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MineSight® in the Foreground

Variograms in MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA)
MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA) is a package of statistical and geostatistical programs; roughly a superset of the MineSight® M300 and M400 series. It includes histograms, scatterplots, cumulative probability plots, variograms, Variogram 3-D modeling, and custom (user-defined) reports. MSDA supports all MineSight® drillhole, blasthole, and block model files, as well as ODBC compliant databases and text files. This article discusses, in preliminary detail, MSDA’s applications to variogram modeling in MineSight® projects. Future articles will delve into the many intricate details of MSDA. Start MSDA and open a project. For the purposes of this article, we will assume the project is using a MineSight® composites file. MSDA permits the user to display the filenames of the project’s variograms, histograms, scatterplots, etc., for selection and viewing (Figure 1). These files, when created, are displayed in the lower panel, under MSDA Files. In this instance, we will only display Variograms and, therefore, we will select this option only. Upon selection, a check mark will be automatically placed beside the word Variogram. In order to create a set of variograms, select Variogram from the Tools menu. Once you select this option, a new panel (Variogram Parameters) pops up (Figure 2)

Figure 2

A number of options are available in the Variogram Parameters panel. Basic items such as Lag distance, Number of lags, Tolerance, the data to be modeled, etc., can be inserted where appropriate in the General tab. By opening the drop-down list in the box labeled Type, the desired type of variogram to be built (Figure 3) can be selected. These variogram choices include Normal, Covariance, Pairwise Relative, Relative (local mean), and Correlogram. The item that will be controlling the variogram (TOTCU) is selected from the drop-down list (Figure 3).
Figure 1 (continued on page 5)

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November 2005

Likewise. and bandwidths are specified in the Directions tab.e. (continued on page 6) Figure 4 November 2005 5 . dips. Variograms will be built at 45-degree azimuth increments in a total of four directions.e. Figure 3 The Filter tab (Figure 4) is where. The bandwidths are activated by putting a check mark on the corresponding box. MSDA will build 150 variograms (30 for each rock type). then the appropriate bandwidth can be added. it selects composites of the specified rock type or types. The horizontal bandwidth in this example is 60 feet. If you are building 30 different variograms. for each line in the filters box.15-degrees wide. the initial dip is horizontal (0 degrees) and varies at 30-degree increments for a total of four steps. 30 different directions. no vertical bandwidth was added in this example. is where the description of the variograms is entered (Figure 6). The Title and labels tab. and you specify five different rock types. for example. the different rock types that will control the variograms are specified. In the example..5 degrees. Each filter (line) contains the rock type or types.MineSight® in the Foreground (Variograms in MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA) continued from page 4) Basic information on variogram orientations is in the Directions tab (Figure 5). some of the most common options being GSLIB and MEDS. the initial variogram has an initial azimuth of zero and a Window of 22. appends the title suffix to the main chart title. a title suffix and a file suffix. Besides the title. labels for the X and Y axis plus a description of the variogram can be added here. as its name implies. This window becomes active when the Use Application Filter box is checked. A complete set of variograms will be built using composites for each specific set of rock types. There are options for coordinate rotation if they become necessary to be applied to the variograms. and appends the file suffix to the variogram files. Figure 5 Details on azimuths. The search Window is +/. i.. When MSDA creates the variograms for a given filter. The Rotation type option includes several methods. i.

has three additional parameters that can be activated by placing a check mark on the corresponding boxes and entering the project-related values. g. but saves the changes that were made to the contents of the panels. Before proceeding it is recommended to review the file-names and make sure that all of the requested variograms plus two (at the bottom of the list) are present..MineSight® in the Foreground (Variograms in MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA) continued from page 5) The four buttons at the bottom of each of the tabs in the Variogram Parameters panel have specific meanings and can be activated from any of the tabs. Normal variograms can be transformed to log using the equation shown on the first option. Implementation of these options depend upon the needs of the project. Finally. Figure 6 The last tab. (continued on page 7) Figure 7 6 November 2005 . Options (Figure 7). and Consider vertical if within must be filled appropriately. the boxes for Constant for relative estimator. The types of variograms that can be normalized are Normal and Covariance only. cu bhs_global. The Queue and Build Now buttons execute the run provided the Variogram file(s) root name has been specified (Figure 8) by the user (cu bhs in the example). The second option is used to bracket the values of the item for which the variogram is being generated. cancels the operation and returns the user to the start of the Variogram operation without saving the entries made. These last two variograms are global variograms in all directions (e. Minimum distance to accept pairs. The Done button does the same thing as the Cancel button. Upon execution of the run. Figure 8 The Build Now button executes the run immediately while the Queue option saves the run for eventual execution. the variograms are built and their file names appear in the lower-left window of the main panel (Figure 9). obviously.var).var) in the horizontal direction. and can be specified in the third option in the last panel. and a global variogram (cu bhs_hrz_global. The Cancel button.

The panel is self-explanatory. the number of actual valid samples used in the run. and so on. This shows such basic items as the lag range. mean grade. MSDA supports models with up to three structures. MSDA instantly updates the parameters in the dialog. the value. its dip (30) and the file extension var. The corresponding mean of the pairs involved as well as its standard deviation are also shown.MineSight® in the Foreground (Variograms in MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA) continued from page 6) Figure 9 A variogram filename such as cu bhs_90_ 30. drift. and vice versa. It is a summary that includes the range. One can also build a best fit model by simply clicking on the Auto-Fit button. is made available to the user (Figure 10). drift. as well as access to its related information. (continued on page 8) November 2005 7 . distance. number of pairs. Specific information pertaining to each data point can be readily accessed and viewed by placing the arrow of the mouse directly over any desired data point. number of pairs. It also shows the exact boundaries of the volume of sampled material covered by the variogram. The Global Stats tab (Figure 11) displays the basic statistics of the variogram. and standard deviation for the point selected. however. weight by number of points. This is the file naming convention used in MSDA. the azimuth (90).. A number of options are available. When you modify the model by dragging the markers. average distance. Figure 11 Figure 10 The parametersfor the variogram model can be modified manually by dragging the markers on the curve. such as tolerance. will bring up a panel where additional information on the selected variogram. it is important to note the number of samples in the data source vs. In the first tab (Chart) the Auto-Fit button was depressed to fit a model to the variogram (red line). etc. The Lag Stats tab shows a summary of the variogram (Figure 12). of the variogram. Clicking on the Open button after highlighting one of the variograms.var consists of a root (cu bhs) chosen by the user. or by keying parameters into the dialog at the upper right corner.

select AutoFit from the 3D Model menu. the default values typically work well. as well as printing or exporting to a bitmap. contour lines. If there are no variograms. Figure 13 Figure 15 Users can drag one or more variograms from their MSDA project into the 3D Modeler’s list at the lower right corner. To automatically fit a 3-D variogram model to this collection of variograms. The available variograms will be displayed as in Figure 13. they have to be highlighted in the project directory (use Microsoft® Windows Explorer). As with the Auto-Fit tool for the individual variograms discussed earlier. The properties of the points. weight by number of points. etc. (continued on page 9) 8 November 2005 . The variogram contours can also be individualized for report or presentation purposes. can be modified and tailored to the user’s specifications. and so on. several options are available such as tolerance.MineSight® in the Foreground (Variograms in MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA) continued from page 7) Figure 12 Detailed variogram modeling options can be started from the main panel with the command Tools | Variogram 3D Modeling. This shows the trends of the mineralization represented by the variograms on that plane. A variety of other modifications. Figure 14 The variogram contours can now be viewed on any plane by selecting the Rose tab in the variogram panel. Figure 16 shows an example. can be implemented using the icons in the Toolbar.. However. then dragged and dropped into the File area.

sharp focused digital files at 300 dpi are preferred. EW and NS section views are displaying flat ellipses with no dip. Attn: R.March 12. Mintec. approximately 300 words.F@mintec. Ashbaugh. Call for Papers 23rd Annual Mintec.795.. AZ. 2006 Receipt of final presentation files .325. there is only one variogram structure. March 20-24.com Call for Photographs of Mines— We need photopraphs of your mine for our 2006 calendar..com. Sharp focused prints can be sent to Mintec. Address questions /abstracts to: Fred Fest. Address(es). Also.3891 Fax: 520.A@mintec. AZ 85716 USA. Inc. 2006 at the Sheraton Tucson Hotel & Suites. November 2005 9 . In this example. use the command 3D Model | Display Structures on Planes. Presentations should be from 5 to 20 minutes in length. Inc. Figure 17 There are many more helpful options that were not covered in this article about variography in MSDA. in Microsoft® Word format. Subject. Tucson. Consider any application of MineSight® to a mining problem of general interest to the attendees. Inc. Tucson. This is a great way to showcase the special features of your mine.2568 E-mail: Fred. 3544 E.MineSight® in the Foreground (Variograms in MineSight® Data Analyst (MSDA) continued from page 8) Figure 16 The orientation of the various structures of the variogram model can also be displayed in plan and cross-sections (Figure 17). Deadlines—Receipt of Abstracts . Additional descriptions of the tools related to variogram modeling. Submit your abstracts. To access this option. High resolution. Submit photographs of your mining operation to Robert Ashbaugh at Robert. Tilte(s). will be published in future newsletters. there are no displays in the second and third structures. Ft. with the following information: Tilte. because we generated only the horizontal variograms and set the verical range to a small distance. Seminar Technical Papers—You are invited to submit an abstract of a proposed paper for presentation at the 23rd Annual Mintec Seminar. 2006 Please make note on your registration form that you are a presenter. Lowell Rd. Telephone: 520. Prints will not be returned. and Telephone Number(s) of all authors. and Keyword Name(s). as well as to other MSDA options.January 16. Therefore.