4 level. By default, the optional conditions do not trigger an automatic SNCP switching.

SNCP Switching Conditions (Lower Order Services)


Lower order services include VC-3/VC-12 services and E1 services transmitted over the Hybrid microwave.
NOTE

The VC-3/VC-12 service in the following table refers to the VC-3/VC-12 service that is transmitted over optical lines or SDH radio links and the E1 service transmitted by the IF1A/IF1B board.

Table 14-3 Trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching (VC-3/VC-12 services) Switching Condition Hardware fault on the line board R_LOS R_LOF R_LOC MS_AIS B2_EXC
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Description Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition

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Switching Condition AU_LOP AU_AIS HP_LOM MW_LOF MW_LIM TU_AIS TU_LOP

Description Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition (applicable only when an IF board works as a line board) Default condition (applicable only when an IF board works as a line board) Default condition Default condition

Table 14-4 Trigger conditions of an automatic SNCP switching (E1 services transmitted over the Hybrid microwave) Switching Condition E1_AIS (indicating that E1 signals are all 1s) R_LOF R_LOC MW_LOF MW_LIM MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SDa Description Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition Default condition

NOTE

a: The MW_BER_SD alarm serves as a default condition only when AIS insertion in the case of MW_BER_SD is enabled.

14.2.5 Switching Impact


Within the SNCP switching time (< 50 ms), services are interrupted.

14.3 Specifications
This section provides the specifications of SNCP. Table 14-5 lists the specifications of SNCP.

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Table 14-5 Specifications of SNCP Item Maximum number of SNCP protection groups Types of services protected with SNCP Specification 210 SDH/PDH services on optical transmission links SDH/PDH services transmitted on the IF1A/ IF1B/IFX boards E1 services transmitted over the Hybrid microwave Protection type Revertive mode Non-revertive mode WTR time Optional SNCP switching conditions (VC-4 services)a 5-12 minutes B3_EXC B3_SD HP_TIM HP_UNEQ Switching time Coexistence with 1+1 protection < 50 ms Supported

NOTE

a: For details about SNCP switching conditions, see 14.2.4 Switching Conditions.

14.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with SNCP. The following protocol is associated with SNCP: l ITU-T G.841: Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures

14.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by SNCP and dependency of the feature.

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Hardware and Version Support


Table 14-6 Hardware and version support Feature SNCP Applicable Board IF1A/IF1B SL1/SD1 SLE/SDE SL4 IFX IFH2 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R005C00 and later

Feature Dependency
l l l l l A line configured with linear MSP can work only as the service sink of an SNCP service pair, rather than the working source or protection source. A radio link configured with 1+1 protection can work as the working source, protection source, or service sink of an SNCP service pair. A radio link configured with N+1 protection can work only as the service sink of an SNCP service pair, rather than the working source or protection source. A radio link configured with XPIC can work as the working source, protection source, or service sink of an SNCP service pair. On a Hybrid microwave ring network, you can configure SNCP for E1 services and ERPS for Ethernet services.

14.6 Principles
SNCP functions based on the dual fed and selective receiving mechanism.
NOTE

The following part uses the switching triggered by the signal failure of the working SNC as an example to describe the switching principle of SNCP.

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Figure 14-7 SNCP working principle (before a switching)


Working SNC Trail source Trail sink

NE A Protection SNC

NE B

Figure 14-8 SNCP working principle (after a switching)


Working SNC Trail source Trail sink

NE A Protection SNC

NE B

When the working SNC fails, SNCP works as follows: 1. 2. 3. Before a switching, the trail source (NE A) sends normal service signals to the trail sink (NE B) through the working SNC and the protection SNC. When the IF board or line board of NE B detects that the signal of the working SNC fails, it reports this event to the SCC board. After the SCC board of NE B determines that the signal of the working SNC fails and the signal of the protection SNC is normal, the SCC board enables the cross-connect board to complete the cross-connections between the protection SNC and the service sink.

14.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan SNCP.

Planning guidelines of the working SNC and the protection SNC


l
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Do not overlap the working SNC and the protection SNC if possible.
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The OptiX RTN 620 does not support the line configured with MSP or N+1 protection as the working source or protection source of SNCP.

Planning guidelines of the protection configuration parameters


l l If SNCP works in revertive mode, set the WTR time to a value from 5 to 12 minutes. It is recommended that you set the WTR time to the default value, namely, ten minutes. To prevent repeated SNCP switchings, set the hold-off time for SNCP when SNCP works with any link-level protection scheme, including 1+1 protection and FD/SD protection. The hold-off time must be longer than the switching time of the link-level protection scheme. Generally, set the hold-off time to 200 ms. The switching time of 1+1 HSB is much longer than that of SNCP. Therefore, to decrease the duration of service interruptions, it is recommended that you do not set the hold-off time when SNCP works with 1+1 HSB. It is recommended that you set the hold-off time to 0 when only SNCP is configured.

14.8 Configuration Procedure


When configuring SNCP services, you need to create cross-connections of SNCP services and set SNCP automatic switching conditions as required. Table 14-7 Procedure for configuring SNCP services Step 1 Operation Configur ing the crossconnecti ons of TDM services A.7.1 Creating CrossConnections of Point-to-Point Services Description Required when the TDM service is a point-to-point service. The parameters need to be set according to the service planning. Required when the TDM service is an SNCP service. The parameters need to be set according to the service planning. 2 3 A.7.4 Setting the Automatic Switching Conditions of SNCP Services A.7.3 Inserting TU_AIS Optional when the TDM service is an SNCP service. Required when the IFH2 board and IF1 board function as the east interface board and west interface board, respectively, of an SNCP ring and pass-through services are configured between the interface boards. Perform this operation for the E1 channels on the IFH2 board.

A.7.2 Creating CrossConnections for SNCP Services

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NOTE

OptiX RTN 620 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

In the case of TDM services configured with SNCP, you need to configure the cross-connections of SNCP services on the add-drop NEs and configure the cross-connections of point-to-point services on the pass-through NEs.

14.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure SNCP according to network conditions. 14.9.1 Networking Diagram This section describes the networking information about NEs. 14.9.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 14.9.3 Configuration Process This section describes the process for the data configuration.

14.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking information about NEs. As shown in Figure 14-9, four sets of the OptiX RTN 620 compose a Hybrid microwave ring configured with SNCP. On the ring: l l The links between NE1 and NE2 and those between NE1 and NE4 adopt 1+1 HSB protection. The links between NE2 and NE3 and those between NE3 and NE4 adopt 1+0 nonprotection.

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Figure 14-9 Networking diagram of an SNCP ring


Tributary board4-PH1 East IF board 8-IFH2(M)6-IFH2(S) West IF board 5-IFH2(M)7-IFH2(S) 16E1 BSC 4E1 BTS1 W SNCP W NE4 BTS4 E 4E1 E W NE1

4E1 NE2 E BTS2 Tributary board4-P01 East IF board 5-IFH2(M)6-IFH2(S) West IF board 7-IFH2(M)8-IFH2(S)

Tributary board4-PO1 4E1 W NE3 E BTS3 Tributary board4-PO1 East IF board 5-IFH2(M)6-IFH2(S) West IF board 7-IFH2(M)8-IFH2(S) East IF board 5-IFH2(M)7-IFH2(S) West IF board 8-IFH2(M)6-IFH2(S)

14.9.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data.

Timeslot Allocation Diagram


Figure 14-10 shows the timeslots that are allocated for the TDM services according to the service planning information. Figure 14-10 Timeslot allocation diagram (TDM services on a TDM radio ring network)
Station Timeslot NE1 8-IFH2 VC12: 1-8 4-PH1:1-8 4-PO1:1-8 VC12: 9-12 VC4-1 4-PH1:9-12 4-PH1:13-16 Pass through (SNCP working path) Pass through (SNCP protection path) Add/Drop (SNCP working path) Add/Drop (SNCP protection path) 4-PO1:1-8 VC12: 9-12 4-PO1:1-4 VC12: 13-16 4-PO1:1-4 4-PO1:1-4 4-PH1:9-12 VC12: 13-16 4-PO1:1-4 4-PH1:13-16 NE2 7-IFH2 5-IFH2 NE3 7-IFH2 5-IFH2 VC12: 1-8 4-PH1:1-8 NE4 8-IFH2 5-IFH2 NE1 5-IFH2

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As shown in Figure 14-10, the information about the timeslots that the TDM services occupy on each NE is as follows: l E1 services on NE2: The E1 services are added to or dropped from the first to eighth ports on the PO1 board in slot 4 of NE2. The E1 services are added to or dropped from the first to eighth ports on the PH1 board in slot 4 of NE1. The E1 services occupy the first to eighth VC-12 timeslots on the ring. l E1 services of NE3: The E1 services are added to or dropped from the first to fourth ports on the PO1 board in slot 4 of NE3. The E1 services are added to or dropped from the ninth to twelfth ports on the PH1 board in slot 4 of NE1. The E1 services occupy the ninth to twelfth VC-12 timeslots on the ring. l E1 services on NE4: The E1 services are added to or dropped from the first to fourth ports on the PO1 board in slot 4 of NE4. The E1 services are added to or dropped from the thirteenth to sixteenth ports on the PH1 board in slot 4 of NE1. The E1 services occupy the thirteenth to sixteenth VC-12 timeslots on the ring.
TIP

On a backhaul network for a mobile base station, services are accessed from different nodes and then aggregated to the same node for transmission. In this case, allocate the timeslots on the SNCP radio ring network as follows: 1. Allocate the timeslots to add/drop services on the NEs in anti-clockwise order. Allocate the minimum VC-12 timeslot number to the service on the nearest NE. The number of the timeslot each service occupies does not change on the ring network. 2. Repeat the previous step to configure the timeslots for the services on all the sub-chains. This timeslot allocation method ensures that only the numbers of the timeslots that the services on the nodes of the aggregation sub-chain occupy may change.
TIP

The principles for obtaining the timeslot cross-connection configurations from the SNCP service timeslot allocation diagram are as follows: l A straight line without any dot at either side represents a pass-through service. A straight line with one dot represents an add/drop service. A straight line with an arrow represents a transferred service. The vertical line under the NE name is considered as the reference. l If a straight line representing a pass-through service crosses the vertical line, it indicates that crossconnections are configured between the boards on both sides of the vertical line. The corresponding cross-connected timeslots are marked over the straight line. l If there is a straight line with one dot on one side of the vertical line, it indicates that SNCP crossconnections are configured between the board on this side of the vertical line and the board under the straight line with one dot. The corresponding cross-connected timeslots are marked over the straight line with one dot.

SNCP
Table 14-8 provides the information about SNCP.
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Table 14-8 SNCP Parameter Working source Protection source Revertive mode WTR time Hold-off time Switching condition NE1 See the timeslot allocation diagram. See the timeslot allocation diagram. Revertive 600s (default value) 0 (default value) Necessary conditions for an SNCP switching (default values)

NOTE

Unless otherwise specified, WTR Time, Hold-Off Time, and Switching Condition take the default values.

14.9.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the process for the data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.7.2 Creating Cross-Connections for SNCP Services and configure SNCP service crossconnections. l The values for the relevant parameters of NE1 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE1 Service Type Level Revertive Mode Direction Hold-off Time(100ms) WTR Time(s) Source SNCP VC12 Revertive Bidirectional 0 600 8-IFH2 (working service) 5-IFH2 (protection service) Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range (e.g.1,3-6)
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SNCP VC12 Revertive Bidirectional 0 600 5-IFH2 (working service) 8-IFH2 (protection service) 1 VC4-1 13-16

1 VC4-1 1-12

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Parameter

Value NE1

Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g. 1,3-6)

4-PH1 1-12

4-PH1 13-16

l The values for the relevant parameters of NE2 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE2 Service Type Level Revertive Mode Direction Hold-off Time(100ms) WTR Time(s) Source SNCP VC12 Revertive Bidirectional 0 600 7-IFH2 (working service) 5-IFH2 (protection service) Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) 1 VC4-1 1-8 4-PO1 1-8

l The values for the relevant parameters of NE3 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE3 Service Type Level SNCP VC12

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Parameter

Value NE3

Revertive Mode Direction Hold-off Time(100ms) WTR Time(s) Source

Revertive Bidirectional 0 600 7-IFH2 (working service) 5-IFH2 (protection service)

Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6)

1 VC4-1 9-12 4-PO1 1-4

l The values for the relevant parameters of NE4 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE4 Service Type Level Revertive Mode Direction Hold-off Time(100ms) WTR Time(s) Source SNCP VC12 Revertive Bidirectional 0 600 5-IFH2 (working service) 8-IFH2 (protection service) Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port
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1 VC4-1 13-16 4-PO1 -

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Parameter

Value NE4

Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6)

1-4

Step 2 See A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services and configure the crossconnections of point-to-point services on NE2, NE3, and NE4. l The values for the relevant parameters of NE2 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE2 Level Direction Source Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) VC12 Bidirectional 7-IFH2 1 VC4-1 9-16 5-IFH2 1 VC4-1 9-16

l The values for the relevant parameters of NE3 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE3 Level Direction Source Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port
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VC12 Bidirectional 7-IFH2 1 VC4-1 1-8, 13-16 5-IFH2 1


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Parameter

Value NE3

Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6)

VC4-1 1-8, 13-16

l The values for the relevant parameters of NE4 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE4 Level Direction Source Source Port Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink Port Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) VC12 Bidirectional 8-IFH2 1 VC4-1 1-12 5-IFH2 1 VC4-1 1-12

Step 3 See Testing E1 Services Through PRBS and test the E1 services. Test two E1 services on each base station. The test results should show that the E1 services contain no bit errors. ----End

14.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with SNCP.

Related Tasks
A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services A.7.2 Creating Cross-Connections for SNCP Services A.7.4 Setting the Automatic Switching Conditions of SNCP Services A.7.6 Converting Normal Services into SNCP Services A.7.7 Converting SNCP Services to Normal Services A.7.9 Performing SNCP Protection A.7.10 Querying the Protection Status of SNCP Services
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A.7.3 Inserting TU_AIS

14.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


When an SNCP switching occurs, the system reports the relevant alarms and abnormal events.

Relevant Alarms
None.

Relevant Events
l SNCP protection switching The abnormal event of SNCP protection switching refers to the performance event that an SNCP protection switching is performed for the services configured with SNCP.

14.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently asked when SNCP is adopted. Q: What switching states does SNCP have? A: SNCP has the following switching states: l l Normal The state when the working SNC and the protection SNC are normal SF The state after the working SNC is automatically switched in the case of a mandatory trigger condition l SD The state after the working SNC is automatically switched in the case of an optional trigger condition l l l l Lockout The state after a lockout switching Forced The state after a forced switching Manual The state after a manual switching WTR The state that exists after the working SNC is restored to normal and before the revertive switching occurs in the revertive mode

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15
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the linear MSP feature. 15.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of linear MSP.

Linear MSP

15.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of linear MSP and describes its purpose. 15.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with linear MSP.

15.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with the linear MSP feature. 15.5 Availability This section describes the support required by linear MSP and the dependency of the feature. 15.6 Principles 1+1 linear MSP and 1:N linear MSP have different switching principles. 15.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan linear MSP. 15.8 Configuration Procedure To configure a linear MSP service, you need to create a linear MSP group and then create service cross-connections. 15.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure linear MSP. 15.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with linear MSP. 15.11 Relevant Alarms and Events When a linear MSP switching occurs, the SCC board reports associated alarms and abnormal events. 15.12 FAQs
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This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when linear MSP is used.

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15.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of linear MSP and describes its purpose.

Definition
Linear MSP refers to the MS protection function provided in the point-to-point networking. With the MS protection function, signals can be switched from the working span to the protection span between two multiplex section terminations (MSTs). Generally, linear MSP is classified into 1+1 linear MSP and 1:N linear MSP. l 1+1 linear MSP 1+1 linear MSP requires one working channel and one protection channel. Services are transmitted on the working channel and the protection channel is idle. When the working channel becomes unavailable, services are switched to the protection channel for transmission. Figure 15-1 shows the application of 1+1 linear MSP. l Figure 15-1 1+1 linear MSP
NE A Working channel NE B

Protection channel

Protection switching NE A Working channel NE B

Protection channel

1:N linear MSP 1:N linear MSP requires N working channels and one protection channel. Normal services are transmitted on the working channel, and extra services are transmitted on the protection channel. When a working channel becomes unavailable, the services on this channel are switched to the protection channel for transmission. As a result, extra services are interrupted. Figure 15-2 shows the application of 1:N linear MSP.

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Figure 15-2 1:N linear MSP


NE A Normal service 1 Working channel 1 NE B Normal service1

...
Normal service N Extra service

Working channel N Protection channel

...
Normal service N Extra service

Protection switching NE A Normal service 1 Working channel 1 NE B Normal service1

...
Normal service N Extra service

Working channel N Protection channel

...
Normal service N Extra service

Purpose
Linear MSP improves the reliability of optical transmission lines in chain networking.

15.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with linear MSP. 15.2.1 Protection Type Linear MSP can be classified by protection mechanism, switching mode, and revertive mode. 15.2.2 Meanings of K Bytes The linear MSP protocol uses the K1 and K2 bytes in multiplex section overheads to transfer switching requests. 15.2.3 Switching Conditions The linear MSP can be triggered by local SF conditions, local SD conditions, and local external switching requests. In dual-ended mode, the local NE can perform switching according to the K bytes from the opposite NE. 15.2.4 Switching Impact Services are interrupted within the linear MSP switching time (< 50 ms). After a 1:N linear MSP switching occurs, extra services are interrupted. After a revertive switching occurs, extra services are restored.
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15.2.1 Protection Type


Linear MSP can be classified by protection mechanism, switching mode, and revertive mode. With regard to the protection mechanism, linear MSP is classified into dedicated protection and shared protection. l Dedicated protection In the case of dedicated protection, one working channel exclusively uses one protection channel. The dedicated protection channel cannot carry extra services. 1+1 protection is dedicated protection. l Shared protection In the case of shared protection, one or more working channels share one protection channel. The shared protection channel can carry extra services. 1:N (including 1:1) protection is shared protection. With regard to the switching mode, the linear MSP is classified into single-ended switching and dual-ended switching. l Single-ended switching In single-ended switching mode, a switching occurs only at one end and the state of the other end remains unchanged. l Dual-ended switching In dual-ended switching mode, a switching occurs at both ends at the same time. With regard to the revertive mode, linear MSP is classified into the revertive mode and the nonrevertive mode. l Revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE releases the switching and returns to the normal state if the former working channel is restored to normal for a certain period. The period after the former working channel is restored to normal and before the NE releases the switching is called the WTR time. To prevent frequent switching events due to an unstable working channel, it is recommended that you set WTR time to 5 to 12 minutes. l Non-revertive mode When an NE is in the switching state, the NE maintains the current state unless another switching event occurs, even though the former working channel is restored to normal. Therefore, linear MSP is classified into the following eight modes: l l l l l l l l
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1+1 dual-ended revertive mode 1+1 dual-ended non-revertive mode 1+1 single-ended revertive mode 1+1 single-ended non-revertive mode 1:N dual-ended revertive mode 1:N dual-ended non-revertive mode 1:N single-ended revertive mode 1:N single-ended non-revertive mode
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15.2.2 Meanings of K Bytes


The linear MSP protocol uses the K1 and K2 bytes in multiplex section overheads to transfer switching requests. Table 15-1 Meanings of K bytes (linear MSP) K Byte K1 (bit 1 to bit 4) Meaning The four bits carry the bridge request code. Table 15-2 provides the meanings of the four bits. The four bits indicate the number of the service signal to which the bridge request corresponds. 0 represents the null signal, 1-14 represent normal service signals, and 15 represents the extra service signal (applicable only to 1:N linear MSP). The four bits carry the number of the service signal that bridges the local end and the channel. The value range of the four bits is the same as the four bits (bit 5 to bit 8) of K1. This bit indicates the protection mode. 1 represents the 1:N mode. 0 represents the 1+1 mode. The three bits carry the status signal. 000 represents the idle state, 111 represents the MS_AIS state, and 110 represents the MS_RDI state.a

K1 (bit 5 to bit 8)

K2 (bit 1 to 4)

K2 (bit 5)

K2 (bit 6 to bit 8)

NOTE

a: In certain applications, when the MS_RDI or MS_AIS alarm is not reported, K2 (bit 6 to bit 8) indicates switching modes. That is, 100 indicates the single-ended mode, and 101 indicates the dual-ended mode.

Table 15-2 Bridge request code Bit 1 1 Bit 2 1 Bit 3 1 Bit 4 1 Meaning Lockout of protection channel Forced switching Failure of highpriority signals

1 1

1 1

1 0

0 1

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Bit 1 1 1

Bit 2 1 0

Bit 3 0 1

Bit 4 0 1

Meaning Failure of low priority signals Degradation of high priority signals Degradation of low priority signals Unused Manual switching Unused WTR Unused Exercise switching Unused Reverse request Non-revertive No request

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

NOTE

l A reverse request assumes the priority of the bridge request to which it is responding. l By default, the OptiX RTN 620 uses 1101 (failure of high priority signals) and 1011 (degradation of high priority signals) as an SF/SD switching request.

15.2.3 Switching Conditions


The linear MSP can be triggered by local SF conditions, local SD conditions, and local external switching requests. In dual-ended mode, the local NE can perform switching according to the K bytes from the opposite NE.

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Table 15-3 Trigger conditions of a linear MSP switching Switching Condition Lockout of protection channel (external switching) Priority From top to bottom, the priority is from the highest to the lowest. Description The lockout of protection channel blocks normal service signals from entering the protection channel but does not block service signals from being switched from the protection channel to the working channel. The signal failure condition on the protection channel is equivalent to the lockout of protection channel. Service signals on the working channel are forcibly switched to the protection channel or service signals on the protection channel are switched to the working channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. The SF condition on the working channel enables service signals to be switched to the protection channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. When there is the R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, MS_AIS, or B2_EXC alarm on the working channel, an SF switching is triggered.

Forced switching (external switching)

Signal failure (SF)

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Switching Condition Signal degradation (SD)

Priority

Description The SD condition on the working channel enables service signals to be switched to the protection channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. When there is the B2_SD alarm on the working channel, an SD switching is triggered. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. Otherwise, services are switched from the working channel to the protection channel or from the protection channel to the working channel according to the command. The switching then enters the manual switching state. After service signals are switched to the protection channel due to the SF/SD condition on the working channel and the working channel is already restored to normal for the WTR time, a revertive switching occurs. After the former active equipment is restored to normal and before a revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching changes to the normal state. Service signals are not actually switched. An exercise switching is used only to check whether an NE can normally run the MSP protocol.

Manual switching (external switching)

Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

Exercise switching (external switching)

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NOTE

l SD is an optional switching condition. You can specify on the NMS whether SD is used as a switching condition. By default, SD is used as a switching condition. l If two switching conditions exist on a channel at the same time, the switching condition of a higher priority preempts the channel. l In addition to the external switching commands provided in the preceding table, external switching commands include the clear switching command. The clear switching command is issued to clear a lockout, forced switching, manual switching, or exercise switching. l If an NE needs to perform a switching according to the K bytes from the opposite NE, the NE determines switching priorities according to the bridge request code contained in the K bytes. For the meanings of the K bytes, see 15.2.2 Meanings of K Bytes. l If the working channels with the same switching priority request a switching at the same time, the working channel with a smaller number has a higher priority and thus preempts the protection channel. l If the protection channel is occupied already, the protection channel is preempted by a working channel with the same switching priority but a smaller number.

15.2.4 Switching Impact


Services are interrupted within the linear MSP switching time (< 50 ms). After a 1:N linear MSP switching occurs, extra services are interrupted. After a revertive switching occurs, extra services are restored.

15.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of linear MSP. Table 15-4 lists the specifications of linear MSP. Table 15-4 Specifications of linear MSP Item Maximum number of linear MSP groups Specification One group of STM-4 linear MSP Five groups of STM-1 optical/electrical linear MSP Service type of linear MSP Protection type of linear MSP STM-4/STM-1 optical transmission link 1+1 dual-ended revertive mode 1+1 dual-ended non-revertive mode 1+1 single-ended revertive mode 1+1 single-ended non-revertive mode 1:N (N3) dual-ended revertive mode WTR time 5-12 minutes

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Item MSP protocol

Specification New protocol Restructure protocol


NOTE Huawei adopts two MSP protocols, the new protocol and the restructure protocol. The new protocol is more reliable and the restructure protocol has a better compliance with standards.

SD/SF priority protection flag Switching mode indication Switching time

Supported Supported < 50 ms

15.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with the linear MSP feature. The following protocol is associated with linear MSP: l ITU-T G.841 Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures

15.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by linear MSP and the dependency of the feature.

Hardware and Version Support


Feature LMSP Applicable Board SL1/SD1 SLE/SDE SL4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R001 and later V100R001 and later V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
l l A line configured with linear MSP can work only as the service sink of an SNCP service pair, rather than the working source or protection source. A line configured with linear MSP cannot be a part of an MSP ring.

15.6 Principles
1+1 linear MSP and 1:N linear MSP have different switching principles. 15.6.1 1+1 Linear MSP
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1+1 linear MSP adopts the dual fed and selective receiving mechanism to perform a switching. 15.6.2 1:N Linear MSP 1:N linear MSP adopts the automatic bridge mechanism to perform a switching.

15.6.1 1+1 Linear MSP


1+1 linear MSP adopts the dual fed and selective receiving mechanism to perform a switching.
NOTE

The following part uses a switching triggered by the signal failure on the working channel as an example to describe the switching principle of 1+1 linear MSP.

Figure 15-3 Working principle of 1+1 linear MSP (before a switching)


NE B Working NE A

Protection Working

Protection Normal service

Figure 15-4 Working principle of 1+1 linear MSP (after a switching, in single-ended mode)
NE B Working NE A

Protection Working

Protection Normal service

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Figure 15-5 Working principle of 1+1 linear MSP (after a switching, in dual-ended mode)
NE B Working NE A

Protection Working

Protection Normal service

When the signal on the working channel fails, the switching principle in single-ended mode is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. Before a switching, the source sends service signals to the working channel and the protection channel. The sink receives the service signal from the working channel. When the line board at the sink in a certain direction (NE A) detects that the signal on the working channel fails, the line board reports the event to the SCC board. After the SCC board confirms that the signal on the working channel fails and the protection channel is normal, the SCC board enables the cross-connect board to complete the crossconnection between the protection channel and the service sink.

When the signal on the working channel fails, the switching principle in dual-ended mode is described as follows: 1. 2. Before a switching, the source sends service signals to the working channel and the protection channel. The sink receives the service signal from the working channel. When the sink in a certain direction (NE A) detects that the signal on the working channel fails, NE A sends the K bytes to the source (NE B) on the protection channel (the request type is "signal failure"). NE B sends the K bytes to NE A on the protection channel (the request type is "reverse request"). NE A receives the service signal from the protection channel. NE B receives the service signal from the protection channel.

3. 4. 5.

15.6.2 1:N Linear MSP


1:N linear MSP adopts the automatic bridge mechanism to perform a switching.
NOTE

The following part uses a 1:1 linear MSP switching triggered by the signal failure on the working channel as an example to describe the switching principle of 1:N linear MSP.

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Figure 15-6 Working principle of 1:1 linear MSP (before a switching)


NE B Working NE A

Protection Working

Protection Normal service Extra service

Figure 15-7 Working principle of 1:1 linear MSP (after a switching)


NE B Working NE A

Protection Working

Protection Normal service Extra service

When the signal on the working channel fails, the switching principle in 1:1 mode is described as follows: 1. 2. Before a switching, the source and the sink send and receive normal service signals on the working channel, and send and receive extra service signals on the protection channel. When the sink in a certain direction (NE A) detects that the signal on the working channel fails, NE A sends the K bytes to the source (NE B) on the protection channel (the request type is "signal failure"). NE B performs a bridge of the normal service signals onto the protection channel and sends the K bytes to NE A on the protection channel (the request type is "reverse request"). NE A receives the normal service signals from the protection channel and performs a bridge of the normal service signals onto the protection channel. NE B receives the normal service signals from the protection channel.

3. 4. 5.

15.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan linear MSP.
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Planning Guidelines of Protection Types


It is recommended that you select the 1+1 single-ended non-revertive mode or the 1:N dualended revertive mode as required. l In 1+1 single-ended non-revertive mode, a switching is performed in a simple manner and the switching time is very brief. In addition, the NEs at both sides need not be interconnected. In 1:N dual-ended revertive mode, extra services can be transmitted.

Planning Guidelines on Protection Configuration Parameters


l l The MS protocols used at both ends must be consistent. It is recommended that you apply the new protocol when both ends use the OptiX equipment. It is recommended that you use the line ports on one line board for the working channel and those on another line board for the protection channel. In this manner, you can prevent the protection failure when one line board becomes faulty. If the protection is in the revertive mode, set the WTR time to a value from 5 to 12 minutes. It is recommended that you set the WTR time to a default value, namely, ten minutes. It is recommended that you set SD as a switching condition.

l l

15.8 Configuration Procedure


To configure a linear MSP service, you need to create a linear MSP group and then create service cross-connections. Table 15-5 Configuration procedure for a linear MSP service Step 1 Operation A.6.1 Configuring Ring MSP Description Required when linear MSP is configured for optical transmission lines. The parameters need to be set according to the service planning. 2 A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services Required when the service is a pointto-point service. The parameters need to be set according to the service planning.

15.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure linear MSP. 15.9.1 Networking Diagram The section describes the networking information about NEs. 15.9.2 Service Planning
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Service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring NE data. 15.9.3 Configuration Process This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

15.9.1 Networking Diagram


The section describes the networking information about NEs. As shown in Figure 15-8, the relative networking information is as follows: l l To ensure the transmission of the services between NE1 and NE3, linear MSP is configured for the optical transmission lines between NE1 and NE3. NE1 transmits the first 16 E1s of an STM-1 signal to NE2.

Figure 15-8 Networking diagram of linear MSP


16E1 STM-1

NE2

NE1 4-SD1-1 4-SD1-2 5-IFH2

NE3

15.9.2 Service Planning


Service planning information contains all the parameter information required for configuring NE data.

Timeslot Allocation Diagram


Cross-connections are set up for the 16 E1 services from 4-SD1-1 on NE1 to 5-IFH2 on NE2.
NOTE

In this example, only the configuration information about NE1 is provided.

Linear MSP
In this configuration example, no extra services need to be transmitted. Therefore, the singleended non-revertive 1+1 linear MSP is configured to protect the optical transmission lines between NE1 and BSC. Table 15-6 provides the related planning information. Table 15-6 Linear MSP Parameter Protection Type Switching Mode
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NE1 1+1 Linear MSP Single-Ended Switching


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Parameter Revertive Mode SD Enable Protocol Type West Working Unit West Protection Unit

NE1 Non-Revertive Enabled (default value) New Protocol (default value) 4-SD1-1 4-SD1-2

NOTE

Unless otherwise specified, SD Enable and Protocol Type take default values.

15.9.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the procedure of data configuration.

Procedure
Step 1 See A.6.2 Configuring Linear MSP and create linear MSP. The values for the related parameters are provided as follows. Parameter Value Range NE1 Protection Type Switching Mode Revertive Mode WTR Time(s) SD enable Slot Mapping Relation 1+1 Linear MSP Single-Ended Switching Non-Revertive 600 Enabled l West Working Unit: 4-SD1-1 l West Working Unit: 4-SD1-2

Step 2 See A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services and create the crossconnections of point-to-point services. The values for the relevant parameters of NE1 are provided as follows. Parameter Value NE1 Level
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Parameter

Value NE1

Direction Source Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6)

Bidirectional 4-SD1-1 VC4-1 1-16 5-IFH2-1 VC4-1 1-16

Step 3 See Testing E1 Services Through PRBS and perform a PRBS test. Test two E1 services on each base station. The test results should show that the E1 services contain no bit errors. ----End

15.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with linear MSP.

Related Tasks
A.6.2 Configuring Linear MSP A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services A.6.4 Querying the Status of Linear MSP A.6.6 Performing Linear MSP Switching A.6.8 Starting/Stopping the Linear MSP Protocol

15.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


When a linear MSP switching occurs, the SCC board reports associated alarms and abnormal events.

Relevant Alarms
l l l APS_INDI The APS_INDI alarm indicates that a protection switching occurs. APS_FAIL The APS_FAIL alarm indicates that the protection switching fails. APS_MANUAL_STOP The APS_MANU_STOP alarm indicates that the MSP protocol is manually stopped.
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K1_K2_M The K1_K2_M alarm indicates that there is a mismatch between byte K1 and byte K2. If the signal channel indicated by the transmitted K1 (bit 5 to bit 8) is different from the signal channel indicated by the received K2 (bit 1 to bit 4), the SCC board reports the K1_K2_M alarm.

K2_M The K2_M alarm indicates a mismatch of byte K2. When the protection type indicated by the received K2 (bit 5) is different from the protection type used by the NE, the SCC board reports the K2_M alarm.

LPS_UNI_BI_M The LPS_UNI_BI_M alarm indicates a mismatch of the single-ended/dual-ended mode of linear MSP. When the K2 (bit 6 to bit 8) is enabled to indicate the single-ended/dual-ended mode, if the received K2 byte indicates a mode different from the mode used by the NE, the SCC board reports the LPS_UNI_BI_M alarm. This alarm applies only to the restructure protocol.

Relevant Abnormal Events


l l Linear MSP protection switching This abnormal event indicates that a linear MSP switching occurs. No response from the linear MSP remote end This abnormal event indicates that the remote end does not respond to the linear MSP switching request by the local end.

15.12 FAQs
This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when linear MSP is used. Q: What switching states does linear MSP have? A: The linear MSP has the following switching states: l l l l l l l
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Protocol is not started The state when the linear MSP protocol is not started Protocol starting The state when the linear MSP protocol is starting Protocol normal The normal state after the linear MSP protocol is started Lockout The state after the protection channel is locked out Forced The state after a forced switching Manual The state after a manual switching Exercise
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The state after an exercise switching l l l Signal failure The state after an SF switching Signal degrade The state after an SD switching WTR The state that exists from the time the working equipment is restored to normal after an automatic switching until the time the revertive switching occurs in revertive mode Q: What should be noted in the case of linear MSP, when the OptiX equipment is interconnected with the third-party equipment? A: Note the following points: l Select the 1+1 single-ended non-revertive mode if possible. In this case, if an interconnection problem occurs, it is generally because the third-party equipment has special requirements for byte K. The 1+1 single-ended mode of certain vendors (for example, company S and company E) is actually the dual-ended mode. In this case, select the 1+1 dual-ended protection mode. ITU-T G.841 defines two priority levels for the SF and SD indications on byte K. By default, the OptiX equipment uses the SF and SD indications with the higher priority. If the thirdparty equipment uses the SF and SD indications of the lower priority, modify the configuration accordingly on the OptiX equipment. Check whether the third-party equipment uses the last three bits of byte K2 to indicate the single-ended/dual-ended mode. If yes, modify the configuration accordingly on the OptiX equipment.

l l

Q: Why cannot a forced switching be performed when the signal on the protection channel fails? A: After the signal on the protection channel fails, the protection channel is locked out. The lockout of the protection channel has a higher priority than a forced switching. Therefore, no forced switching can be performed. Q: Why are services interrupted after a 1+1 unidirectional linear MSP switching? A: During the configuration of 1+1 linear MSP on the NMS, the unidirectional cross-connection between the service source and the protection channel is not configured. Q: How to handle the failure of a linear MSP switching? A: Do as follows: 1. Check the configuration of linear MSP, especially the node ID of each NE. The configured node IDs of NEs must meet the requirements of the network topology. The node ID of each NE must be unique. 2. Check the protection channels. If an alarm is generated on the protection channel, rectify the fault according to the alarm.
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16

Two-Fiber Bidirectional Ring MSP

About This Chapter


This chapter describes the two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP feature. 16.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP and describes its purpose. 16.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. 16.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. 16.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. 16.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP feature and its dependency. 16.6 Principles Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP uses the automatic bridging mechanism between working channels and protection channels to implement switching. 16.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain rules when you plan two-fiber directional ring MSP. 16.8 Configuration Procedure To configure a ring MSP service, you need to create a ring MSP protection group and then create service cross-connections. 16.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure ring MSP according to network conditions. 16.10 Task Collection
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This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. 16.11 Relevant Alarms and Events When a two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP switching occurs, the NE reports relevant alarms and abnormal events. 16.12 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP is used.

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16.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP and describes its purpose.

Definition
Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP provides protection for multiplex sections on a two-fiber bidirectional ring. With the multiplex section protection function, signals can be switched from the working section to the protection section between two multiplex section terminations (MSTs). On a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring, the first half of VC-4s on each STM-N line is the working channel, and the other half of VC-4s is the protection channel. In normal cases, services are transmitted in the working channel. The services transmitted on two fibers flow in inverse directions. When a fiber cut occurs and the working channel becomes unavailable, the services at both ends of the fault are both switched from the working channel of the faulty fiber to the protection channel of the reverse directional fiber. Figure 16-1 shows application of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring.

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Figure 16-1 Two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring


NE A East West

West NE B East

STMtwo-fiber 4 bidirectional MSP ring

East NE D West

West NE C

East

Protection swicthing

NE A East West

West NE B East STM-4 two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring

East NE D West

West NE C

East

Service between NE A and NE C

Objective
A two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring has higher transmission reliability. It is applicable to transmission of distributed services. In the case of aggregated services, the highest service capacity of a ring network is STM-N/2; in the case of distributed services, the highest service capacity of a ring network is M x STM-N/2 (M represents the number of nodes on the ring network).

16.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts that you should be familiar with before using two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. 16.2.1 Protection Type Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP is the most widely used MSP type.
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16.2.2 Meanings of Byte K The two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP protocol uses the K1 and K2 bytes in the multiplex section overhead to transmit switching requests. 16.2.3 Switching Conditions Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP can be triggered by local SF conditions, local SD conditions, local external switching requests, and byte K sent from the node on another ring network. 16.2.4 Switching Impact Within the MSP switching time (shorter than 50 ms), services are interrupted. Extra traffic is interrupted within the period from the time normal services are switched to the protection channel to the time the services are restored to the working channel.

16.2.1 Protection Type


Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP is the most widely used MSP type. Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP has the following characteristics in terms of protection type: l l l A ring network uses two fibers. One fiber is used to receive signals and the other fiber is used to transmit signals. Services are received and transmitted on the same route. Normal traffic between different nodes share the protection path, and the protection path can be used to transmit extra traffic. On a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring, the first half of the VC-4s is the working channel and the second half of the VC-4s is the protection channel. Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP adopts the revertive mode. That is, after the working channel is restored to normal and this state lasts for a certain period, the NE releases the switching state and is switched back to the normal state. The period from the time the former working channel is restored to normal to the time the NE releases the switching state is called the WTR time. To prevent frequent switching events due to an unstable working channel, it is recommended that you set the WTR time to five to twelve minutes.

16.2.2 Meanings of Byte K


The two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP protocol uses the K1 and K2 bytes in the multiplex section overhead to transmit switching requests. Table 16-1 Meanings of byte K (two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP) Byte K K1 (bits 1 to 4) Meaning The four bits carry the bridging request code. Table 16-2 provides the meanings of the four bits. The four bits carry the ID of the destination node. The four bits carry the ID of the source node. 1 represents the long way and 0 represents the short way.

K1 (bits 5 to 8) K2 (bits 1 to 4) K2 (bit 5)

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Byte K K2 (bits 6 to 8)

Meaning The three bits carry the status. 000 represents the idle state, 111 represents the MS_AIS state, 110 represents the MS_RDI state, 011 represents that extra traffic exists, 010 represents bridging and switching, and 001 represents bridging.a

NOTE

a: "Bridging" means that the equipment transmits the services on the east (or west) protection channels. "Switching" means that the equipment receives the services on the east (or west) protection channels.

Table 16-2 Bridging request code Bit 1 1 Bit 2 1 Bit 3 0 Bit 4 1 Meaning Forced switching_ring (FS_R) Signal fail_ring (SF_R) Signal degrade_ring (SD_R) Manual switching_ring (MS_R) WTR Exercise switching_ring (EXER_R) Reverse request_ring (RR_R) No request

1 1

0 0

1 0

1 0

0 0

1 0

0 1

1 1

NOTE

l A reverse request assumes the priority of bridging request to which it responds. l The other values of bridging request code are used in the case of four-fiber MSP ring, and therefore, are not described here.

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16.2.3 Switching Conditions


Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP can be triggered by local SF conditions, local SD conditions, local external switching requests, and byte K sent from the node on another ring network. Table 16-3 Switching conditions of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP Switching Condition Lockout of protection channel (external switching) Priority From top to bottom. The priority is from the high to low. Description The lockout of protection channel blocks normal service signals from entering the protection channel but does not block service signals from being switched from the protection channel to the working channel. The signal failure condition on the protection channel is equivalent to the lockout of protection channel. Service signals on the working channel are forcibly switched to the protection channel or service signals on the protection channel are switched to the working channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. The SF condition on the working channel enables service signals to be switched to the protection channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. When there is an R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, MS_AIS, or B2_EXC alarm on the working channel, SF switching is triggered.

Forced switching (external switching)

Signal failure (SF)

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Switching Condition Signal degradation (SD)

Priority

Description The SD condition on the working channel enables service signals to be switched to the protection channel. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. When there is a B2_SD alarm on the working channel, SD switching is triggered. If the switching is in the lockout or forced switching state, or if the SF condition exists on the protection channel, no switching occurs. Otherwise, services are switched from the working channel to the protection channel or from the protection channel to the working channel according to the command. Then, the switching enters manual switching state. After service signals are switched to the protection channel due to the SF/SD condition on the working channel and the working channel is already restored to normal, the revertive switching occurs when the WTR time expires. Within the period from the time the former active equipment is restored to normal to the time the revertive switching occurs, the switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, the switching enters the normal state.

Manual switching (external switching)

Revertive switching (valid only in revertive mode)

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Switching Condition Exercise switching (external switching)

Priority

Description Service signals are not actually switched. The exercise functionality is used only to check whether an NE can normally run the MSP protocol.

NOTE

l The SD condition is an optional switching condition. You can specify on the NMS whether the SD condition is used as a switching condition. By default, the SD condition is used as a switching condition. l If two switching conditions exist on a channel at the same time, the switching condition with a higher priority preempts the channel. l External switching commands include the switching clear commands, such as the clear lockout command, clear forced switching command, clear manual switching command, clear exercise switching command, clear WTR state command, and clear all command. The clear WTR state command is used to end the current WTR state of an NE and to immediately switch services to the working channel. The clear all command is used to clear all switching actions triggered by external switching commands and to clear the WTR state. l If an NE needs to perform switching according to byte K sent from another node, the NE determines the switching priority based on the bridge request code contained in byte K. For the meanings of byte K, see 16.2.2 Meanings of Byte K.

16.2.4 Switching Impact


Within the MSP switching time (shorter than 50 ms), services are interrupted. Extra traffic is interrupted within the period from the time normal services are switched to the protection channel to the time the services are restored to the working channel.

16.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. Table 16-4 lists the specifications of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. Table 16-4 Specifications of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP Item Maximum group number of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP Link type of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP WTR time Switching time Specifications One group STM-4 optical transmission link 5-12 minutes < 50 ms

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16.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. The following protocol is associated with two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP: l ITU-T G.841: Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures

16.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 16-5 Hardware and version support Feature Two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring Applicable Board SL4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later

Feature Dependency
l l The line of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring cannot be configured with linear MSP. The line of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring can work only as the sink of an SNCP service pair, and cannot work as the working source or protection source.

16.6 Principles
Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP uses the automatic bridging mechanism between working channels and protection channels to implement switching.
NOTE

The following section describes the switching principle of two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. The protection switching triggered by a unidirectional signal failure on a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring formed by four NEs is provided as an example.

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Figure 16-2 Principle of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring (before switching)


NE A #1 VC-4 East West

West NE B East STM-4 two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring

East NE D West

West NE C

East Service between NE A and NE C

Figure 16-3 Principle of a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring (after switching)


NE A East West

West NE B East

#3VC-4 STM-4 two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring #3 VC-4

East NE D West

#1 VC-4

West NE C

East

Service from NE A to NE C

When signals on the working channel fail, switching on the two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring is implemented as follows: 1. When the network is in the normal state, the services between NE A and NE C are transmitted in certain timeslots of the first VC-4 on the line. Figure 16-2 shows the signal flow of the services. When the west line board of NE B detects that the signals on the working channel in the receive direction fail, NE B sends byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is MSRDI) in the short way (NE B->NE A) and also sends byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is idle) in the long way (NE B->NE C->NE D->NE A). When receiving byte K that is sent from NE B to NE A, NE C and NE D transparently transmit the received byte K. When the east line board of NE A receives byte K in the short way, NE A sends byte K (the request type is RR_R and the state is idle) in the short way (NE A->NE B) and also
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2.

3. 4.

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sends byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is idle) in the long way (NE A->NE D->NE C->NE B). 5. When the west line board of NE A receives byte K in the long way, NE A sends byte K (the request type is RR_R and the state is bridging and switching) in the short way (NE A>NE B) and also sends byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is bridging and switching) in the long way (NE A->NE D->NE C->NE B). NE A enters the east switching state. That is, NE A receives a service that is received from the east working channel from the west protection channel, and transmits a service that is transmitted to the east working channel to the west protection channel. In the case of a service between NE A and NE C, NE A in the normal state transmits the service to the first VC-4 channel in the east direction, but in the east switching state transmits the service to the third VC-4 channel in the west direction. 6. When receiving byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is bridging and switching) that is sent from NE A to NE B, NE C and NE D enter the pass-through state. When NE C and NE D pass through byte K, NE C and NE D also pass through the information carried in the protection channel. When receiving byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is bridging and switching) that are sent from NE A, NE B sends byte K (the request type is SF_R and the state is bridging and switching) in the long way (NE B->NE C->NE D->NE A). NE B enters the west switching state. That is, NE B receives a service that is received from the west working channel from the east protection channel, and transmits a service that is transmitted to the west working channel to the east protection channel. In the case of a service between NE A and NE C, NE B in the normal state receives the service from the first VC-4 channel in the west direction and transmits a service to the first VC-4 channel in the east direction, but in the west switching state receives a service from the third VC-4 channel in the east direction and transmits a service to the first VC-4 channel in the east direction.

7.

16.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain rules when you plan two-fiber directional ring MSP.

Planning Guidelines on Node IDs


l l The number of NE nodes must not exceed 16. The value range of a node ID is from 0 to 15. In the case of a new ring network, it is recommended that you set the node ID of the central station to 0 and allocate node IDs to the other NEs counterclockwise. Ensure that the node ID of an NE is one more than the node ID of its previous NE. If you add an NE to an existing ring network, it is recommended that you set the node ID of the new NE to the number that is one less than the maximum number of the nodes (including the new NE) on the ring network.

Planning Guidelines on the Protection Configuration Parameters


l The MSP protocols used on a ring network must be consistent. It is recommended that you adopt the new protocol.
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l l

Set the WTR time to a range from five minutes to twelve minutes. It is recommended that you set the value to ten minutes. It is recommended that you set SD as a switching condition.

16.8 Configuration Procedure


To configure a ring MSP service, you need to create a ring MSP protection group and then create service cross-connections. Table 16-6 Configuration procedure for a ring MSP service Step 1 Operation A.6.1 Configuring Ring MSP Remarks Required when the optical transmission line is configured with ring MSP. You need to set the parameters according to the service planning. 2 A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services Required when the service is a pointto-point service. You need to set the parameters according to the service planning.

16.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure ring MSP according to network conditions. 16.9.1 Networking Diagram The section describes the networking information about NEs. 16.9.2 Service Planning The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data. 16.9.3 Configuration Process This section describes the process of configuring service data.

16.9.1 Networking Diagram


The section describes the networking information about NEs. As shown in Figure 16-4, one OptiX RTN 620 (NE4) and three OptiX transmission devices form a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring. NE4 transmits 16xE1 services between NE1 and NE5.

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Figure 16-4 Two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring

IF board: 7-IFH2 West line: 6-SL4 East line: 8-SL4 NE 1 NE 2 16E1 MSP ring NE 4 NE 5 NE 3

16.9.2 Service Planning


The service planning information contains all the parameters required for configuring the NE data.

Planning Service Timeslots


On the ring network, the services from NE1 to NE5 occupy the first to sixteenth VC-12 timeslots of the first VC-4 on the east line board on NE4. On the radio link, the services from NE1 to NE5 occupy the first to sixteenth VC-12 timeslots on the IF board on NE4.

Information About Ring MSP


Table 16-7 provides the information about ring MSP. Table 16-7 Information about ring MSP Parameter WTR time (s) SD enable Protocol type West line 1 East line 1 NE4 600 Enabled New protocol 6-SL4-1 8-SL4-1

16.9.3 Configuration Process


This section describes the process of configuring service data.
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Procedure
Step 1 A.6.1 Configuring Ring MSP. The following table provides the values of parameters. Parameter Value NE4 Local Node West Node East Node WTR Time(s) SD enable Slot Mapping Relation 4 3 5 600 Enabled l West line 1: 6-SL4-1 l East line 1: 8-SL4-1

Step 2 A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services . The following table provides values of parameters. Parameter Value NE4 Level Direction Source Source VC4 Source Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) Sink Sink VC4 Sink Timeslot Range(e.g.1,3-6) VC-12 Bidirectional 8-SL4-1 VC4-1 1-16 5-IFH2-1 VC4-1 1-16

Step 3 Testing E1 Services Through PRBS. Test any two E1 services on each base station. The test results show that the E1 services contain no bit errors. ----End

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16.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP.

Related Tasks
A.6.1 Configuring Ring MSP A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services A.6.3 Querying the Status of Ring MSP A.6.5 Performing Ring MSP Switching A.6.7 Starting/Stopping the Ring MSP Protocol

16.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


When a two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP switching occurs, the NE reports relevant alarms and abnormal events.

Relevant Alarms
l l l APS_INDI The APS_INDI alarm indicates that a protection switching occurs. APS_FAIL The APS_FAIL alarm indicates that a protection switching fails. APS_MANUAL_STOP The APS_MANU_STOP alarm indicates that the MSP protocol is manually stopped.

Relevant Abnormal Events


l l MSP switching This abnormal event indicates that a ring MSP protection switching occurs. No response from the ring MSP remote end This abnormal event indicates that the remote end does not respond to the ring MSP switching request from the local end.

16.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP is used. Q: How are the east and west of a ring network defined? A: In the case of a ring network, two paths exist from one node to another. To ensure the consistency of service routes, most services are configured to travel in one direction. This
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direction is called the primary direction of services on the ring network. Generally, the primary direction is counterclockwise. If the line direction in which an NE sends services is the primary direction, the line direction is called the east. If the line direction in which the NE receives services is the primary direction, the line direction is called the west. That is, the services are sent in the east and received in the west. Q: What switching states does two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP have? A: Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP has the following switching states: l l l l Protocol is not started The state when the ring MSP protocol is not started Protocol starting The state when the ring MSP protocol starts Idle The normal state after the ring MSP protocol is started switching operation The state after a switching event In the case of an east switching, the equipment receives services from the east protection channels rather than the west working channels, and transmits services to the east working channels rather than the west working channels. In the case of a west switching, the equipment receives services from the west protection channels rather than the east working channels, and transmits services to the west protection channels rather than the east working channels. l Pass-through In the pass-through state, the cross-connections on the working channels remain unchanged, and the services on the protection channels in the east and west are passed-through. Q: What are the differences between a two-fiber bidirectional MSP ring and an SNCP ring? A: Item Protected object Protection level Protection mechanism Line rate Two-Fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring A certain section of line Multiplex section level Shared protection STM-4 or an STM mode with a higher rate Ring switching SNCP Ring Services between subnets VC-4 level, VC-3 level, or VC-12 level Dedicated protection PDH microwave, STM-1, or an STM mode with a higher rate Single-ended switching

Switching mode

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Item Bridging/Switching point

Two-Fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring The head end/tail end automatically performs bridging and switching according to the APS protocol. Generally, the head end/tail end is a bridging and switching node. Relatively low STM-N x n/2 (n represents the number of nodes on a ring) 16 (at most) A ring network where services are distributed among NEs

SNCP Ring The transmit end is permanently bridged and the receive end is automatically switched.

Reliability Maximum capacity

Relatively high STM-N

Number of nodes on a ring network Application scenario

No restriction A ring network where services are centralized on a central NE

Q: How to handle a two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP switching failure? A: The steps are as follows: 1. Check the data configuration of the MSP ring, especially the node ID of each NE. The configuration of the node IDs must meet the requirements of the network topology. The node ID of each NE must be unique. 2. 3. Check the protection channels. If an alarm is generated on a protection channel, rectify the fault on the protection channel. Check the MSP state of each NE. In the case of normal switching, the head-end/tail-end node is in the switching state and the intermediate nodes are in the pass-through state. l If an NE is in an exceptional state, restart the MSP protocol of the NE. l If several NEs are in an exceptional state, restart the MSP protocol of all the NEs.

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17
About This Chapter

Ethernet over SDH/PDH

This chapter describes the Ethernet over SDH/Ethernet over PDH (EoS/EoPDH) feature. 17.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of EoS/EoPDH and describes its purpose. 17.2 Basic Concepts This topic describes the basic concepts that you need to be familiar with before you use the Ethernet service encapsulation and mapping feature. 17.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of EoS/EoPDH. 17.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with EoS/EoPDH. 17.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the EoS/EoPDH feature and its dependency. 17.6 Working Principle The EoS/EoPDH is implemented through the encapsulation and mapping protocols, virtual concatenation, and LCAS in a comprehensive manner. 17.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan EoS/EoPDH. 17.8 Configuration Procedure The difference between configuring the Ethernet service based on EoS/EoPDH and configuring the common Ethernet service lies in the configuration of the internal Ethernet port. 17.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure EoS/EoPDH according to the network conditions. 17.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the EoS/EoPDH feature.
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17.11 Relevant Alarms and Events When EoS/EoPDH becomes abnormal, the NE reports corresponding alarms and performance events. 17.12 FAQs This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when EoS/EoPDH is adopted.

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17.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of EoS/EoPDH and describes its purpose.

Definition
Through the encapsulation and mapping protocols, EoS helps to encapsulate and map Ethernet services into one or several VC containers so that the Ethernet services can be transmitted over SDH networks. Through the encapsulation and mapping protocols, EoPDH helps to encapsulate and map Ethernet services into one or several PDH payloads so that the Ethernet services can be transmitted over SDH/PDH networks.

Purpose
EoS provides a solution to Ethernet service transmission over SDH radio or over PDH radio based on TUs. By adopting the EoS technology, carriers are able to transmit Ethernet services over existing SDH networks. As shown in Figure 17-1, application scenario 1 of EoS has the following features: l The EoS board at the network tail node is used to access Ethernet services. After the accessed Ethernet services are encapsulated and mapped into VC containers, they are transmitted over SDH radio links. Services of multiple base stations are converged through SDH radio links.

Figure 17-1 Application scenario 1 of EoS


IDU FE EoS board Crossconnect unit SDH IF unit SDH IF unit IDU Crossconnect unit SDH optical interface board STM-1/4

E1 FE

SDH radio link SDH radio link E1 FE

SDH optical interface board

Crossconnect unit

EoS board

GE

E1 FE

SDH radio link SDH radio link E1 FE

GE

BTS

NodeB

RTN

MSTP

RNC

As shown in Figure 17-2, application scenario 2 of EoS has the following features:
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l l l

The FE/GE port on the Hybrid radio IF unit at the network tail node is used to access Ethernet services of NodeBs. The Ethernet services of multiple base stations are converged through Hybrid radio links. The EoS board at the convergence node encapsulates and maps all the converged and locally accessed Ethernet services into VC containers, which are then transmitted over SDH networks.

Figure 17-2 Application scenario 2 of EoS


IDU FE Hybrid IF unit Hybrid IF unit EoS board IDU Crossconnect unit SDH STM-1/4 optical interface board

E1 FE

Hybrid radio link Hybrid radio link E1 FE

SDH optical interface board

Crossconnect unit

EoS board

GE

GE E1 FE E1 FE Hybrid radio link Hybrid radio link

BTS

NodeB

RTN

MSTP

RNC

EoPDH provides a solution to Ethernet service transmission over PDH radio based on E1s. By adopting the EoPDH technology, carriers are able to transmit Ethernet services over existing PDH networks. As shown in Figure 17-3, application scenario 1 of EoPDH has the following features: l l The EoPDH board at the network tail node is used to access Ethernet services, and encapsulate and map these accessed Ethernet services into E1s for transmission. Services of two to four base stations are converged through PDH radio links.

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Figure 17-3 Application scenario 1 of EoPDH


IDU FE EoPDH board Crossconnect unit PDH IF unit PDH IF unit IDU Crossconnect unit E1 tributary board E1

E1 FE

PDH radio link E1 E1

E1

E1 tributary board

Crossconnect unit

EoPDH board

FE

FE

PDH transmission network

E1

FE

E1 FE

PDH radio link

E1

E1

FE

BTS

NodeB

RTN

MSTP

RNC

As shown in Figure 17-4, application scenario 2 of EoPDH has the following features: l l l The FE/GE port on the Hybrid radio IF unit at the network tail node is used to access Ethernet services of NodeBs. The Ethernet services of the two to four base stations are converged through Hybrid radio links. The EoPDH board at the convergence node encapsulates and maps all the converged and locally accessed Ethernet services into E1s for transmission.

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Figure 17-4 Application scenario 2 of EoPDH


IDU FE Hybrid IF unit Hybrid IF unit IDU EoPDH board Crossconnect unit E1 tributary board E1

E1 E1 FE E1 FE Hybrid radio link E1

E1 tributary board

Crossconnect unit

EoPDH board

FE

PDH transmission network

E1

FE

E1 FE

Hybrid radio link

E1

E1

FE

BTS

NodeB

RTN

MSTP

RNC

17.2 Basic Concepts


This topic describes the basic concepts that you need to be familiar with before you use the Ethernet service encapsulation and mapping feature. 17.2.1 Encapsulation and Mapping Protocols Ethernet service is a type of packet switching service but SDH optical transmission and SDH/ PDH microwave transmission are both based on the TDMA. Therefore, tunnels must be set up for the transmission of the Ethernet service on the transmission network. Generally, the EoS/ EoPDH uses the HDLC, LAPS, and GFP encapsulation and mapping protocols, where the GFP protocol is commonly used. 17.2.2 Virtual Concatenation During the application of EoS, the rate of the Ethernet service does not adapt to the rate of the standard VC container of the SDH. Hence, if you directly map the Ethernet service data into a standard VC container, the transmission bandwidth is lavishly wasted. To solve this problem, use the virtual concatenation technology to concatenate many standard VC containers into a virtual container group (VCG) that adapts to the rate of the Ethernet service. Similarly, EoPDH also requires using the virtual concatenation technology to concatenate PDHs to a VCG that adapts to the rate of the Ethernet service. 17.2.3 LCAS The link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) is applied on the basis of virtual concatenation and can improve the performance of virtual concatenation. The LCAS can dynamically adjust the number of virtual containers for mapping the required services, to manage the bandwidth in real time.

17.2.1 Encapsulation and Mapping Protocols


Ethernet service is a type of packet switching service but SDH optical transmission and SDH/ PDH microwave transmission are both based on the TDMA. Therefore, tunnels must be set up
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for the transmission of the Ethernet service on the transmission network. Generally, the EoS/ EoPDH uses the HDLC, LAPS, and GFP encapsulation and mapping protocols, where the GFP protocol is commonly used.

HDLC
The HDLC is a general data link control procedure. When using the HDLC protocol, the system encapsulates data services into HDLC-like frames as information bits and maps the frames to SDH VC containers.

LAPS
The LAPS is also a data link control procedure. It is developed based the HDLC.

GFP
The GFP is the most widely applied general encapsulation and mapping protocol currently. It provides a general mechanism to adapt higher-layer client signal flows into the transport network and can map the variable-length payload into the byte-synchronized transport path. Client signals can be protocol data units (PDU-oriented, such as IP/PPP and Ethernet), block-code data (blockcode-oriented, such as FC and ESCON), or common bit streams. The GFP defines the following two modes to adapt to client signals: l Frame-mapping GFP (GFP-F) The GFP-F is a PDU-oriented processing mode. It encapsulates the entire PDU into the GFP payload area and does not modify the encapsulated data. According to requirements, it determines whether to add a detection area for the payload area. l Transparent GFP (GFP-T) The GFP-T is a block-code (8B/10B code block) oriented processing mode. It extracts a single character from the received data block and maps the character into the fixed-length GFP frame.

17.2.2 Virtual Concatenation


During the application of EoS, the rate of the Ethernet service does not adapt to the rate of the standard VC container of the SDH. Hence, if you directly map the Ethernet service data into a standard VC container, the transmission bandwidth is lavishly wasted. To solve this problem, use the virtual concatenation technology to concatenate many standard VC containers into a virtual container group (VCG) that adapts to the rate of the Ethernet service. Similarly, EoPDH also requires using the virtual concatenation technology to concatenate PDHs to a VCG that adapts to the rate of the Ethernet service.

SDH Virtual Concatenation


The concatenation is defined in ITU-T G.707. There are two concatenation methods: contiguous concatenation and virtual concatenation. Both methods provide concatenated bandwidth of X times Container-N at the path termination. Contiguous concatenation concatenates the contiguous C-4s in the same STM-N into an entire structure to be transmitted. It maintains the contiguous bandwidth throughout the whole transmission. Virtual concatenation concatenates many individual VC containers (VC-12 containers, VC-3 containers, or VC-4 containers) into a big virtual structure to be transmitted.
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The virtual concatenation breaks the contiguous bandwidth into individual VCs, transmits the individual VCs, and recombines these VCs to a contiguous bandwidth at the end point of the transmission. In the case of the virtual concatenation, each VC container may be transmitted in different paths and there may be a transmission delay difference between VC containers. Hence, there are difficulties in restoring the client signal. Virtual concatenation only requires that the path termination equipment provides the concatenation function and it can allocate bandwidth flexibly. Hence, virtual concatenation is a widely applied concatenation technology. Virtual concatenation is available in two types, virtual concatenation in a higher order path and virtual concatenation in a lower order path. A virtual concatenation VC-4-Xv in a higher order path provides a payload area of X Container-4 (VC-4). The payload is mapped individually into X independent VC-4s. Each VC-4 has its own POH. Similarly, a virtual concatenation VC-12Xv in a lower order path provides a payload area of X Container-12 (VC-12). The payload is mapped individually into X independent VC-12s. Each VC-12 has its own POH, as does the virtual concatenation of VC-3s.

PDH Virtual Concatenation


The PDH supports only the virtual concatenation mode. The 1544 kbit/s, 2048 kbit/s, 34368 kbit/s, and 44736 kbit/s PDH signals can be concatenated to a VCG through the virtual concatenation. Take the virtual concatenation of E1 signals for example. One E1-Xv provides a payload area of X E1. The payload is mapped individually into X independent E1s. This is true in the case of the virtual concatenation of other PDH signals.
NOTE

As shown in Figure 17-8, to implement the virtual concatenation, certain payload in the PDH signals functions as the related overhead. For example, the actual payload provided by the E1-Xv (except the overhead) is Nx1980 kbit/s.

17.2.3 LCAS
The link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) is applied on the basis of virtual concatenation and can improve the performance of virtual concatenation. The LCAS can dynamically adjust the number of virtual containers for mapping the required services, to manage the bandwidth in real time. The LCAS technology has the following advantages: l l The LCAS can dynamically adjust (add, delete, or modify) the service bandwidth without affecting the availability of the existing service. If there are failed physical channels in virtual concatenation, the LCAS shields these physical channels. Other physical channels in virtual concatenation can transfer services. Hence, this prevents a situation where the failure of a single physical channel causes interruption of services. After the failed physical channels are restored, they can transfer services.

17.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of EoS/EoPDH. Table 17-1 lists the specifications of EoS/EoPDH.
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Table 17-1 Specifications of EoS/EoPDH Item EMS6 Maximum bandwidth on the SDH/PDH sidea Maximum number of VCTRUNKs on the SDH/PDH side Maximum bandwidth of a VCTRUNKb Maximum number of VC-3s bound to VCTRUNKs of a board Maximum number of VC-3s bound to a VCTRUNK Maximum number of VC-12s bound to VCTRUNKs of a board Maximum number of VC-12s bound to a VCTRUNK Maximum number of E1s bound to VCTRUNKs of a boardd Maximum number of E1s bound to a VCTRUNK Maximum delay of the VC-3 virtual concatenation Maximum delay of the VC-12 virtual concatenation 2xVC-4 Specification of EoS EFT4 2xVC-4 Specification of EoPDH EFP6 1xVC-4

16

100 Mbit/s

100 Mbit/s

16x1980 kbit/s

63c

63c

63

63

63

16

16 ms

8 ms

32 ms

16 ms

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Item EMS6 Maximum delay of the E1 virtual concatenation Encapsulation protocol -

Specification of EoS EFT4 -

Specification of EoPDH EFP6 30 ms

HDLC LAPS GFPe

HDLC LAPS GFPe ITU-T G.7042 Huawei Mode Standard Mode Supported Supported Supported

GFPe

LCAS standard LCAS mode

ITU-T G.7042 Huawei Mode Standard Mode

ITU-T G.7042 Huawei Mode Standard Mode Supported Supported Supported

LCAS hold-off time (ms) LCAS WTR time (s) LCAS TSD detection

Supported Supported Supported

NOTE
a:

The total bandwidth is equal to the number of planned VCTRUNKs multiplied by actual bandwidth allocated to each VCTRUNK. The total bandwidth cannot be higher than the maximum SDH/PDH bandwidth.
b:

In the case of the EMS6, EFT4, and EFP6 boards, a VCTRUNK carries a limited bandwidth. If the Ethernet service capacity carried by a VCTRUNK is higher than the maximum bandwidth of this VCTRUNK, you need to bind several VC paths to this VCTRUNK. (The total bandwidth of these VC paths is greater than the maximum bandwidth of this VCTRUNK.) In addition, you need to bind several VCTRUNKs by creating a load sharing LAG, so that Ethernet service traffic can be balanced on several VCTRUNKs. In this manner, Ethernet services of a large capacity can be transmitted.
c:

For the EMS6 board and the EFT4 board, only the second VC-4 supports the VC-12 granularity and the first VC-4 supports only the VC-3 granularity.
d: e:

The EFP6 is a type of EoPDH board, and its VCTRUNK can bind E1s, which are displayed as VC-12 paths when you configure services on the Web LCT. GFP includes the GFP-F and GFP-T 2 modes. The EMS6, EFT4, and EFP6 boards support GFP-F.

17.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with EoS/EoPDH. l Encapsulation complies with the following protocols: RFC 1662, HDLC encapsulation protocol ITU-T Recommendation X.86, LAPS encapsulation protocol ITU-T Recommendation G.7041/Y.1303 (2003), GFP encapsulation protocol
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Mapping complies with the following protocols: ITU-T Recommendation G.707, GFP-encapsulated Ethernet frame mapping the SDH ITU-T Recommendation G.8040 (2004), GFP-encapsulated Ethernet frame mapping the PDH

ITU-T Recommendation G.7042/Y.1305 (2003), Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) for virtual concatenated signals

17.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the EoS/EoPDH feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 17-2 Hardware and version support (EoS) Feature Encapsulation and mapping protocol (GFP, HDLC, and LAPS) Virtual concatenation LCAS Applicable Board EMS6 EFT4 EMS6 EFT4 EMS6 EFT4 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later V100R002 and later

Table 17-3 Hardware and version support (EoPDH) Feature Encapsulation and mapping protocol (GFP) Virtual concatenation LCAS Applicable Board EFP6 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R005C00 and later V100R005C00 and later V100R005C00 and later

EFP6 EFP6

All the versions All the versions

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Feature Dependency
The Ethernet service encapsulation, virtual concatenation, and LCAS technology do not have any impact on other features.

17.6 Working Principle


The EoS/EoPDH is implemented through the encapsulation and mapping protocols, virtual concatenation, and LCAS in a comprehensive manner. 17.6.1 Encapsulation and Mapping The HDLC/LAPS/GFP protocol encapsulates and maps Ethernet frames as PDUs. 17.6.2 Virtual Concatenation The virtual concatenation is implemented through the serial numbers of multiframes in the virtual concatenation and the overhead of multiframe indicators. 17.6.3 LCAS The LCAS implements the capacity adjustment of the virtual container by exchanging the control information between both the source and the sink side.

17.6.1 Encapsulation and Mapping


The HDLC/LAPS/GFP protocol encapsulates and maps Ethernet frames as PDUs. Among the HDLC, LAPS, and GFP protocols, the GFP protocol is most widely applied. Hence, this topic takes the GFP protocol as an example to describe how Ethernet frames are encapsulated and mapped.

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Structure of the GFP Frame


Figure 17-5 Structure of the GFP frame
Octet transmission order 1 2 3 4 5

Core header

Payload area

4-65535

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Octet transmission order

a) Frame size and transmission order

16-bit payload length indicator c-HEC (CRC-16) Core header Payload headers (4-64 bytes) Payload area Client payload information field

Optional payload FCS (CRC-32)

b) Field constituting a GFP client frame

A GFP frame consists of a core header and a payload area. The Idle frame does not have the payload area. The GFP core header includes the following fields:
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Payload length indicator (PLI) The PLI field represents the number of octets in the GFP payload area. The minimum value of the PLI field in a GFP client frame is 4 octets. PLI values 0 to 3 are reserved for GFP control frame usage.

Core HEC (cHEC) The cHEC field protects the integrity of the contents of the core header by enabling both single-bit error correction and multi-bit error detection.

The GFP payload area includes the payload header, client payload information field, and payload frame check sequence. The payload header consists of the type, type HEC (tHEC), extension header field, and extension HEC (eHEC). The type field includes the following: l Payload type identifier (PTI) The PTI identifies the type of GFP client frame. Two kinds of client frames are currently defined, user data frames (PTI = 000) and client management frames (PTI = 100). l l Payload FCS indicator (PFI) The PFI indicates the presence (PFI = 1) or absence (PFI = 0) of the payload FCS field. Extension header identifier (EXI) The EXI indicates the presence or absence of the extension header. When EXI = 0, there is no extension header. This frame format applies to a logical point-to-point configuration. l User payload identifier (UPI) The UPI identifies the type of the client frame. Figure 17-6 GFP type field format
Octet transmission order 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Bit number 5 6 7 1 6 2 5 3 PTI PFI UPI 4 4 3 5 2 6 1 7 0 Bit number 8 Octet transmission order EXI

The tHEC field protects the integrity of the type field by enabling both single-bit error correction and multi-bit error detection. The extension header field and eHEC field are used to support special data link header technologies and are seldom used in actual situations.

Type of the GFP Frame


There are two types of GFP frame: GFP control frame and GFP client frame. Currently, the GFP control frame is available only in one type: the Idle frame. The Idle frame is a four-octet GFP control frame consisting of only a GFP core header. The Idle frame is intended for the GFP source adaptation process to facilitate the adaptation of the GFP octet stream to any given transport medium where the transport medium channel has a high capacity. Two types of GFP client frames are currently defined: client data frame and client management frame. GFP client data frames are used to transport data from the client signal. GFP client
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management frames are used to transport information associated with the management of the client signal or GFP connection. The type field of the client data frames uses the following values: l l l l PTI = 100 PFI = Payload specific EXI = Payload specific UPI = See Table 17-4.

Table 17-4 UPI values of the client management frame UPI Value 0000 0000 1111 1111 0000 0001 0000 0010 0000 0011 through 1111 11110 Client signal fail (loss of client signal) Client signal fail (loss of character synchronization) Reserved for future use Usage Reserved

Ethernet Frame Encapsulation


The Ethernet board adopts the GFP-F adaptation mode to encapsulate Ethernet frames into the corresponding virtual container group. The encapsulation process is as follows: 1. The Ethernet MAC octets from the destination address through the frame check sequence, inclusive, are placed in the GFP payload information field. Octet-alignment is maintained and bit identification within octets is maintained.
Ethernet MAC frame Octets 2 2 2 2 0-60 GFP frame PLI cHEC Type tHEC GFP extension header

Octets 7 1 6 6 2

4 1

Preamble Start of frame delimiter Destination Address (DA) Source Address (SA) Length/Type MAC client data Pad Frame Check Sequence (FCS) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

GFP payload

Bits

Bits

2. 3.

Calculate other fields of the GFP client data frame over the content of the payload. Scramble the core header and the payload area to maintain DC balance of the transported data.
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4.

Map GFP client data frames into virtual container groups and insert the Idle frame to realize the rate adaptation between the variable-length PDUs and the defined virtual container groups.

The decapsulation process is as follows: 1. 2. 3. Check for a correct cHEC, byte by byte in the payload of the virtual container group. Once a correct cHEC is detected, a GFP frame is found. Check for subsequent GFP frames frame by frame according to the PLI in the GFP frame and discard Idle frames. Descramble the payload area in the found GFP frame and extract the Ethernet MAC octets from the destination address through the frame check sequence, inclusive.

17.6.2 Virtual Concatenation


The virtual concatenation is implemented through the serial numbers of multiframes in the virtual concatenation and the overhead of multiframe indicators.

VC-4-Xv and VC-3-Xv


The virtual container that is formed by a VC-4-Xv/VC-3-Xv can be mapped into X individual VC-4/VC-3s which form the VC-4-Xv/VC-3-Xv. Each VC-4/VC-3 has its own POH. The POH has the same specifications as the ordinary VC-4 POH. The H4 byte in the POH is used for the virtual concatenation-specific multiframe indicator (MFI) and sequence indicator (SQ). The MFI indicates the position of a frame in the multiframe. Each frame sent by the source carries the MFI information. The sink combines the frames with the same MFI information into the C-n-Xv. The MFI consists of the MFI-1 and MFI-2. The MFI-1 is transmitted in bit 5 to bit 8 of the H4 byte and ranges from 0 to 15. The MFI-2 is transmitted in the frame whose MFI-1 is 0 and the frame whose MFI-1 is 1 in the multiframe. Bit 1 to bit 4 in the H4 bytes of the two frames indicate the higher four bits and the lower four bits of the MFI-2. Thus, MFI-2 ranges from 0 to 255. A multiframe contains 4096 frames and has a period of 512 ms. The SQ indicates the position of a frame in the C-n-Xv. The source inserts the SQ information into the frame according to the payload allocation sequence. The sink determines the sequence to extract the payload from the frames that form C-n-Xv according to the SQ. The SQ is transmitted in the frame whose MFI-1 is 14 and the frame whose MFI-1 is 15 in the multiframe. Bit 1 to bit 4 in the H4 bytes of the two frames indicate the higher four bits and the lower four bits of the SQ.

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Figure 17-7 VC-3-Xv/VC-4-Xv multiframe and sequence indicator


C-3-X/C-4-X 1 X C-3-Xv/C-4-Xv SQ = X-1 =0 SQ = 0 =0 MFI-1 = 0 X-1 MFI-2 = 0 =1 SQ = 0 =0 MFI-1 = 1 MFI-2 = 0
H

POH

POH

SQ = X-1 = 15 SQ = 0 MFI-1 = 15 = 0 MFI-2 = 0 X-1 SQ = 0 =0 MFI-1 = 0 = 15 MFI-2 = 1 SQ = X-1 = 15 SQ = 0 = 255 MFI-1 = 15 MFI-2 = 255 X-1 =0 SQ = 0 =0 MFI-1 = 0 MFI-2 = 0
H H

With the MFI and SQ, the sink can correctly restore the position of each frame in the C-n-Xv to avoid the frame alignment problem due to the different transmission delays of the frames.

VC-12-Xv
The virtual container that is formed by a VC-12-Xv can be mapped into X individual VC-12s which form the VC-12-Xv. Each VC-12 has its own POH. The POH has the same specifications as the ordinary VC-12 POH. Bit 2 of the K4 byte in the POH is used for the virtual concatenationspecific frame count and sequence indicator. Bit 2s of the K4 bytes in every 32 multiframes (one multiframe comprising four VC-12s) are extracted to form a 32-bit character string to express the frame count and sequence indicator. Bits 1-5 of the string express the frame count, whose value range is between 0 and 31. The structure formed by 32 multiframes has 128 frames. Hence, the resulting overall multiframe is 1096 frames (= 512 ms) long. Bits 6-11 of the string express the sequence indicator. The frame count/sequence indicator in the VC-12-Xv has the same usage as the multiframe indicator/ sequence indicator in the VC-4-Xv/VC-3-Xv.

E1-Xv
The virtual container that is formed by an E1-Xv can be mapped into X individual E1-Xvs which form the E1-Xv. As shown in Figure 17-8, ITU-T G.704 defines the E1 frame and the structure of the E1 multiframe consisting of N (N ranges from 1 to 16) E1 frames. The byte of timeslot 1 of each E1 frame is used for concatenation overhead. This provides the alignment information for the receive node. Based on the framing information provided by the overheads, the receive node can convert the receive bit into a single timeslot or channel.
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POH

POH

POH

Multiframe (MF)

POH

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Figure 17-8 Position of the N x 2048 kbit/s signals in the concatenation overhead

125 ms
Concatenation overhead octet
Frame number
1 2 3 4 5 T.S.0 T.S.0 T.S.0 T.S.0 T.S.0

15 T.S.0 16 T.S.0

The concatenation overhead byte includes the virtual concatenation-specific MFI and the SQ. The MFI indicates the position of a frame in the multiframe. Each frame sent from the source contains the MFI information. The sink combines the frames with the same MFI into the E1Xv. The MFI consists of the MFI-1 and MFI-2. The MFI-1 is transmitted in bit 5 to bit 8 in the concatenation overhead byte, and ranges from 0 to 15. The MFI-2 is transmitted in the frame whose MFI-1 value is 0 and the frame whose MFI-1 value is 1 in the multiframe. In the concatenation overhead byte of the two frames, bit 1 to bit 4 indicate the higher four bits and the lower four bits of the MFI-2. The SQ indicates the position of a frame in the E1-Xv. The source inserts the SQ information into the frame according to the payload allocation sequence. The sink determines the sequence to extract the payload from the frames that form the E1-Xv according to the SQ. The SQ is transmitted in bit 1 to bit 4 of the concatenation overhead byte of the frame whose MFI-1 is 15 in the multiframe. With the MFI and SQ, the sink can correctly restore the position of each frame in the E1-Xv to avoid the frame alignment problem due to different transmission delays of the frames.

17.6.3 LCAS
The LCAS implements the capacity adjustment of the virtual container by exchanging the control information between both the source and the sink side.

Control Information
Synchronization of changes in the capacity of the transmitter (So) and the receiver (Sk) is achieved by a control packet. Each control packet describes the state of the link during the next control packet. Changes are sent in advance so that the receiver can switch to the new configuration as soon as it arrives. The control packet is transported in byte H4 (higher order path) or bit 2 of byte K4 (lower order path). The control packet includes the following: l MFI or frame count MFI is used for the VC-4-Xv/VC-3-Xv and the PDH virtual concatenation, and the frame count is used for the VC-12-Xv. Both are used to indicate the position of a multiframe. For the usage, see 17.6.2 Virtual Concatenation.
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SQ SQ is used to indicate the position of a standard frame in the virtual concatenation. For the usage, see 17.6.2 Virtual Concatenation.

GID The GID is used for identification of the VCG. The GID bit of all members of the same VCG has the same value. The VCG refers to a group of co-located member trail termination functions that are connected to the same virtual concatenation link. The members of a VCG are the virtual containers that form the VCG. The VCG is equivalent to the generally spoken VCTRUNK.

Control field (CTRL) The control field is used to transfer the link information from the source to the sink. It must provide the status of the individual member of the link. Table 17-5 LCAS CTRL words Command FIXED ADD NORM EOS IDLE DNU Remarks This is an indication that this end uses fixed bandwidth (non-LCAS mode). This member is about to be added to the group. Normal transmission End of sequence indication and normal transmission This member is not part of the group or about to be removed. Do not use (the payload). The sink side reported FAIL status.

CRC The CRC check is performed on every control packet after it has been received, and the contents rejected if the test fails.

l l

Member status field (MST) It reports the member status from the sink to the source. There are two states, OK and FAIL. Re-sequence acknowledge (RS-Ack) bit When a change of the status of the members in a VCG is detected at the sink side, a notification to the source has to be performed by toggling (that is, change from '0' to '1' or from '1' to '0') the RS-Ack bit.

The forward control packets from the source to the sink include the MFI, SQ, GID, CTRL, and CRC. The backward control packets from the sink to the source include the MST, RS-Ack, and CRC.

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Capacity Adjustment Process


Figure 17-9 Capacity adjustment process (addition of a member)
Source (EOS) Source (new) Ctrl=ADD MST=OK Ctrl=EOS RS-Ack Ctrl=NORM Sink (new) Source (EOS)

When a member is added to a VCTRUNK on the NMS, the LCAS capacity adjustment process is as follows: 1. The LCAS source assigns a sequence number (one larger than the currently highest sequence number) to the new member and sends a forward control packet with its CTRL word being ADD to the sink. The LCAS sink performs continuity check for the new member. If the link of the new member is normal, the sink sends a backward control packet in which MST = OK to the source. The LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL code being EOS to the sink for the new member, indicating that the SQ of the new member is the currently highest number in the VCG. The LCAS sink sends the RS-Ack to the source to acknowledge the change of the SQ. The LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL code being NORM to the sink for the member whose original state is EOS, indicating that the member is normally transmitted but is not the one with the highest SQ. Both the source and the sink use the new member to transport the payload.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

Figure 17-10 Capacity adjustment process (deletion of a member)


Source(SQ>removed member's SQ) Source(removed) Ctrl=IDLE MST=FAIL RS-Ack Ctrl=EOS/NORM RS-Ack Sink(removed) Sink(SQ>removed member's SQ)

When a member is deleted from a VCTRUNK on the NMS, the LCAS capacity adjustment process is as follows:
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1. 2.

The LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL code being IDLE to the sink for the deleted member. The LCAS sink sets the status of the member to FAIL and sends a backward control packet in which MST = FAIL to the source and also sends the RS-Ack to acknowledge the change of the SQ. The LCAS source reallocates SQs for all the members whose SQ is higher than that of the deleted member (SQ decremented successively by 1). It also sends a forward control packet with its CTRL code being EOS or NORM to the sink to indicate the change of the SQ. The LCAS sink sends the RS-Ack to the source to acknowledge the change of the SQ. Both the source and the sink do not use the deleted member to transport the payload.

3.

4. 5.

Figure 17-11 Capacity adjustment process (one member link restored after a failure)
Source (link error) MST=FAIL Ctrl=DNU Sink

...
MST=OK Ctrl=NORM

When a member link of a VCTRUNK is restored after a failure, the process of adjusting the LCAS capacity is as follows: 1. 2. 3. On detecting that a member link is faulty, the LCAS sink sends a backward control packet in which MST = FAIL to the source. The LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL code being DNU to the sink for the member, indicating that the member is temporarily unavailable. If the original status of the member is EOS, the LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL word being EOS to the sink for the member whose SQ is one lower than EOS. Both the source and the sink do not use the faulty link member to transport the payload. On detecting that the member link is restored, the LCAS sink sends a backward control packet in which MST = OK to the source. The LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL code being NORM or EOS to the sink for the member, indicating that the member is restored and available. If the original status of the member is EOS, the LCAS source sends a forward control packet with its CTRL word being NORM to the sink for the member whose status is set to EOS. Both the source and the sink use the restored member to transport the payload.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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l The LCAS source can adopt the Huawei mode or the standard mode to send the two control packets MST and Rs-Ack. In the Huawei mode, the Rs-Ack is sent before the MST. In the standard mode, the MST is sent before the Rs-Ack. l The LCAS sink uses the trail signal fail (TSF) or the loss of multiframe (LOM) as a required condition to determine whether a link is faulty. It uses the trail signal degraded (TSD) as an optional condition. In the case of the VC-12, the TSD is the BIP_SD. In the case of the VC-3, the TSD is the B3_SD_VC12. l When a member link is faulty, the LCAS performs a protection switching after a delay of time to prevent the situation where an NE simultaneously performs a protection switching such as SNCP and deletes the member. l A VCG uses a member to transport payload some time after the member link is restored.

17.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan EoS/EoPDH. Adhere to the following guidelines when planning the encapsulation and mapping of the Ethernet port: l l Plan the same encapsulation and mapping protocol for both sides. It is recommended that you adopt the GFP protocol. The parameters of the encapsulation and mapping protocol at both sides need to be consistent. It is recommended that you adopt the default parameters of the protocol.

Adhere to the following guidelines when planning VCTRUNKs: l As shown in Table 17-1, the capacity of VCTRUNKs needs to be determined by the actual bandwidth of the service needs. The total bandwidth is equal to the number of planned VCTRUNKs multiplied by actual bandwidth allocated to each VCTRUNK. The total bandwidth cannot be greater than the maximum SDH/PDH bandwidth. If the bandwidth required for transmitting the Ethernet service is greater than the maximum bandwidth of a single VCTRUNK, you can create a link aggregation (LAG) in load sharing mode to bind several VCTRUNKs into an LAG. In this manner, the requirement of transmitting the Ethernet service with a large capacity can be met. l l Bind only the paths in a VC-4 if possible. If the paths of several VC-4s need to be bound, the VC-4s that have the same transmission path take priority. Each VC-4 of an Ethernet board can have only VC-3 paths or only VC-12 paths. Hence, when a VCTRUNK needs to be bound with VC-3 paths, give priority to the VC-4s whose paths are already bound with the VC-3; when a VCTRUNK needs to be bound with VC-12 paths, give priority to the VC-4s whose paths are already bound with the VC-12. As the VC-4-1 of the EFT4 board and EMS6 board can bind only VC-3 paths whereas the VC-4-2 can bind both VC-12 and VC-3 paths, give priority to the paths in the VC-4-1 when a VCTRUNK needs to be bound with VC-3 paths. Generally, bidirectional paths are bound.

Adhere to the following guidelines when planning the LCAS: l l The LCAS at both sides must be enabled or disabled. If the LCAS is enabled at both sides, the used LCAS parameters at both sides must be consistent.
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If the opposite equipment is the third-party equipment and does not support the Huawei mode, set the LCAS mode to the standard mode. Otherwise, set the mode to the Huawei mode at both sides. It is recommended that you set the hold-off time to 2000 ms. It is recommended that you set the WTR time to 300s. It is recommended that you disable the trail signal degrade (TSD) function.

l l l

17.8 Configuration Procedure


The difference between configuring the Ethernet service based on EoS/EoPDH and configuring the common Ethernet service lies in the configuration of the internal Ethernet port. Table 17-6 lists the configuration procedure of EoS.

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Table 17-6 Configuration procedure of EoS Step 1 Operation A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board Description Required. l Encapsulation/Mapping: It is recommended that you set Mapping Protocol to GFP. The Mapping Protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at one end of a transmission line must be the same as the Mapping Protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at the other end of the transmission line respectively. l Bound path: A VCTRUNK on the EMS6 or EFT4 board supports the maximum bandwidth of 100 Mbit/s. Therefore, the total bandwidth of VC paths bound to a VCTRUNK on the EMS6 or EFT4 board cannot be more than 100 Mbit/s As the VC-4-1 of the EFT4 board and EMS6 board can bind only VC-3 paths whereas the VC-4-2 can bind both VC-12 and VC-3 paths, give priority to the paths in the VC-4-1 when a VCTRUNK needs to be bound with VC-3 paths. When a VCTRUNK needs to be bound with VC-12 paths, only the paths in the VC-4-2 can be bound. The timeslots to which the paths bound with a VCTRUNK correspond must be the same at both ends of a transmission line. l LCAS: Set Enabling LCAS according to the network planning. To enable Enabling LCAS, ensure that the LCAS protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at one end of a transmission line is the same as the LCAS protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at the other end of the transmission line. 2 A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services A.7.2 Creating Cross-Connections for SNCP Services Required when the non-SNCP service is configured.

Required when the SNCP service is configured.

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Table 17-7 lists the configuration procedure of EoPDH. Table 17-7 Configuration procedure of EoPDH Step 1 Operation A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board Description Required. l Encapsulation/Mapping: The Mapping Protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at one end of a transmission line must be the same as the Mapping Protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at the other end of the transmission line respectively. The EFP6 board supports only the GFP mapping protocol. l Bound path: The EFP6 board supports the E1-level VCTRUNK. During the service configuration, however, the NMS displays that the VC-12 paths are bound. The maximum number of VC-12 paths bound to a VCTRUNK on the EFP6 board is 16. The timeslots to which the paths bound with a VCTRUNK correspond must be the same at both ends of a transmission line. l LCAS: Set Enabling LCAS according to the network planning. To enable Enabling LCAS, ensure that the LCAS protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at one end of a transmission line is the same as the LCAS protocol and protocol parameters set for VCTRUNKs at the other end of the transmission line. 2 A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services A.7.2 Creating Cross-Connections for SNCP Services Required when the non-SNCP service is configured.

Required when the SNCP service is configured.

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17.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure EoS/EoPDH according to the network conditions. For details on the configuration example of an Ethernet service over the SDH/PDH network, see Configuration Example (Ethernet Services Traversing a TDM Network) in the Configuration Guide.

17.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with the EoS/EoPDH feature.

Related Tasks
A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board A.7.1 Creating Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services A.7.2 Creating Cross-Connections for SNCP Services A.18.6 Dynamically Increasing/Decreasing the VCTRUNK Bandwidth

17.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


When EoS/EoPDH becomes abnormal, the NE reports corresponding alarms and performance events.

Relevant Alarms
l ALM_GFP_dCSF The ALM_GFP_dCSF alarm indicates that the GFP client signal is lost. On detecting the GFP client management frame that indicates the loss of the client signal from the opposite station, the board reports this alarm. l ALM_GFP_dLFD The ALM_GFP_dLFD alarm indicates that the GFP frame is out of synchronization. On detecting that the GFP frame is in the out-of-synchronization state, the board reports this alarm. l FCS_ERR The FCS_ERR alarm indicates a check error of the frame check sequence (FCS). If the FCS check on the received HDLC/LAPS/GFP frame encounters an error, the board reports this alarm. l l VCAT_LOA The VCAT_LOA alarm indicates a loss of alignment of the virtual concatenation. VCAT_LOM_VC3

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The VCAT_LOM_VC3 alarm indicates a loss of multiframe of the virtual concatenation at the VC-3 level. On detecting a mismatch between byte H4 and the expected multiframe sequence, the board reports this alarm. l VCAT_LOM_VC12 The VCAT_LOM_VC12 alarm indicates a loss of multiframe of the virtual concatenation at the VC-12 level. On detecting a mismatch between byte K4 and the expected multiframe sequence, the board reports this alarm. l VCAT_SQM_VC3 The VCAT_SQM_VC3 alarm indicates a mismatch of SQ of the virtual concatenation at the VC-3 level. On detecting a mismatch between the SQ of the member and the expected SQ, the board reports this alarm. l VCAT_SQM_VC12 The VCAT_SQM_VC12 alarm indicates a mismatch of SQ of the virtual concatenation at the VC-12 level. On detecting a mismatch between the SQ of the member and the expected SQ, the board reports this alarm. l LCAS_FOPR The LCAS_FOPR alarm indicates that the protocol in the LCAS receive direction fails. If the receive unit of the LCAS module of the board detects an abnormality that may cause the LCAS protocol to fail to negotiate or negotiate a wrong result, the board reports this alarm. l LCAS_FOPT The LCAS_FOPT alarm indicates that the protocol in the LCAS transmit direction fails. If the transmit unit of the LCAS module of the board detects an abnormality that may cause the LCAS protocol to fail to negotiate or negotiate a wrong result, the board reports this alarm. l LCAS_PLCR The LCAS_PLCR alarm indicates that the bandwidth is partially lost in the LCAS receive direction. the receive direction of the VCTRUNK with the LCAS enabled, if the number of paths that actually carry the payload is smaller than that of the configured paths but is not 0, the board reports this alarm. l LCAS_PLCT The LCAS_PLCT alarm indicates that the bandwidth is partially lost in the LCAS transmit direction. In the transmit direction of the VCTRUNK with the LCAS enabled, if the number of paths that actually carry the payload is smaller than that of the configured paths but is not 0, the board reports this alarm. l LCAS_TLCR The LCAS_TLCR alarm indicates that the bandwidth is totally lost in the LCAS receive direction. In the receive direction of the VCTRUNK with the LCAS enabled, if the number of paths that actually carry the payload is 0 but that of the configured paths is not 0, the board reports this alarm. l LCAS_TLCT The LCAS_TLCT alarm indicates that the bandwidth is totally lost in the LCAS transmit direction. In the transmit direction of the VCTRUNK with the LCAS enabled, if the number of paths that actually carry the payload is 0 but that of the configured paths is not 0, the board reports this alarm.

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Relevant Abnormal Events


l LCAS event: Adding a member is successful. This abnormal event indicates that within the specified time (10s), the member added into the VCTRUNK already carries traffic. l LCAS event: Adding a member times out. This abnormal event indicates that within the specified time (10s), the member added into the VCTRUNK cannot carry traffic. l LCAS event: Deleting a member is successful. This abnormal event indicates that within the specified time (10s), the member deleted from the VCTRUNK does not carry traffic any longer. l LCAS event: Deleting a member times out and the member is forcibly deleted. This abnormal event indicates that within the specified time (10s), the LCAS fails to enable the VCTRUNK to delete the member and as a result the local end forcibly deletes the member. l LCAS event: The bandwidth is restored. This abnormal event indicates that the member whose link is faulty starts to carry traffic again.

17.12 FAQs
This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when EoS/EoPDH is adopted. Q: How does one calculate the theoretical bandwidth of a VCTRUNK for Ethernet services? A: The calculation formula is as follows: Bandwidth = Number of bound paths of the VCTRUNK x Payload rate of the binding granularity x Encapsulation efficiency of the encapsulation protocol x (Length of the Ethernet frame + Interframe gap + Preamble)/Length of the Ethernet frame. The payload rate of the VC-12 is 2.176 Mbit/s, and the payload rate of the VC-3 is 48.384 Mbit/ s. The length of the interframe gap is always 8 bytes, and the length of the preamble is always 12 bytes. In the case of the encapsulation efficiency of the GFP protocol, two cases are possible: l When the GFP protocol uses FCS32 as the check field, the encapsulation efficiency of the GFP protocol is calculated as follows: Length of the Ethernet frame/(Length of the Ethernet frame + 12-byte overload). When the GFP protocol does not have the check field, the encapsulation efficiency of the GFP protocol is calculated as follows: Length of the Ethernet frame/(Length of the Ethernet frame + 8-byte overload).
NOTE

If the Ethernet board uses the GFP protocol for Ethernet service encapsulation, set the Check Field Length parameter to control the using of the check field. By default, FCS32 is used as the check field.

Based on the preceding data, if the Ethernet board uses the default parameter values of the GFP protocol, the theoretical bandwidth of five VCTRUNKs at the VC-12 level is 10.938 Mbit/s when the length of the Ethernet frame is 1500 bytes; the theoretical bandwidth of five
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VCTRUNKs at the VC-12 level is 12.025 Mbit/s when the length of the Ethernet frame is 64 bytes. Q: Why is the bandwidth of Ethernet payloads transmitted in VC-12 paths higher than the bandwidth of Ethernet payloads transmitted in E1 paths? A: Certain overheads in VC-12 paths can transmit payloads. Therefore, the actual bandwidth of Ethernet payloads transmitted in a VC-12 path, which can reach 2.17 Mbit/s, is higher than the bandwidth of an E1. When an E1 path transmits services, certain payloads are used to transmit overheads. Therefore, the bandwidth of Ethernet payloads transmitted in an E1 path is 1980 kbit/ s, which is smaller than the bandwidth of Ethernet payloads that are transmitted in a VC-12 path. In conclusion, the service capacity of a VC-12 path is greater than that of an E1 path.

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18
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the virtual local area network (VLAN) feature. 18.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of VLAN and describes its purpose. 18.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with VLANs. 18.3 Specifications This section provides the specifications of VLANs. 18.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with VLANs.

VLAN

18.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the VLAN feature and its dependency. 18.6 Principles Implementation of the VLAN feature is relevant to the port attribute and service type. 18.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan VLANs. 18.8 Configuration Procedure Based on the VLAN planning information, configure an Ethernet service and set the TAG attribute of an Ethernet port. 18.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure an Ethernet service based on the VLAN according to the network conditions. 18.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with VLANs. 18.11 Relevant Alarms and Events There are no alarms or performance events relevant to VLANs.
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18.12 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the VLAN feature is used.

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18.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of VLAN and describes its purpose.

Definition
According to specific rules, a real network topology can be divided into several logical subnetworks, which are VLANs. The broadcast packet of a VLAN can transmit only within the range of this VLAN. That is, one VLAN corresponds to a specific broadcast domain. Figure 18-1 shows the VLAN application. All Ethernet devices of a company belong to one LAN, and the Ethernet devices of different departments form their respective VLANs. The broadcast packets of a VLAN are limited to its range. In this manner, Ethernet packets of different departments are isolated, and the broadcast flooding problem on a LAN is successfully solved. Figure 18-1 Networking diagram of the VLAN application
VLAN100 Branch A VLAN101 Branch B VLAN102 Branch C
Ethernet link Radio link

VLAN100 Branch A' VLAN101 Branch B'

NE1

NE2 VLAN102

Branch C'

Purpose
The VLAN technology helps users solve the broadcast flooding problem with a low cost. In addition, the VLAN technology offers several revolutionary benefits. l Improving bandwidth utilization Broadcast packets are forwarded within the range of a specific VLAN other than on the entire LAN, so a large number of unnecessary broadcast packets are not generated. This effectively improves bandwidth utilization. In addition, a VLAN is actually a small broadcast domain; if the routing of a packet is not discovered, a switch transmits this packet only to the other ports that belong to this VLAN other than to all ports of the switch. Therefore, the packet forwarding is restricted to a specific VLAN, which also improves network utilization to a certain degree. l
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Isolating users and improving network security


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The packets of a VLAN are forwarded only within the range of this VLAN, and are not forwarded to the network devices of the other VLAN users. Therefore, using VLANs can isolate different users and can protect the privacy of user information. l Achieving virtual workgroups The final goal of using VLANs is to establish a virtual workgroup model, that is, to establish a dynamic organization environment. This enables the members of the same VLAN to communicate with each other as if they were on the same VLAN, even when they move to other positions of the network. In addition, the broadcast packets are restricted to this VLAN without affecting the members of other VLANs. If the network location of one member changes but the VLAN that the member belongs to does not change, the configuration of this member need not be changed. If the physical location of one member does not change but the VLAN that the member belongs to changes, a network administrator only needs to modify the configuration of this member. Achieving virtual workgroups is a long-term goal, which requires support in other aspects.

18.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with VLANs. 18.2.1 Frame Format To implement the VLAN function, IEEE 802.1q defines a type of Ethernet frame that contains VLAN information, namely, the tagged frame. The tagged frame is also called the 802.1q frame. Compared with a common Ethernet frame, this type of frame has a 4-byte 802.1q header. 18.2.2 TAG Attribute Based on different methods for processing tagged frames and untagged frames, TAG attributes are classified into Tag Aware, Access, and Hybrid.

18.2.1 Frame Format


To implement the VLAN function, IEEE 802.1q defines a type of Ethernet frame that contains VLAN information, namely, the tagged frame. The tagged frame is also called the 802.1q frame. Compared with a common Ethernet frame, this type of frame has a 4-byte 802.1q header. Figure 18-2 shows the format of the tagged frame. Figure 18-2 Format of a tagged frame
Destination address Source address 4 bytes 802.1q header FCS (CRC-32)

Length/Type

Data

TCI TPID 16 bits PCP 3 bits CFI 1 bit VID 12 bits

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The 4-byte 802.1q header is divided into two parts: tag protocol identifier (TPID) and tag control information (TCI). The TCI is divided into three parts: user_priority, canonical format indicator (CFI), and VLAN identifier (VID). l TPID A TPID is a 2-byte field, and it identifies an Ethernet frame as a tagged frame. The value is always 0x8100. When a tagged frame arrives at a network device that cannot identify the tagged frame, it is directly discarded. l PCP A priority code point (PCP) identifies the priority of an Ethernet frame. This field can be used to raise requirements for service quality. l CFI A CFI is a 1-bit field, and it is used in certain physical networks that adopt ring topologies. This field is not processed in the case of Ethernet networks. l VID A VLAN ID is a 12-bit field, and it indicates the VLAN that the frame belongs to. Restricted to the field length, the value of a VID ranges from 0 to 4095.

18.2.2 TAG Attribute


Based on different methods for processing tagged frames and untagged frames, TAG attributes are classified into Tag Aware, Access, and Hybrid. Table 18-1 provides the methods for an ingress port and an egress port to process Ethernet frames based on different TAG attributes. Table 18-1 Processing of data frames based on different TAG attributes Direction Type of Data Frame Tagged frame Untagged frame Processing Method Tag Aware Receives the frame. Discards the frame. Access Discards the frame. Receives the frame after it is added with a port VID (PVID). Transmits the frame after the VID is stripped. Hybrid Receives the frame. Receives the frame after it is added with a PVID. Transmits the frame after its PVID is stripped, if the VID is equal to the PVID. Directly transmits the frame, if the VID is not equal to the PVID.
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Ingress port

Egress port

Tagged frame

Transmits the frame.

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NOTE

After being into a port, an untagged frame may be discarded or added with a PVID to form a tagged frame. Thus, the case that an untagged frame is transmitted out of port does not exist.

18.3 Specifications
This section provides the specifications of VLANs. Table 18-2 lists the specifications of VLANs. Table 18-2 Specifications of VLANs Item Specification EMS6 Range of VLAN IDs Number of EVPL services based on the VLAN Number of 802.1q bridges TAG attributea 1-4095 1024 1 Tag aware Access Hybrid Enabling of the ingress check VLAN transparent transmissionb VLAN switchingc Supported Supported Supported EFP6

NOTE

l a: On the OptiX RTN 620, the TAG attribute is valid only when Network Attributes of a port is set to UNI. l b: In VLAN transparent transmission, the VLAN ID of an Ethernet frame does not change when this frame is forwarded. l c: VLAN switching involves a process in which the VLAN ID of an Ethernet frame changes when this frame is forwarded. On the OptiX RTN 620, VLAN switching is implemented by performing QinQ operations.

18.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with VLANs. The following protocol is associated with VLANs: IEEE 802.1q: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks
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18.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the VLAN feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 18-3 Hardware and version support Feature VLAN Applicable Board EMS6 EFP6 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and later V100R005C00 and later

Feature Dependency
The dependency between the VLAN feature and other features is as follows: l l When the VLAN technology is used in the Layer 2 switching application, the 802.1q bridge is generated. QinQ is a Layer 2 tunnel protocol based on 802.1q encapsulation. In the QinQ application, the packet carries two-layer VLAN tags.

18.6 Principles
Implementation of the VLAN feature is relevant to the port attribute and service type. When the VLAN feature is enabled, the Ethernet switching unit processes a data frame as follows: 1. 2. Processes the data frame that is transmitted into the switch through a certain port, based on the attribute of this port. For details, see Table 18-1. Forwards the data frame based on the service type. l In the case of the private line service, the Ethernet switching unit forwards the frame to the corresponding ports based on the service configuration. l In the case of the LAN service, the Ethernet switching unit forwards the data frame to the corresponding ports based on the MAC address table. For details, see 20.6 Principles in the Layer 2 switching feature. 3. Processes the data frame that is transmitted out of the switch through a certain port, based on the attribute of this port. For details, see Table 18-1.

18.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan VLANs.
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Planning Guidelines on VLAN IDs


l l Allocate a unique VLAN ID for each user. If a user needs to transmit various services to different locations, allocate different VLAN IDs for each type of service.

Planning Guidelines on TAG Attributes


l l If all of the accessed services are tagged frames, set the TAG attributes of the ingress ports for these services to Tag Aware. If all of the accessed services are untagged frames, set the TAG attributes of the ingress ports for these services to Access and set the default VLAN IDs and VLAN priorities based on the network planning information. If the accessed services are a combination of tagged frames and untagged frames, set the TAG attributes of the ingress ports for these services to Hybrid and set the default VLAN IDs and VLAN priorities based on the network planning information.

18.8 Configuration Procedure


Based on the VLAN planning information, configure an Ethernet service and set the TAG attribute of an Ethernet port.

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Table 18-4 Procedures for configuring VLAN-based EVPL services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l You need to set TAG Attributes. In the case of a VLAN-based EVPL service, set Entry Detection to Enabled. Set the other parameters according to the network planning information. l You need to set Network Attributes. In the case of a VLAN-based EVPL service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step

Operation A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board

Description Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l You need to set TAG Attributes. In the case of a VLAN-based EVPL service, set Entry Detection to Enabled. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of a VLAN-based EVPL service, it is recommended that you set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l Set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority Optional.

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Step 3

Operation Creating VLANbased EVPL services A.19.1 Creating Ethernet Private Line Services

Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Service Type to EPL. l Set Direction to Bidirectional. l Set Source Port and Sink Port according to the network planning information. l Set Source C-VLAN(e.g.1,3-6) and Sink CVLAN(e.g.1,3-6) according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no paths are bound is used as Source Port or Sink Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

Configuri ng the QoS

A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before perform any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CAR or CoS to the corresponding flow according to the network planning information.

Required when you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required when you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the two NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network. A.14.2 Creating MAs Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value for the two NEs.

Perform a LB test.

A.14.1 Creating MDs

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

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Table 18-5 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l You need to set TAG Attributes. In the case of an IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l To enable the port loop detection function or broadcast packet suppression function, you need to set Advanced Attributes. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board

Description Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of an IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required if FE/GE interfaces are configured in a LAG for protection or if the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l In the case of FE/GE interfaces, set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends.

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Step

Operation A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority

Description Optional.

Configuri ng ERPS protection

A.9.1 Creating ERPS Instances

Required if ERPS is configured. The main parameters are provided as follows: l Set ERPS ID, East Port, and West Port according to the network planning information. l When setting RPLOwner Ring Node Flag, note that an Ethernet ring has only one RPL owner. l When you set Control VLAN, pay attention to the following points: The value of Control VLAN must different from the VLAN ID carried by Ethernet service packets or the VLAN ID carried by inband DCN packets. Add Control VLAN to the VLAN filter table of an IEEE 802.1q bridge when you create EVPLAN services based on this bridge.

A.9.2 Setting Paramete rs of the Ethernet Ring Protocol 4 Creating IEEE 802.1q bridgebased EVPLAN services A.19.2 Creating Ethernet LAN Services

Required if the values of the default parameters of the ERPS timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), and WTR Time(min) according to actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network. Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set VB Name according to the network planning information. l Set Bridge Type to 802.1q. l Set Mount Port according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no channels are bound is used as Mount Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 channels.

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Step 5

Operation A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table

Description Required. Set VLAN ID(e.g;1,3-6) and Selected forwarding ports according to the network planning information. Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Managing the MAC address table

A.20.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.20.2 Creating a Blacklist Entry of a MAC Address A.20.3 Setting the Aging Time of a MAC Address Table Entry

Required if you need to disable usage of EPLAN services on the host of certain MAC addresses. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable the aging function or change the aging time (five minutes by default). Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge Configuri ng the QoS A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required if you need to change a port connected to a VB, enabled status of a port connected to a VB, or Hub/Spoke attribute of a port connected to a VB. Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before performing any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CAR or CoS to the corresponding flow according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required when you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required when you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

Perform a LB test

A.14.1 Creating MDs

A.14.2 Creating MAs

Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value the two NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the two NEs.

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

18.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure an Ethernet service based on the VLAN according to the network conditions. l For details on the configuration example of an Ethernet private line service based on the VLAN, see Configuration Example (VLAN-Based EVPL Services) in the Configuration Guide. For details on the configuration example of an Ethernet switching service based on the VLAN, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1q Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services) in the Configuration Guide.

18.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with VLANs.

Related Tasks
A.18.1 Configuring External Ethernet Ports
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A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board A.19.1 Creating Ethernet Private Line Services A.19.2 Creating Ethernet LAN Services A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table A.19.5 Creating QinQ Private Line Services A.19.6 Creating IEEE 802.1ad Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services

18.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


There are no alarms or performance events relevant to VLANs.

Relevant Alarms
None.

Relevant Events
None.

18.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when the VLAN feature is used. Q: Why should Encapsulation Type be set to 802.1Q or QINQbefore the VLAN feature is enabled? A: When Encapsulation Type is set to 802.1Q or QINQ, the Ethernet switching board can check the VLAN tag based on the TAG attribute. Q: What is the relationship between the VLAN, C-VLAN, and S-VLAN? A: The C-VLAN and S-VLAN are concepts that are used in the QinQ service. A C-VLAN refers to a client-side VLAN, and an S-VLAN refers to a service layer VLAN of carriers. The VLAN that is commonly referred to is equivalent to the C-VLAN in the case of the QinQ service.

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19
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the QinQ (802.Q in 802.Q) feature. 19.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of QinQ and its purpose. 19.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts associated with QinQ. 19.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of QinQ. 19.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with QinQ.

QinQ

19.5 Availability This section describes the support required by QinQ and dependency of the feature. 19.6 Principles The working principle of QinQ is closely related to service types. 19.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain principles when you plan QinQ. 19.8 Configuration Procedure The configuration procedure of QinQ-based Ethernet services is closely associated with the types of Ethernet services. 19.9 Configuration Example This section uses examples to describe how to plan and configure QinQ-based Ethernet services according to the network conditions. 19.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with QinQ. 19.11 Relevant Alarms and Events No alarms or performance events are associated with QinQ. 19.12 FAQs
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This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when the QinQ feature is used.

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19.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of QinQ and its purpose.

Definition
QinQ is a Layer 2 tunnel protocol based on IEEE 802.1q encapsulation. The QinQ technology encapsulates a private virtual local area network (VLAN) tag into a public VLAN tag. Therefore, the packets with two layers of VLAN tags can be transmitted on the backbone network of a carrier. In this manner, QinQ provides Layer 2 virtual private network (VPN) tunnels. Figure 19-1 shows the application of QinQ. Figure 19-1 Application of QinQ in EVPL services

C-VLAN1 NE1

Service network A NE2 NE3 S-VLAN3 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN4 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN1 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN2 C-VLAN1 Service network B NE4 C-VLAN1

C-VLAN1 S-VLAN1 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN2 C-VLAN1

Frame of customer a Frame of customer b C-VLAN1

Purpose
QinQ provides a Layer 2 VPN solution that is much cheaper and easier than multi-protocol label switch (MPLS). By using the VLAN QinQ technology, data packets carry two layers of VLAN tags to distinguish different services. This changes the limitation that only one VLAN tag is used to mark the data packets, and increases the number of VLAN IDs. The inner VLAN tag is called C-VLAN and used as the customer VLAN. The outer VLAN is called S-VLAN and used as the service provider VLAN. The major functions of the QinQ technology are as follows: l l l l With the application of the QinQ technology, the number of VLAN IDs can reach 4096 x 4096. This meets the increasing requirements for VLAN IDs. Customers and operators can plan VLAN resources independently and flexibly. Therefore, network configuration and maintenance is simplified. The QinQ technology replaces the MPLS technology to provide a cheaper and simpler Layer 2 VPN solution. The QinQ technology achieves the expansion of Ethernet services from local area networks (LANs) to wide area networks (WANs).
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19.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts associated with QinQ. 19.2.1 Frame Format The QinQ technology defines three types of Ethernet frames: Ethernet frame with only a CTAG, Ethernet frame with a C-TAG and an S-TAG, and Ethernet frame with only an S-TAG. 19.2.2 Network Attributes The network attribute of each Ethernet port can be set to UNI, C-Aware, or S-Aware, depending on how the port processes C-TAGs and S-TAGs. 19.2.3 Application of the QinQ Technology in Private Line Services When used for private line services, QinQ can process VLAN tags in different manners as required. 19.2.4 Application of the QinQ Technology in 802.1ad Bridge Services When used for 802.1ad bridge services, QinQ can process VLAN tags in different manners as required.

19.2.1 Frame Format


The QinQ technology defines three types of Ethernet frames: Ethernet frame with only a CTAG, Ethernet frame with a C-TAG and an S-TAG, and Ethernet frame with only an S-TAG.

Ethernet Frame with Only a C-TAG


The Ethernet frame with only a C-TAG has the same format as the tagged frame defined in IEEE 802.1q. Therefore, the tagged frame defined in IEEE 802.1Q is an Ethernet frame that contains a C-VLAN tag. For details on the format of a tagged frame, see Format of the tagged frame. Figure 19-2 Format of the Ethernet frame with only a C-TAG
4 bytes Destination address Source address C-TAG Length/Type Data FCS (CRC-32)

TCI TPID 16 bits PCP 3 bits CFI 1 bit VID 12 bits

Ethernet Frame with a C-TAG and an S-TAG


In the case of an Ethernet frame that contains a C-TAG and an S-TAG, the S-TAG is added before the C-TAG. The differences between the S-TAG and the C-TAG are as follows: l
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The TPID is different.


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As defined in IEEE 802.1ad, the TPID in the S-TAG is 0x88a8, whereas the TPID in the C-TAG is 0x8100. l The drop eligible indicator (DEI) replaces the CFI. The DEI works with the PCP to indicate the priority of the S-TAG. Figure 19-3 Format of the Ethernet frame with a C-TAG and an S-TAG
4 bytes Destination address Source address S-TAG C-TAG Length/Type Data FCS (CRC-32)

TCI TPID 16 bits PCP 3 bits DEI 1 bit VID 12 bits

Ethernet Frame with Only an S-TAG


The Ethernet frame with only an S-TAG contains only an S-TAG and does not contain any CTAG. Figure 19-4 Format of the Ethernet frame with only an S-TAG
4 bytes Destination address Source address S-TAG Length/Type Data FCS (CRC-32)

TCI TPID 16 bits PCP 3 bits DEI 1 bit VID 12 bits

19.2.2 Network Attributes


The network attribute of each Ethernet port can be set to UNI, C-Aware, or S-Aware, depending on how the port processes C-TAGs and S-TAGs.

UNI Port
A UNI port verifies and processes the outer tag of an Ethernet frame according to the TAG attribute of the port. UNI ports cannot be used in the case of QinQ services.
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C-Aware Port
A C-Aware port considers that an accessed packet does not contain an S-TAG. C-Aware ports can be used in the case of QinQ services.
NOTE

l C-TAG frames and untagged frames can normally enter and exit C-aware ports. l When an S-TAG frame enters and exits a C-Aware port, the port processes the S-TAG as a C-TAG. l When a frame that contains an S-TAG and a C-TAG enters and exits a C-Aware port, the port processes the S-TAG as a C-TAG and does not process the inner C-TAG.

S-Aware Port
An S-Aware port considers that an accessed packet contains an S-TAG. S-Aware ports can be used in the case of QinQ services.
NOTE

l S-TAG frames or the frames that contain an S-TAG and a C-TAG can normally enter and exit S-Aware ports. l When a C-TAG frame enters and exits an S-Aware port, the port processes the C-TAG frame as an S-TAG frame. l When an untagged frame enters an S-aware port, the port discards the frame.

19.2.3 Application of the QinQ Technology in Private Line Services


When used for private line services, QinQ can process VLAN tags in different manners as required. In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, QinQ can perform the following VLAN tag operations for private line services: l l l l l l l Transparently transmitting C-VLAN tags Adding S-VLAN tags Stripping S-VLAN tags Transparently transmitting S-VLAN tags Switching S-VLAN tags Transparently transmit S-VLAN and C-VLAN Translate S-VLAN and transparently transmit C-VLAN

The following part explains the operations in an application scenario wherein QinQ is used for private line services.

Private Line Services Between C-Aware Ports


Two VLAN tag operations can be performed for the private line services between C-Aware ports.

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Table 19-1 Private line services between C-Aware ports Type of Packet (Type of Source Port) PORT+C-VLAN (CAware port) Operation Type Direction Description

Transparently transmitting CVLAN tags

Unidirectional/ Bidirectional

Packets are transparently transmitted according to CVLANs Packets are transparently transmitted.

PORT (C-Aware port)

Transparently transmitting CVLAN tags

Unidirectional/ Bidirectional

Private Line Services Between a C-Aware Port and an S-Aware Port


Three VLAN tag operations can be performed for the private line services between a C-Aware port and an S-Aware port. Table 19-2 Private line services between a C-aware port and an S-aware port Type of Packet (Type of Source Port) PORT+CVLAN (CAware port) Operation Type Direction Description

Adding SVLAN tags

Unidirectional

Packets are transmitted according to C-VLAN tags and one S-VLAN tag is added to each packet. In the case of the services from a CAware port to an S-Aware port, the port transmits the packets according to C-VLAN tags and adds an SVLAN tag to each packet. In the case of the services from an S-aware port to a C-Aware port, the port transmits the packets according to C-VLAN tags and strips the SVLAN tag from each packet.

Bidirectional

PORT (CAware port)

Adding SVLAN tags

Unidirectional

Packets are transmitted and an SVLAN tag is added to each packet.

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Type of Packet (Type of Source Port)

Operation Type

Direction

Description

Bidirectional

In the case of the services from a CAware port to an S-Aware port, the port adds an S-VLAN tag to each packet. In the case of the services from an S-aware port to a C-aware port, the port strips the S-VLAN tag from each packet.

PORT+SVLAN (SAware port) PORT+CVLAN+SVLAN (SAware port)

Stripping SVLAN tags Stripping SVLAN tags

Unidirectional

Packets are transmitted according to S-VLAN tags and the S-VLAN tag is stripped from each packet. Packets are transmitted according to S-VLAN tags and C-VLAN tags. S-VLAN tag is stripped from each packet.

Unidirectional

NOTE

When QinQ adds S-VLAN tags, the priorities of S-VLAN tags can be inherited from C-VLAN tags or be manually specified.

Private Line Services Between S-Aware Ports


Two VLAN tag operations can be performed for the private line services between S-Aware ports. Table 19-3 Private line services between S-Aware ports Type of Packet (Type of Source Port) PORT+S-VLAN (SAware port) Operation Type Direction Description

Transparently transmitting SVLAN tags

Unidirectional/ Bidirectional

Packets are transparently transmitted according to SVLAN tags. Packets are transmitted according to SVLAN tags. SVLAN IDs are changed.

PORT+S-VLAN (SAware port)

Switching S-VLAN tags

Unidirectional/ Bidirectional

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Type of Packet (Type of Source Port) PORT

Operation Type

Direction

Description

Transparently transmit S-VLAN and C-VLAN Transparently transmit S-VLAN and C-VLAN

Unidirectional/ Bidirectional Unidirectional/ Bidirectional

Packets are transparently transmitted. Packets are transparently transmitted according to SVLAN tags and CVLAN tags. Packets are transmitted according to SVLAN tags and CVLAN tags. SVLAN IDs are changed.

PORT+C-VLAN+SVLAN (S-Aware port)

PORT+C-VLAN+SVLAN (S-Aware port)

Translate S-VLAN and transparently transmit C-VLAN

Unidirectional/ Bidirectional

19.2.4 Application of the QinQ Technology in 802.1ad Bridge Services


When used for 802.1ad bridge services, QinQ can process VLAN tags in different manners as required. The ports that are mounted to the 802.1ad bridge support the following four VLAN tag operations: l l l l Add S-VLAN based for Port Add S-VLAN based for Port and C-VLAN Mount Port Mount Port and base for Port and S-VLAN

VLAN Tag Operations of C-Aware Ports


Table 19-4 lists the VLAN tag operations of the C-Aware ports that are mounted to the 802.1ad bridge.

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Table 19-4 VLAN tag operations of C-Aware ports Type of Services PORT Operation Type Add S-VLAN based for Port Direction Ingress Description 1. When data frames enter the bridge through a C-Aware port, the port adds the planned SVLAN tags to the data frames. 2. After the data frames enter the bridge, they are forwarded according to the MAC address table. Egress When the data frames leave the bridge through a C-Aware port, the port strips S-VLAN tags. 1. Entry detection is performed for data frames according to CVLAN tags. 2. S-VLAN tags are added to the data frames according to the mapping relationship between the C-VLAN tags of the data frames and S-VLAN tags(a). If the mapping relation does not exist, the data frames are discarded. 3. After the data frames enter the bridge, they are forwarded according to the S-VLAN filter table. Egress When the data frames leave the bridge through a C-aware port, the port strips S-VLAN tags.

PORT+CVLAN

Add S-VLAN based for Port and C-VLAN

Ingress

NOTE

a: l When QinQ adds S-VLAN tags, the priorities of S-VLAN tags can be inherited from C-VLAN tags or be manually specified. l One C-Aware port can add different S-VLAN tags to the packets with different C-VLAN tags.

VLAN Tag Operations of S-Aware Ports


Table 19-5 lists the VLAN tag operations of the S-Aware ports that are mounted to the 802.1ad bridge.

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Table 19-5 VLAN tag operations of S-Aware ports Type of Services PORT Operation Type Mount Port Direction Ingress Description 1. The data frames that enter the bridge through an S-Aware port are not filtered. 2. After the data frames enter the bridge, they are forwarded according to the MAC address table. Egress When the data frames leave the bridge through an S-Aware port, they are transparently transmitted. 1. An S-Aware port filters the incoming data frames according to the customized filtering condition. That is, the frame that carries an S-VLAN tag different from the specified S-VLAN tag is discarded. 2. After the data frames enter the bridge, they are forwarded according to the S-VLAN filter table. Egress When the data frames leave the bridge through an S-Aware port, they are transparently transmitted.

PORT+SVLAN

Mount Port and base for Port and S-VLAN

Ingress

19.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of QinQ. Table 19-6 lists the specifications of QinQ. Table 19-6 Specifications of QinQ Item Specification EMS6 Setting of the QinQ type fielda EFP6

Supported, with a default value of 0x8100


NOTE The equipment supports the setting of the QinQ type field only based on the board. The equipment does not support the setting of the QinQ type field based on the port.

Range of S-VLAN IDs


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Item

Specification EMS6 EFP6

Number of QinQ-based EVPL services Number of QinQ-based EVPLAN services Network attribute

1024 1 UNI C-Aware S-Aware

QinQ operation type (QinQbased EVPL services)

Transparently transmitting C-VLAN tags Adding S-VLAN tags Stripping S-VLAN tags Transparently transmitting S-VLAN tags Switching S-VLAN tags

Transparently transmitting C-VLAN tags Adding S-VLAN tags Stripping S-VLAN tags Transparently transmitting S-VLAN tags Switching S-VLAN tags Transparently transmit SVLAN and C-VLAN Translate S-VLAN and transparently transmit CVLAN

QinQ operation type (QinQbased EVPLAN services)

Add S-VLAN base for Port Add S-VLAN base for Port and C-VLAN Mount Port Mount Port and base for Port and S-VLAN

19.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with QinQ. The following protocols are associated with QinQ: l l IEEE 802.1q: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks IEEE 802.1ad: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges

19.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by QinQ and dependency of the feature.

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Hardware and Version Support


Table 19-7 Hardware and version support Feature EVPL (QinQ) Applicable Board EMS6 EFP6 EVPLAN (802.1ad bridge) EMS6 EFP6 Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions All the versions Applicable Product Version V100R002 and latera V100R005C00 and later V100R003 and later V100R004C00 and later

NOTE

a: The V100R003 and an earlier version only support the priorities of S-VLAN tags that are manually specified. The V100R005 and a later version support the priorities of S-VLAN tags that are inherited from C-VLAN tags or manually specified.

Feature Dependency
The dependency between the QinQ feature and other features is as follows: The QinQ-based Ethernet LAN services depends on the 802.1ad bridge.

19.6 Principles
The working principle of QinQ is closely related to service types.

Working Principle of QinQ in Ethernet Private Line Services


This section uses EVPL (QinQ) services illustrated in Figure 19-5 to describe how data frames are processed on a QinQ network. Figure 19-5 EVPL (QinQ) services
C-VLAN1 NE1

Service network A NE2 NE3 S-VLAN3 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN4 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN1 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN2 C-VLAN1 Service network B NE4 C-VLAN1

C-VLAN1 S-VLAN1 C-VLAN1 S-VLAN2 C-VLAN1

Frame of customer a Frame of customer b C-VLAN1

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On the network, the data frames from NE1 to NE4 are processed as follows: 1. NE1 adds an S-TAG to each data frame from customer a and customer b that are connected to NE1, and forwards the frames to NE2. NE1 adds an S-VLAN1 tag to each data frame from customer a and an S-VLAN2 tag to each frame from customer b. Based on S-VLAN tags, NE2 transparently transmits the data frames of customer a and customer b to NE3 on service network B. Because service provider B plans different S-VLAN tags for customer a and customer b, NE3 translates the data frame that contains an S-VLAN1 tag into a data frame that contains an S-VLAN3 tag, translates the data frame that contains an S-VLAN2 tag into a data frame that contains an S-VLAN4 tag, and forwards the data frames to NE4. NE4 removes the S-VLAN3 tag and S-VLAN4 tag, and forwards the data frames to the Ethernet ports of customer a and customer b.

2. 3.

4.

The data frame process from NE4 to NE1 is reverse to the preceding process.

Working Principle of QinQ in Ethernet LAN Services


This section uses EVPLAN (802.1ad bridge) services illustrated in Figure 19-6 to describe how data frames are processed on the 802.1ad bridge. Figure 19-6 EVPLAN (802.1ad Bridge) Service Example
NodeB 1 VoIP
VCTRUNK1 PORT1 PORT1

Service C-VLAN 10 VoIP 20 HSI

NE1 NodeB 2

HSI

PORT2

NE3

VCTRUNK2

PORT1

NE2
NE3:EMS6 S-VLAN 100 PORT1 VoIP S-VLAN 200 PORT2 HSI VCTRUNK1 NE1

Service C-VLAN VoIP 30 HSI 40

PORT1

NodeB 1

VCTRUNK2

NE2 PORT1

NodeB 2

802.1ad bridge PORT Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(10/30) Data(VoIP) C-VLAN(20/40) Data(HSI) Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(100) S-VLAN(200) C-VLAN(10/30) C-VLAN(20/40) Data(VoIP) Data(HSI) VCTRUNK Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(10/30) Data(VoIP) C-VLAN(20/40) Data(HSI)

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As shown in Figure 19-6, the transmission network needs to carry voice over IP (VoIP) services and high speed Internet (HSI) services. VoIP services and HSI services are accessed by NodeB 1 and NodeB 2. The two types of services use different C-VLAN tags as planned. On the network side, the convergence node NE3 adds S-VLAN tags to the services as planned so that NE3 can mark and schedule the two types of services in a unified manner. On the network, NE3 processes data frames as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. VoIP services and HSI services are accessed by NodeB 1 and NodeB, and then transparently transmitted to NE3 through NE1 and NE2. NE3 adds S-VLAN tag 100 to the VoIP services of NodeB 1, NodeB 2, and VoIP server (with C-VLAN tags 10 and 30). NE3 adds S-VLAN tag 200 to the HSI services of NodeB 1, NodeB 2, and HSI server (with C-VLAN tags 20 and 40). On the 802.1ad bridge, the data frames with S-VLAN tags are switched to corresponding Ethernet ports as specified in the S-VLAN filter table. The Ethernet ports strip S-VLAN tags and transmit the data frames.

19.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain principles when you plan QinQ.

Planning Guidelines of S-VLAN Tags


Follow these two principles when planning S-VLAN IDs: l l The S-VLAN ID allocated to each customer must be unique. If a customer has different types of services that need to be transmitted to different destinations, a unique S-VLAN ID must be allocated to each type of services.

Planning Guidelines of QinQ-based Ethernet Private Line Services


Follow these two principles when planning QinQ-based Ethernet private line services: l l l l l If packets need to be forwarded according to C-VLAN tags or C-VLAN tags need to be translated, select the private line services between C-Aware ports. If S-VLAN tags need to be added or stripped, select the private line services between a CAware port and an S-Aware port. If packets need to be forwarded according to S-VLAN tags or S-VLAN tags need to be translated, select the private line services between S-Aware ports. Check whether operations need to be performed based on PORT, PORT+C-VLAN, or PORT+S-VLAN. Check whether unidirectional operations or bidirectional operations are required.

Planning Guidelines of QinQ-based Ethernet LAN Services


Follow these two principles when planning QinQ-based Ethernet LAN services: l If the packets that enter the port do not contain a VLAN tag or contain a C-VLAN tag, plan the network attribute of the port as "C-Aware".
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l l l

If the packets that enter the port contain an S-VLAN tag, plan the network attribute of the port as "S-Aware". In the case of a C-Aware port, select "Add S-VLAN Base for Port" or "Add S-VLAN Base for Port and C-VLAN" as required. In the case of an S-Aware port, select "Mount Port" or "Mount Port and Base for Port and S-VLAN" as required.

In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, follow these three principles when planning QinQ: l l QinQ private line services are mainly used as point-to-point Ethernet services that are transparently transmitted over one hop of radio link. When multiple point-to-point Ethernet services are transparently transmitted over one hop of radio link, the S-VLAN ID of each Ethernet service must be unique.

19.8 Configuration Procedure


The configuration procedure of QinQ-based Ethernet services is closely associated with the types of Ethernet services. The following table describes the configuration procedure of QinQ-based Ethernet private line services.

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Table 19-8 Procedures for configuring QinQ-based EVPL services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l You need to set Network Attributes. In the case of a QinQ-based EVPL service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to C-Aware or S-Aware. l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step

Operation A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board

Description Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of a QinQ-based EVPL service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to C-Aware or S-Aware. l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l Set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority Optional.

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Operation Creating QinQbased EVPL services A.19.1 Creating Ethernet Private Line Services

Description Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Service Type to EVPL (QinQ). l Set Direction to Bidirectional. l Set Operation Type, Source Port, Source CVLAN(e.g.1,3-6), Source S-VLAN, Sink Port, Sink C-VLAN(e.g.1,3-6), Sink S-VLAN, CVLAN Priority and S-VLAN Priority according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no paths are bound is used as Source Port or Sink Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

Configuri ng the QoS

A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before perform any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CAR or CoS to the corresponding flow according to the network planning information.

Required when you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required when you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the two NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network. A.14.2 Creating MAs Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value for the two NEs.

Perform a LB test.

A.14.1 Creating MDs

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

The following table describes the configuration procedure of QinQ-based Ethernet LAN services.

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Table 19-9 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l You need to set TAG Attributes. In the case of an IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to C-Aware or S-Aware.
NOTE When an Ethernet frame enters the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is added to the Ethernet frame. When an Ethernet frame exits the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is stripped from the Ethernet frame.

l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.

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Step

Operation

Description
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

l To enable the port loop detection function or broadcast packet suppression function, you need to set Advanced Attributes. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of an IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to C-Aware or SAware.
NOTE When an Ethernet frame enters the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is added to the Ethernet frame. When an Ethernet frame exits the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is stripped from the Ethernet frame.

l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required if FE/GE interfaces are configured in a LAG for protection or if the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l In the case of FE/GE interfaces, set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends.

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Step

Operation A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority

Description Optional.

Configuri ng ERPS protection

A.9.1 Creating ERPS Instances

Required if ERPS is configured. The main parameters are provided as follows: l Set ERPS ID, East Port, and West Port according to the network planning information. l When setting RPLOwner Ring Node Flag, note that an Ethernet ring has only one RPL owner. l When you set Control VLAN, pay attention to the following points: The value of Control VLAN must be different from the VLAN ID carried by Ethernet service packets or the VLAN ID carried by inband DCN packets.

A.9.2 Setting Paramete rs of the Ethernet Ring Protocol 4 Creating IEEE 802.1ad bridgebased EVPLAN services A.19.6 Creating IEEE 802.1ad BridgeBased EVPLAN Services

Required if the values of the default parameters of the ERPS timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), and WTR Time(min) according to actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network. Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set VB Name according to the network planning information. l Set Bridge Type to 802.1ad. l Set Mount Port according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no channels are bound is used as Mount Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 channels.

A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table

Required if Bridge Switching Mode is set to IVL/ Ingress Filter Enable. Set VLAN ID(e.g;1,3-6) and Selected forwarding ports according to the network planning information.

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Step 6

Operation Managing the MAC address table A.20.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.20.2 Creating a Blacklist Entry of a MAC Address A.20.3 Setting the Aging Time of a MAC Address Table Entry

Description Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable usage of EPLAN services on the host of certain MAC addresses. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable the aging function or change the aging time (five minutes by default). Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge Configuri ng the QoS A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required if you need to change a port connected to a VB, enabled status of a port connected to a VB, or Hub/Spoke attribute of a port connected to a VB. Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before performing any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS

Required if you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CARs or CoSes to the corresponding flows according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required if you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

Perform a LB test

A.14.1 Creating MDs

A.14.2 Creating MAs

Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value the two NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the two NEs.

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

19.9 Configuration Example


This section uses examples to describe how to plan and configure QinQ-based Ethernet services according to the network conditions. l l For details on the configuration example of a QinQ-based Ethernet private line service, see Configuration Example (QinQ-Based EVPL Services) in the Configuration Guide. For details on the configuration example of a QinQ-based Ethernet LAN service, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1ad Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services) in the Configuration Guide.

19.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with QinQ.

Related Tasks
A.18.1 Configuring External Ethernet Ports
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A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board A.18.5 Modifying the Type Field of QinQ Frames A.19.5 Creating QinQ Private Line Services A.19.6 Creating IEEE 802.1ad Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services

19.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


No alarms or performance events are associated with QinQ.

Relevant Alarms
None.

Relevant Events
None.

19.12 FAQs
This section provides answers to the questions that are frequently asked when the QinQ feature is used. Q: Why does the interconnection of QinQ private line services with other types of equipment fail? A: Common causes are as follows: l The QinQ type field varies with the type of equipment. In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, the TPID in an S-TAG is 0x8100. In the case of other types of equipment, the TPID may adopt a different value, for example, 0x88a8. The standards for the QinQ feature are being developed. The principles for adding tags are different between various types of equipment.

Q: What is the relationship between the VLAN, C-VLAN, and S-VLAN? A: C-VLAN and S-VLAN are concepts that are used in QinQ services. C-VLAN refers to the VLAN on the client side, and S-VLAN refers to the VLAN at the service layer of carriers. Generally, a VLAN refers to the C-VLAN of QinQ services.

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20
About This Chapter

Layer 2 Switching

This chapter describes the Layer 2 switching feature. 20.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of Layer 2 switching and describes its purpose. 20.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic concepts related to Layer 2 switching. 20.3 Specifications This section describes the specifications of Layer 2 switching. 20.4 Reference Standards and Protocols This section describes the standards and protocols associated with Layer 2 switching. 20.5 Availability This section describes the support required by the application of the Layer 2 switching feature and its dependency. 20.6 Principles The key of Layer 2 switching is to forward Ethernet packets based on a MAC address table. 20.7 Planning Guidelines Follow certain guidelines when you plan Layer 2 switching. 20.8 Configuration Procedure Configuring Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching involves configuring EPLAN and EVPLAN services. 20.9 Configuration Example This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching according to the network conditions. 20.10 Task Collection This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with Layer 2 switching. 20.11 Relevant Alarms and Events There are no alarms or performance events relevant to Layer 2 switching.
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20.12 FAQs This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when Layer 2 switching is used.

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20.1 Introduction
This section provides the definition of Layer 2 switching and describes its purpose.

Definition
On a LAN, a bridge or Layer 2 switch forwards Ethernet data based on a MAC address. The MAC address is a Layer 2 address in the OSI model. Thus, this data forwarding mode is called Layer 2 switching.

Purpose
In the case of Ethernet boards that have the Layer 2 switching capability, the switching domain can be divided into multiple independent sub-switching domains. In this manner, LAN services at multiple nodes can be isolated and dynamically shared. Figure 20-1 shows a typical application of Layer 2 switching. Company A has three departments located in different places, and Ethernet services of the three departments are transmitted to the transmission network through NE1, NE2, and NE3. The convergence node NE2 needs to perform Layer 2 switching for Ethernet services from the two access nodes NE1 and NE3, and NE1 and NE3 need not communicate with each other. Figure 20-1 Application of Layer 2 switching
PORT1 PORT2

Department 3

PORT1

PORT2

NE3
PORT1 PORT1 PORT2
PORT1 PORT1

PORT3

NE 1
Department 1 Access Point Bridge

NE 2
Department 2 Department of Company A

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20.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts related to Layer 2 switching. 20.2.1 Bridge A bridge refers to a functional unit that is used to connect two LANs or multiple LANs. 20.2.2 Hub/Spoke In the case of a convergence service, the mutual access between the non-central stations and central stations is required but the access between non-central stations is not required. In this case, specify a mounted port as a Hub port or a Spoke port. 20.2.3 Managing a MAC Address Table The entries in a MAC address table indicate the corresponding relationship between MAC addresses and ports. A MAC address table contains the following entries: dynamic entry, static entry, and blacklist entry.

20.2.1 Bridge
A bridge refers to a functional unit that is used to connect two LANs or multiple LANs.

Bridge Type
A bridge supported by equipment is available in three types: 802.1d bridge, 802.1q bridge, and 802.1ad bridge. As shown in Figure 20-2, the services on different 802.1d bridges are isolated, but the services of different VLANs on one bridge are not isolated. The services on different 802.1q bridges are isolated and the services of different VLANs on one bridge are also isolated. Figure 20-2 802.1d bridge and 802.1q bridge
LP3 VLAN1 VLAN2 VLAN3 ... 802.1d bridge LP: Logic Port LP4 LP5 LP6 LP7 LP8 LP3 LP4 LP5 LP6 LP7 LP8

LP1 LP2 LP3

LP1 LP2 LP3

VLAN1 VLAN2

VLAN3 802.1q bridge

As shown in Figure 20-3, the following conditions may occur in the case of a 802.1ad bridge: l l When Bridge Switch Mode is set to SVL/Ingress Filter Disable, the services on different bridges are isolated but the services of different S-VLANs on one bridge are not isolated. When Bridge Switch Mode is set to IVL/Ingress Filter Enable, the services on different bridges are isolated and the services of different S-VLANs on one bridge are also isolated.
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Figure 20-3 802.1ad bridge


LP3 LP4 S-VLAN1 S-VLAN2 S-VLAN3 ... 802.1ad bridge SVL/Ingress Filter Disable LP: Logic Port LP5 LP6 LP7 LP8 LP3 LP4 LP5 LP6 LP7 LP8

LP1 LP2 LP3

LP1 LP2 LP3

S-VLAN1 S-VLAN2

S-VLAN3 802.1ad bridge IVL/Ingress Filter Enable

LP: logical port

Table 20-1 List of bridges Item Bridge switch mode VLAN filter table Ingress filter 802.1d Bridge SVL/Ingress filter disable Not configured Disabled: Does not check the VLAN tag. 802.1q Bridge IVL/Ingress filter enable Required Enabled: Checks the VLAN tag. If the VLAN ID is not the VLAN ID of the port specified in the VLAN filter table, the packet is discarded. IVLb Obtains the packet forwarding port by querying the MAC address table, based on the destination MAC address and VLAN ID of a packet. 802.1ad Bridge SVL/Ingress filter disable Not configured Disabled: Does not check the VLAN tag. IVL/Ingress filter enable Required Enabled: Checks the SVLAN tag. If the VLAN ID is not the VLAN ID of the port specified in the VLAN filter table, the packet is discarded. IVLb Obtains the packet forwarding port by querying the MAC address table, based on the destination MAC address and S-VLAN ID of a packet.

Bridge learning mode Packet forwarding mode

SVLa Obtains the packet forwarding port by querying the MAC address table, based on the destination MAC address of a packet.

SVLa Obtains the packet forwarding port by querying the MAC address table, based on the destination MAC address of a packet.

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Item Range of broadcasting

802.1d Bridge Forwards the broadcast packet to all the ports on a bridge.

802.1q Bridge Forwards the broadcast packet to the ports that are specified in the VLAN filter table. UNI

802.1ad Bridge Forwards the broadcast packet to all the ports on a bridge. Forwards the broadcast packet to the ports that are specified in the S-VLAN filter table. C-Aware S-Aware

Mount port attribute

UNI

C-Aware S-Aware

NOTE

l a: When using the shared VLAN learning (SVL) mode, a bridge creates an entry based on the source MAC address and the source port of a packet. This entry is valid to all VLANs. l b: When using the independent VLAN learning (IVL) mode, a bridge creates an entry based on the source MAC address, VLAN ID, and source port of a packet. This entry is only valid to this VLAN. l For details on an 802.1ad bridge, see 19.2.4 Application of the QinQ Technology in 802.1ad Bridge Services.

Logical Port
The OptiX RTN 620 considers all the ports mounted to a bridge are logical ports, each of which can exist in one or more sub-switching domains. A logical port can be a PORT or a VCTRUNK.

20.2.2 Hub/Spoke
In the case of a convergence service, the mutual access between the non-central stations and central stations is required but the access between non-central stations is not required. In this case, specify a mounted port as a Hub port or a Spoke port. l Hub Port Hub ports can mutually access each other. Hub ports and Spoke ports can mutually access each other. l Spoke Port Spoke ports cannot mutually access each other. Spoke ports and Hub ports can mutually access each other.
NOTE

A mounted port is a Hub port by default. During configuration, you can configure the mounted port of a central station to a Hub port, and configure the mounted port of a non-central station to a Spoke port. In this manner, a central station can communicate with a non-central station, but non-central stations cannot communicate with each other.

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20.2.3 Managing a MAC Address Table


The entries in a MAC address table indicate the corresponding relationship between MAC addresses and ports. A MAC address table contains the following entries: dynamic entry, static entry, and blacklist entry. l Dynamic entry A dynamic entry is obtained by learning of a bridge through the SVL/IVL mode. The dynamic entry ages, and is lost after the Ethernet switching board is reset. l Static entry A static entry is manually added by a network administrator to the MAC address table by using the NMS. The static entry does not age, and is not lost after the Ethernet switching board is reset. Generally, the static entry is configured when a port corresponds to a device with its MAC address known and this device transmits large traffic for a long time. l Blacklist entry A blacklist entry, that is, the MAC disabled entry, is used to discard the data frame that contains the specified MAC address (source MAC address or destination MAC address). A blacklist entry is also called a blackhole entry. The blacklist entry is configured by the network administrator. The blacklist entry does not age, and is not lost after the Ethernet processing board is reset.
NOTE

If one routing entry is not updated in a certain period, that is, if no new packet from this MAC address is received to enable the re-learning of this MAC address, this routing entry is automatically deleted. This mechanism is called aging, and this period is called aging time.

20.3 Specifications
This section describes the specifications of Layer 2 switching. Table 20-2 provides specifications of Layer 2 switching. Table 20-2 Specifications of Layer 2 switching Item Specifications EMS6 Switching capacity of a board Bridge type 2.7 Gbit/s 802.1d bridge 802.1q bridge 802.1d bridge Bridge switch mode IVL/Ingress filter enabled (802.1q bridge and 802.1ad bridge) SVL/Ingress filter disabled (802.1d bridge and 802.1ad bridge) EPLAN/EVPLAN services Number of supported bridges Supported 1 EFP6 755 Mbit/s

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Item

Specifications EMS6 EFP6 22

Number of logical ports mounted with a bridge Hub/Spoke attribute Number of static MAC address entries Number of MAC address entries MAC address aging time Enabling broadcast packet suppression Broadcast packet suppression threshold

14 Supported 512 16K 1 minute to 120 days Supported 10%-100%

20.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section describes the standards and protocols associated with Layer 2 switching. The following standards and protocols are associated with Layer 2 switching: l l l IEEE 802.1d: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges IEEE 802.1q: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks IEEE 802.1ad: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges

20.5 Availability
This section describes the support required by the application of the Layer 2 switching feature and its dependency.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 20-3 Hardware and version support Feature 802.1q bridge Applicable Board EMS6 EFP6 802.1d bridge
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Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions

Applicable Product Version V100R003 and later V100R005C00 and later V100R003 and later
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Feature

Applicable Board EFP6

Applicable Hardware Version All the versions All the versions All the versions

Applicable Product Version V100R005C00 and later V100R003 and later V100R005C00 and later

802.1ad bridge

EMS6 EFP6

Feature Dependency
The dependency between the Layer 2 switching feature and other features is as follows: l l l l l l The port that is used by a bridge cannot be used for a private line service. The STP/RSTP protocol is only applicable to a bridge. IGMP Snooping is only applicable to a bridge. The port on a bridge supports the QoS function. ERPS is only applicable to a bridge. A LAG group is only used as a logical port of a bridge.

20.6 Principles
The key of Layer 2 switching is to forward Ethernet packets based on a MAC address table.

Packet Forwarding Procedure of 802.1d and 802.1q Bridges


1. In the case of an 802.1q bridge, it checks the VLAN ID of a data frame that is received at the port. If the VLAN ID of this frame does not equal the VLAN ID of the port that is defined in the VLAN filter table, the bridge discards this frame. If the broadcast packet suppression function of the bridge port is enabled and the traffic of the broadcast packet exceeds the preset threshold value, the port discards the broadcast frame whose traffic exceeds the threshold. If the IGMP Snooping protocol of the bridge is enabled, the bridge processes the IGMP packet and multicast packet that are received at the port, according to the principle described in 23.6 Principles. If the bridge receives the multicast packet but the IGMP Snooping protocol is disabled, it forwards the multicast packet among all the ports of the bridge or among all the mounted ports of the VLAN (excluding the source port). According to the learning mode (SVL or IVL), the bridge adds or updates the entry corresponding to the source MAC address of the data frame in the MAC address table, and thus establishes the mapping relationship between the MAC address and the destination port. The bridge checks the destination MAC address of the data frame in the MAC address table. l If the blacklist entry corresponding to the destination MAC address exists, the bridge discards this data frame.
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l If the dynamic entry or the static entry corresponding to the destination MAC address exists, the bridge forwards this data frame to the destination port indicated by the entry. l If no corresponding entry exists, the bridge forwards the packet among all the ports of the bridge or among all the mounted ports of the VLAN (excluding the source port), according to the bridge type (802.1d bridge or 802.1q bridge). 7. The bridge needs to determine whether the source port and the destination port are Hub or Spoke when forwarding the data frame. If the source port is a Hub port, the bridge forwards the packet to the Hub port and the Spoke port. If the source port is the Spoke port, the bridge forwards the packet only to the Hub port.
NOTE

If the STP or the RSTP of the bridge is enabled, only the port in the forwarding state can forward the data frame.

Packet Forwarding Procedure of an 802.1ad Bridge


For the packet forwarding procedure of an 802.1ad bridge, see 19.6 Principles.

20.7 Planning Guidelines


Follow certain guidelines when you plan Layer 2 switching.

Planning Guidelines on a Bridge


l Using the 802.1q bridge is a priority. If the conditions of the VLAN used by the user are unknown and if the isolation of the data among VLANs is not required, you can also use the 802.1d bridge. If the Layer 2 switching services from several branch nodes are converged at a convergence node, set this convergence node to Hub and set these branch nodes to Spoke. In the case of the multipoint-to-multipoint Layer 2 switching service, set each node to Hub.

Planning Guidelines on a MAC Address Table


l l l In normal cases, if a port corresponds to a set of equipment with a known MAC address and the equipment has constant and large traffic, configure static entries. If certain nodes are not allowed to transmit data frames, configure the corresponding MAC disabled entries for the bridge that accesses these nodes. Set the aging time of the MAC address table to the same value as the aging time of the interconnected Ethernet equipment. It is recommended that you set the aging time of the MAC address table to 5 minutes (default value).

20.8 Configuration Procedure


Configuring Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching involves configuring EPLAN and EVPLAN services. The procedures for configuring an Ethernet service vary according to the type of the bridge. The following tables provide the configuration procedures.

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Table 20-4 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1d bridge-based EPLAN services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l In the case of an IEEE 802.1d bridge-based EPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

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Step

Operation

Description l To enable the port loop detection function or broadcast packet suppression function, you need to set Advanced Attributes. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of an IEEE 802.1d bridge-based EPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required if FE/GE interfaces are configured in a LAG for protection or if the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l In the case of FE/GE interfaces, set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends.

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Step

Operation A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority

Description Optional.

Configuri ng ERPS protection

A.9.1 Creating ERPS Instances

Required when you need to configure the ERPS. Set the parameters as follows: l Set ERPS ID, East Port, and West Port according to the service planning information. l When setting RPLOwner Ring Node Flag, note that an Ethernet ring has only one RPL owner. l When setting Control VLAN, note that Control VLAN must be different from the VLAN ID carried by the Ethernet service packets or the VLAN ID carried by the inband DCN packets.

A.9.2 Setting Paramete rs of the Ethernet Ring Protocol

Required when you need to configure the ERPS. Set the relevant parameters according to the service planning information. l Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), and WTR Time(min) according to actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network. l Entity Level must be different from the entity level of IEEE 802.1ag OAM packets.

Creating IEEE 802.1d bridgebased EPLAN services

A.19.2 Creating Ethernet LAN Services

Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set VB Name according to the network planning information. l Set Bridge Type to 802.1d. l Set Mount Port according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no channels are bound is used as Mount Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

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Step 5

Operation Managing the MAC address table A.20.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.20.2 Creating a Blacklist Entry of a MAC Address A.20.3 Setting the Aging Time of a MAC Address Table Entry

Description Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable usage of EPLAN services on the host of certain MAC addresses. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable the aging function or change the aging time (five minutes by default). Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge Configuri ng the QoS A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required if you need to change a port connected to a VB, enabled status of a port connected to a VB, or Hub/Spoke attribute of a port connected to a VB. Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before performing any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CAR or CoS to the corresponding flow according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required when you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required when you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

Perform a LB test

A.14.1 Creating MDs

A.14.2 Creating MAs

Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value the two NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the two NEs.

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

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Table 20-5 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l You need to set TAG Attributes. In the case of an IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l To enable the port loop detection function or broadcast packet suppression function, you need to set Advanced Attributes. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board

Description Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of an IEEE 802.1q bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to UNI. l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required if FE/GE interfaces are configured in a LAG for protection or if the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l In the case of FE/GE interfaces, set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends.

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Step

Operation A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority

Description Optional.

Configuri ng ERPS protection

A.9.1 Creating ERPS Instances

Required if ERPS is configured. The main parameters are provided as follows: l Set ERPS ID, East Port, and West Port according to the network planning information. l When setting RPLOwner Ring Node Flag, note that an Ethernet ring has only one RPL owner. l When you set Control VLAN, pay attention to the following points: The value of Control VLAN must different from the VLAN ID carried by Ethernet service packets or the VLAN ID carried by inband DCN packets. Add Control VLAN to the VLAN filter table of an IEEE 802.1q bridge when you create EVPLAN services based on this bridge.

A.9.2 Setting Paramete rs of the Ethernet Ring Protocol 4 Creating IEEE 802.1q bridgebased EVPLAN services A.19.2 Creating Ethernet LAN Services

Required if the values of the default parameters of the ERPS timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), and WTR Time(min) according to actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network. Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set VB Name according to the network planning information. l Set Bridge Type to 802.1q. l Set Mount Port according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no channels are bound is used as Mount Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 channels.

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Step 5

Operation A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table

Description Required. Set VLAN ID(e.g;1,3-6) and Selected forwarding ports according to the network planning information. Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Managing the MAC address table

A.20.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.20.2 Creating a Blacklist Entry of a MAC Address A.20.3 Setting the Aging Time of a MAC Address Table Entry

Required if you need to disable usage of EPLAN services on the host of certain MAC addresses. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable the aging function or change the aging time (five minutes by default). Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge Configuri ng the QoS A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required if you need to change a port connected to a VB, enabled status of a port connected to a VB, or Hub/Spoke attribute of a port connected to a VB. Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before performing any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS

Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CAR or CoS to the corresponding flow according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required when you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required when you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

Perform a LB test

A.14.1 Creating MDs

A.14.2 Creating MAs

Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value the two NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the two NEs.

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

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Table 20-6 Procedure for configuring IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN services Step 1 Operation Configuri ng Ethernet interfaces on Ethernet boards A.18.1 Configuri ng External Ethernet Ports Description l You need to set Basic Attributes. Set the parameters as follows: In the case of used interfaces, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled. In the case of unused interfaces, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. In the case of Ethernet interfaces that connect to external equipment, set Working Mode to be the same value as the external equipment (the working mode of the external equipment is generally auto-negotiation). In the case of Ethernet interfaces for connection within the network, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation. When JUMBO frames are transmitted, set Maximum Frame Length according to the actual length of a JUMBO frame. Otherwise, it is recommended that Maximum Frame Length takes the default value. l Click the Flow Control tab if the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet interface is connected. Set the parameters as follows: When the external equipment uses the nonauto-negotiation flow control function, set Non-Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l You need to set TAG Attributes. In the case of an IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to C-Aware or S-Aware.
NOTE When an Ethernet frame enters the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is added to the Ethernet frame. When an Ethernet frame exits the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is stripped from the Ethernet frame.

l You need to set Bound Path. Configure bound channels according to the service planning information.

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Step

Operation

Description
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKS that bind VC-12 channels.

l To enable the port loop detection function or broadcast packet suppression function, you need to set Advanced Attributes. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. A.18.2 Configuri ng the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board Required when internal interfaces need to be used. l Determine whether to set Encapsulation/ Mapping according to actual requirements. It is recommended that all the relevant parameters take the default value. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l In the case of an IEEE 802.1ad bridge-based EVPLAN service, set Port Attributes in the Network Attributes tab page to C-Aware or SAware.
NOTE When an Ethernet frame enters the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is added to the Ethernet frame. When an Ethernet frame exits the IEEE 802.1ad bridge through a port whose network attribute is CAware, a specific S-TAG is stripped from the Ethernet frame.

l Determine whether to configure the LCAS function according to actual requirements. If the LCAS function is required, set Enabling LCAS to Enabled and set LCAS Modde according to the type of third-party equipment. In addition, it is recommended that the other parameters take the default values. Ensure that the parameters are set to the same values at both ends of a link. l Determine whether to set Advanced Attributes according to actual requirements.

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Step 2

Operation Configuri ng a LAG A.12.1 Creating a LAG

Description Required if FE/GE interfaces are configured in a LAG for protection or if the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection. Set the parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value as the opposite equipment. LAG Type is generally set to Static for the equipment at both ends. l In the case of FE/GE interfaces, set Load Sharing to the same value as the opposite equipment. If the LAG is configured only to implement protection, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the equipment at both ends. If the LAG is configured to increase the bandwidth, it is recommended that you set Load Sharing to Sharing for the equipment at both ends. l When the IFH2 board is configured with 1+1 protection, set Load Sharing to Non-Sharing for the LAGs involved in 1+1 protection on the equipment at both ends. l Set Revertive Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Revertive Mode is generally set to the same value for the equipment at both ends. If LAGs are involved in 1+1 protection for the IFH2 board, set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to NonSharing. l Set Sharing Mode to the same value as the opposite equipment. Unless otherwise specified, this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only LAGs whose Load Sharing is set to Sharing. l It is recommended that you set LAG parameters to the same values for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends. In this case, you can set System Priority according to actual requirements. It is recommended that this parameter takes the default value. This parameter is valid to only static LAGs. l Set Main Port and Selected Slave Ports according to the network planning information. It is recommended that you set this parameter to the same value for the main and slave interfaces of the LAGs at both ends.

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Step

Operation A.12.2 Setting the Port Priority

Description Optional.

Configuri ng ERPS protection

A.9.1 Creating ERPS Instances

Required if ERPS is configured. The main parameters are provided as follows: l Set ERPS ID, East Port, and West Port according to the network planning information. l When setting RPLOwner Ring Node Flag, note that an Ethernet ring has only one RPL owner. l When you set Control VLAN, pay attention to the following points: The value of Control VLAN must be different from the VLAN ID carried by Ethernet service packets or the VLAN ID carried by inband DCN packets.

A.9.2 Setting Paramete rs of the Ethernet Ring Protocol 4 Creating IEEE 802.1ad bridgebased EVPLAN services A.19.6 Creating IEEE 802.1ad BridgeBased EVPLAN Services

Required if the values of the default parameters of the ERPS timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), and WTR Time(min) according to actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network. Required. Set the parameters as follows: l Set VB Name according to the network planning information. l Set Bridge Type to 802.1ad. l Set Mount Port according to the network planning information. l If any VCTRUNK to which no channels are bound is used as Mount Port, configure corresponding bound channels according to the service planning information.
NOTE On the OptiX RTN 620, the EMS6 and EFT4 are EoS Ethernet boards, which support VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 or VC-3 channels. The EFP6 is an EoPDH Ethernet board, which supports VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels. On the NMS, VCTRUNKs that bind E1 channels are displayed as VCTRUNKs that bind VC-12 channels.

A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table

Required if Bridge Switching Mode is set to IVL/ Ingress Filter Enable. Set VLAN ID(e.g;1,3-6) and Selected forwarding ports according to the network planning information.

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Step 6

Operation Managing the MAC address table A.20.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.20.2 Creating a Blacklist Entry of a MAC Address A.20.3 Setting the Aging Time of a MAC Address Table Entry

Description Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable usage of EPLAN services on the host of certain MAC addresses. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to disable the aging function or change the aging time (five minutes by default). Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge Configuri ng the QoS A.13.1 Creating a Flow

Required if you need to change a port connected to a VB, enabled status of a port connected to a VB, or Hub/Spoke attribute of a port connected to a VB. Required when you need to perform CAR or CoS operations. Before performing any CAR or CoS operations, you need to create flows. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

A.13.2 Creating the CAR A.13.3 Creating the CoS A.13.4 Binding the CAR/ CoS

Required if you need to perform CAR or CoS operations for a specific flow over a port. Set CAR or CoS parameters and bind the configured CARs or CoSes to the corresponding flows according to the network planning information.

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Step

Operation A.13.5 Configuri ng the Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues A.13.6 Configuri ng Port Shaping A.13.8 Configuri ng the Queue Schedulin g Mode

Description Required if you need to perform traffic shaping for the queues at a specific egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information.

Required if you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required if you need to perform queue scheduling over an egress port or limit the bandwidth of queues over an egress port. Set the relevant parameters according to the network planning information. Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Level to the same values for the two NEs. l In the test of an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Level takes the default value 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than 4. In the test of an Ethernet service between two Ethernet interfaces on the same NE, set Maintenance Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

Perform a LB test

A.14.1 Creating MDs

A.14.2 Creating MAs

Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value the two NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the two NEs.

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Step

Operation A.14.3 Creating MPs

Description Required in the case of the NEs where the two Ethernet interfaces involved in the service test are located. Set the parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Node to the Ethernet interfaces that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for MEPs in the same maintenance domain. l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l If the MP ID is used to identify an MEP, set CC Status to Active. l It is recommended that you set CCM Sending Period(ms) to 1000 ms. A.21.1 Testing Ethernet Services by Using the LB Function Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

20.9 Configuration Example


This section uses an example to describe how to plan and configure Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching according to the network conditions. l For a configuration example of Ethernet services based on an 802.1d bridge, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1d Bridge-Based EPLAN Services) in the Configuration Guide. For a configuration example of Ethernet services based on an 802.1q bridge, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1q Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services) in the Configuration Guide. For a configuration example of Ethernet services based on an 802.1ad bridge, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1ad Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services) in the Configuration Guide.

20.10 Task Collection


This section provides the hyperlinks of the operation tasks associated with Layer 2 switching.
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Related Tasks
A.18.1 Configuring External Ethernet Ports A.18.2 Configuring the Internal Port of the Ethernet Board A.19.2 Creating Ethernet LAN Services A.19.3 Modifying the Mounted Port of a Bridge A.19.4 Creating the VLAN Filtering Table A.19.6 Creating IEEE 802.1ad Bridge-Based EVPLAN Services

20.11 Relevant Alarms and Events


There are no alarms or performance events relevant to Layer 2 switching.

Relevant Alarms
None.

Relevant Events
None.

20.12 FAQs
This section provides the answers to the questions that are frequently raised when Layer 2 switching is used. Q: When do I need to configure Layer 2 switching services? A: In the case of the OptiX RTN 620, multipoint-to-multipoint services must be configured as Layer 2 switching services; point-to-multipoint services are configured as private line services if they can be isolated based on VLAN tags, and are configured as Layer 2 switching services if they cannot be isolated.

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21 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching

21

Ethernet Ring Protection Switching

About This Chapter


This chapter describes the Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) feature. 21.1 Introduction This section provides the definition of ERPS and describes its purpose. 21.2 Basic Concepts This section describes the basic conce