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Taller de la Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad: Redaccin cientfica en ingls febrero del 2010 Estructura de prrafos.

s. Para cada inciso, contesta las siguientes preguntas: 1. Existe correspondencia entre la oracin de introduccin y el cuerpo? 2. Existe homogeneidad dentro del cuerpo (est el tema y slo el tema del prrafo) o es un revoltijo? 3. Cuenta con una oracin de conclusin/transicin? 1. Bursera palaciosii pertenece a la seccin Bursera en virtud de su ovario trilocular, drupas trivalvadas, as como el escaso desarrollo de los catfilos. Su corteza no exfoliante, sin embargo, marca una notable excepcin a la caracterstica comn de los miembros de esta seccin y con ello muestra similitud con B. paradoxa Guevara & Rzed. Sin embargo, no debe haber parentesco cercano entre estas dos especies y, al parecer, se trata de otro ejemplo de un proceso de convergencia. 2. Pinus is represented in the fossil record by leaves, shoots, wood, pollen, and ovulate cones extending to the Cretaceous (Alvin 1960). All these organ types have been used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus (Axelrod 1986; Millar 1993), but anatomically preserved ovulate cones have arguably been the most influential (Miller 1976), and have been included in phylogenetic analysis of Pinus and Pinaceae (Smith and Stockey 2001, 2002; Gernandt et al. 2008). Pinus has been proposed to possess the following characters: 1) inflated scale apices, 2) vascular traces to the bract and scale fused at their origin, 3) resin canals abaxial to vascular bundles at the base of the scales, and 4) strong curvature of the scale strands on the abaxial side (Miller, 1976). Several species of Pinus were later described as not having their vascular traces to the bract and scale fused at the origin (P. bungeana and the fossil P. berglundii; Miller 1992; P. albicaulis and P. lambertiana; Saiki 1996). In contrast, fossil cones that lack one of these characters, though often externally similar to Pinus, have been assigned to the form-genus Pityostrobus Nathorst. emend. Dutt. Two other Pinaceous fossil genera, Pseudaraucaria Fliche, and Obirastrobus Ohsawa et al. are probably natural groups further more distantly removed from Pinus. 3. And regarding the character designs: They look like wood. No, seriouslyevery character model has extra pigmentation on their clothes, their flesh, whatever to make them look like they have been carved out of actual wood. Lucas has gone on record as saying that he wanted to make Clone Wars look a bit like the old Thunderbirds puppet show from the 60s, and in fact, the characters move like theyre puppets. Some of you have claimed that since Lucas intended the characters to be this way, its fine. Fuck you people. The fact that Lucas is intentionally making his 2008 cartoon look like a 60s puppet show is fucking ludicrous. Its another terrible idea that no one told Lucas he shouldnt do. The audiences of 2008 do not want their CG movies to look like ancient puppet TV shows. Who would possibly think otherwise? Apparently, George Lucas doesor again, he does not care one iota what you want. 4. Almost no one is indifferent to Darwin, and no one should be. The Darwinian theory is a

scientific theory, and a great one, but that is not all it is. The creationists who oppose it so bitterly are right about one thing: Darwin's dangerous idea cuts much deeper into the fabric of our most fundamental beliefs than many of its sophisticated apologists have yet admitted, even to themselves. 5. Artificial selection can be a powerful way of exploring the space of possible phenotypes. In this study we used this approach to examine how readily the pattern of relative size of the anterior and posterior eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana (Fig. 1c) can be changed on the basis of standing genetic variation present in a laboratory population. Despite the positive genetic correlation between eyespot sizes, we obtained substantial responses to selection in different directions (Methods), both when the two eyespots were selected to change in a concerted or coupled manner (both larger or both smaller, lines AP and ap, respectively), and in opposite or uncoupling directions (lines Ap and aP) (Fig. 1). Directional selection was applied in two periods, from generations 0 to 11 and from G19 to G25 (with relaxed selection in between). Responses to selection were rapid, gradual and similar across replicate lines (Figs 1 and 2). All directions have produced butterflies with strikingly different ratios of eyespot size to wing size for both eyespots (Fig. 2), and by G25 almost all butterflies had extreme phenotypes not represented in the base population. These two domains of wing morphology in B. anynana have been able to respond independently to selection in a manner comparable to experiments with Drosophila wing compartments. Despite this autonomy, we have obtained strong correlated responses across wing surfaces with ventral eyespots showing substantial, albeit less extreme, changes in the different directions (results not shown). 6. This new view of an adaptive radiation taking place in a changing environment is profoundly different from the previous conception. It requires understanding how a changing environment--differing numbers of islands, climate and vegetation--acts as a force driving the radiation. The Galapagos were probably not a diverse environment full of ecological opportunity for all 14 species of Darwins finches when the ancestral species arrived. Rather, the archipelago was much simpler; over three million years it grew in complexity and changed in character. 7. Modifications in the tentacle from the galea are modest and mostly quantitative. The tentacle has a greater diameter than the galea, and the number of ventrolateral muscle fibers is much increased. The bristle-like sensilla are clustered in the ventral region, are larger, and have gained the distinctive terminal hook. They aid in handling the pollen and seem to evolve easily among pollen-collecting insects. Similar hooked-tip sensilla have evolved independently at least 11 times among more than 50 bee species that collect pollen from flowers whose anthers are concealed in narrow tubes (2124). In bees, the hooked hairs appear on mouthparts or foretarsi, depending on what body part a particular species uses for pollen-gathering. Finally, a medial flattened side of the galea that forms the central food canal of the proboscis is lost. 8. This genus up to the present time, is one of the largest in the family Gorgonidae (1234 species, 90% from Australia), only surpassed by the genus Gorgon Linnaeus, 1758 (123412 species worldwide), according to my friend Pete Rodrguez (1979), Morton (1948), and Yashahishiwara (1997). The genus is homogeneous in the range of body form and

characters (head outline and sculpture; antennae; pronotum ouline and sculpture; major and minor setae; pterothorax meso-and metanotum sculpture; the outline of meso- and metasternum plates; the morphology of the mesofurca and metafurca ; the sculpture of abdominal tergite I ; the posteromarginal comb, in tergite VIII; tergites IX and X chaetotaxy; morphology and number of sternal glands in the males). More details are given by: Alexander and Kaiser (2003); Ruffle (1925); Jabaar (1998a, 1998b, 2000); Edwards and Hernndez (1998, 2003); Venus and Yashahishiwara (1994); Tankanata and Dohaghy (1979); and Channing (1968). Despite great taxonomic progress in the group by discovering, describing and publishing species, the characterization of immature stages and biology has only been accomplished for a few species, of the economic importance: (Ford 1963; Epp and Epp 1996, 1998): G. gorgonioides (Dobzhansky). G. luridus (Taktajan), G. tiale (Benjami), T. introrsa (Hawthorne), G. magna (Jimnez), G. orientalis (LaGrange), G. fusca (l), G. spegazzinii Yashahishiwara, G. sepalachi (Gargagnano), and G. magnimamma (l). 9. Prez y Prez al estudiar la variabilidad de las vacas domsticas se vieron en la necesidad de indagar sobre su procedencia con el fin de generar sistemas de clasificacin los animales domsticos. En la actualidad surgen nuevos intereses parar estudiar el origen de los animales domesticados, entre los ms importantes se encuentran entender la prdida de la diversidad gentica bajo domesticacin. Debido a que en los ltimos 100 aos se ha reducido el polimorfismo de los animales domsticos del 60% al 80%, en los ovinos del 30% al 40%, en comparacin con sus parientes silvestres (Garkel, 2006; Fey et al., 2001; Rossitano, 1997). Adems, con el rpido cambio del clima global surge la necesidad de producir nuevas variantes de animales adaptables a climas fluctuantes (Repman et al., 2002). Los centros de origen y diversificacin son fuentes de germoplasma para nuevas razas de animales domesticados (Sageman, 2007; Vergara, 2002; Ortony, 1992). Por lo cual dichos centros son considerados como zonas prioritarias de conservacin. A los estudios clsicos del origen de los animales domesticados se suma la evidencia filogeogrfica a travs del anlisis de marcadores moleculares (Kaamiluu et al., 2006; Lowe et al., 2004). Los mtodos filogeogrficos proveen un medio para examinar la historia del cambio gentico entre poblaciones, con el potencial de distinguir patrones biogeogrficos de variacin gentica causado por el flujo gnico ancestral (Olsen et al., 1998). Podemos relacionar rboles de secuencias de ADN con patrones geogrficos a nivel intraespecfico (Avise, 2000). El empleo de mtodos filogeogrficos en la inferencia del origen geogrfico de los animales domsticos es reciente y los trabajos son pocos. La mayor parte de estos estudios son en animales de valor alimenticio, slo algunos son de mascotas como es el caso del hmster. El hmster, es una de las mascotas ms vendidas en el mundo. 10. As mentioned before Guadalupe fur seal, is a species whose individuals travel very long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. The observation of individual Guadalupe fur seals in the Gulf has been during spring and summer, with two individuals seen during fall. Summer observations occur at the same time of breeding in the Pacific colonies; however, surface sea water at Guadalupe fur seal breeding grounds had a mean of 19.7 C, while in the Gulf during the same months the water around rookeries of California sea lions (i.e. Isla San Pedro Nolasco rookery) have a mean of 29.4 C (n= 19, range: 26 31 C, measured on 6 breeding seasons), this is almost 10 C more than in their Pacific rookeries. Adding to it, fur seals have a fat layer and two hair layers (the short, dense layer

traps air and provides waterproof insulation, whereas the longer, less dense layer protects them against the sun) which gives them extra insulation in temperate waters, this would not allow them to establish a breeding colony inside the Gulf due to the probable higher energetic cost of thermoregulation; Guadalupe fur seals at Isla Guadalupe during breeding season occupy areas with access to shadow, spray and pools, where they are able to soak their fur to maintain a normal thermoregulation by allowing heat exchange to the environment. We believe that Guadalupe fur seals presence in the Gulf is a result of the geographic expansion of the species due to their population growth, showing up during the season of intensive feeding, particularly young males and subadults. No adult male has been observed in summer during their breeding season in the rookeries of the Gulf competing for a territory with California sea lions, which evidence that their reproduction takes place only in the rookeries of the Pacific islands, as is the case today in the San Benito islands where the males of this species is using former California sea lion territories.