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1.1 Computer Network
A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. Simply, more than one computer interconnected through a communication medium for information interchange is called a computer network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational scope. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-known communications protocols include two Ethernet, hardware and link layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.

1.2 Properties Computer Networks
1. Facilitate communications Using a network, people can communicate efficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing. 2. Permit sharing of files, data, and other types of information In a network environment, authorized users may access data and information stored on other computers on the network. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. 3. Share network and computing resources


Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks 4. May be insecure A computer network may be used by computer hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network.g.In a networked environment. and radio waves (wireless LAN). from slowest to fastest transmission each computer on a network may access and use resources provided by devices on the network. A well-known family of communication media is collectively known as Ethernet.4 Wired technologies The order of the following wired technologies is. power line communication. or to prevent these devices from normally accessing the network (denial of service). It is defined by IEEE 802 and utilizes various standards and media that enable communication between devices. e. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. 5. -2- .3 Communication media Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and associated software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network. optical fiber. such as electrical cable (Home PNA. In the OSI model. such as printing a document on a shared network printer. 1. It may also be very costly to set up an effective computer network in a large organization or company. amateur radio. 1. 6. May interfere with other technologies Power line communication strongly disturbs certain forms of radio communication.. G. May be difficult to set up A complex computer network may be difficult to set up. roughly. these are located at levels 1 and 2. It may also interfere with last mile access technologies such as ADSL and VDSL.

and other work-sites for local area networks. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are less transmission loss. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer (typically a flexible material with a high dielectric constant). and very fast transmission speed. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs.  ITU-T technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable. The satellites are stationed in -3- . Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km (30 mi) apart. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second. 1. Computer networking cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. Twistedpair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. It uses pulses of light to transmit data. designed for use in various scenarios. office buildings. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low-gigahertz range. phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion.  Communications satellites – The satellites communicate via microwave radio waves. which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP). Each form comes in several category ratings.5 Wireless technologies  Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. up to trillions of bits per second.  Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems. One can use different colors of lights to increase the number of messages being sent over a fiber optic cable.  An optical fiber is a glass fiber. immunity from electromagnetic radiation.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission.

 Infrared communication can transmit signals for small distances. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. In IEEE Project 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice. which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.  Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. Both cases have a large round-trip delay time.000 mi) above the equator. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802. and TV signals.6 Exotic technologies There have been various attempts at transporting data over more or less exotic media:  IP over Avian Carriers was a humorous April fool's Request for  Extending the Internet to interplanetary dimensions via radio waves.400 km (22. data. It was implemented in real life in 2001. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. which prevents useful communication -4- . line-of-sight propagation is used. issued as RFC 1149. In most cases.  Radio and spread spectrum technologies – Wireless local area network use a highfrequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. typically no more than 10 meters. satellite coverage areas. this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs[8] 1. typically in geosynchronous orbit 35. etc.  A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs.

is the foundation of all modern internetworking. There are many communication protocols. It is typically a protocol stack. described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. IEEE 802.11 is a member of the Ethernet protocol suite). but it is also found in WLANs – it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a "wireless access key". and IEEE 802. a few of which are described below. or whether they use hierarchical or flat addressing. the complete protocol suite deals with a multitude of networking aspects not only for home use. 1. but especially when the technology is deployed to support a diverse range of business needs. An important example of a protocol stack is HTTP running over TCP over IP over IEEE 802. the most well-known member of this protocol family is IEEE 802. For home users today. It has a flat addressing scheme and is mostly situated at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model. This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user's personal computer when the user is surfing the web.1.8 Ethernet Ethernet is a family of protocols used in LANs.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol. in which each protocol uses the protocol below it. Internet Protocol Suite The Internet Protocol Suite.1Q describes VLANs. which is a "stack" of protocols. whether they use circuit mode or packet switching. such as whether they are connectionoriented or connectionless. However. often also called TCP/IP.11. otherwise known as Wireless LAN (WLAN).7 Communications protocols and network programming A communications protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by datagram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP) -5- .11 (TCP and IP are members of the Internet Protocol Suite. Communication protocols have various properties. MAC bridging (IEEE 802. and IEEE 802. which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs.1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol.

the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability. and routing specification in form of the traditional Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6. circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM(Pulse-Code Modulation) format. However. the protocol suite defines the addressing. This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. While the role of ATM is diminishing in favor of next-generation networks. uncompressed. This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic. 1. ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. SONET/SDH also was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames. and real-time. primarily to support real-time. including the deep stacking of communications protocols used. identification. which is the connection between an Internet service provider and the home user.9 SONET/SDH Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers. it still plays a role in the last mile. see -6- . At its core.10 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a switching technique for telecommunication networks. 1. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources. For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved. due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features. fixed-sized cells. low-latency content such as voice and video.level. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking.

11 Scale Networks are often classified by their physical or organizational extent or their purpose.1.11. 1. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. Each computer or device on the network is a node. or closely positioned group of buildings. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. phone lines and power lines). A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Fire wire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.11. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. PDAs. printers. computer also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables. -7- . and even video game consoles. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers. telephones.3 Metropolitan area network A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. scanners. office building. 1.1 Personal area network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person.11. 1. and access rights differ between these types of networks. school. fax machines. Usage. trust level. although new standards like ITU-T G.2 Local area network A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home.

cables.4 Wide area network A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city. country.10.1. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: -8- . or spans even intercontinental distances. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. such as telephone companies. and air waves. using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines.

cable specifications. network adapters.1 Layer 1: physical layer The physical layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. repeaters.CHAPTER 2 OSI model The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:   Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium.  Modulation or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium. signal timing. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. -9- . Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link. In particular. line impedance. hubs. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. contention resolution and flow control. such as a copper or fiber optical cable. For example. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. This includes the layout of pins. voltages. host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more. 2.

The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control.10 - .and connection-oriented. . 2. characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system 2. Subnetwork-independent convergence – handles transfer across multiple networks. The network layer performs network routing functions. and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly.3 Layer 3: network layer The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network). 2.25. Subnetwork-dependent convergence – when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side 3. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer.2 Layer 2: data link layer The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. and error control. Some protocols are state. Sub network access – that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks. segmentation/desegmentation.4 Layer 4: transport layer The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users.2. The transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. and report delivery errors. sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. Originally. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical. this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media. such as X. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer. This means that the transport layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. The network layer may be divided into three sublayers: 1. Routers operate at this layer.

these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet application layer includes the OSI application layer.11 - . and establishes checkpointing.7 Comparison with TCP/IP model TCP/IP has four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols. . adjournment. and restart procedures. in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. the end-to-end transport connection. while the link layer includes the OSI data link and physical layers. 2. The internetworking layer (Internet layer) is a subset of the OSI network layer (see above). or simplex operation.5 Layer 5: session layer The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers.. termination. 2. and passed down the stack. and most of the session layer. the internetworking range. Its endto-end transport layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI session layer as well as the OSI transport layer. This layer provides independence from data representation (e. These comparisons are based on the original sevenlayer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498. It provides for full-duplex. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts.2.6 Layer 6: presentation layer The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities. presentation layer. manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. and the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network. Even though the concept is different from the OSI model. presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units. rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the network layer document.g. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. namely the scope of the software application. half-duplex. encryption) by translating between application and network formats. as well as parts of OSI's network layer. It establishes. If a mapping is available.

although the tunnel host protocol may well be a transport or even an application layer protocol in its own right. or in the description of tunneling protocols.The presumably strict peer layering of the OSI model as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP.12 - . . Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e. which provide a link layer for an application. as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. OSPF).g..

Flooding is used in bridging and in systems such as Usenet and peer-to-peer file sharing and as part of some routing protocols. Simple Broadcasting In this method. This results in every message eventually being delivered to all reachable parts of the network.13 - . Each node tries to forward every message to every one of its neighbors except the source node. in some case. Algorithms may need to be more complex than this. and to allow messages to eventually expire from the system. and those used in ad-hoc wireless networks Algorithm There are several variants of flooding algorithm. since.1 Broadcasting Methods 1. including OSPF. This method has two drawbacks  It wastes the bandwidth. In selective . precautions have to be taken to avoid wasted duplicate deliveries and infinite loops. 3. 2. 1. A variant of flooding called selective flooding partially addresses these issues by only sending packets to routers in the same direction. Flooding Flooding is a simple routing algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent through every outgoing link.  The sourse has to have a complete list of all destinations. 2. Each node acts as both a transmitter and a receiver.CHAPTER 3 Broadcast Routing Protocols Sending packet to all destinations simultaneously is called Broadcasting. the source will send a distinct packets to each destination. DVMRP.

Then it decides the set of output lines required. Advantages   If a packet can be delivered. AODV supports Unicast. The Count-To-Infinity and loop problem is solved .  Duplicate packets may circulate forever.14 - . In the case of a ping flood or a denial of service attack. While a message may only have one destination it has to be sent to every host. Problems  Flooding can be costly in terms of wasted bandwidth. In this algorithm each packets contains a list of destination or a bit map which indicates the desired destination. it will (probably multiple times). Adhoc OnDemand Distance Vector Routing AODV is an „on demand routing protocol‟ with small delay. Mutidestination Routing This is the third algorithm used for broadcasting. Ex. unless certain precautions are taken:  Use a hop count or a time to live count and include it with each packet.  Messages can become duplicated in the network further increasing the load on the networks bandwidth as well as requiring an increase in processing complexity to disregard duplicate messages. Broadcast and Multicast without any further protocols. This value should take into account the number of nodes that a packet may have to pass through on the way to its destination.flooding the routers don't send every incoming packet on every line but only on those lines which are going approximately in the right direction. it will also use the shortest path. Since flooding naturally utilizes every path through the network. it can be harmful to the reliability of a computer network.  This algorithm is very simple to implement. That means that routes are only established when needed to reduce traffic overhead.   Have each node keep track of every packet seen and only forward each packet once Enforce a network topology without loops 3.

255.A route request message is transmitted by a node requiring a route to a node. In AODV every hop has the constant cost of one. AODV defines three types of control messages for route maintenance: RREQ. Only one router in each of them is responsible to operate the AODV for the whole subnet and serves as a default gateway. the packets that initiated the RREQ).e. It has to maintain a sequence number for the whole subnet and to forward every package.255 . It is also expanded by routing flags.with sequence numbers and the registration of the costs. It treats an IP address just as an unique identifier. The routes age very quickly in order to accommodate the movement of the mobile nodes.1: RREQ FIELDS Source Address Broadcast Id Source sequence no. The RREQ contains the following fields. Every RREQ carries a time to live (TTL) value that states for how many hops this message should be forwarded. To characterize the AODV with the five criteria used by Keshav AODV is distributed. deterministic. In AODV the routing table is expanded by a sequence number to every destination and by time to live for every entry. They are implemented as subnets. AODV uses IP in a special way. hop-by-hop. But also aggregated networks are supported. a list of precursors and for outdated routes the last hop count is stored. Hop count . the interface. Retransmissions occur if no replies are received.15 - . This value is set to a predefined value at the first transmission and increased at retransmissions. Link breakages can locally be repaired very efficiently. As an optimization AODV uses an expanding ring technique when flooding these messages. single path and state dependent. Destination address Destination sequence no.255. Table 2. This can easily be done with setting the Subnetmask to 255. Every node maintains two separate counters: a node sequence number and a broadcast_ id. Data packets waiting to be transmitted (i.

a RERR message is used to notify other nodes of the loss of the link. is that every route forwarding a RREQ caches a route back to the originator. or it has a valid route to the requested address. Broadcast_id is incremented whenever the source issues a new RREQ. containing the IP address for each its neighbors that are likely to use it as a next hop towards each destination. .Nodes monitor the link status of next hops in active routes.16 - . each node keeps a ―precursor list''. broadcast ID> uniquely identifies a RREQ. When a link breakage in an active route is detected. RERR. RREP.The pair <source address. The reason one can unicast the message back.A route reply message is unicast back to the originator of a RREQ if the receiver is either the node using the requested address. In order to enable this reporting mechanism.

so as to prevent disturbing all nodes in a network when only a few may be interested in a particular service. Not all network technologies support broadcast addressing.2 control field. Both Ethernet and IPv4 use an all-ones broadcast address to indicate a broadcast packet. . neither X. IPv6 also does not implement the broadcast method. for example. multicasting limits the pool of receivers to those that join a specific multicast receiver group. where the performance impact of broadcasting is not as large as it would be in a wide area network.25 nor frame relay have broadcast capability. Broadcast a message is in contrast to unicast addressing in which a host sends datagrams to another single host identified by a unique IP address.17 - . the scope of the broadcast is limited to a broadcast domain. Instead it relies on multicast addressing a conceptually similar one-to-many routing methodology.Conclusion In computer networking. broadcasting refers to transmitting a packet that will be received by every device on the network In practice. However. The successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). most notably Ethernet and token ring. Broadcasting is largely confined to local area network (LAN) technologies. Token Ring uses a special value in the IEEE 802. nor is there any form of Internet-wide broadcast.

Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publication 2009. 4th Edition. Encarta Encyclopedia.REFERENCES 1.Fourozan. 5th Pearson Education 2012 . “ Data communication and Networking” by Behrouz A.18 - . 3. . “Compute Networks” Edition. by Andrew S Tanenbaum and David J Wetherall. 2.

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