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in diet, feeding on almost all kinds of food matter including human food, paper, leather, cloth and even

dead bodies of their fellows. They prefer starch containing food. Cockroaches are cursorial insects, viz. run very fast. They fly very rarely as they are not good fliers. Cockroaches are unisexual (male and female sexes are found in different individuals) and show sexual dimorphism i.e., one sex can be distinguished from the other externally. They are oviparous (laying eggs). The young ones called nymphs resembles adults, except being smaller. Parental care is seen in them.

mOrPhOLOGY Or exTernAL chArAcTerS
The content for PMT Biology is very vast. It does not allow students to engage in enquiry so as to develop meaningful knowledge. Essential topic for PMT is presented here to enable students grasp the topic, analyse the kind of questions appearing in PMTs, practice and scorE HIGH.

Shape, Size and Colour
The body is dorsoventrally flattened, elongated and bilaterally symmetrical. The adult cockroach is about 2 to 4 cm in length and about 1 cm in width. The colour is shining reddish brown.

The cockroach is the most common pest of food industries, hotels, kitchens, warehouses etc. It is one of the arthropods belonging to the class insecta. It has four common species found in India. They are : – Blattella germanica, the German cockroach, – Blatta orientalis, the Oriental cockroach, – Periplaneta americana, the american cockroach (the most common species in the world) and – Periplaneta australasiae, the australian cockroach.

Phylum – arthropoda Class – Insecta Subclass – Pterygota Division – exopterygota Order – Orthoptera Genus – Periplaneta americana Species – Cockroach is considered suitable type for the study because it shows insect structure in its fundamental form, it is harmless to handle, its size is convenient for study and it is available throughout the year. Male cockroach Female cockroach 1. abdomen is relative long abdomen is relatively short and narrow. and broad. 2. Seventh tergum covers Seventh tergum covers the only the eighth tergum in eighth and ninth terga in the abdomen. the abdomen. 3. all the nine abdominal Only the sterna are visible. abdominal visible first seven sterna are

Cockroaches are found in warm, dark and damp places. They commonly inhabit kitchens, restaurants, store houses, godowns, railway wagons, ships, etc. They are numerous in underground drains.

4. There is no brood pouch. a brood pouch is formed by the seventh, eighth and ninth abdominal sterna. 5. Ninth abdominal sternum There are no anal styles. bears a pair of anal styles. 6. Genital aperture lies Genital aperture lies on below the anus on one the 8th sternum within the of the gonapophyses. brood pouch. 7. There are only gonapophyses 3 There are 3 gonapophyses.

They are nocturnal insects preferring darkness and become active during night, but remain hidden under some objects and take rest during day time. Cockroaches are omnivorous



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spermathecal pores and collaterial glands. and is primarily responsible for their great success. Two cheek sclerites. The tergum of the prothorax is also called pronotum. – Many of the cuticular outgrowths form sensory receptors. slender and multisegmented antenna. 44 MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 Page 44 . It is attached to thorax by a short and narrow neck or cervicum and can be moved by neck muscles in different directions. genital pouch or chamber lies at the hind end of abdomen bounded dorsally by 9th and 10th terga and ventrally by the 9th sternum. Functions of cuticle Thick cuticle of arthropods is like steel to modern man. thorax and abdomen. rectangular sclerite. the clypeus. the genae. Two pairs of tracheal openings or spiracles are present on the lateral pleura of thorax. On each dorsolateral side of head is a large reniform and black compound eye. below the frons is a narrow. soft. Abdomen The posterior region of body is called abdomen. Inner to the base of each antenna is a small. the 7th sternum is boat shaped and together with the 8th and 9th sterna forms a brood or genital pouch whose anterior part contains female gonopore. Jointedness of cuticle of body segments and appendages make accurate complicated movements possible. each thoracic segment bears ventrally a pair of 9 jointed walking legs. Just in front of each eye is a long. anus lies below 10th tergum between 4 podical plates. lie vertically just below the eyes at the lateral side. the frontoclypeal suture between the clypeus and the frons. while mesothorax and metathorax each bear a pair of wings dorsally. The adjacent sclerites are joined together by thin. a dorsal tergum. Lower end of head bears the preoral cavity and mouth. mesothorax and metathorax. flexible articular or arthrodial membranes to allow movement. It is useful in many ways as follows : – Provides support. Head bears a number of jointed appendages. – Cuticular invaginations offer points of attachment for muscles. – Melanin pigments within cuticle provide protective colouration. The stink glands produce a secretion pheromone.Exoskeleton or cuticle a non-living brown coloured. from in front backwards. abdomen of adult consists of 10 segments while embryo has 11 segments. a ventral sternum and two lateral pleura (sing. that gives a characteristic stinky (foul) smell. a movable plate called the labrum articulates with the lower edge of the clypeus by labroclypeal suture. the prothorax.defined regions or tegmata – head. The whole of head is covered by sclerites constituting the head capsule. The arthrodial membrane between the fifth and sixth abdominal terga is depressed on either side to form a stink gland. jointed and chitinous exoskeleton composed of several plates or sclerites cover the entire body. It is broader than thorax and dorso-ventrally flattened. thread-like anal styles which are absent in females. the hinder segments remain somewhat concealed. pleuron). There is a faint horizontal line. Body body of cockroach is distinctly divided into segments grouped into 3 well . hard. Head Head is formed by the fusion of 6 embryonic segments and is small and roughly triangular in shape. Such a head with mouth parts directed downwards is called hypognathous. 10th segment in both sexes bears a pair of small. rounded and whitish area or fenestra. – Waxy layer prevents loss of water due to evaporation. an impaired triangular sclerite called frons lies between the arms of epicranial suture. The top or vertex is formed by two epicranial plates jointed in front by an inverted g-shaped coronal or epicranial suture. 8 pairs of tracheal openings or spiracles are present on lateral pleura of first 8 abdominal segments. In males. ventral male genital pore and gonapophysis. Males bear a pair of short. Not all segments are visible externally. each thoracic segment is enclosed by four chitinous skeletal sclerites. – Cuticular lining of fore and hind guts protect their epidermis from abrasions by passage of food. rigidity and protection. thus enabling insects to live in relatively dry environments. filamentous and sensory anal cerci. surrounded by mouth parts. Thorax The middle region of body or thorax consists of 3 distinct segments called. It contains dorsal anus. In females. which is the largest sclerite and projects forwards to cover the neck and head. representing a simple eye or ocellus.

found on head. The labial palps respond to taste and smell. glossae and paraglossae prevent the loss of food particles from mandibular action. Proximal to molar lobe is a membranous lobe. They are of the mandibulate type (i. Prementum bears. a 3-jointed sensory labial palp borne on a basal projection. It is a also called as upper lip. inner. chitinous flap. The latter tapers into two sharp claw like projections. which hangs from the distal end of the clypeus. is fused to the inner surface of labrum. slender. each bearing 3 tooth-like denticles of thickened cuticle. (iii) Maxillae (First maxillae) These are appendages of 5th head segment and known as first pair of maxillae. the scape. and freely articulating by a thin membrane. However. hard plate-like lacinia. the prostheca.e. each half of ligula consists of an inner glossa and an outer paraglossa. Male cockroach has longer antennae than female. It is formed by the fusion of two maxilla-like embryonic appendages or second pair of maxillae. both the parts are bent at an angle to each other. MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 45 Page 45 . The labrum holds the food particles during the feeding. (v) Hypopharynx It is a small concial fleshy structure. both maxillae act as accessory jaws. The partially fused endopodites form a tongue-like ligula. The epipharynx bears the organs of taste. biting and chewing type) and remain unspecialized due to its omnivorous diet. (ii) Mandibles These are appendages of 4th head segment. Inner margin of each mandible is made of two small cutting or serrated lobes. Mandibles work like jaws. hood-like galea and an (iv) Labium (Second maxillae) Labium or lower lip is the appendage of 6th head segment. Lacinia also bears numerous strong sensory bristles at its inner surface. and a long many-jointed flagellum. hanging in between the two maxillae in front of the labium and acts like tongue. corresponding with lacinia and galea respectively. It consists of a large basal segment. – Exopodite : Maxillary palp represents exopodite. legs and wings on thorax and external genitalia on abdomen.. an antenna is attached close to the inner side of compound eye in a circular socket enclosed by a ring-like antennal sclerite. a small middle mentum and a distal prementum. Antennae antennae are a pair of long. and manyjointed movable appendages. These consist of the labrum or upper lip. fused protopodite is 3-segmented consisting of a large proximal submentum. The labium does not take active part in feeding.the proximal cardo and the distal stipes. the epipharynx. These are small. a thin plate. They lie beneath the mandibles on either side on the head capsule. (i) Labrum Labrum or upper lip is the appendage of 3rd head segment. whip-like. followed by a short and cylindrical pedicel. that bears sensory hairs. the labium or lower lip and the hypopharynx. It is the posterior-most of all mouth parts.outer broad. a pair of maxillae. and strongly sclerotised structures. They are attached with the sides of head capsule and articulate by means of a condyle with the gena of same side. the palpiger. triangular. Mouth parts Mouth parts are head appendages surrounding the mouth. each maxilla consists of three parts: – Protopodite : It is a basal portion and made up of two parts. The antennae bear tactile and olfactory receptors and are sensitive to touch and smell. a pair of mandibles. Terminal segment of palp is covered thickly with sensory setae. distal incisor and proximal molar. They work sideways to masticate food and to convey food morsels into oral cavity. It is broad.APPenDAGeS Of cOckrOAch Main appendages include: antennae and mouth parts on head. – Endopodite : It arises from the inner side of the stipes and consists of two parts. on each side. an efferent salivary duct carrying the saliva from the salivary glands opens near the base of the hypopharynx.

americana wings reach up to the tip of abdomen in female. They are kept folded like a fan under the tegmina. all the legs are similar. While organs involved in sexual dimorphism. transparent. They are narrow. Dermal glands found in hypodermis are concerned with the production of cement layer and different kinds of cuticle. mating and deposition of eggs are known as external genitalia. Some cells store nitrogenous waste (uric acid) and are called urate cells. membranous. (ii) Hindwings Metathoracic or hindwings are thin. probably a mucopolysaccharide. It consists of an amorphous granular material. broad. Hence they are known as elytra. and each consisting of a linear series of 9 segments or podomeres. besides secreting cuticle. a long alimentary canal and a pair of salivary glands. the plantulae. hypodermis resorbs endocuticle before each moult or ecdysis. External genitalia reproductive organs (such as testes and ovaries) concerned with production and transmission of gametes (ova and sperms) are collectively termed internal genitalia. running and climbing. 48 MT BIOLOGY COeLOm (BODY CAvITY) The large perivisceral body cavity of cockroach. Inner edges of first four tarsomeres bear soft adhesive pads. the arolium or pulvillus which prevents from slipping. enclosing alimentary canal and other viscera. finally. Movements are due to special muscles attached to wing bases and working at a very high speed. Chitin thickens around tracheae to form nurvures or veins that strengthen the wings. Whereas gonapohyses shall be dealt with the reproductive system of cockroach. midgut and hindgut. Fat body (corpora adiposa) is a soft whitish tissue which surrounds the viscera. when at rest. and a little beyond in male cockroach. The latter is fused to a stout spiny femur. these are appendages of the terminal segments of abdomen. mesothorax and metathorax and called fore.and hind legs. glycogen and protein. delicate hair-covered porous pad. Pretarsus ends in two lateral claws and between them a median. True coelom in cockroach is much reduced and represented only by the cavities of gonads. It is a highly organised epithelium made of a single layer of columnar cells resting on a basement membrane and anchored to it by hemidesmosomes. followed by a slender spiny tibia.Walking legs There are three pairs of walking legs. Leg is articulated with its thoracic segment by a stout flattened. Basement membrane a typical stout and continuous basement membrane bounds the inner surface of hypodermis. mid. one pair attached ventrally to sternum of each of prothorax. all the legs are used for walking. and are termed trophocytes. In P. In cockroach. wing covers or tegmina. hypodermis and basement membrane. delicate and used in flight. which is the longest segment of leg. (i) Forewings Mesothoracic or forewings are heavily sclerotised. Wings Cockroach has two pairs of wings. respectively. One pair of wings are attached dorso-laterally between tergum and pleuron of both mesothorax and metathorax. Hypodermis Hypodermis (or epidermis) lies beneath cuticle which it secretes. Alimentary canal alimentary canal is a long and somewhat coiled tube of uneven diameter and divisible into three regions : foregut. dark opaque and leathery in texture. They are not used in flight but serve to protect the hindwings at rest. the tarsus is made of 5 very small movable podomeres or tarsomeres bearing fine hairs. They probably also secrete pheromones and some hormones. BODY WALL body wall or integument consists of : cuticle (explained earlier). basal coxa. is a haemocoel containing blood. followed by a smaller triangular trochanter. Oenocytes appear between hypodermal cells and probably secrete wax or lipids that is transmitted to the surface of cuticle. Anal cerci and anal styles have already been described earlier. foregut and hindgut are ectodermal and lined with a thin cuticle secreted by ectoderm whereas TODAY | february ’12 Page 48 . basal tarsomere is longer and called metatarsus while terminal tarsomere is named pretarsus. PhYsIOLOGY Of PerIPLAneTA DIGesTIve sYsTem/DIGesTIOn It includes the mouth parts (already described). Most of its cells store fat.

They are as follows: – Salivary glands : There are paired salivary glands lying one on each side of the oesophagus and crop. It is short and relatively narrower. These are 6 in number and also known as rectal glands. called enteric or hepatic caeca. straight. yellowcoloured blind tubules projecting freely into haemocoel. each gland has two glandular portions and a salivary reservoir or receptacle. (ii) Colon : actually it is a dilation of ileum and is the longest. pear-shaped sac. – Hepatic caecae are lined by the glandular cells which secrete digestive secretion containing proteolytic. It is the largest part of foregut. The saliva contains amylase. colon and rectum. oesophagus. thin-walled. (i) Ileum : The mid-gut continues into the ileum. and then bears bristles to let only the well crushed food to pass on. Hindgut Hindgut or proctodaeum is divided into three regions : ileum. blindly ending hollow tubes. Crop serves as a reservoir for storing food. the gizzard or proventriculus. devoid of cuticular lining and capable of absorbing digested food. (i) Mouth cavity : Mouth cavity or preoral chamber is a small. Its outer surface is covered by a network of tracheae. rectum opens to outside by anus. It leads into the rectum. Midgut Midgut is the short and narrow tube-like middle part of alimentary canal also known as ventriculus or mesenteron. relatively thicker and coiled part of hind gut. narrow and laterally compressed tube. (iii) Pharynx : Pharynx is short and tubular and its cuticular lining is more folded posteriorly. which extends well up to the third or fourth abdominal segment. the cuticular lining first form 6 plates with teeth to grind the food. These are internally lined by epithelium and secrete digestive enzymes. It helps in the absorption of water. The secretion secreted by the glandular portion is known as saliva which is stored in the receptacles. Foregut Foregut or stomodaeum includes mouth cavity. (v) Crop : Crop is large. – The mid-gut is lined by glandular epithelial cells which secrete a digestive secretion containing enzymes. MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 49 Page 49 . cone shaped. muscular and thick-walled chamber. which marks the end of foregut. surrounded by mouth parts. In the gizzard. ill-defined space outside mouth. The ileum passes undigested food into the colon. (i) Hepatic caeca : Opening into the anterior end of midgut are 6 or 8 short. pharynx. thread-like. It is internally lined by glandular epithelium and forms the true stomach serving mainly for digestion and absorption. Its posterior end is characterised by the possession of six tiny triangular lobes internally.midgut is endodermal. (iv) Oesophagus : from pharynx arises a long. (ii) Malpighian tubules : from the junction of midgut and hindgut arise 100 to 150 very narrow. chitinase and cellulase enzymes. Digestive glands (ii) Mouth : True mouth is a small opening at the base of preoral cavity and leads into pharynx. (iii) Rectum : rectum is an oval or spindle-shaped sac with external ridges alternating with internal longitudinal thickenings called rectal pads or rectal papillae. bearing spicules and acting as a sort of sphincter. amylolytic and lipolytic types of enzymes. These are called Malpighian tubules and are excretory in function. crop and gizzard. (vi) Gizzard : Crop leads behind into a small. the oesophagus. narrow. food is crushed and acted upon by the salivary secretion or saliva in mouth cavity.

When the muscles relax. Gizzard 6. fan-shaped alary muscles are present in the floor of pericardial sinus in each segment. each communicating by a valvular opening with the one in front of it. It consists of 13 funnel shaped chambers or segments. Contraction of these muscles enlarges the pericardial sinus so that blood flows into it from the underlying perivisceral sinus. Midgut + hepatic caeca 8. glycogen and proteins. It is a long narrow tube with anterior end open and posterior end closed. These allow flow of haemolymph from pericardial sinus into heart only and not in a back gear. synthesize uric acid and store it. Blood circulation blood or haemolymph circulates by the contraction and relaxation of heart assisted by the paired fan-shaped alary muscles. Haemolymph is devoid of respiratory pigment and hence does not assist in respiration. maltase and lactase (ii) Trypsin. Hinder end of each chamber has a pair of minute lateral openings. flows freely within the body cavity or haemocoel.Table : Digestion in Periplaneta Part of alimentary canal 1. 50 MT BIOLOGY Haemolymph The haemolymph or blood of cockroach consists of a clear colourless plasma rich in amino acids. Haemocoel is divided by a dorsal and a ventral diaphragm into three sinuses: (i) dorsal pericardial. Pharynx 3. blood also consists of a non-reducing sugar agent. and numerous different types of cells. the ostia. Oesophagus Chemical/Enzyme secretion etc. Types of food digested Saliva secreted by salivary gland is mixed with food (i) Zymase Carbohydrates (ii) Chitinase (iii) Cellulase (i) Invertase. Crop (principal site of digestion) 5. TODAY | february ’12 Page 50 . rectum (hindgut) absorption Water and salts absorbed by rectal – papillae. There is a heart and aorta but no capillaries and veins. These are connected to heart and dorsal diaphragm by connective tissue. Haemocoel body cavity of cockroach is called haemocoel. CIrCuLATOrY sYsTem Cockroach has an open or lacunar circulatory system as blood. blood is forced through ostia into the heart. proteases and peptidases (iii) Lipase (i) food is triturated (ii) Pulvilli filter the food Carbohydrates Proteins fats – Carbohydrates. also called haemolymph. – Oenocytes : Take part in intermediary matabolism at the time of ecdysis. called haemocytes. buccal chamber 2. uric acid. Perivisceral sinus contains the alimentary canal and is mostly occupied by a whitish mass of tissue or fat body which consists of following cell types: – Trophocytes : store fat. called trachealose– a characteristic of insects. Heart Heart lies mid-dorsally beneath the terga of thorax and abdomen. It is without ostia and forwards into the head sinus. fats and proteins excess nutrients deposited in fat body 4. Perineural sinus encloses the ventral nerve cord. The anterior narrow and tubular part of heart is called anterior aorta. rest defecated as dry pellet via anus. Midgut (larger particles pushed back Midgut enzyme continue their action into crop) 7. amino acids and glycogen from glucose. – Urate cells : absorb nitrogen waste from haemolymph. – Myocytes : Contain symbiotic bacteria that secrete vitamins. (ii) middle pervisceral and (iii) ventral perineural.

inorganic salts and water in blood or haemolymph. So. Gaseous exchange occurs by simple diffusion between air in tracheae and dissolved gases in blood or tracheolar fluid which has been shown to rise and fall. This mode of excretion is termed storage excretion.5 mm in diameter and is lined by glandular epithelium with a characteristic brush border. It consists of tracheae. such as potassium bicarbonate. Such movements cause change in diameter of tracheae and force air in and out of tracheal tubes through spiracles. abdominal segments. These cells accumulate.resPIrATOrY sYsTem respiratory system is well developed in a cockroach in order to compensate the poorly developed circulatory system. a Malpighian tubule has two functional parts. The cuticular lining is spirally thickened forming intima or taenidia which prevents the tracheal tubes from collapsing. one ventral and one lateral in position. one dorsal. one between pro and mesothorax and the other between meso and metathorax. but only urate cells are associated with excretion. exCreTOrY sYsTem It regulates the amounts of nitrogenous material. Fat body cells It consists of many different types of cells. Eight pairs of spiracles are abdominal. Malpighian tubules These are fine. The urine flows towards the proximal absorptive part of tubule which reabsorbs certain salts. Tracheae Haemocoel contains a network of elastic. tracheoles and spiracles. They are present laterally in the soft cuticle between a terga and sterna. 1st and 3rd pairs of spiracles always remain open while the remaining eight pairs open only during inspiration. Spiracles The main tracheal trunks open to the exterior on body surface through 10 pairs of segmentally arranged apertures termed spiracles or stigmata. each tubule is about 16 mm long and 0. Two pairs of spiracles are thoracic. blind tubules at its periphery. Tracheoles The ultimate finer branches of tracheae are called tracheoles which come in contact with the individual body cells. produce and store uric acid and urate granules throughout life. longitudinal tracheal trunks. Respiratory mechanism and gaseous exchange alternate contraction and relaxation of the abdominal muscles (tergo-sternal muscles) cause rhythmic contraction and expansion of abdomen. closed and branching air tubes or tracheae. which are connected together by transverse commissures. one pair in each of the first eight Uricose glands The mushroom gland of male cockroach possesses long. uricose glands and cuticle. long unbranched. and some water resulting in precipitation of uric acid. called uricose glands or utriculi majores. More water is reabsorbed in colon and rectum so that more or less solid uric acid is eliminated with faeces through anus. MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 51 Page 51 . The elaborate tracheal system carries oxygen directly to all the body cells. fat body cells. yellowish and blind tubules lying freely in the haemolymph and are attached to the alimentary canal at the extreme anterior end of hindgut. parallel. Glandular cells of distal secretory part extract nitrogenous wastes and water from haemolymph forming a solution called urine. These tubules store uric acid (storage excretion) and discharge it over the spermatophore during copulation. There are three pairs of large. cockroach is uricotelic. The main structures playing the role of excretion are : Malpighian tubules.

each sensilla (1-6) contains neuro-sensory cell. Central nervous system (made of 6 fused ganglia) brain consisting of (a) protocerebrum. – Thermoreceptors (= sensitive to temperature) are present on antennae. hypocerebral ganglion. The nervous system of cockroach is spread throughout the body. and abundant on antenna. and labial palp. It bears 3 ganglia in thorax called pro-meso-. Central nervous system consists of brain and double ganglionated ventral nerve cord. it will still live for as long as one week. temperature. anal cerci. now you understand that if the head of a cockroach is cut off. ingluvial ganglion and proventriculus ganglia. The four ganglia are : Frontal ganglion. The outer convex surface of eye is divided into 200 hexagonal areas called facets (200 × 2 = 400). maxillary. – Gustatory ( = taste) are present on maxillary and labial palps. Ventral nerve cord originates from sub-oesophageal ganglion. given off from ganglia to all parts of body. – Proprioceptors (pressure) are sensitive to pressure set up in cuticle during feeding and movement. and (b) corpora allata. sessile. Compound eyes are large. bean-shaped. Retrocerebral complex lies above hypocerebral ganglion. These are: – Tactile sensilla (= touch = thigmoreceptor) are present all over the body. peripheral and sympathetic or stomatogastric nervous system. With the help of several ommatidia. The 3 other ganglia fuse to form the sub-oesophageal ganglia. legs. sound. below the facet lie series of visual units called ommatidium. metamorphosis etc. The diopteric region consists of : – Transparent cuticle that acts as lens. So. Periplaneta has 2000 such units (Honey bee has 5. 6th is formed by the fusion of many ganglion. black in colour present on either side of head. Peripheral nervous system The nerves. nervOus sYsTem Nervous system comprises the central. Simple eye (= ocellus) is present at the base of each antennae. – Auditory (= sound) are present on ventral surface of anal cerci. It is made up of endocrine organs (a) corpora cardiacasecretes hormone that regulate peristalsis of gut and act as cardiac accelerator. taste. sensOrY sYsTem Periplaneta has a variety of sensilla which are sensitive to touch. (b) deuterocerebrum and (c) tritocerebrum which fuse to form a bilobed mass called supra-oesophageal ganglion. and metathoracic ganglia and six abdominal ganglia of which the last i.secretes juvenile hormone which is involved in reproduction. detection of deleterious chemicals. paired. all facets of an eye together form its cornea. Peripheral nervous system comprises nerves arising from brain and segmental ganglia and sympathetic nervous system (= Stomatogastric) comprises four ganglia and a retrocerebral complex.e. being common during night (hence called nocturnal vision). This kind of vision is known as mosaic vision with more sensitivity but less resolution. It does not form image but help in discrimination between dark and dim light. Sympathetic nervous system It comprises four ganglia and a retrocerebral complex. The head holds a bit of a nervous system while the rest is situated along the ventral (belly-side) part of its body.000) which are similar in structure and function. each ommatidium is composed of : (i) Diopteric region-from cornea to extreme ends of cone cells and (ii) Receptor (= retinular region). – Light or photoreceptors are simple and compound eye. smell. constitute the peripheral nervous system. and light. – Corneagen cells (two in number) which secrete retina. consists of lens that facilitates collection/filtering of light. a cockroach can receive several images of an object.. 52 MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 Page 52 . 000 and dragon flies 50. trichogen cell and tormogen cell. – Crystalline cone formed by 4 cone cells serving as accessory lens.Cuticle Cuticle also acts as a site where nitrogenous waste material is deposited and then eliminated with its shedding at each moult or ecdysis. maxillary palps.

• Small . extend from 3/4 abdominal 1. Left phallomere consists of four components. 2. It opens to the outside by male genital aperture that lies ventral to anus. long flattened. spermatheca is found filled with spermatozoa. massive. opens by a median aperture in the dorsal wall of genital pouch on 9th sternum. called ootheca. external genitalia consists of ovipositor made of 3 pairs – accutobolus having a hook. It is made up of sac-like tubules of three types : • Long . contractile. 2. white in color. Vagina : The left and right oviduct unite to form vagina which opens into genital pouch by a slit-like gonopore (on 8th abdominal sternite). Phallic = Conglobate gland : Club-shaped. left and ventral) which arise from the 9th sternum. Testes : paired. formed by the union of right and left vas deferens. ecdysone has a antagonistic action to JH. one on each side of abdomen. Genital pouch (= Gynantrium) boat-shaped sternite of 7th abdominal segment forms its floor and 8th and 9th form roof and sides. deferens and ejaculatory duct. 3. MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 53 Page 53 . The 7th sternite has 2 large and oval apical lobes on its posterior region. received during copulation. It lies chamber and facilitate arranging of ova in the ootheca. rePrODuCTIve sYsTem In Periplaneta sexes are separate and sexual dimorphism is pronounced. Table : Differences between male and female reproductive organs Female reproductive organs Ovaries : paired. The corpora cardiaca and corpora allata are already discussed. segment to 6th has 3-4 interconnected lobes each of which is formed of sac-like lobules. – asperate lobe near pseudopenis bearing the External genitalia opening of phallic gland. The pouch is divided into (a) genital chamber and (b) oothecal chamber. Ejaculatory duct : elongated. Opening of ejaculatory duct They also help in imparting the characteristic shape to lies at its base in an intromittent muscular region. sac-like lie beneath the mushroom gland. Secretion of two collaterial glands forms the hard egg1. It opens by a separate aperture which lies in proximity with genital aperture. Accessory genital glands 2. It secretes a hormone Male reproductive organs 1. Utricular = Mushroom gland : Large. Prothoracic gland is located in thorax. Spermathecae : a spermatheca or receptaculum sem2. Ventral phallomere bears male genital pore. It is lined internally by cuticle. 2. extend from abdominal segment 2 – 6. Right phallomere consists of two horizontal opposing plates.utriculi breviores and • bulb . consisting of a left sac-like and a right filamentous caecum. that hang into oothecal 4. muscular oviduct of their side. 1. elongated. (8 + 8 = 16) Ovarioles has 5 parts : – Terminal filament – Germarium – Vitellarium – egg chamber – Pedicel and plug Oviduct : The pedicel of all the 8 ovarioles/ovary join to form a small. – Pseudopenis with a broad hammer-like head. In a fertile female. inis. Vas deferens (= sperm duct) originate from either side of testes and receive the sperm from testicular lobules. below right phallomere. of chitinous processes called gonapophyses (arising from 8th and 9th sterna). 1. a sickle-shaped hook and a serrated lobe terminating in two prongs.neurO-enDOCrIne sYsTem Neurosecretory cell in the brain secretes brain hormone (bH) that affect secretory activity of other endocrine glands and several other physiological processes. 3. phallus or seminal vesicles called ecdysone (= moulting hormone) which stimulates metamorphic changes in a the tip of a small spermathecal papilla. – Titillator with a terminal hook. Collaterial gland : a pair of much branched accessory Accessory external genitalia or collaterial glands lies behind and above the ovaries. present at the junction of vas 3. from the male. It secretes outer Accessory glands/structure layer of spermatophore.utriculi majores 4. plates called gonapophysis (= phallomere-right. If consists of 8 ovarioles in each ovary. Male genital aperture is surrounded by three asymmetrical case or ootheca around groups of eggs.

Thus development of cockroach is simple and direct and includes incomplete or gradual metamorphosis which is known as paurometaboly. spread foul smell. causing anxiety and stress due to embarrassment and physical invasion. freshly hatched nymphs are delicate. 2. 3. Male cockroach can be distinguished from female cockroach through (a) longer antennae (b) longer abdomen (c) wingless body (d) all of these. the nymphs undergo first moulting or ecdysis and then 6 or 7 successive moults follow. as nymphal development proceeds. sheltered and dark place. called spermatophores. They possess nearly all adult characters but differ in size and colouration. directly into the genital pouch of female. The young cockroaches or nymphs emerge out leaving the egg membrane behind. These also have a psychological impact on humans. fertilized eggs become surrounded by the secretion of collaterial glands. undivided 7th sternite. pointed hind end. the male transfers its spermatozoa in the form of packets. neW mCQs 1. paired anal styles on 9th abdominal sternite and wings larger extending behind the body. body increases in size. have a visible abdominal sclerite.Males are smaller. 54 MT BIOLOGY TODAY | february ’12 Page 54 . the wing pads arise. 7th sternite divided. InTerACTIOn WITh mAnkInD all the species of cockroach are harmful because they contaminate food with their excreta. besides. The egg undergoes spiral cleavage. The male and female reproductive organs are compared as given in table (Refer previous page). anal styles are absent and wings are smaller. transparent and almost colourless. In cockroach. which hardens to form an egg case or ootheca. This ootheca is then laid in a warm. wings are absent from (a) prothorax (b) mesothorax (c) metathorax (d) none of these. Metamorphosis Immediately after hatching. wings smaller. LIfe hIsTOrY Copulation Sexually mature male and female cockroach generally mate during night from March to September. Females are larger with seven. visible abdominal sternites. colouration becomes darker and ultimately the adult takes its form with fully developed wings and genitalia. Fertilization and Development fertilization of the egg occurs into vestibulum of genital pouch. Number of spiracle pairs in Periplaneta americana is (a) 8 (b) 9 (c) 10 (d) 11. in being sexually immature and lacking wings. cockroaches are the fourth most common allergen. During copulation. blunt and boat-shaped hind end. and also pose potential harm by acting as disease transmitting agents.

anal style. 3 . (bHu-2006) 4. 2004) 7. 3 . uP-CPMT. 3 .anal circus. 4 . the ootheca is formed by the secretion of (a) phallic gland (b) collaterial gland (c) mushroom gland (d) conglobate gland. 4 . (aIIMS-2002) 3. 2 . What is the main difference between male and female cockroach? (a) jointed appendages (b) paired antennae (c) anal cerci (d) conglobate gland. 6.10th tergum. It means (a) it does not respire (b) cockroach respires anaerobically (c) oxygen passes to all the tissues through alary muscles (d) oxygen reaches tissue through tracheoles. 7. 3 . (DPMT-1998) 10. oxygen is transported by (a) trachea (b) plasma (c) haemoglobin (d) histamine. Stink gland is found in (a) 4th and 5th terga of cockroach (b) 5th and 6th terga of cockroach (c) 5th and 6th sterna of cockroach (d) 4th and 5th sterna of cockroach.9th sternum (c) 1 . 2 . (bHu. 9. (uP-CPMT-1998) 10. larval and nymphal characters are maintained by TODAY | february ’12 55 Page 55 . (a) ecdysone (c) parotid gland (b) salivary glands (d) juvenile hormone.anal style. 2 . In cockroach moulting is induced by secretion of (a) prothoracic gland (b) corpora allata (c) corpora cardiaca (d) neurosecretory cells. In cockroach the longest podomere is (a) coxa (b) trochanter or femur (c) tibia (d) tarsus. Ommatidia serve the purpose of photoreception in (a) cockroach (b) frog (c) humans (d) sunflower. 5.anal style (d) 1 . DPMT-1998.anal circus (b) 1 .4. Phallic organs in cockroach are related to (a) male excretory system (b) male reproductive system (c) female excretory system (d) female reproductive system. (uP-CPMT-1996) 9. The cockroach of genus Blatta is also called (a) German cockroach (b) australian cockroach (c) Oriental cockroach (d) american cockroach. (DPMT-1995. (bHu-2007.10th tergum. (uP-CPMT-2007) 12. Spiracles of cockroach which are larger and always kept open are (a) first and second pairs (b) first and third pairs (c) first and tenth pairs (d) second and third pairs.anal circus. The difference between male and female cockroach is (a) in male anal cerci are present (b) in male anal style are present (c) in female anal style are present (d) in female and cerci are present. (d) It has 13-chambered heart and in each segment one pair of ostia are present. (c) It takes place without the participation of tissue. Cockroach blood does not contain respiratory pigment. Diagram represents posterior region of male cockroach. In cockroach. (b) It is complicated type of circulatory system. Heart of cockroach is (a) 13 – chambered (b) 29 – chambered (c) 9 – chambered (d) 6 – chambered (uP-CPMT-2009) MT BIOLOGY (a) 1 .9th sternum. 4 . 4 .2008) 6. Choose the correct combination of labelling 8. excretion in cockroach takes place by (a) nephridium (b) parotid gland (c) coxal glands (d) Malpighian tubules. (CbSe-2003) 2. 8.1996) 5. In cockroach.anal circus exAm seCTIOn 1.anal style. 2 . In cockroach.10th tergum. Which one of the following is the correct statement about the circulatory system of cockroach? (a) It is closed type of circulatory system. Manipal-2002.10th tergum. Cockroach mainly excretes (a) uric acid (b) urea (c) ammonia (d) amino acid (uP-CPMT-2009) 13. Heart of cockroach is (a) myogenic (c) neurogenic (b) neuromyogenic (d) none of these. antennae of cockroach have (a) gustatory receptors (b) auditory receptors (c) tactile receptors (d) tactile and olfactory receptors. (uP-CPMT-2004) 11.9th sternum.9th sternum.1996.

earthworm and cockroach have which of the following thing in common ? (a) nephridia (b) ventral nerve cord (c) cocoon (d) closed blood vascular system. (uP-CPMT-2011) 24. b = tarsus. d = tarsus. (uP-CPMT 2010) 25. Cockroaches can climb smooth or steep surfaces due to the presence of adhesive pads found on the torses of their legs. In the mouth parts of cockroach. (b) If both a and r are true but r is not the correct explanation of a.14. Conglobate gland is found in (a) female cockroach (b) male cockroach (c) Anopheles mosquito (d) Culex mosquito. about how many times does the nymph of the Periplaneta americana undergo moulting before becoming an adult? (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 17 (d) 3 (e) 7 (Kerala-2011) 22. (d) The food is ground by mandibles and gizzard. b = trochanter. (d) If both a and r are false. (Manipal-2005) 15. (afMC-1995) 18. In the following diagram of a leg of cockroach parts have been indicated by alphabets. mark the correct alternative as directed below : (a) If both a and r are true and r is the correct explanation of a. d = tibia. They are called (a) plantulae (b) tibia (c) pretarsus (d) arolium (Karnataka-2010) 27. Compound eyes are found in (a) frog (b) earthworm (c) cockroach (d) roundworm. To answer these questions. (Karnataka-2003) 19. Reason (R) : Periplaneta possess highly developed true coelom. (aMu-2011) 23. (b) Oxygen is transported by haemoglobin in blood. b = femur. (aMu-2006) 16. americana is paurometabolus. c = trochanter. Reason (R) : In them development occurs through nymphal stage. e = trochanter (b) a = coxa. Choose the answer in which these alphabets have been correctly matched with the parts which they indicate 21. 1. The young one of cockroach is called (a) caterpillar (b) nymph (c) fingerling (d) maggot. 2. TODAY | february ’12 Page 56 . Assertion (A) : The development of P. Which of the following happens in the common cockroach? (a) Malpighian tubules are excretory organs projecting out from the colon. e = trochanter (d) a = coxa. Assertion (A) : Haemocoel in Periplaneta is not lined by the mesodermal epithelium. b = tibia. Mushroom gland is a part of (a) male reproductive system of cockroach (b) female reproductive system of cockroach (c) male reproductive system of rabbit (d) female reproductive system of rabbit. (c) If a is true but r is false. the galea and lacinia form parts of the (a) mandible (b) maxilla (c) labium (d) labrum (aMu-2010) 26. (c) Nitrogenous excretory product is urea. c = tarsus. (Karnataka-2004) 20. d = femur. e = tibia (c) a = coxa. In the nymphal stage of cockroach the juvenile hormone is secreted by (a) corpora cardiaca (b) corpora allata (c) prothoracic gland (d) intercerebral gland cells (aMu-2009) 17. e = tarsus. c = femur. The head of cockroach lacks (a) cardo (b) gena (c) trochanter (d) frons. d = tibia. The respiratory pigment present in cockroach is (a) vanadium (b) haemocyanin (c) malpadin (d) none of these (Orissa-2010) (a) a = coxa. (aIPMT Prelims-2011) 56 MT BIOLOGY AsserTIOn AnD reAsOn The following questions consist of two statements each : assertion (a) and reason (r). c = femur. Which structure is absent in male cockroach ? (a) seminal vesicle (b) phallomeres (c) spermatheca (d) none of these.

(i) It is called spiracle.IV 1. The three differences between made and female cockroach is given below: Male cockroach Female cockroach (i) abdomen is relatively (i) abdomen is relatively long and narrow. (v) The blood of cockroach circulates by the contraction and relaxation of heart which is assisted by the paired fan-shaped _________ . (b) 2. 3. (ii) maintains hydrostatic pressure and (iii) acts as a reservoir of water. 9. What do you call the circulatory fluid in the body of cockroach? Mention its three functions. Name the mouth parts of cockroach. 25. It helps in (i) transportation of nutrients. 7. 7. 21. (d) (a) (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) 3. short and broad. (i) What is the name of tracheal opening in cockroach ? (ii) How many segments are present in the abdomen of cockroach ? (iii) Where do you find Malpighian tubules in cockroach? 6. Mention three differences between male and female cockroach. (d) 9. (ii) Ninth abdominal sternum (ii) There are no anal styles. C and D. 2. 24. (a) 6. D = Collaterial glands. containing a chain of developing ova? (iv) The labelled part b is present in which abdominal segment? TODAY | february ’12 57 Page 57 . 6. nn MT BIOLOGY (i) Identify a. 11. 17. 20.II 2. (c) 7. (iv) In cockroach _________ serves as a reservoir for storing food.3. (d) (c) (c) (d) (b) 1.7th abdominal segments. Reason (R) : It is present at the juction of midgut and hind gut. (ii) What does this figure represent? (iii) Which labelled part is formed of a group of eight ovarian tubules or ovarioles. a pair of mandibles. 23. (c) 5. 4. (c) Part . (iii) There are only three (iii) There are three pairs of gonapophyses. AnsWers Part . refer the following figure and answer the given questions. b. (d) (b) (a) (d) (c) 4. Part . Malpighian tubule. (i) a = Ovary b = Spermatheca. 8. (ii) The figure represents the reproductive system of female cockroach. 4. (i) all the legs of cockroach are similar. 6. Assertion (A) : In cockroach Malpighian tubules help in excretion.III 3. 10. 1. (iii) a = Ovary (iv) The labelled part b (spermatheca) is present in 6th segment which opens into the genital chamber. fill in the blanks. (iii) Malpighian tubules are found attached at the junction of mid and hindgut. The circulatory fluid of cockroach is colourless haemolymph which fills the entire haemocoel. 3. (iii) The accessory genital glands of male cockroach is called _________ . 14. the labium or lower lip and the hypopharynx. 18. (ii) The excretory product of cockroach is _________ . (d) 3. bears a pair of anal styles. C = Gonapophyses. Mouth parts of cockroach are head appendages surrounding the mouth. Assertion (A) : blood vascular system of cockroach is of closed type.I 1. 5. 15. 19. 22. (d) 5. 5. Name the excretory organ of cockroach. 7. gonapophyses. 16. Assertion (A) : Cockroaches are dioecious. (i) podomeres (ii) uric acid (iii) mushroom gland (iv) crop (v) alary muscles 2. (a) Part . 4. 2. a pair of maxillae. Reason (R) : Male reproductive system and female reproductive system are found in the 6th . (b) 8. (ii) In the embryo the abdomen consists of eleven segments but in the adult form it comprises ten segments. 26. (d) (b) (b) (b) (a) 5. These consist of the labrum or upper lip. 5. (c) 4. (b) 4. Reason (R) : blood vessels are well developed and open into space called haemocoel. 13. 12. and each consists of linear series of nine segments of _________ . (c) 10. 27. (a) (b) (b) (b) (e) (a) (c) shOrT AnsWer TYPe QuesTIOns 1.